Lasers - 157 entries found
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Lasers: Guide to their use and preventive measures
Lasers: mode d'emploi et mesures de prévention [in French]
Many instruments and processes are based on lasers, a technology that offers many advantages but also involves certain risks, namely of skin or eye injuries. The use of lasers is regulated by several standards. These must be accompanied by specific preventive measures, which are described in this article.
Prevent Focus, Mar. 2011, p.14-17. Illus. 4 ref.
Reidenbach H.D., Hofmann J., Dolllinger K., Ott G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Human aversion response against visible laser radiation
Abwendungsreaktionen des Menschen gegenüber sichtbarer Laserstrahlung [in German]
The classification of the safety of lasers according to classes 2, 2M and 3A is mainly based on the aversion responses including the blink reflex. However, this study carried out on 1200 volunteers shows that the blink reflex occurs in a maximum of 20% of all cases if an irradiation is performed under class-2 conditions. Further active protection reactions in form of head movements and eye closure occur in less than 10% of subjects. A second trial with 200 volunteers who received prior training showed that active protection reactions could protect up to 80% of the exposed volunteers against laser radiation within a period of two seconds. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 217p. Illus. Approx. 150 ref. Index. Price: EUR 23.00.
Salsi S., Lovat G., Musset O., Boquillon J.P., Oltra R.
Assessment and prevention of ocular risks during the cleaning of buildings using lasers
Evaluation et prévention des risques optiques induits par le nettoyage laser des bâtiments [in French]
Cleaning of buildings using lasers is a technique used since the early 1990s replacing conventional processes, which have often used products that were either excessively abrasive for building materials or were dangerous to the operator and/or the environment. Laser cleaning allows the total or selective elimination of black weathering crusts from stone surfaces without causing any harmful effects. Laser radiation can be partially or even totally reflected by the material being cleaned, and this reflection can cause irreversible eye injury. Wearing protective spectacles is therefore essential. However, absorption saturation effects have been observed in some safety spectacles, making them temporarily transparent to laser radiation and unreliable at high energy levels. Various safety spectacles were tested and found not to comply with the claims of manufacturers with respect to spectral transmission and optical densities. Extreme care should be taken when selecting safety spectacles for use by cleaning operators who use lasers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2004, No.196, p.7-19. Illus. 14 ref.
Werhahn O., Schirmacher A., Schmiedel M., Sutter E., Nevejina-Sturhan A., Lecher H., Siegner U., Ott G., Janssen M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Laser filters for the ns- and fs regime
Laserschutzfilter für den ns- und fs-Bereich [in German]
Non-linear interactions between light and matter such as induced transmission can impair the protective effect of filters against laser radiation. When these filters are exposed to short high-energy laser impulses, this effect induces a transient increase in the degree of spectral transmission, causing eye irradiation in excess of admissible levels, possibly resulting in lesions. This study examines the behaviour of filters against laser rays when exposed to intensive laser impulses of duration in the nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) orders of magnitude. The induced transmission effect was also observed for very short impulses of the order of femtoseconds. The residual protective effects of these types of filters are reviewed. The influence of filter temperature on induced transmission is also discussed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 126p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: EUR 13.00.
Riedenbach H.D., Dollinger K., Hofmann J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Examination of laser classification with regard to the eye blink reflex
Überprüfung der Laserklassifizierung unter Berücksichtigung des Lidschlussreflexes [in German]
Laser equipment is more and more frequently used. It is generally recognized that the blink reflex is a physiological protection against overexposure to lasers, and the classification of class 2 lasers according to DIN EN 60825-1 is based on an exposure duration of 0.25s. The investigations carried out in this study on more than 1400 subjects showed that only about 20% showed a blink reflex when irradiated with a class 2 laser under both laboratory and field conditions. It is therefore recommended that laser users be advised to look away from the laser beam.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 204p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: EUR 17.50.
Surgical smoke: Are you aware of the risks?
