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Hours of work - 251 entries found

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CIS 12-0200 Nakata A., Takahashi M., Irie M.
Association of overtime work with cellular immune markers among healthy daytime white-collar employees
This study investigated the association between overtime work and cellular immunity among Japanese white-collar workers. A total of 306 healthy, full-time, non-shift, daytime employees (165 men and 141 women) provided a blood sample for the measurement of circulating immune (natural killer - NK, B, and T) cells and NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) and completed a questionnaire on their hours of overtime work. Data were subjected to stepwise linear regression analyses controlling for confounders. Overtime work was mainly related to short sleep duration, increased weight and reduced job satisfaction; it was more prevalent among men than women and among younger and married employees. The amount of overtime was inversely associated with NK cell counts but was not associated with NKCC, NKCC/NK cell ratio, T or B cells. A decrease of NK cell counts from overtime work suggests a dampened innate immune defense.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Jan. 2012, Vol.38, No.1, p.56-64. Illus. 47 ref.
Association_of_overtime_work_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]


CIS 12-0331 Tucker P., Folkard S., Ansiau D., Marquié J.C.
The effects of age and shiftwork on perceived sleep problems - Results of the VISAT combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study
With workforces in industrialized countries getting older, the study examined how shiftwork affects sleep in later life. Longitudinal data were collected in 1996, 2001, and 2006 from a large sample of employees who were 32, 42, 52, and 62 years old in 1996. Effects of shiftwork were most apparent in middle-aged participants, becoming less apparent in later years when people tended to leave shiftwork. Nevertheless, a group of younger former shift workers reported more sleep problems than those who had never worked shifts. Giving up shiftwork offset a trend for sleep problems to accumulate over time, with the net result of no change in sleep problems after cessation of shiftwork.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.53, No.7, p.794-798. Illus. 17 ref.
The_effects_of_age_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0164 Kubo T., Takahashi M., Sato T., Sasaki T., Oka T., Iwasaki K.
Weekend sleep intervention for workers with habitually short sleep periods
This study was conducted to determine whether extended sleep time during the weekend improves alertness and performance during the subsequent week for workers who are habitually short on sleep time. Daytime employees in the manufacturing industry with mean weekday sleep ¿6 hours participated in a study that lasted three successive weeks. Participants were instructed to stay in bed for eight hours or more between 22:00 to 09:00 hours on weekends during the first week as a sleep intervention condition and keep their habitual sleep-wake patterns as a habitual weekend sleep condition beginning the weekend of the second week through Thursday of the third week. Half the participants underwent the conditions in one order and the other half in the reverse. Sleep was monitored by an actigraph. A psychomotor vigilance task, subjective fatigue and blood pressure were measured on Monday and Thursday during the afternoon each week. Sleep duration on weekends was approximately two hours longer per day during the intervention. However, sleep duration during weekdays following the intervention returned to shorter periods. Significantly shorter reaction times and a smaller number of lapses on the psychomotor vigilance task were found on Mondays after the intervention than after the habitual weekend sleep. The opposite results, however, were observed on Thursdays. Sleep extension on weekends may be effective in improving alertness and performance during the first days in subsequent weeks among workers with short sleep times. These benefits might be maintained if sufficient sleep duration continues.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.37, No.5, p.418-426. Illus. 35 ref.
Weekend_sleep_intervention_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0330 Driesen K., Jansen N.W., van Amelsvoort L.G., Kant I.
The mutual relationship between shift work and depressive complaints - A prospective cohort study
The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the mutual relationship between shift work and depressive complaints. Data from the ongoing Maastricht cohort study (1998-2008) were used. Firstly, the impact of shift work on the development of depressive complaints was studied. Secondly, the impact of depressed mood on changes in shift work at one-year follow-up was studied. Analyses were stratified for gender and age. Overall, the impact of shift work on the development of depressed mood over a ten-year period was small. Retrospective analyses found higher odds of depressed mood and depressive disorder among former or current male shift workers than among those never having done shift work. Results lacked significance when correcting for demographic and work-related factors. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.37, No.5, p.402-410. 47 ref.
The_mutual_relationship_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 11-0734 Ferguson S.A., Paech G.M., Dorrian J., Roach G.D., Jay S.M.
Performance on a simple response time task: Is sleep or work more important for miners?
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of work- and sleep-related factors on an objective measure of response time in a field setting. Thirty-five mining operators working 12h shifts completed daily sleep and work diaries, wore activity monitors continuously and completed palm-based psychomotor vigilance tests at the start and end of each shift. Linear mixed models were used to test the main effects on response time of roster, timing of test, sleep history and prior wake. The time at which the test occurred was a significant predictor of response time, with the end of night shifts being associated with significantly slower response times than the start of night shifts, and the start or end of day shifts. Further, the amount of sleep obtained in the 24h prior to the test was also a significant predictor of response time. The results suggest that the end of night shift is associated with changes in response time indicative of performance impairments. The immediate sleep history was also predictive of changes in response time, with lower amounts of prior sleep related to slower response times. The current data provides further evidence that sleep is a primary mediator of performance, independent of roster pattern.
Applied Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.42, p.210-213. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 11-0733 Dorrian J., Baulk S.D., Dawson D.
Work hours, workload, sleep and fatigue in Australian rail industry employees
This study investigated fatigue in a cross-sectional sample of Australian rail employees. Participants included 85 men and five women from four companies. Data were analysed for a total of 713 shifts. Subjects wore wrist actigraphs, evaluated their subjective fatigue scale, and completed sleep and work diaries for 14-days. Average sleep length, prior wake at shift end, shift duration and fatigue were within limits generally considered acceptable from a fatigue perspective. However, 13% of participants received 5h or less sleep in the prior 24 h, 16%, were awake for at least 16h at the end of shift and 7% worked at least 10h on 7% of shifts. While on average, sleep loss, extended wakefulness, longer work hours and work-related fatigue do not appear problematic in this sample, there is still a notable percentage of shifts that are likely to be associated with high levels of work-related fatigue. Given the size of the Australian rail sector with thousands of shifts occurring each day, this is potentially of operational concern. Further, results indicate that, in addition to sleep length, wakefulness and work hours, workload significantly influences fatigue. This has possible implications for bio-mathematical predictions of fatigue and for fatigue management more generally.
Applied Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.42, p.202-209. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 11-0727 Williamson A., Friswell R.
Investigating the relative effects of sleep deprivation and time of day on fatigue and performance
The objective of this study was to examine the relative effects of time of day and sleep deprivation on fatigue and performance. Two independent groups were exposed to 28 h of sleep deprivation beginning at 06:00 h for one group (39 participants) and at 00:00 h for the other (22 participants). By varying the start time for the two groups, but keeping constant the duration of sleep deprivation, the effects of variations in the time of day of testing were examined. For the 06:00 h start group, the longest period without sleep occurred close to the low point of the circadian rhythm. For the 00:00 h start group, the circadian low point coincided with only two to six hours of sleep deprivation. Performance was evaluated two-hourly using computer-based cognitive performance and memory tests, together with subjective fatigue ratings. Both time of day and sleep deprivation affected performance. The implications of these findings for fatigue management are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2011, Vol.43, No.3, p.690-697. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 11-0725 Natvik S., Bjorvatn B., Moen B.E., Magerøy N., Sivertsen B., Pallesen S.
Personality factors related to shift work tolerance in two- and three-shift workers
This study aimed to investigate whether personality variables were associated with shift work tolerance, and whether these potential associations were moderated by various types of shift work. The sample comprised 1505 nurses who worked either two or three rotating shifts. Personality traits were measured in terms of morningness, flexibility, languidity and hardiness. Morningness reflects the tendency to be alert relatively early in the morning and sleepy relatively early in the evening. Flexibility denotes the ability to both work and sleep at odd times of the day, while languidity concerns the tendency to become tired/sleepy when cutting down on sleep. Hardiness relates to resilience to stressful life events. The dependent variables in this study comprised of measures of insomnia, sleepiness, depression and anxiety. Hierarchical regression analyses, which controlled for demographic variables and work load, revealed that morningness was significantly and negatively related to insomnia. The morningness by shift type interaction was overall significant for depressive symptoms. Morningness was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in three-shift workers, but unrelated to depressive symptoms in two-shift workers. Flexibility was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Flexibility by shift type interaction was significant for insomnia, indicating that flexibility was negatively associated with insomnia for three-shift workers and unrelated with insomnia for two-shift workers. Languidity was associated with higher levels of sleepiness, depressive and anxiety symptoms. Hardiness was associated with lower levels of all four dependent variables.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2011, Vol.42, No.5, p.719-724. 53 ref.

