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Violence - 213 entries found

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CIS 10-0184 Guide to inspecting workplace
This guide consists of a series of checklists for workplace inspections involving the following activities and exposures: chemicals and harmful substances; electricity; manual tasks; slips and trips; working at heights; forklifts; new and young workers; machinery and plant; machinery guarding; noise; emergency procedures; violence and aggression; working alone.
Commission for occupational safety and health, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, no date. PDF document, 21p. [in English]

CIS 12-0078 Vézina M., Cloutier E., Stock S., Lippel K., Fortin E., Delisle A., St-Vincent M., Funes A., Duguay P., Vézina S., Prud'homme P.
Quebec survey on working and employment conditions and occupational health and safety (EQCOTESST) - Summary report
Enquête québécoise sur des conditions de travail, d'emploi et de santé et sécurité du travail (EQCOTESST) - Rapport sommaire [in French]
This report presents the main findings of a survey carried out among a random sample of 5000 workers aged 15 years or more in Quebec, Canada. Data were collected by means of phone interviews. Topics addressed included: conditions of work; non-occupational factors; violence, bullying and sexual harassment; state of health; musculoskeletal diseases; occupational accidents; mental health. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. v, 39p. 33 ref.
Enquête_québécoise_sur_des_conditions_de_travail_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Quebec_survey_on_working_and_employment_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0352 Marchand A., Boyer R., Nadeau C., Martin M.
Predictive factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder following a critical accident involving police officers -Prospective study
Facteurs prévisionnels du développement de l'état de stress post-traumatique à la suite d'un événement traumatique chez les policiers -Volet prospectif [in French]
After having shown in an earlier study that Quebec police officers are not more susceptible than the general population to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though they are potentially at higher risk of being exposed to traumatic events (TEs), this second study established that the symptoms associated with PTSD development in police officers can be reduced or prevented with specific and adapted interventions. The risk factors are mainly that they experience, during or after the event, dissociation, intense emotional and physical reactions, acute stress, depressive symptoms or even the avoidance of any form of emotion. Rapid intervention with a police officer shortly after the TE as well as in the following weeks increases the chances of preventing the development of PTSD. Eighty-three male and female Quebec police officers, all involved in a major event, voluntarily participated in this prospective study. The study shows that police officers use various means and strategies of adaptation to deal with a critical event at work. Talking about it with their colleagues, obtaining their support, and having leisure activities are aspects that help them, particularly after a traumatic event. The police officers even advise their coworkers to consult a psychologist and are themselves open to the idea of receiving such support.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. viii, 74p. Illus. 169 ref.
Facteurs_prévisionnels_du_développement_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 11-0598 Leino T., Selin R., Summala H., Virtanen M.
Work-related violence against security guards - Who is most at risk?
Studies on violence in the work of security guards are largely lacking. This study focuses on security guards in Finland, and assesses the different forms, prevalence and risk factors of the work-related violence they often face. It was conducted in the form of a cross-sectional mailed survey that was sent to a randomized group of 2,000 security guards, to which 1010 responded. The prevalences of verbal aggression, threats of assault and physical acts against security guards at least once a month were found to be 39%, 19% and 15% respectively. As regards risk factors and who is most at risk, results show that male gender, young age, low work experience, late working hours and time pressure were associated with all three forms of work-related violence. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.143-150. Illus. 33 ref.
Work-related_violence.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0444 Schat A.C.H., Frone M.R.
Exposure to psychological aggression at work and job performance: The mediating role of job attitudes and personal health
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between psychological aggression at work and two forms of job performance (task performance and contextual performance) and potential mediators of these relations. A model was developed and tested in which overall job attitudes (job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and overall personal health (physical and psychological health) fully mediate the relations between exposure to psychological aggression at work and both task performance and contextual performance. Data were obtained from a random sample of 2376 United States workers by means of phone interviews by trained interviewers, and the model was tested using structural equation modeling. The results supported the hypothesized model, demonstrating that exposure to psychological aggression at work negatively predicted both task performance and contextual performance, and that these relations were explained by decrements in job attitudes and health associated with exposure to psychological aggression at work.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2011, Vol.25, No.1, p.23-40. Illus. 51 ref.