Les fumées chirurgicales, connaissez-vous les risques? [in French]
The use of lasers in surgery is growing rapidly. However, when used on human tissues, these lasers vaporize cells and give rise to what is known as surgical smoke. The presence of viruses and bacteria in this smoke has been confirmed in several studies; furthermore, during the treatment of cancers using lasers, viable cancer cells were also detected. More than 80 chemicals have been found in surgical smoke, many of them harmful. Surgical smoke particles are respirable and can cause emphysema, bronchitis and pneumonia. The article describes a study on the decomposition products detected during laser treatment of pig skin, used for simulating human skin. Finally, the importance of proper ventilation and the use of masks are emphasised.
Travail et santé, Dec. 2003, Vol.19, No.4, p.34-39. Illus. 8 ref.
Laser safety 2.0 - Training software for your safety with lasers
Lasersicherheit 2.0 - Die Schulungssoftware für Ihre Lasersicherheit [in German]
This CD-ROM provides a tool for training in laser safety. It enables users to acquire a basic understanding of this topic, namely: principles of the functioning of lasers; risks posed by the interaction of lasers with human tissue; classes of lasers; protective measures; responsibilities of employees. A simple test enables users to determine whether they have acquired the essential knowledge concerning laser safety. The CD-ROM also contains approximately 40 Power-Point slides that can be edited to make training presentations on the topic of laser safety.
Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik IWS, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany, 2001. CD-ROM (needs Pentium min. 100 MHz, Windows 95, 98, ME, NT or 2000, 64 MB RAM, CD-ROM drive min. 16x, optimal resolution 1024x768, Internet browser, Macromedia Shockwave Player, Windows Media Player or REAL Player). Price: EUR 32.50.
Hée G., Méreau P., Dornier G.
Les lasers [in French]
Lasers (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) are a source of coherent optical radiation, often included in instruments or machinery, that produce a beam of monochromatic light. Lasers are used in a wide variety of applications: industry, medicine, defence, art, shows, etc. This information sheet presents an overview of current understanding concerning lasers, with emphasis on the following aspects: laser technology; main uses; health hazards including effects on skin and eyes; regulations and standardization; protective measures; INRS research.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, Dec. 2001. 4p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: EUR 1.50.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/4C5E87B8923FDF73C1256CD900519DDC/$FILE/ed5009.pdf [in French]
Falco M.D., Lepore M., Indovina P.L.
Assessment of exposure to laser radiation in research laboratories
Valutazione dell'esposizione alla radiazione laser nei laboratori di ricerca [in Italian]
Overview of the methods for radiance measurement and other parameters for the laser sources most widely used in research establishments. These methods are compared with those recommended by safety standards. The use of safety spectacles is recommended for eye protection, as well as that of beam stops or attenuators.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.187-202. Illus. 8 ref.
Lasers and safety
Laser et sécurité [in French]
The different interaction mechanisms between laser radiation and living matter are reviewed. Skin and eye risk factors are discussed. They include physical factors related to laser emission and factors related to the physiology of eyes and skin. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards contain provisions for the classification of lasers into seven classes according to their potential risk, as well as definitions of exposure limits. The article also covers the prevention of risks encountered during the use of lasers outdoors on in confined spaces, particularly with respect to eye protection. Medical supervision of personnel using lasers should include aptitude tests and periodic checks. Procedures to be adopted in cases of eye injury, according to the type and frequency of the laser, are summarized. A list of relevant standards and regulations is also included.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2001, No.133, 7p. Illus. 5 ref.
Code of practice for safe use of lasers in the building and construction industry
This code of practice specifies the safety requirements for lasers used for alignment, levelling, control and survey tasks in the building and construction industry. It does not cover the design and manufacture of lasers, nor the use of lasers in other applications.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 2000. 21p. Illus. Price: SGD 21.00.
Working safely with lasers
L'utilisation en sécurité du laser [in French]
Contents of this review article on safe working methods with lasers: main uses of lasers (metal cutting, cleaning of stones of historical monuments, surgery); experiences of two metal-cutting enterprises; occupational hazards from working in the presence of lasers (skin effects: irritation, burning, cancer risk; eye effects: cornea lesions and ulcerations, thermal cataract, retinal tears; hazards from secondary X-rays; risks to laser equipment maintenance staff; electrical hazards; hazards from liquid nitrogen used as a coolant); machine protection and personal protective equipment; specific training in the use of laser equipment; measures to be taken by employers; characteristics and uses of the main laser types; permissible levels and laser classification.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2000, No.601, p.29-39. Illus. 11 ref.