CIS 11-0584 Åkerstedt T., Kecklund G.
Shift work, severe sleepiness and safety
This editorial reviews the issue of sleepiness caused by shift work, leading to increased risk of accidents, with references to several scientific studies.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.141-142. 16 ref.

CIS 11-0491 Brasseur G., Bondéelle A., Clergiot J.
Unusual work schedules - Work that's out of time
Horaires atypiques - Contretemps de travail [in French]
Close to two workers in three work with unusual schedules, differentiated from the implicit social norm according to which a working day stretches from morning to early evening, according to schedules fixed in advance, with a two-day rest during the weekend. This collection of articles presents various usual work schedule situations (shift work, night work, air and road transport), describes some of the harmful effects (sleep disturbances, breast cancer) and discusses the available safety and health measures for against these effects (work rests, work-time organization and regulatory measures).
Travail et sécurité, May 2011, No.717, p.22-37. Illus.
Horaires_atypiques.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0336 Wang X.S., Armstrong M.E., Cairns B.J., Key T.J., Travis R.C.
Shift work and chronic disease: The epidemiological evidence
Shift work, including night work, has been hypothesized to increase the risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Recent reviews of evidence relating to these hypotheses have focussed on specific diseases or potential mechanisms, but no general summary of the current data on shift work and chronic disease has been published. Systematic and critical reviews and recent original studies were retrieved. The main conclusions are presented in text and tables. Published evidence is suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse association between night work and breast cancer but limited and inconsistent for cancers at other sites and all cancers combined. Findings on shift work, in relation to risks of CVD, metabolic syndrome and diabetes are also suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse relationship.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.78-89. 77 ref.
Shift_work.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0200 Li Y., Sato Y., Yamaguchi N.
Shift work and the risk of metabolic syndrome - A nested case-control study
The objective of this study was to examine the association between shift work and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) using a large-scale longitudinal study design. Data were collected from a historical cohort of health checkups in the Japanese population. The baseline survey, which involved 16,952 inhabitants of the Minami Saku area of the Nagano Prefecture, was started in 1978. A nested case-control study was conducted between 1987 and 1990. This analysis was restricted to 6,712 men and women (age range 25-59 years). A conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the risk of MetS associated with shift work. Compared with the day workers, shift workers had a significantly higher risk of MetS (odds ratio 1.87). It is suggested that the risk of MetS among shift workers be managed by educating this population to adopt suitable dietary habits.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol.17, p.154-160. 35 ref.