CIS 11-0148 Milczarek M.
Workplace violence and harassment: A European picture
This report presents the prevalence of violence and harassment at work based on international and national statistics, as well as the results of scientific studies on antecedents and consequences of work-related violence. A survey of the Agency's Focal Point network suggest that there is still an insufficient level of awareness and recognition of problems with third-party violence and harassment in many EU Member States, and there is a clear need to promote and disseminate good practice and prevention measures which are sensitive to the national context. Some measures proposed by EU, ILO, WHO and national experts are included in the report.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2010. 155p. Illus. 188 ref.
Workplace_violence_and_harassment.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0445 Physical and psychological violence at the workplace
Workplace violence is a social phenomenon of a certain magnitude. Overall, approximately one in ten European workers report having experienced some form of workplace violence, either physical or psychological, in the previous 12 months. This report provides pertinent background information and policy pointers for all actors and interested parties engaged in the current European debate on the future of social policy. The contents are based on European Foundation research and reflect its autonomous and tripartite structure.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughlinstown, Dublin 18, Ireland, 2010. 23p. Illus. 22 ref.
Physical_and_psychological_violence.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0202 European survey of enterprises on new and emerging risks - Summary
Enquête européenne des entreprises sur les risques nouveaux et émergents - Résumé [in French]
Encuesta europea de empresas sobre riesgos nuevos y emergentes - Resumen [in Spanish]
The European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER) asks managers and workers' safety and health representatives about how health and safety risks are managed at their workplace, with a particular focus on the newer psychosocial risks, such as work-related stress, violence and harassment. This summary of the report analyzed under ISN 110712 highlights a selection of the main results from a first analysis of the data, which is drawn from 36,000 interviews carried out in 31 countries. Contents: background; key findings; OSH management; psychosocial risks and their management; drivers and barriers; employee participation; survey methodology.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2010. 16p. Illus.
European_survey.pdf [in English]
Enquête_européenne.pdf [in French]
Encuesta_europea.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 10-0201 Rial González E., Irastorza X., Cockburn W.
European survey of enterprises on new and emerging risks - Managing safety and health at work
The European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks asks managers and workers' safety and health representatives about how safety and health risks are managed at their workplace, with a particular focus on the psychosocial risks such as work-related stress, violence and harassment. This report highlights a selection of the main results from a first analysis of the data, which is drawn from 36,000 interviews carried out in 31 countries. EU-OSHA's Europe-wide establishment survey aims to assist workplaces to deal more effectively with safety and health and to promote the health and well-being of employees. It provides policy makers with cross-nationally comparable information relevant for the design and implementation of new policies in this field. A summary of the report is published as a separate document and is analyzed under ISN 110713.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2010. 156p. Illus. 57 ref. Price (excluding VAT): EUR 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
European_survey.pdf [in English]


CIS 12-0346 Gore J., Beswick J., Rogers K.
Health and Safety Executive
A literature review of effective management of the risk of violence in licensed and retail premises arising from crime and disorder
This report details a comprehensive literature review covering the management and prevention of work-related violence in retail and licensed premises. This review enabled developing the Good practice toolkit on preventing violence in retail and licensed premises. Crime and disorder, together with the risk of violence to staff and customers, were seen as significant issues in licensed and retail premises. Drawing information from this review, psychologists from the Health and Safety Laboratory developed the toolkit in consultation with other stakeholders.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, vi, 179p. Illus. Approx. 170 ref.
A_literature_review_of_effective_management_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 10-0890 Chen W.C., Hwu H.G., Wang J.D.
Hospital staff responses to workplace violence in a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan
A survey of 222 nurses, nursing assistants and clerks at a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan was conducted on responses to workplace violence, treatment of violent patients and reporting behavior. Staff reported 78 incidents of physical violence (PV), 113 of verbal abuse (VA), 35 of bullying/ mobbing (BM), 21 of sexual harassment (SH), and 10 of racial harassment (RH) over the course of one year. Among affected staff, only 31% of those experiencing PV and less than 10% of those experiencing other categories of violence completed a formal report. Highest levels of reporting to senior staff were among those affected by SH. Patients who were physically violent were more likely to be injected with medication than patients showing other violent behaviors. More VA-affected staff considered the incident not important enough to report. Other reasons for not reporting the incident were fear of negative consequences, especially for BM, and shame for SH.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2009, Vol. 15, No.2, p.173-179. 48 ref.

