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Non-ionizing radiation - 763 entries found

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CIS 12-0287 Démaret P., Donati P.
Integrating electromagnetic radiation hazard into the unique occupational risk management document
Intégrer le risque "rayonnements électromagnétiques" dans le document unique d'évaluation des risques professionnels [in French]
The number of industrial applications involving electromagnetic radiation has significantly increased in recent years. These applications are likely to expose operators to electromagnetic fields exceeding the limits laid down by European Parliament and Council Directive 2004/40/EC. A survey was carried out to identify the types of equipment emitting the most radiation, which were then classified into eight types: resistance welding, magnetization, induction heating, magnetoscopy, dielectric loss welding, electrolysis, magnetic resonance imagery and microwaves. The number of installations by type was estimated by a market survey, which specifically identified several tens of thousands of resistance welding or magnetization machines. This survey enabled the deduction that at least 100,000 operators in France are at risk of exposure to electromagnetic fields. An assessment of exposure levels for operators at their workstations was undertaken for each equipment type. Electromagnetic fields were measured at 635 workstations fitted with radiation emitting machinery. For each measurement, a severity index corresponding to the ratio of the measured value to the action-triggering value (ATV) recommended by Council Directive 2004/40/EC was calculated. The results show that, for seven equipment types out of the eight which were evaluated, 25-50% of measurements resulted in electromagnetic field values exceeding the corresponding ATV. These findings demonstrate the need for prevention. In most cases, exposure reduction is achieved by moving the workstation away from the radiation source. Technical solutions do exist for certain types of equipment, such as shielding for microwave ovens and high-frequency presses.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2011, No.225, p.45-53. Illus. 4 ref.
Intégrer_le_risque_rayonnements_électromagnétiques_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 12-0359 Chorley A.C., Evans B.J., Benwell M.J.
Civilian pilot exposure to ultraviolet and blue light and pilot use of sunglasses
A search and appraisal of the relevant literature was conducted which showed that within the airline pilot population, there is limited evidence of a higher prevalence of cataracts. There are no data of other known ultraviolet (UV)-related ocular pathology. There is some evidence of higher prevalence of skin melanomas. Studies measuring cockpit UV radiation levels are limited and leave unanswered questions regarding airline pilot exposure. Data from optical transmission of cockpit windshields demonstrates the UV blocking properties at sea level. No studies have addressed the occupational use of sunglasses in airline pilots. Although it is likely that an aircraft windshield effectively blocks UV-B, the intensity of UV-A and short-wavelength blue light present within the cockpit at altitude is unknown. Pilots may be exposed to solar radiation for periods of many hours during flight where UV radiation is known to be significantly greater. Aircraft windshields should have a standard for optical transmission, particularly of short-wavelength radiation. Clear, un-tinted prescription glasses will offer some degree of UV protection; however, sunglasses will offer superior protection. Any sunglasses used should conform to a national standard.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.82, No.9, p.895-900. 46 ref.
Civilian_pilot_exposure_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 11-0563 Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric and magnetic fields (1 Hz to 100 kHz)
Lignes directrices pour l'établissement de limites d'exposition aux champs électriques et magnétiques variables dans le temps (fréquences de 1 Hz à 100 kHz) [in French]
This article offers guidelines for fixing exposure limits applicable to time-varying low-frequency electric and magnetic fields of frequency from 1 Hz to 100 kHz for the purpose of human protection. Contents: physical dimensions and units; scientific basis for limiting exposure; guidelines for fixing exposure limits; reference levels; preventive measures; issues relating to possible long-term effects.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st quarter 2011, No.222, p.35-50. Illus. 84 ref.
PR_47-222.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0560 Adang D.
Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation: Current situation
Rayonnement électromagnétique non-ionisant: état des lieux [in French]
Recent years have witnessed a multiplication of occupational and consumer applications involving non-ionizing radiation. Various rumours concerning the possible carcinogenic effects of this type of radiation have made newspaper headlines. This article attempts to shed light on the issue and take a balanced view. Topics addressed: definition of non-ionizing radiation; hazards; European Directive; responsibilities of employers; limitation of exposure; preventive measures.
Prevent Focus, Mar. 2011, p.4-8. Illus.