Cazzuli O., Giroletti E., Tomaselli A.
Laser risk in the research and teaching laboratories of Pavia University
Il rischio laser nei laboratori di ricerca e di didattica: l'esperienza dell'Università degli Studi di Pavia [in Italian]
Procedures have been developed for the management and monitoring of hazards from laser in the physics, engineering and biochemistry laboratories of Pavia University (Italy). Risk evaluation, risk prevention, education and health supervision by periodic checkups are described as well as the hazard classification of lasers. Annexes: sample form for laser risk evaluation; operating standards, check list and signalling instructions for laser safety.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.12, No.3, p.3-21. Illus. 15 ref.
Hée G., Balty I., Mayer A., Courant D., Lièvre M.
Lasers: Risks and preventive measures
Les lasers: risques et prévention [in French]
After characterizing and describing the different types of laser emissions, the risks related to high voltage and radiant heat, with special emphasis on the dangers of eye exposure are presented. Recommended occupational exposure limits and the standard classification of laser instruments according to the European standard NF EN 60825-1 of July 1994 are provided. The recommended general and individual protective measures concern essentially the protection from the thermal effects of radiation. A list of protective goggles available in France is provided, together with the requirements they must satisfy. Finally, instruments for measuring laser energy and power are presented in tabular form.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1998, No.173, p.445-463. Illus. 33 ref.
Salsi S., Cnockaert J.C., Mayer A., André J.C., Brun A., Georges P.
Personal protective equipment against laser beams: Non-linear behaviour induced by high irradiance of safety goggles against laser beams
Equipement de protection contre les lasers: comportement non linéaire induit par les flux lumineux élevés des oculaires utilisés pour les lunettes de protection contre les lasers [in French]
Topics: filter glasses; filtration efficiency; laser radiation; lasers; light transmission factor; luminous flux; optical density; personal protective equipment; safety spectacles.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1998, No.171, Note No.2075-171-98, p.129-137. Illus. 8 ref.
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association
The use of lasers in the workplace - A practical guide
Istiẖdām al-līzar fī makan al-(amal [in Arabic]
Arabic translation of an ILO publication abstracted under CIS 94-703. This document is one of a series of practical guides on occupational hazards arising from non-ionizing radiation providing basic knowledge of issues concerning the use of lasers in the workplace. The following topics are covered: characteristics of laser radiation; the biological and health effects; occupationally related exposure type and effects; hazard evaluation; instrumentation and measurement techniques; occupational exposure limits and safety standards; control of and protection from exposure to laser radiation; and the principles of an administrative structure needed to ensure laser safety in workplaces
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. 155p. Illus. 33 ref.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
Guidelines on limits of exposure to laser radiation of wavelengths between 180nm and 1,000µm
Topics: biological effects; determination of exposure limits; eye injuries; infrared radiation; laser damage thresholds; laser radiation; length of exposure; limitation of exposure; non-ionizing radiation; permissible radiation doses; retinal damage; skin injuries; ultraviolet radiation; visible radiation.
Health Physics, Nov. 1996, Vol.71, No.5, p.804-819. Illus. 49 ref.
Low-power laser safety
Topics: helium-neon lasers; laser-scanner checkout systems; lasers; radiation protection; safe working methods; training material; USA; videotape.
Tel-A-Train, 309 North Market Street, P.O. Box 4752, Chattanooga, TN 37405, USA, 1996. Videotape (length 15min). Price: USD 410.00.
Alunovic M., Kreutz E.W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Protective shielding of workplaces using lasers
Abschirmungen an Laserarbeitsplätzen [in German]
Topics: argon lasers; building materials; continuous-wave lasers; Germany; glass; laser radiation; lasers; material damage; materials testing; neodymium lasers; plaster; plastics; pulsed lasers; Q-switched lasers; radiation protection; radiation shielding; screens.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. x, 157p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: DM 29.50.