CIS 09-1416 Merecz D., Drabek M., Mościcka A.
Aggression at the workplace - Psychological consequences of abusive encounter with coworkers and clients
The aim of the study was to evaluate the consequences of workplace aggression from coworkers and the public among nurses and public service workers in a Polish locality. Data on violent incidents, burnout, physical health, mental health and work satisfaction were obtained by means of questionnaires and subjected to multiple regression models. It was found that employees experiencing workplace aggression were less satisfied with work, showed symptoms of burnout and their general health was poorer. The effect of aggression by coworkers was stronger than that by the public. Aggression from the public usually resulted in compassion of peers, and it was perceived as the organizational problem that should be solved, while dealing with an aggressive co-worker was usually perceived as the employee's own problem, resulting in isolation and a sense of unfairness.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.3, p.243-260. 25 ref.

CIS 09-1394 Steenhout I., Lippens V.
SNCB policy with respect to violence: On the right track?
La politique de la SNCB en matière d'agressions: sur les bons rails? [in French]
A survey on violence carried out among train conductors of the Belgian national railways highlighted a growing gap between official statistics and everyday realities. Most of occurrences considered as minor (threats and insults) are rarely reported. This article presents the key statistics together with a summary of the main findings of the survey.
Prevent Focus, Apr. 2009, No.4, p.10-11. Illus.

CIS 09-1199 Saarela K.I.
The Kauris method - Evaluation and management of the risks of violence at the place of work
El método Kauris - Evaluación y gestión del riesgo de violencia en el trabajo [in Spanish]
In Finland, 5% of workers have been exposed to a violent incident. This article presents the Kauris method developed in 2001 by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Safety and Health for the retail sector, where the risks of violent incidents are above average. The objective is to help individual businesses to evaluate and manage violence at the place of work. The method, which involves a participatory approach, was pilot tested in 12 stores of a large Finnish retail chain. Results of the study are discussed.
Protección y seguridad, Sep.-Oct. 2009, Vol.55, No.327, p.68,70. 7 ref.

CIS 09-987 Wassell J.T.
Workplace violence intervention effectiveness: A systematic literature review
This systematic review of literature published since 1992 was carried out to determine the effectiveness of interventions in preventing workplace violence and to suggest specific interventions warranting further research. The health care sector was the topic of 54% of the papers, followed by the retail sector industry with 11% of the papers. A first group of papers discussed in this review evaluates interventions to prevent robbery and violence to workers in the retail sector. A second group of papers is about interventions to prevent violence to health care workers, mostly training in techniques for dealing with combative patients.
Safety Science, Oct. 2009, Vol.47, No.8, p.1049-1055. 58 ref.


CIS 10-0297 Eriksen W., Bjorvatn B., Bruusgaard D., Knardahl S.
Work factors as predictors of poor sleep in nurses' aides
The aim was to identify work factors that predict poor sleep in assistant nurses. The study was based on questionnaire responses of a randomly selected sample of over 5000 Norwegian assistant nurses, as well as responses to a second questionnaire three months later. A wide spectrum of work factors was assessed at baseline by questions from the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social factors at Work. Subjective sleep quality during the previous three months was measured at baseline and follow-up by a question from the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire. Medium and high demands, a high demand-control ratio, frequent exposure to role conflicts, and frequent exposure to threats and violence at work were associated with increased odds of poor sleep during the successive three months, after adjustments for sleep quality during the three months before baseline, other work factors and background factors. High support from immediate superior, frequent rewards for well-done work and a high level of control were associated with reduced odds of poor sleep.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.301-310. 42 ref.

CIS 09-969 Casteel C., Peek-Asa C., Greenland S., Chu L.D., Kraus J.F.
A study of the effectiveness of a workplace violence intervention for small retail and service establishments
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a robbery and violence prevention programme in small businesses in Los Angeles. Gas stations, stores, bars, restaurants and motels were enrolled between 1997 and 2000. Intervention businesses totaling 305 were provided training, programme implementation materials and recommendations for a comprehensive security programme. The 96 control businesses received neither training nor programme materials. Rate ratios comparing intervention to control businesses were 0.90 for violent crime and 0.81 for robbery. Results suggest that the workplace violence prevention programmes may reduce violent crime among high-risk businesses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1365-1370. 20 ref.

