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Explosions - 1,519 entries found

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CIS 11-0852 Margossian N.
Reference guide - Chemical hazards
Aide-mémoire - Risque chimique [in French]
The third edition of this reference guide brings together all useful information required for initiating a chemical hazards prevention programme. Contents: basic aspects; basic understanding of hazards; regulations; chemical hazards; risk of poisoning; dangerous reactions and fire and explosion hazards; prevention of chemical hazards; hazard identification and evaluation; prevention of occupational hazards; environmental chemical hazards.
Dunod, 5 rue Laromiguière, 75005 Paris,France 3rd ed., 2011, vii, 302p. Illus. Approx. 130 ref. Index. Price: EUR 34.20.


CIS 11-0551 Fernández de Castro Díaz Á.
Evaluation of the conditions for the evacuation of workplaces
Evaluación de las condiciones de evacuación en centros de trabajo [in Spanish]
The conditions of evacuation in a workplace, building or industrial premises are a means of ensuring the safety of employees, and therefore, their assessment is part of the overall task of hazard evaluation. This technical note explains how to conduct an evaluation of evacuation conditions.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 4 ref.
NTP_884.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0550 Alonso Martín M.C.
Evaluation of the specific hazards due to explosive atmospheres (ATEX)
Evaluación de los riesgos específicos derivados de las atmósferas explosivas (ATEX) [in Spanish]
The objective of this technical note is to provide knowledge and tools necessary to perform explosive atmospheres (ATEX) risk assessments in accordance with the provisions of Spanish Royal Decree RD 681/2003 on the protection of health and safety of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres at the workplace.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 8p. 11 ref.
NTP_876.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 10-0701 Janès A., Chaineaux J.
Dust explosions at the workplace. Inventory and analysis
Explosions de poussières dans les lieux de travail. Recensement et analyse [in French]
Use of combustible dusts or powders may lead to the formation of explosive atmospheres under specific conditions. One hundred and ninety dust explosions, which occurred between 1903 and January 2010, are recorded on the French ARIA database. This study analyzed the industrial sectors in which explosions have been recorded, namely the wood, metal, agricultural foodstuff, chemical and pharmaceutical industries as well as bulk storage of cereals. Results are presented by equipments most often involved in explosions, factors that gave rise to dust dispersion and ignition sources. The study also highlights the human and/or material impact of these explosions.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2010, No.220, p.3-11. Illus. 14 ref.
ND_2331-220-10.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0560 Ferjencik M.
Root cause analysis of an old accident in an explosives production plant
Twenty-six years ago, a massive accident occurred in the Semtin explosives plant in (then) Czechoslovakia. The results of investigations which were carried out (but kept confidential at the time) were made available after 1989, but have not been published in a summarized form to date. Reopening of the results of old investigations and application of root cause analysis deepens our understanding of accident causes and leads to the conclusion that, according to today's standards, the analysis was not completed at the time of the accident and therefore neither some of the practical aspects of the event nor the social, professional and political climate it should have exposed have ever been fully understood. Applying root cause analysis should shed new light on this accident.
Safety Science, Dec. 2010, Vol.48, No.10, p.1530-1544. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 10-0345 Bhargava A.;, Punde R.P, Pathak N.;, Dabadghao S, Desikan P.;, Jain A.;, Maudar K.K.;, Mishra P.K.
Status of inflammatory biomarkers in the population that survived the Bhopal gas tragedy: A study after two decades
Bhopal gas tragedy is considered as one of the world's worst industrial disaster. Approximately, 3,000-6,000 people died and 200,000 were injured due to the leak of 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a pesticide plant. This study aimed to decipher any persistent and subtle immunotoxic effects of MIC in the survivors of the tragedy. Participants were divided into three groups: age and gender matched non-exposed healthy controls recruited from places within the geographical region of Bhopal but from unaffected zones; age and gender matched non-exposed healthy controls recruited from places well outside geographical region of Bhopal; age and gender matched MIC exposed subjects from affected zones inside geographical region of Bhopal. The status of inflammatory biomarkers (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, IL-10, IL-12p70 cytokines and C-reactive protein) in these three groups was analysed. The results displayed a significant increase in the levels of all circulating inflammatory biomarkers in the MIC exposed group in comparison to non-exposed cohorts. A toxin-induced genetic and/or epigenetic alteration seems to be the likely underlying cause. However, further studies are essential for both mechanistic understanding and clinical implications of these patterns.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.204-208. Illus. 32 ref.