Health and Safety Executive
The radiation safety of lasers used for display purposes
This guide provides radiation safety information for employers and employees who use display laser installations, and for manufacturers and suppliers of this equipment. Contents: laser-induced eye damage; supplier requirements (basic safeguards, determination of exposure conditions, hand-over arrangements and documentation, venue considerations); user requirements (operator training and supervision); installation safety assessment (potential hazards, emission evaluation). In appendices: wavelengths of different lasers; maximum permissible exposures.
HSE Books P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1996. iv, 34p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling the radiation safety of display laser installations
This leaflet provides general radiation safety information for employers and employees who use display laser installations, and for manufacturers and suppliers of this equipment. High power lasers may cause eye injury or skin burns. Key problems relate to safety assessment of laser beam viewing, and restriction of access to beams identified as hazardous.
HSE Books P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1996. 4p. 9 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/INDG224.htm [in English]
Bellido F., Belmar J.M., Bernaola M., Cabrera J.A., Corredera P., Domingo C., Gallardo E., Guibelalde E., López G., Montejo J.M., Rupérez M.J., Sánchez M., Vaello L.
Some considerations on laser safety
Algunas cuestiones sobre seguridad láser [in Spanish]
Topics: chemical hazards; electricity; hazard criteria; hazard evaluation; health hazards; laser damage thresholds; laser radiation; lasers; legislation; medical prevention; physical hazards; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. xviii, 398p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Eye protectors against optical radiation
Shakō hogogu [in Japanese]
Review of safety glasses, goggles and masks used at work for protection against optical radiation: definitions, functions, types, optical transmittance of various materials and relevant citations of Japanese Industrial Standards. Specific examples of protection against the hazards of arc welding, gas welding, iron and steel manufacture and lasers.
Journal of Industrial Hygiene of Japan - Rōdō eisei kōgaku, 10 July 1995, Vol.34, p.21-32. Illus. 7 ref.
Arnold S.D., Cremers D.A.
Rapid determination of metal particles on air sampling filters using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
A rapid method of analysis for metal particles is described. Thallium particles (in the form of thallic oxide) were collected by passing contaminated air through a filter or by wiping a contaminated surface with a filter. The mass of thallium particles on the filters was determined in less than one minute using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique: a series of laser sparks was formed across the filter surface which vaporized the particles and excited the resulting atoms; thallium was detected by temporally and spectrally resolving the spark light. The method may be developed for the analysis of other types of metal particles.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1995, Vol.56, No.12, p.1180-1186. Illus. 17 ref.
Pagliéro D., Gouerne R.
Welding and cutting robots - Assessment and control of risks generated by new metalworking techniques
Robots de soudage et de découpe - Evaluation et prévention des risques engendrés par les nouvelles technologies d'usinage (laser, jet d'eau hyperbare et plasma) [in French]
In order to deal with the risks generated by new welding and cutting techniques (laser, pressurized water jet, plasma) used in conjunction with industrial robots, a preliminary survey was carried out in France. The resulting report lists the hazards related to such methods (general and specific hazards, hazards of specific metalworking methods), together with proper protective measures (relationship between safety functions and safety measures, protective devices: personal protection, specific sensors, active or passive peripheral devices) and how to implement and adjust them. Appended are reference texts (regulations or standards), tolerable laser radiation limits and a model presentation of special safety instructions.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1995, No.158, Note No.1980-158-95, p.15-33. Illus. 20 ref.
An exhaust system for waste gases from surgery
Absaugsysteme für die Chirurgie-Rauchgase [in German]
Description of a local exhaust system for waste gases from operating theatres where laser or high-frequency surgical equipment is used.
Krankenhaustechnik, Mar. 1994, vol.20, No.3, p.80-81. Illus. 4 ref. ###
Probabilistic laser safety - Ocular damage models for Q-switched neodymium and ruby lasers
International standards for eye protection from laser radiation define a distance beyond which an individual would not be expected to suffer any adverse biological effects. This nominal ocular hazard distance, and any associated hazard zones, are calculated using a deterministic technique. This technique does not consider the likelihood that an eye will be irradiated, or the probability that if any eye is exposed, then some ocular damage will result. An alternative, probabilistic, method of hazard assessment does so. An important element in this assessment is an ocular damage model which predicts the probability with which a laser exposure will cause permanent eye damage. This paper describes a rationale for the use of the minimum ophthalmoscopically visible lesion as a threshold criterion for the development of ocular damage models.