CIS 11-0150 Guidelines on limits of exposure to static magnetic fields
Lignes directrices relatives aux limites d'exposition aux champs magnétiques statiques [in French]
The rapid development of industrial and medical technologies based on static magnetic fields has caused an increase in human exposures to such fields and given rise to a large number of studies regarding their health effects. As part of the "Environmental Health Criteria" series, WHO published a monograph in 2006 on static magnetic fields. This document, which reviews reported biological effects of exposures to static magnetic fields, constitutes the main source of scientific data used for drawing up the present guidelines.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2010, No.218, p.59-72. 79 ref.
PR 43-218.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0114 Alfayate Sáez E., Gálvez Cervantes J.
General safety and health recommendations when using high-field magnetic resonance (1.5 and 3 Teslas) in clinical applications
Recomendaciones preventivas generales en el uso de equipos de resonancia magnética de alto campo (1,5 y 3 Teslas) para applicaciones clínicas [in Spanish]
This article sets out the general occupational safety and health recommendations for using magnetic resonance equipment in medical or veterinary centres. Contents: recommendations aimed at eliminating or controlling possible risks related to the static magnetic field; recommendations aimed at eliminating or controlling the risk of accidents related to leaks of the cryogenic fluid.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2010, No.60, p.20-27. Illus. 12 ref.
Recomendaciones_preventivas.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 10-0334 Pimbert S.
Facts and figures 2009
Faits et chiffres 2009 [in French]
This report presents an overview of the Institute's activities during 2009 in the field of the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, grouped under the ten following headings: occupational cancers; biological agents; low back pain; chemical exposure; psychosocial risks; nanotechnologies; work equipment and machinery; electromagnetic fields; ionising radiation; teaching OSH. The details of how the Institute is organised and of how it acts (assistance, training, research, information, public and international relations) make up the remainder of the publication. The main scientific research findings in 2009 are also summarized. In 2009, 121 studies were conducted by the scientific and technical divisions of INRS. In 2009, chemical hazards, including fields such as toxicology, metrology and process engineering, represented 36% of the research activity. Also, activity on nanoparticles increased markedly, with 10% of the total hours worked.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2010. 35p. Illus.
ED_4295.pdf [in English]
ED_4294.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0400 12th Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA 12): Strengthening radiation protection worldwide - Highlights, global perspective and future trends
Highlights of the 12th congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA 12) held 19-24 October 2008 in Buenos-Aires, Argentina, on strengthening radiation protection worldwide. Main topics covered: epistemiologic basis of radiation protection; harmonization of radiation protection recommendations; future trends and recommendations for strengthening radiation protection worldwide. A CD-ROM containing the full set of keynote addresses, contributed papers, presentations and refresher courses, which are also available on the IRPA 12 website (, is included.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2010. 329p. Illus. Bibl.ref. + CD-ROM.
12th_congress_of_the_IRPA.pdf [in English]


CIS 12-0069 Schulte P.A., Chun H.
Climate change and occupational safety and health: Establishing a preliminary framework
The relationship between global climate change and occupational safety and health has not been extensively characterized. This article develops a framework for identifying how climate change could affect the workplace, workers, occupational morbidity, mortality and injury, based on a review of the published scientific literature from 1988-2008 that includes climatic effects, their interaction with occupational hazards, and their manifestation in the working population. Seven categories of climate-related hazards are identified: increased ambient temperature; air pollution; ultraviolet exposure; extreme weather; vector-borne diseases and expanded habitats; industrial transitions and emerging industries; changes in the built environment. This review indicates that while climate change may result in increasing the prevalence, distribution, and severity of known occupational hazards, there is no evidence of unique or previously unknown hazards. However, such a possibility should not be excluded, since there is potential for interactions of known hazards and new conditions, possibly leading to new hazards and risks.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, p.542-554. Illus. 136 ref.
Climate_change_and_OSH_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 09-1223 Radespiel-Tröger M., Meyer M., Pfahlberg A., Lausen B., Uter W., Gefeller O.
Outdoor work and skin cancer incidence: A registry-based study in Bavaria
The association between occupational ultraviolet (UV) light exposure and skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma, BCC; squamous cell carcinoma, SCC; cutaneous malignant melanoma, CMM) was analysed based on data from the Bavarian cancer registry for the years 2001-2005. Exposures to UV radiation were estimated based on job titles. The risk of BCC was substantially elevated in male (relative risk (RR), 2.9) and female (RR 2,7) outdoor workers compared to indoor workers. An elevated risk of similar magnitude for SCC was also found in male (RR 2.5) and female (RR 3.6) outdoor workers. However the CMM risk was not significantly associated with outdoor work.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.357-363. 53 ref.

CIS 09-1354 Mee T., Whatmough P., Broad L., Dunn C., Maslanyj M., Allen S., Muir K., McKinney P.A., van Tongeren M.
Occupational exposure of UK adults to extremely low frequency magnetic fields
The objective of this study was to assess levels of occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) in the United Kingdom and to test the use of a job-exposure matrix to assign exposures. Personal ELF MF dosimetry measurements were carried out continuously during three days in 317 subjects, who recorded their times spent in occupational, travel and various activities. Overall exposure was significantly higher at work than at home. Elevated average occupational exposure was found for welding trades, printers, telephone operators and filing and other records assistants. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.66, No.9, p.619-627. 35 ref.