Status_of_inflammatory_biomarkers.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0395 Vinnem J.E.
Risk indicators for major hazards on offshore installations
Major hazards risk indicators are proposed for offshore installations, based on what has been used by the Petroleum Safety Authority Norway for the Risk Level approach in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry. Since 2002, leading indicators are also used, in the sense that indicators for barrier performance are included together with the lagging indicators. The purpose of this paper is to recommend how indicators may be used by individual companies and installations in an efficient manner, based on the extensive experience in the field of major hazard risk.
Safety Science, July 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.770-787. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 10-0113 Turmo Sierra E.
Static electricity in combustible dusts(I). Characteristics of the electrostatic discharges
Electricidad estática en polvos combustibles (I): características de las descargas eléctrostáticas [in Spanish]
This information note on static electricity in combustible dusts describes the phenomenon of electrostatic charge as well as the characteristics of different types of electrostatic discharges. The safety measures to be adopted are described in a second note (CIS 10-0114). See also CIS 02-1416.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 4p.
Electricidad_estática_en_polvos_combustibles.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 10-0110 Alonso Martín M.C.
The explosion protection document
El documento de protección contra explosiones (DPCE) [in Spanish]
This information note on the explosion protection document, a mandatory document according to Royal Decree 681/2003 on safety and health protection of workers exposed to explosive atmospheres, explains how to prepare such a document and describes its structure and content.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 5p. 7 ref.
El_documento_de_protección_contra_explosiones [in Spanish]

CIS 10-0122 Safety during tyre inflation in motor vehicle repair
This booklet is aimed at persons working in the motor vehicle repair industry who work on or around tyres that are being inflated. It covers the various types of tyre failure and the dangers they can cause, particularly following tyre repair, where there has been sidewall damage or when fitting a tyre to split-rim wheel. Topics addressed: advice on inspecting tyres to avoid "ziper failure", which can cause fatalities; guidance on the risks posed by specific types of tyres and vehicles (tyres for automobiles, tyres for light commercial vehicles, tyres for multi-piece wheels, tyres for dividend wheels and very large tyres).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2010. 11p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: GBP 3.50 for pack of 10 copies. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 09-1349 Klapötke T.M., Krumm B., Steemann F.X., Steinhauser G.
Hands on explosives: Safety testing of protective measures
Several attempts have been made to test the effectiveness of protective measures for the handling of explosives in laboratories. This study investigated safety gloves and a combined safety helmet and face shield. Experimental setups were used to simulate the effects of an explosion in a glass flask on the glove or helmet protected body. Findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.28-34. Illus. 25 ref.


CIS 12-0267
Health and Safety Executive
Buncefield explosion mechanism phase 1 - Volumes 1 and 2
This report presents the findings of the group of experts from academia and industry investigating the causes of a major accident involving a string of explosions and resulting fires at a large petroleum products tank farm in the United Kingdom in December 2005. The accident caused important material damage, closures and transport disruptions, but no serious injuries or loss of life.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, x, 31p. Illus. (vol. 1); iv, 178p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (vol.2).
Buncefield_explosion_mechanism_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0266 Chambers C., Wilday J., Turner S.
Health and Safety Executive
A review of Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA) analyses of overfill of fuel storage tanks
In response to a major accident involving a string of explosions and resulting fires at a large petroleum products tank farm in the United Kingdom in December 2005, several recommendations were made to improve safety in the design and operation of fuel storage sites. Two of these recommendations were that loss of primary containment (tank overfill) should be prevented by a high integrity system, and that industry should agree to undertake a systematic assessment of safety integrity levels using commonly agreed methods. It was also recommended that prior to installing protective systems, one should determine the appropriate level of integrity that such systems are expected to achieve, by means of a "layer of protection analysis" (LOPA). This study aimed to identify common trends and instances of good practices, as well as areas requiring improvement, in the way in which LOPA studies are carried out by operators of sites that store liquid petroleum products in bulk.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, vi, 57p. 15 ref.
A_review_of_Layers_of_Protection_Analysis_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0265 Pritchard D.K., Royle M., Willoughby D.