CIS 11-0731 Szosland D.
Shift work and metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and ischaemic heart disease
Shift work is associated with several health problems, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This literature survey concludes that these diseases are possibly due to an impairment of biological rhythm. The metabolic syndrome is a complex of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated among shift workers. Rotating shift work has an impact on each component of metabolic syndrome. Shift work might also have an impact on metabolic variables, and be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Only a few studies reported prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes mellitus in relation to shift work. There is rather strong evidence in favour of association between shift work and coronary heart disease and that has been repeatedly demonstrated over 20 years of research. Recent data increasingly reveal relations between shift work and plasma resistin, ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.287-291. 37 ref.
Shift_work_and_metabolic_syndrome.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0652 Waage S., Odeen M., Bjorvatn B., Eriksen H.R., Ursin H., Hollund B.E., Moen B.E.
Still healthy after extended work hours? Ten hours shift, twenty-one days working period for tunnel workers
The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported health effects of extended work hours (10 h on, 14 h off, 21 days' work, 21 days off) for 40 male tunnel workers in an Arctic area. Questionnaires on demographics and subjective health complaints (SHC), including musculoskeletal, pseudoneurological, gastrointestinal, allergic and flu-like complaints the last thirty days were distributed on day 14 of a work period. The questionnaires also included items on coping, psychological job demands, control, and social support. The questionnaire was repeated three times during a nine-month observation period. Twenty-six workers completed all three questionnaires. The prevalence of subjective health complaints did not change during the observation period. The prevalence of subjective health complaints was the same or lower than in a control group consisting of a cross-section of the Norwegian working population assessed in an earlier study. There was a slight increase in self-reported job demands during the observation period. Coping, job control and social support from colleagues and management were reported high and did not change. No associations between this type of long work hours and changes in self-reported health were found.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.804-810. 26 ref.
Still_healthy.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0714 Jansen P.W., Tiemeier H., Verhulst F.C., Burdorf A., Jaddoe V.W.V., Hofman A., Moll H.A., Verburg B.O., Steegers E.A., Mackenbach J.P., Raat H.
Employment status and the risk of pregnancy complications: The Generation R Study
This study explored the relationships of employment status, type of unemployment and weekly working hours with a wide range of pregnancy outcomes. Information on employment characteristics and pregnancy outcomes was available for 6111 pregnant women enrolled in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. After adjustment for confounders, there were no statistically significant differences in risks of pregnancy complications between employed and unemployed women. Overall, there were no indications that paid employment during pregnancy affects the health of the mother and child. However, among unemployed and employed women, women receiving disability benefit, students and women with long working hours during pregnancy were at risk for some adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2010, Vol.67, No.6, p.387-394. 33 ref.