Health Physics, Apr. 1994, Vol.66, No.4, p.414-419. Illus. 23 ref.
Comparative hazard evaluation of near-infrared diode lasers
Hazard evaluation methods from various laser protection standards differ when applied to extended-source, near-infrared lasers. The differences among laser standards are most apparent when determining the hazard class of a laser. Hazard classification is based on a comparison of the potential exposures with the maximum permissible exposures in the 1986 and 1993 versions of the American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, Z136.1, and the accessible emission limits of the US federal laser product performance standard. Necessary safety design features of a particular system depend on the hazard class. The ANSI Z136.1-1993 standard provides a simpler and more accurate hazard assessment of low-power, near-infrared, diode laser systems than the 1986 ANSI standard. Although a specific system is evaluated, the techniques described can be readily applied to other near-infrared lasers or laser training systems.
Health Physics, May 1994, Vol.66, No.5, p.532-539. Illus. 11 ref.
Laser [in Swedish]
This directive came into force 1 Oct. 1994. It covers the use and design of lasers. In an annex are lists of exposure limits for different types of exposure and equipment. Guidelines for compliance with the directive as well as for general understanding of the hazards of lasers are given. Directive AFS 1981:9 (CIS 83-1604) on lasers is abrogated.
Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 10 May 1994. 23p.
Jost M., Hofer L.
Are photocopiers and laser printers dangerous to health?
Sind Arbeiten mit Fotokopiergeräten und Laserdruckern gesundheitsgefährdend? [in German]
Les photocopieuses et les imprimantes laser présentent-elles un risque pour la santé? [in French]
Review of the substances released and of the measures reported in the literature or carried out by the SUVA. The most frequent complaints were irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract, headaches and fatigue. Recommendations apply to premises, maintenance, enclosed systems, filters and medical control.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Medizinische Mitteilungen Nr. 66, Apr. 1994, p.4-9. 14 ref.
Safety of laser products - Part 1: Equipment classification, requirements and user's guide
Sécurité des appareils à laser - Partie 1: Classification des matériels, prescriptions et guide de l'utilisateur [in French]
This international standard (for 1984 standard, see CIS 85-1002) is applicable to the safety of laser products. Contents: Section 1 (General): Scope and object: normative references; definitions. Section 2: Manufacturing requirements: engineering specifications; labelling; other informational requirements; additional requirements for specific laser products; tests; classification. Section 3: User's guide: safety precautions; hazards incidental to laser operation; procedures for hazard control; maximum permissible exposures. Annexes: examples of calculations; medical considerations; bibliography; summary tables; high power laser considerations particularly appropriate to materials processing laser products; related IEC standards.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., Nov. 1993. 207p.
Information sheet on lasers
Informationsblatt über Laser [in German]
Bollettino d'informazione sui laser [in Italian]
Feuille d'information sur les lasers [in French]
This data sheet is aimed at the users of laser installations who do not have sufficient technical knowledge of lasers. The nature of laser radiation is described, along with manufacturers', suppliers' and users' obligations. Definition of terms, light propagation, quality of laser light, invisible laser radiation, classification of laser installations, identification and labelling of laser installations, personal protection.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Apr. 1993. 7p. Illus.
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association
The use of lasers in the workplace - A practical guide
This ILO publication is one of a series of practical guides on occupational hazards arising from non-ionizing radiation providing basic knowledge of issues concerning the use of lasers in the workplace. The following topics are covered: characteristics of laser radiation; the biological and health effects; occupationally related exposure type and effects; hazard evaluation; instrumentation and measurement techniques; occupational exposure limits and safety standards; control of and protection from exposure to laser radiation; and the principles of an administrative structure needed to ensure laser safety in workplaces. Glossary.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1993. ix, 60p. Illus. Appendices. 33 ref. Price: CHF 17.50.