Health and Safety Executive
Installation permitting guidance for hydrogen and fuel cell stationary applications: UK version
The HYPER project funded by the European Commission developed an Installation Permitting Guide (IPG) for hydrogen and fuel cell stationary applications. The IPG was developed in response to the growing need for guidance to foster the use and facilitate installation of these systems in Europe. This report presents a modified version of the IPG specifically intended for the United Kingdom market, with reference is made to national regulations, standards and practices.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, viii, 63p. Illus. 68 ref.
Installation_permitting_guidance_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 10-0535 Tanarro Gozalo C., Gálvez Pérez V.
Nanoparticles: A small hazard?
Nanopartículas: ¿un riesgo pequeño? [in Spanish]
The rapid development of nanotechnology has led to the emergence of a large number of consumer products containing nanoparticles thanks to the improved product properties resulting from their use. As a result, a growing number of workers are exposed to new materials about which little is known of their toxicological characteristics. This article gives an overview of nanoparticles, the sectors where they can be found, the associated hazards and the preventive measures that can be adopted.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, May 2009, No.52, p.33-44. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 10-0232
Health and safety Executive
Reducing ill-health and accidents in motor vehicle repair
This revised booklet outlines the main causes of occupational accidents and diseases in motor vehicle repair, namely manual handling, plant and equipment and fire and explosion. It contains a checklist reminding workers of the measures that need to be taken to reduce ill health and accidents. It has been updated to take account of changes in industry practice since the first version was published. Contents; slips and trips; plant and equipment; manual handling; falls; transport; fire and explosion; electrical safety; skin diseases.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2009. 15p. Illus. 12 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-1350 Grayson R.L., Kinilakodi H., Kecojevic V.
Pilot sample risk analysis for underground coal mine fires and explosions using MSHA citation data
This article presents an approach for analyzing the risks for fires and explosions based on the United States Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) database. Using 2006 citation data and focusing on subsystem failures, the methodology is applied to a database for a pilot sample of underground coal mines stratified by mine size and state.
Safety Science, Dec. 2009, Vol.47, No.10, p.1371-1378. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 09-1347 Chaineaux J., Janes A., Sallé B., Petit J.M.
Conditions for the formation of explosives atmosphere when using a flammable liquid
Conditions de formation d'une atmosphère explosive lors de la mise en œuvre d'un liquide inflammable [in French]
When using flammable liquids, the conditions in which an explosive atmosphere (ATEX) can form depend to a great extent on the liquid itself (flash point, temperature); if the liquid is in an open space, they are also linked to the evaporation flow rate, which in turn depends on the air renewal conditions at the surface of the liquid. An evaporation model was developed using the results of a series of measurements carried out with volatile solvents, where the vaporization flow rate and the vapor concentration at the surface of the liquid were measured. Knowledge of these different features enables implementing the ATEX regulations in a precise and realistic way.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.216, p.23-31. Illus. 9 ref.$File/ND2313.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-909 Zhang X.M., Chen G.H.
The analysis of domino effect impact probability triggered by fragments
Explosion fragments are the main cause of the domino effect in accidents in the chemical and process industries. This work focused on the development of a new model for the impact probability of domino effect triggered by fragments. Firstly, an expression for the initial projection velocity of fragments was founded by taking the explosion moment as a polytropic process and solving energy transformation equation. Next, the flight trajectory and velocity were represented by equations taking into account gravity and air friction. Based on these equations, the uncertainties were analyzed through sampling of the random variables. Finally, a new systemic model for the impact probability of the domino effect is proposed.
Safety Science, Aug. 2009, Vol.47, No.7, p.1026-1032. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 09-898
Health and Safety Executive
Chemical warehousing - The storage of packaged dangerous substances
This guide describes control measures aimed at eliminating or reducing risks to persons from the storage of packaged dangerous goods. It applies to transit or distribution warehouses, open-air storage compounds and facilities associated chemical products. It is aimed at all persons holding responsibility for the storage of dangerous substances, regardless of the size of storage facility. Contents: introduction; legal requirements; hazard identification and risk assessment; elimination or reduction of risks; hazardous area classification; emergency arrangements; information, instruction and training; audit and review. It consists of a revised edition of the booklet analysed under CIS 04-171, with references to current legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 4th ed., June 2009. iv, 56p. Illus. 109 ref. Price: GBP 9.50. Downloadable version free of charge [in English]

CIS 09-905 Cantalejo García M.