CIS 09-730 Estryn-Behar M., van der Heijden B., Camerino D., Fry C., Le Nezet O., Conway P.M., Hasselhorn H.M.
Violence risks in nursing - Results from the European "NEXT" study
Recent research suggests that violence in health care is increasing and that it strongly influences the recruitment and retention of nurses as well as sick leave and burnout levels. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of violence in nursing and to provide a basis for appropriate interventions. A total of 39,894 nurses from 10 European countries responded to a questionnaire at baseline and one year later. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between frequency of violence, factors related to teamwork and various work-related factors and outcomes, such as burnout, intention to leave nursing and intention to change institution. Findings are discussed. This study supports efforts aimed at improving teamwork-related factors as they are associated with a decrease in violence against nurses.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.107-114. 26 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-498 Needham I., Kingma M., O'Brian-Pallas L., McKenna K., Tucker R., Oud N.
Workplace violence in the health sector
Proceedings of a conference on workplace violence in the health care sector held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 22-24 October 2008. Papers are grouped into chapters addressing the following issues: keynotes; economic aspects and implications of workplace violence; gender aspects; legal and ethical aspects; epidemiology, patterns and trends; policies and operational strategies; scientific aspects; social and psychological aspects; staff training and education.
Kavanah, Eemster 2, 7991 PP Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, 2008. 384p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 09-238 Gillepsie G.L.
Consequences of violence exposures by emergency nurses
Emergency nurses are among the most likely groups of health care professionals to be exposed to violence. Violence exposure is the witnessing or receiving of a violent act with or without the intention to cause physical or psychological harm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the literature in relation to emergency nurses' exposure to violence and discuss the implications for emergency nursing practice. A review of the literature was conducted using the keywords violence, emergency nursing, health care workers and productivity. Emergency nurses exhibited anxiety, vulnerability, guilt, anger, sadness and peer blaming following violence exposures. Violence exposures affect emergency nurses both physically and psychologically. Interventions should be developed to reduce the negative consequences of violence exposures.
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 2008, Vol.16, No.4, p.409-418. 12 ref.

CIS 09-233 Blondéelle A.
Psychosocial hazards - When good driving goes alongside good behaviour
Risques psychosociaux - Quand bien conduire rime avec bonne conduite [in French]
This article presents the preventive measures against psychosocial hazards implemented by a public transport enterprise in the Paris region, faced with increasing incivilities and violence (physical and verbal abuse, damage to equipment). The measures include staff training in conflict management and communicating with young persons in schools and sport halls.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2008, No.686, p.46-47. Illus. 8 ref.$File/TS686page46.pdf?OpenElement [in French]

CIS 09-250
Health and Safety Executive
Managing work-related violence in licensed and retail premises
Aimed at owners and managers of retail and licensed premises, this booklet contains information and practical advice on how to assess and tackle the risk of violence to staff. The advice is based on interviews with persons who work in pubs, clubs and shops concerning their experience of tackling violence where they work, including measures that have helped combat the problem. Topics addressed: responsibilities of employers; hazard evaluation; reporting and recording of incidents; training of personnel; investigation into the causes of incidents.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2008. 15p. [in English]

CIS 08-1488 Kessler S.R., Spector P.E., Chang C.H., Parr A.D.
Organizational violence and aggression: Development of the three-factor Violence Climate Survey
Violence climate, a concept derived from the safety climate literature, may affect violence and aggression at work. Using a newly-developed instrument for measuring violence climate, this study consisted of a survey of a sample of 216 employees from a variety of sectors in the United States. It showed that violence climate is significantly related to exposure to physical violence and verbal aggression, physical strains and psychological strains, including job dissatisfaction and negative emotion at work. Exposure to both violence and aggression was associated with all strains. Multiple regression analyses suggested that it was primarily policies and pressure that was associated with verbal aggression, whereas mainly practices was related to physical violence.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.108-124. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 08-1486 Rauscher K.J.
Workplace violence against adolescent workers in the US
In this study of workplace violence among adolescent workers in the United States, survey data from 1171 young persons aged 14-17 were analysed using descriptive statistics to investigate the incidence of physical attacks, verbal threats and sexual harassment, and to identify their perpetrators. Nearly one-third of respondents experienced some form of workplace violence: 25% were verbally threatened, 10% physically attacked and 10% sexually harassed. Significant demographic differences were found. The most common perpetrators of physical attacks and verbal threats were customers while sexual harassment most often came from co-workers. Since young persons are likely to be more vulnerable, workplace violence prevention that target adolescent workers should be made a priority.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2008, Vol.51, No.7, p.539-544. 37 ref.


CIS 09-1419 Dejours C.
Averting violence - Work, violence and health
Conjurer la violence - Travail, violence et santé [in French]
There is a worsening of violence in many settings, including within the enterprise. This document highlights the extent to which work organization is involved in the root causes of violence at the place of work and proposes pathways for preventive action, both inside and outside the enterprise.
Editions Payot & Rivages, 106, boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France, 2007. 316p. 71 ref. Price: EUR 23.00.