CIS 09-1353 Viel J.F., Clerc S., Barrera C., Rymzhanova R., Moissonnier M., Hours M., Cardis E.
Residential exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile phone base stations, and broadcast transmitters: A population-based survey with personal meter
The main goal of this study was to characterize the distribution of residential exposure to radiofrequency fields from antennas. The 200 randomly-selected participants were supplied with a personal exposure meter for 24 h measurements and kept a time-location-activity diary. Distances between places of residence and antennae were calculated using geographical information databases. Findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.66, No.8, p.550-556. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 09-1146 Sharifian A., Gharavi M., Pasalar P., Aminian O.
Effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field on antioxidant activity in plasma and red blood cells in spot welders
The purpose of this study was to determine a possible relation between exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) and human antioxidant activity. The total serum antioxidant status (TAS), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in red blood cells were measured in 46 spot welders who were occupationally exposed to ELF-MFs. The results were compared with those of a non-exposed control group. The correlation between magnetic field strength and antioxidant activity in red blood cells and plasma was then assessed. No significant differences in TAS levels were observed. However, in red blood cells of the exposed group, there were significant decreases in SOD and GPX activities. Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between SOD/GPX activities and magnetic field intensity was observed. The results indicate that ELF-MF could influence the red blood cell antioxidant activity and might act as an oxidative stressor.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.259-266. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 09-1140 Hansson Mild K., Alanko T., Decat G., Falsaperla R., Gryz K., Hietanen M., Karpowicz J., Rossi P., Sandström M.
Exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields. A review of open questions on exposure assessment techniques
European Directive 2004/40/EC on occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), was to be implemented in the Member States of the European Union by 2008. Because of some unexpected problems the deadline was postponed until 2012. This paper reviews some of the problems identified and presents some suggestions for possible solutions for assessing occupational exposure to EMF. Among the topics discussed are movement in static magnetic fields, ways to time average extreme low frequency signals, the difference between emission and exposure standards, and ways of dealing with those issues.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2009, Vol.15, No.1, p.3-33. Illus. 56 ref.

CIS 09-682
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing health risks from the use of ultraviolet (UV) tanning equipment
This information note provides advice for operators of ultraviolet (UV) tanning facilities and their customers on minimizing the health risks of exposure to UV radiation. Health hazards include sunburn, skin irritation, conjunctivitis, premature ageing of the skin, skin cancer and cataracts. Contents: legal responsibilities; assessing the risk of using UV tanning equipment; persons at risk; operating UV tanning equipment safely. Replaces CIS 02-1906.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev. ed., Apr. 2009. 5p. 9 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1440 Reducing health risks from the use of ultraviolet (UV) tanning equipment.
This leaflet provides advice for operators of ultraviolet (UV) tanning facilities on minimizing the health risks of exposure to UV radiation. Health hazards include sunburn, skin irritation, conjunctivitis, premature ageing of the skin, skin cancer and cataracts. Legal responsibilities of operators are also summarized. Previous edition: CIS 02-1906.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. 6p. 6 ref. [in English]


CIS 09-180 Lin C.J., Feng W.Y., Chao C.J., Tseng F.Y.
Effect of VDT workstation lighting conditions on operator visual workload
This study investigated the effects of illumination on visual workload in visual display terminal (VDT) workstation tasks. Ten volunteer students performed VDT signal detection tasks under four light colors (red, blue, green and white) and two ambient illumination levels (20 lux and 340 lux). The dependent variables were the change of critical fusion frequency (CFF), visual acuity, reaction time, error rates and subjective visual comfort. Results showed that both visual acuity and subjective visual fatigue were significantly affected by the color of light. The illumination had significant effect on CFF thresholds and reaction times. Subjects prefer to perform VDT task under blue and white lights than green and red. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2008, Vol.46, No.2, p.105-111. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 08-1424 Barruyer C.
Solar radiation risks: A danger that is much underestimated in the construction sector
Risque solaire: un danger largement sous-estimé dans le BTP [in French]
Skin cancers are increasingly frequent. Certain types of outdoor construction work such as roofing, carpentry and civil engineering are particularly at risk. This article describes the three types of skin cancer, discusses the basic precautions to be taken (wearing a T-shirt, a helmet and sunglasses) and comments a study carried out on solar radiation risks in the construction sector.
Prévention BTP, July-Aug. 2008, No.109, p.48-50. Illus.