Hazards due to explosive atmospheres in the workplace
Riesgos derivados de las atmósferas explosivas en el lugar de trabajo [in Spanish]
During 2007 in Spain, there were 539 occupational accidents involving explosions, of which 13% affected more than one worker. Employers are required to evaluate this hazard and implement suitable prevention and protection measures. This article provides an overview of the hazards due to explosive atmospheres at the place of work and offers solutions for their control. Contents: definitions of combustion and explosion; industries with explosion hazards; current regulatory framework; hazard evaluation and danger zones; presentation of an INHST technical guide on explosive atmospheres at the place of work.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Mar. 2009, No.51, p.10-17. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 09-624 Marsot J., Gardeux F., Govaere V.
Augmented reality and risk prevention - Contributions and limits
Réalité augmentée et prévention des risques - Apports et limites [in French]
Following a definition of Augmented Reality (AR), this article uses examples taken from the industrial sector (maintenance, manufacturing planning and training) to demonstrate how links can be established between this method and occupational risk prevention. It then focuses specifically on assembly and maintenance tasks in complex systems and on the contribution of AR when performing these accident-causing tasks. The hypothesis proposed in literature is confirmed, namely that when compared to paper documents, the use of AR reduces operating errors in maintenance procedures. However, despite significant technical progress in recent years, it was also observed that AR techniques are still insufficiently mature to be used in real industrial conditions. Other findings raise issues concerning the impact of this new technology on working conditions.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2009, No.214, p.15-23. Illus. 21 ref.$File/nd2303.pdf [in French]


CIS 11-0693 Keeley D.
Failure rates for underground gas storage - Significance for land use planning assessments
The United Kingdom Government is considering the possibility of storing natural gas in a variety of underground gas storage (UGS) facilities. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) to identify the main types of facilities currently in operation worldwide and any documented or reported failures and incidents which have led to release of stored product. This report presents a summary of such identified failures, calculated accident rates and consequences of cavern failure, and proposes a number of recommendations for safe underground gas storage.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 25p. 22 ref.
RR_671.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0110 Ivings M.J., Clarke M.S., Gant S.E., Fletcher B., Heather A., Pocock D.J., Pritchard D.K., Santon R., Saunders C.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Area classification for secondary releases from low pressure natural gas systems
This report reviews current methods of evaluating the effectiveness of the ventilation of enclosures. British Standard BS 5925 which describes a method for calculating air change rates was applied to two enclosures where the air change rate was measured experimentally. In the first of the two cases considered, the calculated air change rate was in good agreement with the measurements, whereas in the other case it under-predicted the ventilation rate. An improved model was proposed and validated against 29 experimental tests carried out in a purpose built enclosure. The experimental tests consisted of releases of simulated methane gas for a range of leak rates and ventilation rates. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 182p. Illus. 26 ref.
Report_RR630.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0859 Garbolino E.
Deep defence - Nuclear safety contribution to industrial safety
La défense en profondeur - Contribution de la sécurité nucléaire à la sécurité industrielle [in French]
This publication presents the theoretical and methodological aspects of deep defence by examining its application in the nuclear field, and subsequently explores its transfer to an industrial context with the help of a specific example, a liquefied natural gas storage and distribution site.
Editions Tec et Doc Lavoisier, 11, rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris, France, 2008. xii, 66p. Illus.43 ref. Index. Price: EUR 32.00.

CIS 10-0109 Watson S., Metcalfe R., Bond A.
Scoping calculations for releases from potential UK underground gas storage facilities
The British Geological Survey undertook a project for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), to examine the potential for leakage of stored natural gas from underground salt caverns and depleted oil and gas reservoirs. Leakage scenarios were developed and simple scoping calculations were carried out to evaluate the likely significance of leakage. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 74p. Illus. 30 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-170 Li X.R., Koseki H., Iwata Y.