CIS 11-0507 Pietroiusti A., Neri A., Somma G., Coppeta L., Iavicoli I., Bergamaschi A., Magrini A.
Incidence of metabolic syndrome among night-shift healthcare workers
Night-shift work is associated with ischaemic cardiovascular disorders. It is not currently known whether it may be causally linked to metabolic syndrome (MS), a risk condition for ischaemic cardiovascular disorders. The syndrome presents with visceral obesity associated with mild alterations in glucidic and lipidic homeostasis and in blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess whether a causal relationship exists between night-shift work and the development of MS. Male and female nurses performing night shifts, free from any component of MS at baseline, were evaluated annually for the development of the disorder during a four-year follow-up. Male and female nurses performing daytime work only, visited during the same time period, represented the control group. The cumulative incidence of MS was 9.0% (36/402) among night-shift workers, and 1.8% (6/336) among daytime workers (relative risk (RR) 5.0). The annual rate of incidence of MS was 2.9% in night-shift workers and 0.5% in daytime workers. Kaplan-Meier survival curves of the two groups were significantly different. Multiple Cox regression analyses showed that among selected variables (age, gender, smoking, alcohol intake, familiar history, physical activity and work schedule) the only predictors of occurrence of MS were sedentariness (hazard ratio (HR) 2.92) and night-shift work (HR 5.10).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2010, vol.67, No.1, p.54-57. Illus. 29 ref.
Incidence.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0583 Szosland D.
Shift work and metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and ischaemic heart disease
This review article on health problems associated with shift work concludes that metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases are possibly due to an impairment of biological rhythm. The metabolic syndrome is a complex of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated among shift workers. Rotating shift work has an impact on each component of metabolic syndrome. Shift work might also have an impact on metabolic variables, and be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Only a few studies report prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes mellitus in relation to shift work. There is strong evidence of an association between shift work and coronary heart disease. Recent data increasingly reveal relations between shift work and plasma resistin, ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.287-291. 37 ref.
Shift_work_and_metabolic_syndrome.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0437 Härmä M., Kecklund G., eds.
Shift work and health - How to proceed?
In Europe, only a quarter of the workforce is engaged in regular day work. The rest of employees and over 90% of the self-employed have irregular or flexible working hours. This editorial introduces a special issue of the journal focusing on shift work and health, in particular cardiovascular disease, cancer, eating habits and gastrointestinal cancers. Other topics include countermeasures to the negative effects of shift work and night work, and ergonomic shift scheduling to reduce sleep disturbances.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.81-84. 26 ref.
Shift_work.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0156 Porthé V., Ahonen E., Vázquez M.L., Pope C., Agudelo A.A., García A.M., Amable M., Benavides F.G., Benach J.
Extending a model of precarious employment: A qualitative study of immigrant workers in Spain
This study examines the working conditions of 129 immigrant workers in Spain with documented and undocumented administrative status. Immigrant workers reported that precarious employment is characterized by high job instability, a lack of power for negotiating employment conditions, and defenselessness against high labor demands. They described insufficient wages, long working hours, limited social benefits, and difficulty in exercising their rights. Undocumented workers reported greater defenselessness and worse employment conditions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.417-424. 38 ref.

CIS 11-0146 Bushnell P.T., Colombi A., Caruso C.C., Tak S.
Work schedules and health behavior outcomes at a large manufacturer
Health Risk Assessment (HRA) survey responses were collected during 2000-2008 in a multinational chemical and coatings manufacturer. Responses of 26,442 employees were sufficiently complete for analysis. Rates of smoking, lack of exercise, moderate to high alcohol use, obesity and short sleep duration were compared by work schedule type (day, night, or rotating shift) and daily work hours (8, 10, or 12 h). Prevalence rate ratios (RRs) were calculated, adjusting for age group, sex, marital status, job tenure, and occupational group. The reference group was 8-h day shift employees. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2010, Vol.48, No.4, p.395-405. 50 ref.
Work_schedules.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0068 Hakola T., Paukkonen M., Pohjonen T.
Less quick returns - Greater well-being
The aim of this study was to design ergonomically-improved shift schedules for nurses in primary health care shift work in order to enhance their health and well-being. The main change made was the reduction of quick returns (morning shifts immediately after an evening shift) in order to ensure more recovery time between work shifts. Six Finnish municipal hospital units and 75 nurses participated in the intervention. The aim was to maintain or improve the well-being and work ability of aged workers. Subjects were divided into three age groups: 20-40, 41-52 and 53-62 years. The introduction of more recovery time between evening and morning shifts significantly improved the subjects' sleep and alertness, well-being at work, perceived health and leisure-time activities independently of their age. The effect on social and family life was also positive. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2010, Vol.48, No.4, p.390-394. 10 ref.

CIS 11-0067 Paterson J.L., Dorrian J., Pincombe J., Grech C., Dawson D.
Mood change and perception of workload in Australian midwives
Twenty midwives in an Australian metropolitan hospital completed logbooks assessing daily fluctuations in subjective mood and workload. Participants also provided information about history of psychopathology and sleep quality. Workload factors significantly predicted mood at work. Specifically, when participants felt that their work was more demanding and frustrating and required more effort, or when they felt that they could not accomplish all that was expected, mood was negatively influenced. This supports the connection between workload and negative mood change in healthcare. Given the potential for mood to influence a multitude of functions relevant to safety, performance and psychosocial wellbeing it is important to understand the factors which influence mood, particularly in light of the current shortfall in the Australian healthcare workforce.
Industrial Health, July 2010, Vol.48, No.4, p.381-389. Illus. 39 ref.
Mood_change.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0731 Phan Chan The E.
Night risks among employees travelling abroad in the course of their work
Risques nocturnes chez le voyageur professionnel à l'étranger [in French]
This article addresses the hazards related to travelling abroad for professional reasons and more particularly to hazards at night, such as insect attacks, risky sexual relations or aggression. Contents: à priori evaluation of occupational hazards; advice to business travellers; causes of death among French citizens when travelling abroad; main diseases when returning from a tropical region; night hazards abroad among business travellers.
Préventique-Sécurité, July.-Aug. 2010, No. 112, p. 85-90. Illus.

CIS 10-0730 Phan Chan The E.
Night work, sleep disturbances and health
Travail de nuit, troubles du sommeil et santé [in French]
This article discusses the issue of sleep and health disturbances related to night work, aimed at occupational health professionals. It presents the causes, effects and principles governing the compensation of diseases due to sleep disturbances. Contents: occupational risk factors (mental workload, conditions of work such as noise, heat and strenuousness); diagnostic tools; recognition of insomnia as an occupational disease; effects of night work and examples of recognition of the occupational nature of sleep disturbances.
Préventique-Sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 2010, No. 113, p. 88-92. Illus.