CIS 10-0705 Vecchia P., Heitanen M., Stuck B.E., van Deventer E., Niu S.
International Labour Organization (ILO), International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), eds.
Protecting workers from ultraviolet radiation
This book provides information and advice on protecting workers from ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. The adverse health effects of both acute and chronic UVR exposures are reviewed, emphasizing solar UVR exposure of the outdoor worker. Epidemiological observations and health consequences concerning exposure to UVR (180-400 nm) are also addressed. The publication is produced jointly by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the WHO.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. viii, 53p. Illus. Approx. 300 ref. Price: EUR 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
ICNIRP_14/2007.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0270 Extremely low frequency fields
This report addresses the possible health effects of exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. It reviews the physical characteristics of ELF fields as well as the sources of exposure and measurement. However, its main objectives were to review the scientific literature on the biological effects of exposure to ELF fields, to assess any health risks from exposure to these fields to make recommendations to national authorities on health protection programmes. The frequencies under consideration range from above 0Hz to 100kHz. By far the majority of studies have been conducted on power-frequency electric fields. In addition, there have been a number of studies concerning very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) fields, switched gradient magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging, and the weaker VLF fields emitted by visual display units and televisions. The main conclusions and recommendations from each section as well as the overall conclusions of the health risk assessment process are summarized. Key gaps in knowledge were also identified and the research needed to fill these gaps has been summarized in the section entitled "Recommendations for research". Summaries in French, Russian and Spanish are included.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. xxiv, 519p. Illus. Approx. 1000 ref. Price: CHF 50.00, USD 50.00; CHF 35.00 in developing countries; downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 09-181 Bruzell E.M., Johnsen B., Aalerud T.N., Christensen T.
Evaluation of eye protection filters for use with dental curing and bleaching lamps
Exposure to intense radiation sources in dental practices necessitates the use of eye protective filters to avoid blue-light photochemical retinal hazard. This study assessed whether the filters protect sufficiently against retinal hazards throughout the workday. Visible light transmittance of 18 protective filters was measured. These products consisted of spectacles, stationary lamp shields and a hand-held shield intended for use in dental practice. Nine of the 18 tested filters had adequate filtering capacity according to current lamp technology and exposure limit values. These filters transmitted less than 0.1% of the radiation of wavelengths between 400nm and 525nm. Seven of the nine filters showed transmission values below the detection limit in the wavelength band between 400nm and 500nm. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2007, Vol.4, No.6, p.432-439. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 09-196 Tseng C.C., Li C.S.
Inactivation of viruses on surfaces by ultraviolet germicidal radiation
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is considered a promising method to inactivate viruses. This study evaluated UVGI effectiveness for inactivating viruses on the surface of a gelatin-based medium in a UV exposure chamber. The effects of UV dose, viral nucleic acid type and relative humidity on the virus survival fraction were investigated. Viruses with single-stranded nucleic acid were more susceptible to UV inactivation than viruses with double-stranded nucleic acid. For the same viral reduction, the UV dose at 85% relative humidity (RH) was higher than that at 55% RH. In summary, results showed that UVGI was an effective method for inactivation of viruses on surfaces.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2007, Vol.4, No.6, p.400-405. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 09-188 Rudnick S.N., First M.W.
Fundamental factors affecting upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation - Part II. Predicting effectiveness
Compared with increasing outdoor air ventilation rate, upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is an attractive technology for lowering the indoor concentration of airborne microorganisms and thereby reducing the risk of airborne transmission of disease. With relatively modest vertical air circulation, most of the air in a room can be irradiated in a brief time period without noise or significant power consumption. The hypothesis tested in this study is that the efficacy of upper-room UVGI to inactivate or kill airborne infectious microorganisms can be determined from an index of UVGI effectiveness, a dimensionless parameter designed to characterize vertical air circulation, the amount of UVGI provided, and their interaction. This index was found to correlate well with experimental measurements made in a laboratory chamber simulating a hospital room. See also CIS 09-000, ISN 4.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2007, Vol.4, No.5, p.352-362. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 09-187 First M., Rudnick S.N., Banahan K.F., Vincent R.L., Brickner P.W.
Fundamental factors affecting upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation - Part I. Experimental
The objective of this research was to study the factors that relate to the effectiveness of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for inactivating airborne microorganisms. The work was conducted in a laboratory chamber designed and furnished to simulate a hospital room. Nebulized Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis spores and vaccinia virus were used as test aerosols. Data were collected from steady-state experiments comparing the number of viable organisms in the chamber air remaining with UV lamps turned on to the number with UV lamps turned off. UV power level had a strong influence but was fully effective only in the presence of strong air mixing. In conclusion, an ultraviolet installation is a complex system that requires careful integration of UV luminaries, UV power and room ventilation systems. See also CIS 09-000, ISN 6.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2007, Vol.4, No.5, p.321-331. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 08-443 Haguenauer D., Marchal P., Jacques M.
Validation of test methods for switchable welding filters
Validation des méthodes d'évaluation des filtres de soudage commutables [in French]
Manufacturers of welding protective equipment supply face shields with variable light transmission. At rest, they are clear but they darken as soon as the welding arc is activated, so as to ensure eye protection against the optical radiation emitted by the arc. The aim of this study was to check whether the test methods recommended by the EN 379 standard take into account the specific characteristics of this type of filter. Checks were carried out under the conditions specified by EN 379 as well as beyond, clearly showing that when the angle of incidence of the radiation reaches or exceeds 30° from the perpendicular to the screen, the efficiency of these filters drops significantly. The standard recommends taking transmission measurements up to 15°; however, a welder is likely to work at an estimated maximum angle of 30°, a value which will be proposed when the standard is revised.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2007, No.208, p.19-33. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 08-442 Mayer J.A., Slymen D.J., Clapp E.J., Pichon L.C., Eckhardt L., Eichenfield L.F., Elder J.P., Sallis J.F., Weinstock M.A., Achter A., Balderrma C., Galdino G.R., Oh S.S.
Promoting sun safety among US Postal Service letter carriers: Impact of a 2- year intervention
This study examined whether U.S. Postal Service letter carriers who were made aware of the risks from solar radiation would wear wide-brim hats and sunscreen significantly more often than those who did not receive this information. The study involved 2662 participants from 70 postal stations, divided randomly into two groups, one receiving the information (intervention group) and the other not. Evaluations were conducted at baseline, three months, one year and two years. At the three-month follow-up evaluations, the odds ratio (OR) for regular sunscreen use was 2.8 times higher among the intervention group than among the control group; at the two-year follow-up evaluations, the rate was still significantly higher (OR=2.0). Intervention group participants also had significantly higher rates of hat use, with the differences remaining consistent across all follow-ups (OR=2.9). This information should be disseminated to postal stations nationwide and possibly to other occupational groups that work outdoors.
American Journal of Public Health, Mar. 2007, Vol.97, No.3, p.559-565. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 07-1456 Hansson Mild K., Hardell L., Carlberg M.
Pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies on the use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003
The findings of a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on the association of brain tumours with mobile phone use are presented. It was found that analogue cellular phones increased the risk for acoustic neuroma by 2-9% per 100hrs of use. There was also an increased risk of grade III-IV astrocytoma with latency period with highest estimates using a time period of over ten years from first use of these phone types. The risk increased per one year of use of analogue phones by 10%, digital phones by 11%, and cordless phones by 8%. For all three phone types studied, the odds ratios of brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant tumours, increased with the latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2007, Vol.13, No.1, p.63-71. 11 ref.