Risk assessment on processing facility of raw organic garbage
This article presents work done in order to investigate the cause of an explosion during the processing of raw garbage in a volume-reduction processing facility at a Japanese shopping mall. Variable onset temperatures of the exothermal reaction were found as a function of oil content, decreasing from 150°C in the samples containing 10.9-14.1% oil to 114°C when the oil content reached 40%. The disposal process was then simulated in a laboratory-scale facility heated by hot air of 150°C blown into the bottom through nozzles. In the case of the dried garbage containing 14.1% oil, white smoke emitted after several hours, accompanied by an abrupt rise of the temperatures in particular at the bottom of the facility. The maximum temperature reached 1070°C, accompanied by the emission of several gases, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and ethane. Probable mechanisms explaining the observed explosion are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 2008, Vol.154, Nos.1-3, p.38-43. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 09-173 Rivière S., Schwoebel V., Lapierre-Duval K., Warret G., Saturnin M., Avan P., Job A., Lang T.
Hearing status after an industrial explosion: Experience of the AZF explosion, 21 September 2001, France
Following the explosion of a chemical plant in France, a study was conducted to analyse the relationship between hearing thresholds and distance from the explosion based on post- and pre-blast audiometric data, and to describe the functional symptoms and visits for hearing problems. Audiometric tests of 511 workers of a company located near the explosion site were conducted after the explosion. Past occupational noise exposure, past medical history of ear problems, distance from the explosion, functional symptoms and visits for hearing problems following explosion and results of past audiometric tests if available were collected. Of a total of 425 (83%) of the firm's workers who participated in the study, 49% had received an audiometric test before the explosion. Hearing shift between pre- and post-explosion audiograms was significantly greater for the exposed group of workers than for the less exposed group at 2,000 and 4,000 Hz. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2008, Vol.81, No.4, p.409-414. 16 ref.

CIS 09-172 Dolez P.I., Nohile C., Ha Anh T., Vu-Khanh T., Benoît R., Bellavigna-Ladoux O.
Exploring the chemical aspects of truck tire blowouts and explosions
Truck tire blowouts and explosions account for a non-negligible number of occupational accidents with severe outcomes particularly in the transportation industry. This literature review was aimed at identifying the different processes involved, with a special focus on the chemical aspects of the phenomena. Tire blowouts and explosions associated with heat input are the result of the contribution of the thermal expansion of the air inside the tire, the thermal weakening of the tire structure and chemical reactions including pyrolysis, thermo-oxidation and combustion, leading to the degradation of the tire polymer matrix. Findings also highlight the difficulties in trying to devise preventive and corrective measures against tire blowouts and explosions.
Safety Science, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.9, p.1334-1344. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 08-1159 Frictional ignition of methane-air in the presence of liquid hydrocarbons
Methane ignitions in underground coal mining are often caused by the impact of mining machine cutter bits on sandstone during the coal-cutting process. Most ignitions are small and limited to the cutter head location. However, under certain conditions, these ignitions can lead to larger methane explosions and/or fires with the potential for causing serious injury or death to the mining machine operator and other nearby miners. A series ignition tests were conducted in a test chamber, with various methane-air mixtures with and without the presence of liquid hydrocarbons on the sandstone. It was found that hydrocarbon vapours can ignite at significantly lower temperatures than the methane. Extra precautions to prevent fires and explosions must be taken when heavier molecular weight liquid hydrocarbons are present in addition to methane in an underground coal mine.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Mar. 2008. 2p. Illus. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1158 Ulery J.P.
Explosion hazards from methane emissions related to geologic features in coal mines
Explosions in coal mines are caused when buildups of explosive gas and/or dust are ignited by a flame or spark. Methane is normally contained in coal and is liberated during mining. Because this gas is explosive in the range of 5%-15% by volume in air, fresh air is constantly supplied to the working face to prevent the methane/air mixture from reaching this explosive range. The required amount of ventilation air is based on estimates of methane release under normal conditions. Occasionally, unanticipated and unusually high emissions are encountered, which, despite normal ventilation controls, result in an explosive mixture that a spark from a cutting bit or electrical equipment can easily ignite. Investigations have shown that such emissions are often associated with anomalous geologic features or conditions. This report provides operators with specific information on recognizing and alleviating potential hazards from methane emissions related to these geologic features.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Apr. 2008. 18p. Illus. 35 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1205
Health and Safety Commission
A guide to Borehole Sites and Operations Regulations 1995
This guide contains the full text of the Borehole Sites and Operations Regulations 1995 (see CIS 95-1187) together with accompanying guidance, which was prepared after widespread consultation with industry. This second edition expands the scope of the guidance to cover boreholes used for the storage of gas in natural strata reservoirs where oil or other commodities had been previously been extracted, and updates references to other regulations and publications. Replaces CIS 96-321.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2008. iv, 60p. 26 ref. Price: GBP 12.50.