CIS 10-0439 Boivin D.B., Tremblay G.M., Boudreau P.
Rotating shifts for police officers: Study on complementary preventive approaches for fatigue reduction
Les horaires rotatifs chez les policiers - Etude des approches préventives complémentaires de réduction de la fatigue [in French]
Rotating schedules put greater stress on the body than night work because they force the biological clock to constantly readapt to a new activity and sleep schedule. An earlier study showed that an intervention combining intermittent exposure to light therapy lamps during the night, wearing of dark spectacles in the morning and maintaining regular sleep hours during the day can significantly improve the adaptation of the biological rhythms of nurses working a regular night shift. This report describes a project aimed at testing these methods among 15 police officers assigned to rotating shifts. The improvements obtained were limited. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. xi, 102p. Illus. 180 ref. Price: CAD 12.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-659.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0437 Costa G., Haus E., Stevens R.
Shift work and cancer - Considerations on rationale, mechanisms, and epidemiology
This literature survey reviews the association between shift work and cancer. The mechanisms by which circadian disruption may cause malignant tumours are complex and multifactorial. The multilevel endocrine changes caused by circadian disruption with melatonin suppression through light at night lead to the oncogenic targeting of the endocrine-responsive breast in women and possibly the prostate in men. Repeated phase shifting with internal desynchronization may lead to defects in the regulation of the circadian cell cycle, thus favouring uncontrolled growth. Sleep deprivation leads to the suppression of immune surveillance that may permit the onset and growth of malignant clones. However, many epidemiological studies published lack methodological rigour and consequently do not allow for the proper assessment of the risk connected with circadian disruption.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.163-179. 185 ref.
Shift_work_and_cancer.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0436 Lowden A., Moreno C., Holmbäck U., Lennernäs M., Tucker P.
Eating and shift work - Effects on habits, metabolism and performance
Compared to day workers, shift workers are at higher risk of a range of metabolic disorders and diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal problems, failure to control blood sugar levels and metabolic syndrome. At least some of these complaints may be linked to the quality of the diet and irregular timing of eating; however other factors that affect metabolism are likely to play a part, including psychosocial stress, disrupted circadian rhythms, sleep debt, physical inactivity, and insufficient time for rest and revitalization. This literature survey examined studies on food and nutrition among shift workers. The discussion focuses on the quality of existing dietary assessment data, nutritional status parameters (particularly in obesity), the effect of circadian disruptions, and the possible implications for performance at work. Dietary guidelines as a basis for managing the nutrition of shift workers are proposed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.150-162. Illus. 96 ref.

CIS 10-0434 Pesch B., Harth V., Rabstein S., Baisch C., Schiffermann M., Pallapies D., Bonberg N., Heinze E., Spickenheuer A., Justenhoven C., Brauch H., Hamann U., Ko Y., Straif K., Brüning T.
Night work and breast cancer - Results from the German GENICA study
The objective of this German population-based case-control study was to determine whether night work increases the risk of breast cancer. The GENICA (gene environment interaction and breast cancer) study involved interviews to assess shift work information in 857 breast cancer cases and 892 controls. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. Among 1749 women, 56 cases and 57 controls worked in night shifts for one year or more. Long-term night work was associated with a modest but not significant increase in breast cancer risk, while having ever done night work was not. However the precision of the results was limited by a low prevalence of night work in this study population.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.134-141. 37 ref.
Night_work_and_breast_cancer.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0433 Sallinen M., Kecklund G.
Shift work, sleep, and sleepiness - Differences between shift schedules and systems
The aim of this literature survey was to identify available research evidence that shift workers' sleep-wake disturbances can be minimized through ergonomic shift scheduling. Findings are inconclusive, and further research with improved methodology is warranted.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.121-133. 87 ref.
Shift_work_sleep_and_sleepiness.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0432 Pallesen S., Bjorvatn B., Magerøy N., Saksvik I.B., Waage S., Moen B.E.
Measures to counteract the negative effects of night work
Night work is associated with various negative health outcomes as well as accidents and reduced productivity. The aim of this literature survey was to identify factors that may counteract the negative effects of night work. Studies were identified describing countermeasures such as proper personnel selection, bright light therapy, melatonin administration, naps, exercise, sleepiness detection devices, and the use of stimulants to improve wakefulness and hypnotics to improve daytime sleep. Some studies support countermeasures such as bright light, melatonin, naps, use of stimulants and proper work scheduling as a means to improve adaptation to night work. However, there is little evidence that such countermeasures reduce the long-term health consequences of night work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.109-120. Illus. 165 ref.
Measures_to_counteract.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0431 Puttonen S., Härmä M., Hublin C.
Shift work and cardiovascular disease - Pathways from circadian stress to morbidity
In order to establish a causal relation between shift work and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the pathways from the former to the latter need to be verified. This article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms between shift work and CVD. Shift work can increase the risk of CVD by several interrelated psychosocial, behavioural, and physiological mechanisms. The psychosocial mechanisms relate to difficulties in controlling working hours, decreased work-life balance and poor recovery following work. The most probable behavioural changes are weight gain and smoking. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changed lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. The data provide evidence for possible disease mechanisms between shift work and CVD, but compelling evidence on any specific mechanism is missing.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.96-108. Illus. 129 ref.
Shift_work_and_cardiovascular_disease.pdf [in English]