Barbanel C.S., Ducatman A.M., Garston M.J., Fuller T.
Laser hazards in research laboratories
Five cases of laser-associated incidents at a research institution which required medical follow-up are reported, plus exposure circumstances from four other incidents. Eye injuries from direct and reflected beams resulted from open alignment procedures in the absence of appropriate eye protection. Nd:YAG lasers operated with doubling crystals appear to create a considerable risk. It is believed that the importance of laser-associated injuries are under-estimated and the incidence under-reported in the research setting. Although experienced researchers are shown to suffer lapses in standard operating procedures, most incidents and all injuries involved inexperienced students. It is proposed that research laser users be registered and required to undergo formal training in laser safety. Student researchers are a key target population. Collaborative implementation between the equipment supplier and research user will be required to achieve this widespread implementation of effective training.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.369-374. Illus. 12 ref.
XIVth France - Switzerland Symposium of Occupational Medicine (6 and 7 June 1991 sittings)
XIVes Journées Franco-Suisses de Médecine du travail - Séances des 6 et 7 juin 1991 [in French]
Subject of the main papers presented at the XIVth Swiss-French Symposium of Occupational Medicine (6-7 June 1991): fatal poisoning by freon 113; hygiene safety and working conditions in road work; study of various types of construction sites and work stations; role of the occupational physician in health education for early breast-cancer screening; occupational asthma and airflow measurements; contribution of computer science to the definition of indices useful for diagnosis; back-pain, depressive symptoms and occupation; risks associated with the use of laser, safety rules, etc.; survey of risk factors for occupational diseases in the canton of Vaud (Switzerland); study of the physical workload of stretcher-bearers through heart rate measurement; use of epoxy resins in the construction industry; overuse syndrome in cello players; heart condition and exposure to fluorochlorinated solvents; hearing tests in a wire drawing plant; quartz dust exposure among stonecutters.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.200-226. Illus.
Notes on protection against laser radiation in the laboratory
Contents of this training manual: basic physics of laser radiation; biological effects on the eyes and the skin; review of British Standard BS EN60825 (Radiation safety of laser products: equipment classification requirements and user's guide); application of the guidance (hazard evaluation; administrative procedures; laser-controlled areas; records; ophthalmic examinations; engineering controls; eye protection; teaching and research applications; entertainment and displays).
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1992. vi, 62p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: GBP 14.00 (surface mail); GBP 17.00, USD 34.00, CAD 40.00 (airmail).
Medical electrical equipment - Part 2: Particular requirements for the safety of diagnostic and therapeutic laser equipment
Appareils électromédicaux - Partie 2: Règles particulières de sécurité pour les appareils thérapeutiques et de diagnostic à laser [in French]
The requirements of this standard have to be taken as the minimum to comply with, in order to achieve a reasonable level of safety and reliability during operation and application of medical laser equipment. Hazards considered include electric shock, light radiation and liquid spillage.
International Electrochemical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, Genève, Switzerland, 1992. 43p. Illus.
Rupérez Calvo M.J.
Lasers - Hazards of their use
Láseres: riesgos en su utilización [in Spanish]
Contents of this information note on lasers: definition and main characteristics; biological effects on the eyes and skin; other hazards (e.g. electrical, environmental); exposure evaluation units; classification into five different types (1, 2, 3A, 3B, 4); labelling according to these types; preventive measures, including technical and administrative controls and personal protective equipment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, C/Torrelaguna 73 - 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 6p. 5 ref.
Ordinance No.495 of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of 21 October 1991 modifying the Ordinance respecting maximum allowable concentrations and levels of harmful factors in the working environment [Poland]
Rozporządzenie 495 Ministra Pracy i Polityki Socjalnej z dnia 21 października 1991 r. zmieniające rozporządzenie w sprawie najwyższych dopuszczalnych stężeń i natężeń czynników szkodliwych dla zdrowia w środowisku pracy [in Polish]
This directive (effective from date of publication) modifies the exposure limits for five of the chemical products listed in Ordinance 417 of 1 Dec. 1989 (see CIS 93-1402) and adds 28 more. Provisions for two categories of inorganic dust are modified and six more are added. The paragraphs on noise and microclimate are modified. New paragraphs and tables of exposure limits are added for infrared, ultraviolet and laser radiation. The National Health Inspectorate is empowered to make or delegate measurements and to define test methods in the absence of Polish standards.