CIS 08-926 Hazard alert: Combustible dust explosions
Combustible dusts are fine particles that present an explosion hazard when dispersed in air in certain conditions. A dust explosion can be catastrophic and cause employee deaths, injuries, and destruction of entire buildings. In many combustible dust accidents, employers and employees are unaware that a hazard exists. Contents of this safety information sheet on dust explosions: how dust explosions occur; catastrophic secondary explosions; industries at risk; dust control recommendations; ignition control recommendations; injury and damage control methods; OSHA regulations; sources of additional information.
Publications U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, Mar. 2008. 2p. Illus. 8 ref. [in English]


CIS 08-1153 Snee T.J., Bosch J., Cusco L., Kerr D.C.
Health and Safety Executive
AWARE: Investigation of the early warning detection system through pilot and large-scale tests
The objective of this project was to develop and validate, among users in the chemical industries, a system for the early detection of runaway reactions. The Health and Safety Laboratory provided valuable information from pilot and large scale tests. Practical problems such as noise and fluctuating jacket temperature that could be found in practice and trigger false alarms were identified. Solutions were found that eliminated these false alarms by simplifying the data input and reducing the sensitivity to derivatives. An algorithm was consequently written to incorporate the early warning criteria into the large-scale facility data logging system, which was then used successfully to demonstrate an early warning in a large scale runaway reaction.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 37p. Illus. 22 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1152 Hedley D., Pritchard D.K., Eaton G.T.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of fire and explosion risks in coating mixing operations
The Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (DSEAR, see CIS 03-1035) require a re-assessment of the fire and explosion risks arising from the formation of explosive atmospheres in and around mixing vessels used for the formulation of coatings (inks and paints). Vapour concentration measurements were made during site visits in and around mixing vessels, and ignition tests were carried out in the laboratory on sample coating formulations. The findings are to be used to define HSE's DSEAR Enforcement Policy on coatings mixing operations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 22p. Illus. 1 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1151
Health and Safety Executive
Review of significance of societal risk for proposed revision to land use planning arrangements for large scale petroleum storage sites
This report considers whether there is a societal risk associated with the setting of land use planning zones around large scale petroleum storage sites and reviews critically the conclusions that Health and Safety Executive has reached in relation to this issue. Some alternative approaches and calculations are also undertaken in order to help clarify the issues and enable reasonably firm conclusions to be reached. It is concluded that any practicable land use planning approach for large scale petroleum storage sites must inevitably be risk based, either explicitly or implicitly. While there are still many uncertainties regarding the off-site risks associated with large petroleum installations, the adoption of a development proximity zone can be considered a precautionary risk based approach.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 32p. Illus. 9 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1150 Franks A.
Health and Safety Executive
Revised land use planning arrangements around large scale petroleum depots
Following an incident at an petroleum storage depot in 2005, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) commissioned this study to assist in reviewing HSE's approach to providing land use planning advice in the vicinity of similar installations. This report presents proposals for revised arrangements for provision of land use planning advice. The proposals are based on a review of information on the effect of blast on building occupants, observations of the blast damage in the 2005 incident and a review of some of the justification underpinning certain aspects of the current arrangements. The options proposed would result in greater restriction on development of land in the vicinity of the sites concerned.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 79p. Illus. 15 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-918 Hoszowski A., Pojnar M.
Experience gained during the operation of underground gas storage facilities - Problems and their solutions
Doświadczenia z dotychczasowej pracy podziemnych magazynów gazu - problemy i sposoby ich rozwiązywania [in Polish]
The experience gained over a 27-year period during the operation of underground gas storage facilities in various localities in South-Eastern Poland (Husów, Swarzów, Strachocina and Brzeźnica) is presented. The limitations resulting from the conditions of the bed and those of technical nature are discussed, together with problems occurring during the operation of the storage facilities and the methods used to solve them.
WUG Bezpieczeństwo Pracy i Ochrona Środowiska w Górnictwie, 2007, No.5 (153), p.14-19. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 08-430 Mouthon M., Werlé R., Petit J.M.