CIS 09-985 Mayhew C.
Young workers at risk: Overlaps between initiation rites, pranks, bullying, sexual harassment and occupational violence
Young workers are at heightened OHS risk in workplaces. This enhanced risk is due to biological, neurological, developmental and labour market position risk factors. This article focuses on another hazard that is commonly encountered by adolescent workers: exposure to initiation rites and pranks. It needs to be noted, however, that older workers can also be subject to practical jokes at workplaces. Initiation rites (ragging), pranks and bullying are all forms of workplace violence. Indeed these behavioural categories often overlap. For example, groups of workers may "play tricks" on a new employee that escalate in intensity and severity over time and may culminate in initiation rites that involve actual physical violence.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2007, Vol.23, No.4, p.333-341. 38 ref.

CIS 09-496 Callaghan P., Nijman H., Palmstierna T., Oud N.
Violence in clinical psychiatry
Proceedings of a conference on violence in clinical psychiatry held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 25-27 October 2007. Several papers concerned the safety, health and training of the staff: prevention of post-traumatic stress reaction in staff following a patient assault; training programme in the management of violence in a Hong Kong hospital; training in managing aggression among nurses in several countries; literature review on management of violence; ward safety perceptions by nurses in several countries; interactions between nurses and patients in terms of predisposition to violence; violence toward heath care staff in Turkey.
Kavanah, Eemster 2, 7991 PP Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, 2007. 383p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 08-1480 Nachreiner N.M., Gerberich S.G., Ryan A.D., McGovern P.M.
Minnesota nurses' study: Perceptions of violence and the work environment
A sample of 6,300 randomly-selected nurses (consisting of 96% women) in the state of Minnesota (USA) was surveyed on their experience with work-related violence in the previous year. Differences in perceptions of the work environment and work culture were assessed, based on a nested case-control study, comparing nurses who experienced assault to non-assaulted nurses. Annual rates of physical and non-physical assault, per 100 nurses, were 13.2 and 38.8 respectively. Nurses frequently experienced work-related violence; the perceptions of the work environment differed between nurses who had experienced physical assault and those who had not. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.672-678. Illus. 29 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-988 Violence, harassment and discrimination in the workplace
Ch. 4 in the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey. It identified the extent of the violence and harassment across Europe in 2005. Around 5% of workers reported having experienced violence, bullying or harassment at work. In 2002, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions conducted a comparative analysis to map the patterns and trends of harassment and violence at work in the European Union and to clarify the concepts involved. This report analyses how the concepts of violence, harassment and bullying have evolved with regard to the working environment and identifies some of the differences in cultural perspectives regarding these issues. It also surveys the variety of legislative and non-legislative measures that have emerged to combat the problem at national and EU level, as well as positive examples of preventative good practice.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughingstown, Dublin 18, Ireland, 2007. viii, 134p. (This chapter: p.35-40). Illus. [in English] ((Ch.4)) [in English]

CIS 08-733 Bauer J., Unterbrink T., Hack A., Pfeifer R., Buhl-Grießhaber V., Müller U., Wesche H., Frommhold M., Seibt R., Scheuch K., Wirsching M.
Working conditions, adverse events and mental health problems in a sample of 949 German teachers
The aim of this study was to explore the workload of teachers, to analyse the extent of negative or threatening school-related events teachers are confronted with and to evaluate mental health strain. A sample of 949 German teachers in 10 high schools and 79 middle schools was investigated applying a questionnaire covering different aspects of the occupational burden and threatening events, and the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). More than 42% had faced verbal insults, almost 7% deliberate damage to personal property and 4.4% threats of violence by pupils during the past 12 months. When applying the GHQ-12, 29.8% reported significant mental health problems. Teachers in middle schools indicated more of such problems than those of high schools. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.442-449. 37 ref.