Dziennik Ustaw, 1991, No.114, p.1558-1563.
International colloquium on safety in the application of laser equipment in research, industry and medicine
Proceedings of an international colloquium on safety in the application of laser equipment in research, industry and medicine held in Xi An, China, 7-12 October 1991. Papers are presented under the following headings: fundamentals, metrology and classification; potential hazards inherent in laser equipment (eye and skin injuries, harmful products of chemical reaction, air pollution); occupational safety and health in industrial laser application (accident statistics, reports of eye injuries, use of lasers in construction and in the food, beverage and tobacco industries, effect on the female reproductive system, safe distances, competence of personnel, advances in safety measures); safety aspect of medical laser application.
Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Gustav-Heinemann Ufer 130, 50968 Köln, Germany, 1991. 207p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Working with industrial lasers: Exploratory study of safety and health hazards during the use of lasers in metalworking
Werken met industriële lasers: een verkennende studie naar veiligheids- en gezondheidsaspecten bij werken met lasers voor materiaalbewerking [in Dutch]
Report on a study of the safety and health risks of working with high-energy lasers used in the metalworking industry. The major hazards are: the laser beam (radiation effects); laser equipment (high-voltage electric current, gases and fluids at various temperatures, fluids and gases under pressure, radiation, toxic substances); work processes (spattering parts, hot workpieces). Attention is also given to: standards for maximum levels of radiation from lasers; appropriate preventive measures.
Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 90804, 2509 LV Den Haag, Netherlands, 1991. 85p. Illus. 46 ref.
Lasers for medical purposes
Medizinische Anwendung des Lasers [in German]
This safety guide deals with: lasers (design, labelling, types, safety devices), laser hazards, safety by design, laser operating theatres, surgery teams, patients, laser safety officers (training tasks), relevant standards and publications. Update of Merkblatt M 17 abstracted under CIS 89-989.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhügung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Str. 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1991. 20p. Illus. 13 ref.
Clean room safety and health management
Kurīn rūmu no anzen eisei kanri [in Japanese]
Clean rooms are especially important in four sectors of Japanese industry: precision instruments, electronics, food and pharmaceuticals. In addition describing the environmental conditions that must be met for a clean room to meet applicable criteria in Japan and elsewhere, this report explains the physical, chemical and biological hazards due to the clean-room environment and to the processes conducted in clean rooms, presents typical management structures for clean-room operations in the four industrial sectors, summarizes applicable Japanese safety and health regulations and lists hazardous substances and their properties. Annexes list (1) hazardous reactions of substances used in the processes typical of clean rooms, and (2) permissible levels of contaminants in wastes for land fill or disposal at sea.
Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, Sep. 1990. 128p. Illus. 36+3 ref.
Ballesio P., Delia R., Lanfranchi M.L., Pascale W., Rihaoui A.
Risks and safety requirements in the surgical use of lasers - Measurement problems
Rischi e condizioni di sicurezza nell'uso dei laser in chirurgia: problemi metrologici [in Italian]
An examination of the various technologies involved in the use of lasers in medicine, with special emphasis on surgery. Analysed are the various types of lasers emitting electromagnetic radiation in the infrared to ultraviolet spectrum (non-ionising radiation). Other aspects covered: protective equipment; safety standards; recommendations; safe methods of use.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep. 1990, Vol.2, No.3, p.7-16. 6 ref.
Laser radiation - Directive [Switzerland]
Laserstrahlung - Richtlinie [in German]
Radiazione laser - Direttive [in Italian]
Rayonnement laser - Règles [Suisse] [in French]
Safety rules applicable to the manufacturing, use and maintenance of laser equipment. They concern: definitions; authorisations and users' manuals; manufacturing and installation rules; safe use (operating controls, training of operators, safety devices, personal protection, emergency switch-off, special rules for laser equipment used in manufacturing). List of other applicable legal texts and standards. Extensive commentary. Sample danger signs and labels.