Vehicles powered by natural gas - Working safely
Véhicules fonctionnant au gaz naturel - Intervenir en sécurité [in French]
Given the current concerns with respect to environmental protection and energy conservation, the European Union estimates that by 2020, alternative energies will represent 20% of automotive fuel consumption, of which compressed natural gas (CNG) will account for half. Persons working on such vehicles in garages, repair and maintenance workshops, and automobile recycling units will need to take the characteristics CNG vehicles into account and follow a number of specific safety rules. After an introduction on the basic properties of CNG, this guide goes on to present the main precautions and recommendations to be adopted for safe work on CNG vehicles.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Apr. 2007. 35p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: EUR 6.10. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed6003.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-426 Douté M., Issartel E.
Storage of aerosols: Which extinguishing system?
Stockage d'aérosols: quels systèmes d'extinction? [in French]
An aerosol can is a form of packaging that enables the vaporisation of a product into fine droplets. It consists of a container, generally metallic, whose contents include approximately 60% of propellant gases (butane, propane or mixtures thereof) and 40% of the active ingredient, dissolved in a solvent. Given the nature of the products involved, there is a high fire or explosion risk during the manufacture and storage of aerosol cans. This review article on extinguishing systems suited to aerosol can manufacture and storage premises covers the following aspects: hazard analysis; usefulness of sprinklers; experience of a large cosmetics producer; short descriptions of accidents involving aerosol cans; regulations.
Face au risque, June-July 2007, No.434, p.21-24. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 08-181 Dyduch Z.
Risks of dust explosions during the storage and processing of food commodities
Zagrożenie wybuchem pyłu podczas składowania i przetwarzania surowców spożywczych [in Polish]
Commodity foodstuffs used as raw materials in the food industry which present explosion hazards are listed. The EU and Polish regulations relating to the assessment of dust explosion risks and the methods of limitation of explosion consequences are presented. The inflammable and explosive properties of various food dusts are described, and their potential sources of ignition are indicated.
Ochrona Przeciwpożarowa, June 2007, Vol.20, No.2, p.8-10. 9 ref.

CIS 08-179 Abbasi T., Abbasi S.A.
The boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE): Mechanism, consequence assessment, management
Among the most devastating of accidents likely in chemical industry is the boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE). It is accompanied by highly destructive blast waves. In most situations there is also a fireball or a toxic gas cloud. The damaging effect of these accidents is reflected in the fact that the 80-odd major BLEVEs that have occurred between 1940 and 2005 have claimed over a 1000 lives and have injured over 10,000 persons besides harming property worth billions of dollars. Releases of toxic chemicals like chlorine and phosgene from BLEVEs have damaged large chunks of areas surrounding the sites. This article presents an overview of the mechanisms, causes, consequences and preventive strategies of BLEVEs.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Mar. 2007, Vol.141, No.3, p.489-519. Illus. 131 ref.

CIS 07-1444 Abbasi T., Abbasi S.A.
Dust explosions - Cases, causes, consequences, and control
Dust explosions are among the most serious and widespread of explosion hazards in industry, almost always leading to serious financial losses in terms of direct damage to facilities and production down time. They also often cause serious injuries to personnel, and fatalities. This literature survey presents illustrative case studies and accident analyses reflecting the geographic spread of dust explosions across the world and their high damage potential. The sources and triggers of dust explosions, and the measures with which different factors associated with dust explosions can be quantified are reviewed alongside dust explosion mechanisms. The review also examines the ways available to prevent dust explosion, and on cushioning the impact of a dust explosion by venting when the accident does take place.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 2007, Vol.140, No.1-2, p.7-44. Illus. 204 ref.


CIS 08-924 Hamdan F.
Health and Safety Executive
Structural strengthening of offshore topsides structures as part of explosion risk reduction methods
Reassessment of offshore structures are often necessary for a variety of reasons: many existing offshore structures are being used well beyond their original design life, which necessitates the assessment of state of the structure in case of any deterioration; continuous advances being made in the field of safety of offshore structures against the risks of fires and explosions, which necessitates the re- assessment of the structure taking into account new data related to gas and explosion loading and response models; HSE requires the duty holder to carry out an assessment to demonstrate that risks have been reduced to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). This report deals with the re-assessment and strengthening methods for blast walls, decks and floors of offshore structures.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 145p. Illus. 93 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-921 Ho E.