CIS 11-0515 Bonzini M., Coggon D., Godfrey K., Inskip H., Crozier S., Palmer K.T.
Occupational physical activities, working hours and outcome of pregnancy: Findings from the Southampton Women's survey
The objective of this study was to investigate risks of physical activity at work by pregnancy trimester, including the effects on head and abdominal circumference. At 34 weeks of gestation 1327 expectant mothers participating in a wider cohort study were interviewed on their activities (working hours, shift work and work postures) in jobs held at each of 11, 19 and 34 weeks of gestation, and subsequently ascertained birth outcomes (preterm delivery, small for gestational age (SGA) and reduced head or abdominal circumference). Risk of preterm delivery was elevated nearly threefold in women whose work at 34 weeks entailed trunk bending for >1h/day. Small head circumference was more common in babies born to women who worked for >40h/week. However, no statistically significant associations were found with SGA or small abdominal circumference, and preterm delivery showed little association with long working hours, lifting, standing or shift work.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.66. No.10, p.685-690. 24 ref.
Occupational_physical_activities.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0358 Chapman L.J., Taveira A.D., Karsh B.T., Josefsson K.G., Newenhouse A.C., Meyer R.H.
Work exposures, injuries, and musculoskeletal discomfort among children and adolescents in dairy farming
The objective of this study was to investigate work performed by children and adolescents on dairy farm operations. Mail questionnaires were addressed to a community-based, age- and operation size-stratified sample of 240 individuals aged six to eighteen who worked on dairy operations in Wisconsin. Data were collected in 1999. The 197 children and adolescents reported averaging 567 hours of dairy farm work in the last year (10.9 hours/week) and completed over 1/3 of all calf feeding, 1/5 of the milking, 1/5 of cow feeding and 1/10 of tractor operation hours on their farm during the weeks they worked. Some of these young workers reported accomplishing duties also judged by some experts as hazardous work, including nearly half of the 9- to 11-year-olds driving tractors. Six nonfatal injuries were reported that required stopping work (14.6 per 100 full time equivalents per year), including those that required medical attention. Musculoskeletal discomfort and disability reports were unremarkable compared to existing studies of general and working populations. Wisconsin dairy farm youth appeared to be working no more hours per week than their peers in other studies of agricultural populations. However the exposures of very young workers to hazardous tractor driving and tower silo tasks suggest that there is an urgent need for improved and validated interventions to reduce these exposures.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1st quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.1, p.9-21. 51 ref.

CIS 09-1414 Tei-Tominaga M., Akiyama T., Miyake Y., Sakai Y.
The relationship between temperament, job stress and overcommitment: A cross-sectional study using the TEMPS-A and a scale of ERI
This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between temperament, job stress, and overcommitment. Self-administered questionnaires were obtained from 730 employees of a Japanese IT services company. Data were subjected to a hierarchical regression analysis. Findings showed that depressive and anxious temperaments attenuated the influence of working hours on stress, and influenced the effects of effort and rewards independently.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.509-517. 34 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-1412 Shimazu A., Schaufeli W.B.
Is workaholism good or bad for employee well-being? The distinctiveness of workaholism and work engagement among Japanese employees
The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the empirical distinctiveness of workaholism and work engagement by examining their relationships with well-being in a sample of 776 Japanese employees. Questionnaires were used to measure workaholism, work engagement and well-being. Structural equation modeling showed that workaholism was positively associated with ill-health and negatively associated with life satisfaction and job performance. In contrast, work engagement was negatively associated with ill-health and positively associated with life satisfaction and job performance.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.495-502. Illus. 45 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-1029 Di Milia L., Mummery K.
The association between job related factors, short sleep and obesity
A cross sectional survey of 346 shift and day workers (292 men and 59 women) was carried out to investigate possible associations between obesity, job related factors and sleep duration. Mean body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in shift workers than in day workers. Mean BMI was also significantly higher in the group working long daily hours followed by medium working hours and short working hours. Obese individuals worked significantly longer hours and slept 18 min less per day compared to those with a normal BMI. The most significant predictor of obesity was long working hours (odds ratio OR 2.82), followed by being older (OR 2.05) and short sleep duration (OR 1.92).
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.363-368. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-983 Otsuka Y., Sasaki T., Iwasaki K., Mori I.
Working hours, coping skills, and psychological health in Japanese daytime workers
This study examined the relationships between coping skills, working hours, and psychological health among Japanese daytime workers. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to a randomly-selected sample of 2000 workers, among whom 1821 responded (a response rate of 91.1%). Data were subjected to covariance analyses. Results revealed that working hours were significantly associated with fatigue and concentration levels. High levels of social support and positive reframing were significantly associated with low levels of negative emotions, fatigue and concentration difficulty levels. These findings suggest that improving coping skills such as using social support or positive reframing may mitigate the adverse health effects of long working hours.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.47, No.1, p.22-32. Illus. 31 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-953 Hanowski R.J., Hickman J.S., Olson R.L., Bocanegra J.
Evaluating the 2003 revised hours-of-service regulations for truck drivers: The impact of time-on-task on critical incident risk
In 2004, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration implemented a revised set of regulations concerning the hours-of-service of commercial motor vehicle drivers. One central component of the revised regulations was a one-hour increase in allowable driving time, from 10 to 11h. The current study evaluated the impact of the additional driving-hour on critical incident risk. Data from over two million driving miles were analyzed. The frequencies of critical incidents for each hour were identified and odds ratios determined. Analyses found an elevated risk in the 1st driving-hour, but no consistent significant difference between hours 2 through 11. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that there is an increased risk resulting from driving an additional hour.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Mar. 2009, Vol.41, No.2, p.268-275. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-462 Caldwell J.A., Mallis M.M., Caldwell J.L., Paul M.A., Miller J.C., Neri D.F.
Fatigue countermeasures in aviation
Accident statistics, reports from pilots themselves, and operational flight studies all show that fatigue is a growing concern within commercial civil aviation. This position paper reviews relevant scientific literature, analyses applicable United States civilian and military flight regulations, evaluates various in-flight and pre- and post-flight fatigue countermeasures, and describes emerging technologies for detecting and countering fatigue. Following the discussion of each major issue, position statements address ways to deal with fatigue in specific contexts with the goal of using current scientific knowledge to update policy and provide tools and techniques for improving air safety.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.80, No.1, p.29-59. 237 ref.