CIS 09-678 Reidenbach H.D., Hofmann J., Dolllinger K., Ott G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Human aversion response against visible laser radiation
Abwendungsreaktionen des Menschen gegenüber sichtbarer Laserstrahlung [in German]
The classification of the safety of lasers according to classes 2, 2M and 3A is mainly based on the aversion responses including the blink reflex. However, this study carried out on 1200 volunteers shows that the blink reflex occurs in a maximum of 20% of all cases if an irradiation is performed under class-2 conditions. Further active protection reactions in form of head movements and eye closure occur in less than 10% of subjects. A second trial with 200 volunteers who received prior training showed that active protection reactions could protect up to 80% of the exposed volunteers against laser radiation within a period of two seconds. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 217p. Illus. Approx. 150 ref. Index. Price: EUR 23.00.

CIS 08-1115 Çakir A., Çakir G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Influence of optical surface properties of IT products on users
Einfluss von optischen Oberflächeneigenschaften von IT-Produkten auf Benutzer [in German]
The surface optical properties of computer peripherals such as screens and keyboards give rise to vision disturbances among users caused by gloss and brilliance; for this reason, regulations concerning the lighting of workplaces involving work on screens and computer equipment include specific provisions on gloss values and reflectances of surfaces visible to users. Based on a literature survey, this report presents the current state of knowledge on the effects of optical properties of the surfaces computer equipment on users. According to some studies, the complex relationship between gloss and reflectance can be quantified. Recommendations concerning certain aspects to be included in future regulations are proposed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 279p. Illus. 126 ref. Price: EUR 25.00.

CIS 07-919 Karpowicz J., Hietanen M., Gryz K.
EU Directive, ICNIRP guidelines and Polish legislation on electromagnetic fields
This review article describes the general provisions of and the philosophy behind European Directive 2004/40/EC (CIS 03-1039) and ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) guidelines. As an example of national legislation on the protection of workers against excessive electromagnetic field exposure, regulations established in Poland are summarized. The problems of the practical implementation of the EU Directive's provisions are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.125-136. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 07-197 Morales-Suárez-Varela M.M., et al.
Occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides: A European multicenter case-control study
This European multi-centre case-control study conducted between 1995 and 1997 sought to evaluate the association between occupational exposure to sunlight and mycosis fungoides (MF), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. From the 118 accepted cases, 104 were interviewed, of which 76 were confirmed cases. Population controls were selected randomly from the regions of case ascertainment. Information based on occupational history was coded according to industry types. A job exposure matrix was created according to the expected exposure to sunlight. Once exposures to aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons were eliminated, a high MF risk was associated with exposures to solar radiation.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.48, No.4, p.390-393. 25 ref.