Health and Safety Executive
Elastomeric seals for rapid gas decompression applications in high-pressure services
Seal damage and gas leaks caused by rapid gas decompression have been reported in many types of equipment in the oil and gas industry. These failures have had costly financial, safety and environmental implications for the operators and equipment suppliers. The aim of this report is to provide designers, engineers and plant managers with a systematic approach for the prevention of decompression damage in elastomeric seals, to provide advice on the selection of equipment and materials; advise the oil and gas industry on methods and procedures available to protect against decompression damage, to make production engineers aware of operating scenarios where damage may have occurred even though its effects are hidden, and finally to raise awareness of rapid gas decompression in the industry in general.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. viii, 63p. Illus. 19 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-680
Health and Safety Executive
Improved simplified response methods to blast loading
This report describes the extension of a sophisticated single degree of freedom (SDOF) model for steel structures subject to explosion loading. The previous model did not incorporate material strain rate sensitivity, which has considerable influence on the blast response of steel members. This work extends the previous model to deal with the strain-rate effect, and to provide more rational ductility measures than possible with rate-insensitive modelling. The details of the overall model are provided, mainly in the form of parametric tables. Finally, several verification and application examples are provided demonstrating the calculation process involved in applying the new SDOF model and illustrating the high accuracy of the new model.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 47p. Illus. 4 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-676
Health and Safety Executive
Design, materials and connections for blast-loaded structures
This report describes the development and validation of a simplified tool for analysing the response of a structure to blast based on static finite element (FE) analysis. It was used to carry out multiple analyses of simple structures using blast type pulses of different geometries, durations and peak pressures. The results of the analyses were then compared against non-linear full model FE analyses. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. iv, 73p. Illus. 9 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-675 Schleyer G.K., Langdon G.S.
Health and Safety Executive
Pulse pressure testing of 1/4 scale blast wall panels with connections - Phase II
This detailed experimental and numerical study examined 1/4 scale stainless steel blast wall panels and their connections under pulse pressure loading. The panel design was based on the deep trough trapezoidal profile with welded angle connections top and bottom and free sides. Three types of connection systems were studied, namely a short, medium and long welded angle connection, in order to compare the influence of the angle length. Large permanent plastic deformations were produced in the connection system without rupture. An earlier phase of the study had established that modelling the support correctly was fundamental to the response of the blast wall and could significantly affect its ultimate capacity.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 58p. Illus. 16 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1445 Ratcliff I.
The ex files
This article discusses the risk of explosion in the workplace. It briefly explains the science behind such events and discusses how companies can manage their activities responsibly to avoid them. Boxes contain United Kingdom legislation applicable to explosions and short descriptions of accidents.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Dec. 2006, Vol.24, No.12, p.46-48. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 07-1442 Liaw H.J., Chiu Y.Y.
A general model for predicting the flash point of miscible mixtures
This article presents a mathematical model for predicting the flash point of miscible mixtures. The model was validated using the ternary aqueous-organic solutions consisting of water, methanol and ethanol or isopropanol. The findings confirm that the model predicts flash points of these solutions by utilizing the flash points of the individual components. Further, if the binary interaction parameters for ternary aqueous-organic solution are not accessible, a model based upon the binary interaction parameters of the binary solutions may provide a sufficiently acceptable means of predicting the flash point for such a ternary solution, as validated in this study by comparing predicted and experimental data.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2006, Vol.137, No.1, p.38-46. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 07-1447 Practical assistance for the preparation of an explosion protection document
Praxishilfen zur Erstellung des Explosionsschutzdokumentes [in German]
Guide pratique pour l'élaboration du document relatif à la protection contre les explosions [in French]
European Directive 94/9/EC, known as the ATEX Directive (see CIS 95-27), specifies the requirements concerning the protection against explosions within enterprises. It requires employers to carry out a hazard evaluation and to record the findings in an explosion protection document, together with all related prevention measures. This booklet presents the structure and content of this document, and provides several examples of hazard evaluations (floor over a silo complex, pneumatic conveying systems, storage of explosive gases and liquids, paint spraying booths, etc.).
International Section Machine and System Safety of the ISSA, Dynamostrasse 7-11, 68165 Mannheim, Germany, 2006. 46p. Illus. 11 ref.

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