CIS 10-0298 Wada K., Sakata Y., Theriault G., Aratake Y., Shimizu M., Tsutsumi A., Tanaka K., Aizawa Y.
Effort-reward imbalance and social support are associated with chronic fatigue among medical residents in Japan
The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of effort-reward imbalance and social support with chronic fatigue among medical residents in Japan. A total of 104 men and 42 women at 14 teaching hospitals participated in this study. Data on chronic fatigue, effort, reward, overcommitment and social support were collected by means of questionnaires. Sleeping hours for the last 30 days were estimated based on the number of overnight shifts worked, the average number of sleeping hours, and the number of hours of napping during overnight work. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between these variables and chronic fatigue. In both men and women, effort-reward imbalance was positively associated, and higher social support was negatively associated with chronic fatigue. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.331-336. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 09-1003 Allen H., Woock C., Barrington L., Bunn W.
Age, overtime, and employee health, safety and productivity outcomes: A case study
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of overtime on employee health, safety, and productivity, comparing older versus younger workers. Secondary analyses of a longitudinal panel of 2746 workers of various heavy industry manufacturing sites in the United States were carried out for the years 2001 and 2002. The results show that when employees work overtime, there is no general increase of adverse outcomes with advancing age. Where rates of adverse outcomes do increase, they are confined to certain subgroups of employees doing certain types of work.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.873-894. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 09-585 Miller D.P., Han W.J.
Maternal nonstandard work schedules and adolescent overweight
This study investigated whether nonstandard work schedules by mothers were associated with adolescent overweight. Multiple regression analyses were conducted using a sample of 2353 mother-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the association between the number of years mothers worked at nonstandard schedules and adolescent overweight at age 13 or 14 years. Separate analyses were also conducted by family income and family type. Child's body mass index increased significantly if mothers worked either a few years or many years at nonstandard schedules. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that nonstandard work schedules among near-poor families may disrupt the work-family balance, affecting adolescent overweight.
American Journal of Public Health, Aug. 2008, Vol. 98, No.8, p.1495-1502. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 09-464 Powell D., Spencer M.B., Holland D., Petrie K.J.
Fatigue in two-pilot operations: Implications for flight and duty time limitations
Fatigue is an important consideration in two-pilot commercial flights as there is little opportunity for in-flight rest. This study investigated the role of duty length and time of day on fatigue. Pilots flying two-pilot operations ranging from 3-12h completed fatigue ratings prior to descent at the end of each flight over a 12-week period. A total of 3023 usable ratings were collected. It was found that time of day had a marked effect on the pattern of fatigue at the start of the duty and on the rate at which fatigue levels increased, with the highest levels in the circadian low (from 2 to 6 a.m.). Fatigue also increased with the length of duty and was 0.56 points higher at the end of a two-sector compared with a single-sector duty. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.79, No.11, p.1047-1050. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 09-466 Caruso C.C., Waters T.R.
A review of work schedule issues and musculoskeletal disorders with an emphasis on the healthcare sector
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a significant cause of morbidity in healthcare workers. The purpose of this report is to assess research across studies that examined the relationship between demanding work schedules and MSD outcomes. A literature search identified 23 publications that examined MSDs and long work hours, shift work, extended work shifts, mandatory overtime or weekend work. Eight of these studies that examined long work hours and had some controls for physical job demands reported a significant increase in one or more measures of MSDs. Other studies had incomparable methods and types of shift work, and therefore, no clear trends in findings were identified. The review discusses current gaps in knowledge and suggests research priorities.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.6, p.523-534. Illus. 73 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-243 Kleppa E., Sanne B., Tell G.S.
Working overtime is associated with anxiety and depression: The Hordaland health study
The objective of this case-control study was to examine whether long work hours are associated with increased prevalences of anxiety and depression. A total of 1350 overtime workers was compared with a reference group of 9092 workers not working overtime regarding anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Self-reported information on various work-related factors, demographics, lifestyle and somatic health was included. Overtime workers of both genders had significantly higher anxiety and depression levels compared with those working normal hours. Findings suggest a dose-response relationship between work hours and anxiety or depression.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.658-666. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 09-203 von Thiele Schwarz U., Lindfors P., Lundberg U.
Health-related effects of worksite interventions involving physical exercise and reduced workhours
This study examined the health-related effects of two worksite interventions, namely physical exercise and reduced workhours, on women employed in dentistry. It involved 177 women from six dental care centres in Sweden, who were divided into three groups: a group subjected to 2.5 hours of weekly, mandatory physical exercise performed during workhours, a group with a reduction of weekly workhours from 40h to 37.5h and a control group. Biomarkers and self-ratings in questionnaires were obtained before the intervention, as well as six and twelve months after the intervention. It was found that the two interventions had differing effects on biomarkers and self-reports of health. There was a decrease in blood glucose and in upper-extremity disorders in the exercise group, and increased blood high-density lipoprotein and waist-to-hip ratio among those working reduced hours. It is concluded that interventions involving a reduction in workhours are more effective if these hours are used for physical exercise.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2008, Vol.34, No.3, p.179-188. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 08-1490 Taris T.W., Geurts S.A.E., Schaufeli W.B., Blonk R.W.B., Lagerveld S.E.
All day and all of the night: The relative contribution of two dimensions of workaholism to well-being in self-employed workers
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between workaholism and perceived health (exhaustion, physical complaints, and feelings of professional efficacy). It involved a sample of 477 Dutch self-employed workers. Workaholism is characterized by long work hours coupled with the inability to detach from work. It was expected that both workaholism components would be related to ill health. Variance and regression analyses revealed that this reasoning was confirmed for one component (inability to detach from work), but not for the other (working long hours).
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.153-165. 47 ref.