CIS 08-735 Harassment at work: Help from hazard evaluation
Harcèlement au travail: l'appui de l'analyse des risques [in French]
Belgian legislation on violence and sexual harassment at the place of work has been amended recently, in particular for taking into account the psychosocial effects of bullying and harassment. It thus places the emphasis on primary prevention, based on hazard evaluation and the screening for undue behaviour in order to avoid the need for legal proceedings. A well-conducted hazard evaluation is therefore essential for effective prevention. Prevent has consequently designed a training programme for assisting Belgian enterprises in carrying out a psychological stress hazard evaluation.
Prevent Focus, Sep. 2007. p.16-19. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 08-745 Lehto A.M, Pärnänen A.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Violence, bullying and harassment in the workplace
Incidence rates of physical violence, bullying and sexual harassment have increased, according to the European Working Conditions Survey and national surveys. This study examines the manner in which these issues have been studied in the national surveys of seven European countries. It is difficult to say how much of the increase is due to raised awareness, but the heightened levels of experience reported must be regarded as real. It also became apparent in the study that physical violence, bullying and sexual harassment are very different and cannot be regarded in the same way. This means that the preventive measures implemented at the workplace must be tailored to fit each problem.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughingstown, Dublin 18, Ireland, 2007. 21p. Illus. 17 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-485 Bué J., Sandret N.
Contact with the public: Close to one worker in four is exposed to verbal assaults
Contact avec le public: près d'un salarié sur quatre subit des agressions verbales [in French]
The analysis of the findings of the SUMER 2003 survey that concern assaults on staff dealing with the public in France shows that in 2003, close to three out of four workers were employed in jobs involving contact with the public, either directly or over the phone. This was the case for 63% of the men and 80% of the women. Twenty-two percent of these workers reported having received verbal assaults and two percent physical assaults during the previous twelve months. Postal workers, bank employees, security staff and health care personnel were among the most at risk. Assaults by the public were also more frequent among workers subjected to unusual working hours, with highly organisational constraints.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2007, No.110, p.193-198. 3 ref.$File/TF160.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-1322 Alcouffe J., Bouchet H., Chaney C., Le Pache J., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y.
Effects of external violence on musculoskeletal disorders among cashiers in stores selling mainly food in Ile-de France
Effets des violences externes sur les troubles musculosquelettiques chez les hôtes et hôtesses de caisse dans la distribution à prédominance alimentaire en Ile-de-France [in French]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of external violence on the occurrence of musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) among supermarket cashiers, and to identify the factors that could possibly reduce this impact. It was carried out in 2006 in the form of a cross-sectional survey of supermarket cashiers in the Ile-de-France region of France by means of a questionnaire. 818 responses were received from 111 shops employing 2425 cashiers. The majority (86.4%) of the respondents were women. Nearly all respondants (95.5%) reported suffering from MSDs. Regression analysis showed that stress is a key risk factor of MSDs. External violence was also found to be an important risk factor of stress. Correlations between various locations of MSDs and the frequency of unpleasant or violent incidents with customers were observed.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2007, Vol.47, No.2, p.129-138. 5 ref.

CIS 07-1240 Bondéelle A., Brasseur G., Siano B.
Gestures or words that are very hurtful
Des gestes ou des mots qui font très mal [in French]
Topics addressed in this special feature on the prevention of physical violence and verbal abuse at work: responsibilities of employers to ensure the safety and health of workers; simple measures for avoiding external violence; role of safety specialists; approaches adopted in various sectors (banks, boutiques of a telephone services provider, public transport).
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2007, No.671, p.16-26. Illus. Bibl.ref.$File/TS671page17.pdf?OpenElement [in French]


CIS 08-993 Zarola A., Leather P.
Health and Safety Executive
Violence management training: The development of effective trainers in the delivery of violence management training in healthcare settings
The objectives of this research project was to identify the competencies that make for an effective violence management trainer and to review practices and procedures associated with the selection, development and management of trainers. It was carried out by means of literature surveys, together with interviews and focus groups involving trainers and managers of a number of healthcare units in the United Kingdom. Findings are discussed. Recommendations are grouped under the following headings: regulation of violence management training; trainer competencies; role of violence management trainer; trainer selection; trainer support and development; organizational capability in tackling work-related violence; further research.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. xii, 87p. Illus. 13 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-742 Zarola A., Leather P.
Health and Safety Executive
Violence and aggression management training for trainers and managers
Workplace violence management training programmes in the health care sector constitutes a central part of the strategy for combating work-related violence and aggression. The objective of this research was to directly assess the usefulness of violence management training. The report includes various evaluation tools, cases studies and guidance documents in the field of violence management training. Based on the conclusions of this report, a second document gives guidance on good practice in the content and delivery of such training.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. xii, 83p. Illus. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-238 Bell N.
Count to 10
This article on workplace violence outlines the responsibilities of employers in the United Kingdom together with the range of recommended control measures. Contents: short descriptions of violent incidents; examples policies adopted by regional health services in the United Kingdom; preventive measures at the workplace, including implementing HSE guidance "Violence at work - A guide for employers" (CIS 00-1581); protecting workers who deal with the public off site; training employees to deal with cases of violence.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Oct. 2006, Vol.24, No.10, p.48-50. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 08-245 Violence, bullying and sexual harassment: organizational risk factors
Violences, harcèlement moral ou sexuel au travail: facteurs de risque organisationnels [in French]
Ongewenst grensoverschrijdend gedrag op het werk: organisatorische risicofactoren [in Dutch]
Often, cases of violence, bullying or sexual harassment at work are attributed to the personality of the perpetrator, overlooking the role played by the organization, the work team and the tasks to be accomplished. This study examines the contribution of these risk factors to the incidence, development and persistence of abusive and violent behaviour at work. It involved a literature survey, interviews and questionnaire surveys.
Service public fédéral Emploi, travail et concertation sociale, rue Ernest- Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 2006. 47p. Illus. [in French] [in Dutch]