CIS 06-945 Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Jahangir-Blourchian M.
Ultraviolet radiation exposure from UV-transilluminators
UV-transilluminators use ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to visualize proteins, DNA, RNA, and their precursors in a gel electrophoresis procedure. This study was initiated to evaluate exposures to UVR among university faculty members, research staff and students of a higher education institution using UV-transilluminators. Findings suggest that the use of UV-transilluminators exposes operators to levels of UVR in excess of exposure guidelines. It is recommended that special safety training be provided for the affected employees and that exposure should be controlled by one or the combination of automation, substitution, isolation, posted warning signs, shielding and personal protective equipment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2005, Vol.2, No.10, p.493-496. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 06-973 Boivin D.V., James F.O.
Light treatment and circadian adaptation to shift work
Work at unconventional times can have both long and short-term consequences for workers. Shift workers are often required to perform their duties at times that are not favoured by the body's endogenous clock. Night shift workers often report reductions in alertness and performance at work or difficulty in attaining recuperative sleep during the day. This article explains how shift work can affect the body's circadian rhythm and discusses how bright light technology may be used to manage shift work problems.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.34-48. Illus. 168 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-656 Gérardin F., Hecht G., Hubert-Pelle G., Subra I.
UV process: Chloroform and nitrogen trichloride level monitoring in indoor swimming pool waters
Traitement UV: suivi de l'évolution des concentrations en chloroforme et en trichlorure d'azote dans les eaux de baignade d'un centre aquatique [in French]
Faced with high levels of supervisory staff exposure to nitrogen trichloride and high levels of combined chlorine in pool water, indoor swimming pool operators increasingly adopt additional water treatment systems based on UV irradiation. This technology results in the formation of undesired by-products such as chloroform (an IARC class 2B carcinogen). For eight weeks, INRS monitored chloroform and nitrogen trichloride concentrations in water from two pools equipped with low and medium pressure lamps respectively. This study revealed the significant contribution of UV irradiation to chloroform formation and to the possible increase of dissolved nitrogen trichloride.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2005, No.201, p.19-30. Illus. 31 ref.$FILE/nd2237.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-419 First M.W., Weker R.A., Yasui S., Nardell E.A.
Monitoring human exposures to upper-room germicidal ultraviolet irradiation
The purpose of upper room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation is to interrupt the transmission of airborne infections by flooding the entire volume of premises above 2m with high-intensity ultraviolet radiation, while minimizing unintentional irradiance below this level to avoid eye and skin irritation. Air exchanges between the upper and lower room result in air disinfection of the occupied space. The objective of this study was to confirm that eye and skin exposures remain well below the recommended safe dose. Subjects wore a small photometer that recorded total ultraviolet dose during their normal routine. This value was compared with a hypothetical dose calculated from the highest measured eye-level irradiance. It was found that the observed doses were between one-third and one hundredth of the maximum eye-level irradiances.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2005, Vol.2, No.5, p.285-292. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 06-465 Nazzal A.A.
A new evaluation method for daylight discomfort glare
This article presents an improved method for the evaluation of glare consisting of a standard monitoring protocol and advanced formulae. The proposed method appears to yield sensible and consistent glare values when tested against an existing glare evaluation system. It has also been coded into a small programme to calculate luminescence values and used together with radiance to compute daylight glare indices. The method may be used for evaluating discomfort glare from daylight. Future developments of the method are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Apr. 2005, Vol.35, No.4, p.295-306. Illus. 19 ref.


CIS 10-0704 Occupational radiation protection in the mining and processing of raw materials
This guide updates previous guidance and extends its coverage to include activities involving all raw materials for which radiation protection measures need to be considered, as well as additional guidance on authorization of mining and processing activities, inspection and compliance. Its main purpose is to provide practical guidance on meeting the requirements of the basic safety standards as they relate to the radiation protection of workers in the mining and processing of raw materials, and thus to facilitate the preparation and adoption, by Member States, of national and local regulations rules and work procedures in this area of industrial activity. It is aimed at regulatory bodies, operators of mines and mineral processing facilities, safety and health committees, workers and their representatives, and safety and health professionals.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2004. 95p. 26 ref. Price: EUR 21.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
IAEA_Safety_Standards_Series_Safety_Guide_No. RS-G-1.6.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-1281
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Ionizing radiation - Non-ionizing radiation
Revista do trabalhador: Radiações ionizantes - Radiações não ionizantes [in Portuguese]
These two videotapes warn of the health hazards of exposure to ionizing radiation, especially among operators of x-ray diagnostic equipment, and to non-ionizing radiation, including ultraviolet, infrared, microwave and radiofrequency radiation.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Two videotapes (VHS format), 10min and 11min.