CIS 08-1085 Kubot Z.
The specific character of medical duties
Specyfika dyżurów medycznych [in Polish]
The specific aspects of the duties of hospital medical professionals (physicians, nurses) specified in Polish legislation on health care institutions are commented in the light of judicial decisions of the Polish courts and the European Court of Justice. The changes to the specific character of medical duties, which were made after Poland's accession to the European Union, are explained.
Praca i Zabezpieczenie Społeczne, Jan. 2008, No.1, p.14-20.

CIS 08-909 Drolet D.
Guide for the adjustment of permissible exposure values (PEVs) for unusual work schedules
Guide d'ajustement des valeurs d'exposition admissibles (VEA) pour les horaires de travail non conventionnels [in French]
Because of recent changes to the Regulations concerning occupational safety and health in Quebec (Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail - RSST, see CIS 02-1506), the IRSST had to update the guide for the adjustment of permissible exposure values for unusual work schedules, as well as the computer-based tool allowing its application. This technical guide includes recent toxicological knowledge on the substances concerned by the regulatory changes and allows determining the pathology codes and adjustment categories for the new substances included in the RSST.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 3rd ed., 2008. v, 17p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: CAD 6.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French] [in English]

CIS 08-914 Drolet D.
Guide to the adjustment of permissible exposure values (PEVs) for nonusual work schedules
Guide d'ajustement des valeurs d'exposition admissibles (VEA) pour les horaires de travail non conventionnels [in French]
Because of recent changes to the Regulations concerning occupational safety and health in Quebec (Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail - RSST, see 02-1506), the IRSST had to update the Guide for the adjustment of permissible exposure values for unusual work schedules, as well as the computer-based tool allowing its application. This technical guide includes recent toxicological knowledge on the substances concerned by the regulatory changes and allows to determine the pathology codes and adjustment categories for the new substances included in the RSST. Replaces 04-658.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 3rd ed., 2008. v, 17p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: CAD 6.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 08-982 Beckers D.G.J., van der Linden D., Smulders P.G.W., Kompier M.A.J., Taris T.W., Geurts S.E.A.
Voluntary or involuntary? Control over overtime and rewards for overtime in relation to fatigue and work satisfaction
This study aimed to examine whether the relationship between overtime and well-being is influenced by the voluntary vs. involuntary (i.e. compulsory) nature of overtime work and by the presence or absence of rewards for overtime. It also explored the prevalence of these types of overtime and how they were related to work and personal characteristics. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of 1612 full-time employees in the Netherlands. Variance analysis was used to compare rewarded and unrewarded, voluntary and involuntary overtime workers on personal and work characteristics, fatigue and work satisfaction. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that control over overtime and rewards for overtime are important for well-being. Moderate overtime work may not be a problem if it is done voluntarily. Moreover, the negative effects of compulsory overtime work may be partly offset by fair compensation.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2008, Vol.22, No.1, p.33-50. Illus. 47 ref.

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