CIS 07-1268 Todd R.
Perilous pursuits
An increasing number of enterprises have to send their employees into work situations that are hostile, be that due to war, insurrection, or natural disaster. This article draws on the experiences of a safety and health advisor in some of the world's most volatile locations to provide an overview of what such enterprises need to consider. Topics addressed: planning; sources of information; hazard evaluation; role of field risk coordinator.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Nov. 2006, Vol.24, No.11, p.52-54. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 07-1499 Pinheiro P.S.
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
World report on violence against children
This report is part of a global effort to provide a detailed description of the nature, extent and causes of violence against children, and to propose clear recommendations for preventive action. It draws together existing research and relevant information about the forms, causes and impact of violence which affects children and young people up to the age of 18 years. Data were also collected since 2003 through consultations, working groups and questionnaires. It presents the reality of violence against children around the world, together with the preventive actions being undertaken at international, regional, national and local levels.
United Nations, Sales Section, 1211 Genève 10, Switzerland, 2006. xix, 364p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 07-1247 Leroy J.F., Faulx D., Devacht I., Antonissen D.
Acting against relational suffering at work - Manual for persons having to resolve conflicts, bullying and abuse of authority at work
Agir sur les souffrances relationnelles au travail - Manuel de l'intervenant confronté aux situations de conflit, de harcèlement et d'emprise au travail [in French]
Van meningsverschil tot hyperconflict - Gids voor wie beroepsmatig tussenkomt geconfronteerd wordt met conflicten en grensoverschrijdend gedrag op het werk [in Dutch]
Relational suffering at work includes extreme conflicts, bullying, sexual harassment and violence. This guide is the result of a research programme in the course of which various methodological approaches were used. The first chapter covers concepts, phenomena and the various phases in the development of a conflict. Next, the means of prevention of these problems is addressed, together with four major intervention approaches (support discussion, mediation, group interventions and coaching). A final chapter is devoted to good practices.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2006. 147p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [in French] [in Dutch]

CIS 07-1233 Alcouffe J., Chaney C., Le Pache J., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y.
External violence at work among cashiers of hypermarkets, supermarkets and convenience stores in Ile-de-France
La violence externe au travail chez les hôtes et hôtesses de caisses dans la grande distribution, les supérettes et les mini libres-services en Ile-de-France [in French]
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe and evaluate the frequency of external violence inflicted on supermarket cashiers. It involved a questionnaire survey administered by 63 occupational physicians among 1325 supermarket employees in the Greater Paris region. The sample consisted mostly of women (88%), of average age 32 years. Practically all employees (94%) declared having been subjected to at least one type of violence: armed robbery (7.8%), blows and injuries (3.9%), aggressive behaviour (34.2%), verbal violence (63.0%), abuse (84.1%) and shouting in the queue (81.5%). When occurring repeatedly, these events may cause various pathologies. Other findings are discussed.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 2006, Vol.46, No.3, p.335-345. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 07-987 Coisy P.
Preventing risks of violence in organizations that interact with the public
Prévenir le risque d'agression dans les établissements recevant du public [in French]
The increase in the frequency of violence to staff in organizations that interact with the public calls for the implementation of a system for dealing specifically with this hazard. Heads of organizations are required by law to ensure the safety of their staff. While no regulations specifically cover the risk of violence, a system should be established for dealing with this hazard in order to improve the safety and the productivity of staff. Such a system must include a hazard evaluation, the implementation of measures and training.
Revue Technique Apave, Jul.-Sep. 2006, No.315, p.30-31. Illus.