Eidgenössische Koordinationskommission für Arbeitssicherheit, Richtlinienbüro, Fluhmattstrasse 1, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1990. 30p. Illus.
Types of laser-related risks - Survey conducted on two categories of users
Représentation des risques du laser - Etude auprès de deux catégories d'utilisateurs [in French]
The increasing use of lasers in industry and research confronts risk prevention specialists with a new problem: laser-related hazards, about which little is known. In order to provide users with more information, a preliminary survey was carried out to assess risk awareness (and risk representation) in a sample group of 108 operators divided into two categories: manufacturing industry and research laboratories. The field survey revealed considerable differences in the degree of user information and equipment operating safety, as well as differences in the extent of risk awareness in the users. Safety messages (posters, for example) should be formulated bearing these differences in mind and they should be designed as an integral part of broader preventive measures (training, workplace,layout, work organisation).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.141, Note No.1801-141-90, p.787-798. Illus. 11 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Laser safety in printing
Contents of this safety guide: general principles of the use of lasers in printing and equipment hazards; principles of laser safety and responsibilities of designers, manufacturers and others; safety measures required for typical laser products including printers, copiers, scanners and larger equipment such as engravers and platemaking systems; safety during servicing. Appendices provide a list of relevant legal requirements, an outline of how a laser works, a classification of lasers and laser products, and a summary of engineering safety features.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 16p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 3.00.
Laserstråling [in Danish]
This safety guide provides information on the health hazards associated with laser radiation (especially eye and skin injuries). It explains the physical properties of optical and laser radiation, and the four different classes of lasers (in accordance with the 1984 classification published by the International Electrotechnical Commission in IEC 825). The exposure limits established by the IEC, used as guidelines in Denmark, are presented. The report also gives guidance on preventive measures (including a check list for class 4 lasers) and eye protectors. Some practical examples of laser radiation protection are included, as well as examples of private, industrial and military uses of lasers.
Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1990. 32p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: DKK 100.00.
Suess M.J., Benwell-Morison D.A.
Nonionizing radiation protection
This publication covers both public and occupational health issues concerning non-ionizing radiation. Each section describes the characteristics, exposure sources, biological effects, hazard evaluation, safety standards and control measures of a particular type of radiation: ultraviolet radiation; optical radiation and lasers; infrared radiation; radiofrequency radiation; electric and magnetic fields at extremely low frequencies; ultrasound. A final section presents regulation and enforcement procedures. (See CIS 86-996 for previous edition).
WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigsvej 8, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 2nd ed., 1989. xiv, 346p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 43.00.
González García L., Guibelalde del Castillo E., Chevalier del Río M.
Lasers: Working principles, applications and protection
El láser: Principio de funcionamiento, aplicaciones y protección [in Spanish]
This article provides information on the physics and the different uses of lasers. It explains the health hazards associated with laser equipment (instant burns of the cornea and the retina, skin burns, skin cancer, other injuries of the retina, the appearance of opacities in the cornea or the lens) as well as other important sources of danger (provocation of chemical reactions, which can be especially dangerous in the case of toxic or inflammable gases, the risk of electrocutions when working with high-power laser equipment). The article also reviews some of the most important safety standards for lasers from the American National Standard Institute (Standards for the safe use of lasers and Laser safety in the health care environment, ANSI Z.136.1 and Z.136.3 respectively).
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1989, No.34, p.23-29. 14 ref. Illus.
Der Nigohossian G.
Lasers in the laboratory. Practical safety and protection
Les lasers aux laboratoires. Conseils pratiques de prévention, protection [in French]
This collection of information and safety instructions was prepared by a working group responsible for laser safety at the Saclay nuclear research centre in France. A review of laser basics is followed by comments on hazards: heat, fire, pulsed radiation, hazards for the eye and skin, other possible hazards (noise, x-rays, electricity, chemicals). The design of laser laboratories and the carrying out of experiments is discussed.
C.E.N., Service de documentation, Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France, 1988. 128p. Illus. 13 ref. Index.
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