CIS 05-427 Marszałek A., Smolander J., Sołtyński K.
Age-related thermal strain in men while wearing radiation protective clothing during short-term exercise in the heat
The aim of this study was to compare heat strain among different age groups of men wearing protective clothing during short-term physical work. Eight young (20-29 years), six middle-aged (41-55 years) and eight older (58-65 years) men exercised for 30 min on a cycle ergometer in two hot environments with a similar WBGT, once with minimal clothing without infrared radiation (E1), and once while wearing aluminized protective clothing under infrared radiation (E2). All subjects had sedentary jobs, but only the older subjects were physically active in their leisure-time. Body temperatures, heart rate, sweat rate and subjective feelings were determined during the tests. Higher thermal strain was observed in E2 than in E1. No age-related differences in thermal strain were observed in either experiment indicating that active older men can tolerate short work periods with protective clothing in the heat as well as younger sedentary men.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.361-367. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 04-693 Crépy M.N.
Photosensitization, skin cancers and occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation
Photosensibilisation, cancers cutanés et exposition professionnelle aux ultraviolets [in French]
Contents of this review article on photosensitization and skin cancers due to occupational exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation: UV radiation and occupational exposure; physiopathology and photochemical reactions; role of UV radiation in skin cancers; epidemiology; diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialised institutions; prognosis; prevention and treatment; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2004, No.97, p.109-119. Illus. 67 ref.[Form]=IntranetObject:Document)+AND+([c_totRef]=69)+AND+([date]=2004)&SearchOrder=4&SearchWV=TRUE&SearchFuzzy=FALSE&Start=1&Count=250&doc_form=recherche_dmt&SearchEnt [in French]

CIS 04-198 Salsi S., Lovat G., Musset O., Boquillon J.P., Oltra R.
Assessment and prevention of ocular risks during the cleaning of buildings using lasers
Evaluation et prévention des risques optiques induits par le nettoyage laser des bâtiments [in French]
Cleaning of buildings using lasers is a technique used since the early 1990s replacing conventional processes, which have often used products that were either excessively abrasive for building materials or were dangerous to the operator and/or the environment. Laser cleaning allows the total or selective elimination of black weathering crusts from stone surfaces without causing any harmful effects. Laser radiation can be partially or even totally reflected by the material being cleaned, and this reflection can cause irreversible eye injury. Wearing protective spectacles is therefore essential. However, absorption saturation effects have been observed in some safety spectacles, making them temporarily transparent to laser radiation and unreliable at high energy levels. Various safety spectacles were tested and found not to comply with the claims of manufacturers with respect to spectral transmission and optical densities. Extreme care should be taken when selecting safety spectacles for use by cleaning operators who use lasers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2004, No.196, p.7-19. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 04-97 Forssén U.M., Mezei G., Nise G., Feychting M.
Occupational magnetic field exposure among women in Stockholm County, Sweden
Most epidemiological studies on occupational magnetic field exposure have been based on men. The objective of this study was to create a job-exposure matrix for occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields among women. Measurements were performed using personal magnetic field meters carried by the subjects for 24 hours on a normal workday. Subjects were volunteer Stockholm County women working in the occupations identified as common among women based on census data. 471 measurements were made in 49 different occupations. Parameters representing average and peak magnetic field exposures, temporal change in the exposure, and proportion of time spent above certain exposure levels were calculated both for the workday and for the total 24-hour period grouped by occupational titles. The occupations with higher than average exposure included cashiers, owner-operators of retail trade outlets, air stewardesses, dental nurses, cooks and post-office clerks.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2004, Vol.61, No.7, p.594-602. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 03-1709 Beaucousin M., Borel P., Goudifa P., Goujon E., Hubert O., Klarsy D., Mageau E., Mignot G., Redor F.
Mobile phone antennae maintenance and repair technicians
Le technicien d'exploitation d'antenne de radiotéléphonie mobile [in French]
Contents of this occupational medicine data sheet on the job of mobile phone antenna maintenance and repair technicians: general characteristics of the job; technical and organizational characteristics; constraints and working conditions (related to the working environment, climatic and geographic conditions, work organization, tasks and equipment); hazard evaluation methods (metrology); health hazards and occupational diseases; prevention; medical supervision; regulations; work aptitude.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.1, 2p. Insert. 4 ref.


CIS 06-1486 García Leyte G., Martín Borrego J.Á., Ruíz Díez J.L., Ramos Learra A., Barbero Marcos J.A., Rubio Gómez J.
Lighting and occupational safety
Iluminación y seguridad laboral [in Spanish]
Lighting of premises is an important occupational safety factor. Based on the experiences of two large enterprises, this handbook discusses various aspects of the relationship between lighting, hazards and safety, as well as visual comfort and the quality of working conditions. Contents: light and its properties; the visual system; physical constants and basic principles; regulation and control of lamps and equipment; characteristics of different types of lights; safety of electrical installations in premises with explosion hazards; basic aspects of design (quality criteria, lighting criteria, emergency and safety lighting, measurement of lighting and luminescence, maintenance criteria, systems of operation, energy efficiency index).
Editorial Mapfre S.A., Paseo de Recoletos 25, 28004 Madrid, Spain, 2003. xxvii, 648p. Illus. 132 ref. Price: EUR 55.00.