CIS 07-750 Workplace violence prevention - Strategies and research needs
Report of a conference on workplace violence (WPV) held in Baltimore, USA, 17-19 November 2005. Contents: scope, background, methods and objectives; barriers and gaps that impede WPV prevention and strategies to overcome them; WPV prevention programmes and strategies; research needs for WPV prevention; linking research to practice; partners and their respective roles.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2006. ix, 38p. Illus. 17 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1246 Chappell D., Di Martino V.
Violence at work
This book explores the range of aggressive acts that occur in workplaces, including homicides, assaults, sexual harassment, threats, bullying, mobbing and verbal abuse. Part I examines patterns and trends in workplace violence, identifies occupations at risk and tries to find explanations for violent occurrences. Part II covers the response to violence at the national and supranational levels through legal measures, collective agreements, preventive strategies and best practices. Part III attempts to draw lessons and highlights the need for international action and the role of the ILO. Updates the second edition (see CIS 00-599).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 3rd ed., 2006. xxiv, 360p. Illus. Bibl. ref.

CIS 06-999 Cremniter D., Laurent A.
Post-traumatic stress syndrome: Clinical diagnosis and therapy
Syndrome de stress post-traumatique: clinique et thérapie [in French]
Post-traumatic stress syndrome is attracting increasing attention given the trend towards providing care for victims of disasters, collective accidents, hostage taking and high psychological impact incidents. The clinical picture is characterized by the repeated reliving of the trauma in intrusive memories ("flashbacks") that are specific to this syndrome, together with emotional detachment and non-specific symptoms such as psychosomatic or personality disorders. Therapeutic intervention involves immediate care on the site of the incident, post-immediate psychotherapy follow-up and in certain cases, long-term follow-up for psychotraumatism, particularly for victims of assault and violence.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2006, No.150, 5p. 40 ref.


CIS 10-0158
International Council of Nurses, Public Services International, World Health Organization, International Labour Office
Framework Guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sector - The training manual
This training manual on guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sector is primarily targeted at workplace situations but is also suitable for being used in awareness-raising contexts. It is intended for a wide range of operators in the health sector, including health personnel, members of professional associations, trade unionists, administrators, managers, trainers, decision makers and practitioners in general. Contents: preliminary remarks for the facilitator; introduction; awareness and understanding; rights and responsibilities, choosing the best approach: recognizing and addressing factors leading to workplace violence; intervention; monitoring and evaluation; conclusion.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. viii, 122p. Illus. + CD-ROM. [in English]

CIS 09-497 Palmstierna T., Nijman H., Oud N.
Violence in clinical psychiatry
Proceedings of a conference on violence in clinical psychiatry held in Vienna, Austria, 20-21 October 2005. Several papers addressed the safety, health and training of the staff: training in managing aggression among nurses in several countries; literature review on the effectiveness of training interventions in the management of violence in healthcare; nurses' attitudes on the reasons for patient aggression and its management.
Oud Consultancy, Hakfort 621, 1102 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2005. 352p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 07-1249 Protection against violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the workplace
La protection contre la violence et le harcèlement moral ou sexuel au travail [in French]
De bescherming tegen geweld, pesterijen en ongewenst seksueel gedrag op het werk. [in Dutch]
This document comments on the Law of 11 June 2002 on the protection of workers against violence, bullying or sexual harassment which came into force in Belgium on 1 July 2002. Contents: definitions; scope; prevention of violence, bullying and sexual harassment; protection of workers, employers and third parties; other legislation on sexual harassment in the workplace. Replaces CIS 03-1499.
Cellule publications du SPF Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, rev.ed., June 2005. 79p. Illus.

CIS 07-1016 Keys for ... preventing and combating violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the workplace
Clés pour ... prévenir et lutter contre la violence et le harcèlement moral ou sexuel au travail [in French]
Wegwijs in ... de preventie en bescherming tegen geweld, pesten en ongewenst seksueel gedrag op het werk. [in Dutch]
This booklet provides guidance on Belgian regulations concerning the protection of workers against violence, bullying or sexual harassment. Contents: definitions and scope of the regulations; occupational safety and health policies; roles of the occupational safety and health advisor and the trusted advisor; protection of workers, employers and third parties; penalties; help to victims. Replaces CIS 03-1119.
Cellule publications du SPF Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, rev. ed., Feb. 2005. 64p. Illus. [in French] [in Dutch]

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