CIS 04-197 Guidelines on limits of exposure to static magnetic fields
Guide pour l'établissement de limites d'exposition aux champs magnétiques statiques [in French]
The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), in cooperation with the Environmental Health Division of the World Health Organization (WHO), developed a health criteria document on magnetic fields within the Environmental Health Criteria Programme (UNEP/WHO/IRPA 1987). It presents a review of biological effects reported from exposure to static magnetic fields. These guidelines apply to occupational and general public exposure to static magnetic fields. The guidelines do not apply to deliberate exposure of patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treatment. Contents: general aspects; scope; quantities and units; sources and levels; rationale for exposure limits; exposure limits; measuring methods.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2003, No.190, p.5-11. 43 ref.$FILE/nd2184.pdf [in French]

CIS 03-1866 Wolska A.
New criteria for limits of exposure to non-laser optical radiation
Nowe kryteria oceny zagrożenia nielaserowym promieniowaniem optycznym [in Polish]
The new Polish regulations related to maximum permissible doses of factors harmful to the health in the working environment came into force on 19 June 2003. They require employers to evaluate radiation hazards in workplaces according to new criteria. This article presents these criteria and their differences from earlier ones, and clarifies some aspects of the new criteria which may be subject to a wrong interpretation.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Mar. 2003, No.3, p.21-24. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 03-1360 Karpowicz J., Gryz K.
Electromagnetic hazards in European countries - Mobile phone base stations
Zagrożenia elektromagnetyczne w państwach europejskich. Stacje bazowe telefonii komórkowej [in Polish]
Mobile phone base stations are sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. There is currently a lot of interest in studies on exposures of persons and the environment to such radiation. This article presents the current situation concerning legal requirements in European countries with respect to assessment criteria and measurement methods for radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile telephony base stations and concludes that there are currently no uniform standards or laws, each country adopting its own solutions.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Apr. 2003, No.4 (381), p.17-19. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 03-1861 Schierz C., Krueger H.
Advantages and disadvantages of intensive lighting for office work
Vor- und Nachteile intensiver Beleuchtung am Büroarbeitsplatz [in German]
It has been shown that lighting has an effect on the human body. During office work, lighting can have both positive and negative effects. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of intensive lighting with respect to visual performance, stimulation and workers' well-being. An increase in lighting intensity is advisable for certain complex visual tasks as well as for older workers. However, workplace problems often have several causes; consequently, lighting optimization should not preclude employers from carrying out a full ergonomic analysis of the workstation.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2002, Special issue, p.269-274. Illus.

CIS 03-871 Woolley T., Buettner P.G., Lowe J.
Sun-related behaviors of outdoor working men with a history of non-melanoma skin cancer
The present study describes sun exposure and sun protection behaviour of Northern Australian outdoor workers with previous non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). In 1999, a cross-sectional study of northern Australian men with previous NMSC was conducted by self-administered questionnaire. Compared to other men, outdoor workers spent more time in the sun on average working days and days off. Outdoor workers with sun-sensitive skin reported that more skin lesions had been removed. The workplace did not reinforce sun-safe practices of 36.8% of workers who spent half their time or more outdoors. Sun protective behaviour was not different between in- and outdoor workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.44, No.9, p.847-854. 52 ref.

CIS 03-928 Johnson D.L., Phillips M.L.
UV disinfection of soluble oil metalworking fluids
The efficiency of a new high-intensity ultraviolet (UV) lamp for the disinfection of metalworking fluids (MWF) was investigated under laboratory conditions. Three dilutions of MWFs and water controls in a circulating system were injected with suspensions of Pseudomonas fluorescens to an initial concentration of about 107 colony forming units (CFU) per milliliter and irradiated with a submerged UV lamp. Aliquots of the circulating fluid were withdrawn before irradiation and at 10min intervals. The samples were counted after 18-24h incubation. The concentration of CFU decreased by at least two logarithmic scales (>99% reduction in culturability) in all three dilutions of MWFs within 60min. The CFU concentration was stable over time in unirradiated samples. These results demonstrate that disinfection of MWFs by UV irradiation is feasible.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2002, Vol.63, No.2, p.178-183. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 03-947 Horowitz T.S., Tanigawa T.
Circadian-based new technologies for night workers
Night work is becoming increasingly common. Unfortunately, humans are physiologically unsuited to inverted schedules, leading to negative consequences for shift workers, employers and society. The circadian and homeostatic processes which govern sleepiness and alertness are improperly aligned for night workers. This article reviews a number of laboratory studies designed to treat maladaptation to night work by shifting the circadian clock with light, exercise or melatonin. There is substantial evidence that bright light treatments can successfully overcome the circadian misalignments associated with night work. The evidence for the efficiency of other synchronizers such as exercise and exogenous melatonin is equivocal. Nevertheless, the highlighting of scientific understanding of the nature of the problem has generated a promising range of options for shift workers.
Industrial Health, July 2002, Vol.40, No.3, p.223-236. Illus. 104 ref.

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