Psychological factors - 1,739 entries found
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Mangeot A.M., Vogel L.
Production and reproduction - Stealing the health of future generations
Attività produttive e riproduzione umana - Quando il lavoro diventa una minaccia per le generazioni future [in Italian]
This issue reproduces the full contents of a booklet originally published by the European Trade Union Institute (ETUI), whose aim is to help improve awareness of work-related reproductive hazards, which consist of a vast and complex mix including chemicals, ionizing radiation, vibration, heat, biological agents and stress. They also have a wide variety of effects, including male and female infertility, miscarriages, birth defects and impaired child development. They often receive scant attention. There is probably no other sphere of safety and health at work in which the available information is so piecemeal and lacking. The booklet reviews and gives a broad-brush picture of the available knowledge for a general readership. It forms part of the general work of ETUI to develop a critical trade union approach to safety and health at work. This particular publication deals in most detail with chemicals, but also provides relevant information on other reproductive risks.
2087, Casa editrice Edit Coop, Via dei Frentani 4/A, 00185 Rome, Italy, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.6/7, p.1-65 (whole issue). Illus. 69 ref.
Nielsen M.B., Hetland J., Matthiesen S.B., Einarsen S.
Longitudinal relationships between workplace bullying and psychological distress
The aims of this study were to examine associations between exposure to workplace bullying and symptoms of psychological distress, and to investigate how self-labeled victimization from bullying explains the effects of bullying on health. It involved a representative cohort sample of 1775 Norwegian employees. Data were collected by means of questionnaires and logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the longitudinal relationships. Findings are discussed. The mutual relationship between bullying and psychological distress indicates a vicious circle where bullying and distress reinforce their own negative effects. This highlights the importance of early interventions to stop workplace bullying and provide treatment options to employees with psychological distress.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Jan. 2012, Vol.38, No.1, p.38-46. 51 ref.
Longitudinal_relationships_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Dijkstra M.T.M., Beersma B., Evers A.
Reducing conflict-related employee strain: The benefits of an internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management strategy
Workplace conflict is a potent stressor, but most previous research has focused on its effect on productivity and performance rather than on individual well-being. This cross-sectional study of 774 health care workers in the Netherlands examined the moderating roles of an individual's internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management strategy. It was found that employees' internal locus of control did moderate the relationship between experienced conflict at work and psychological strain, which was measured using a 13-item Dutch adaptation of the Occupational Stress Indicator. In addition, this moderation was mediated by the active conflict management strategy of problem solving; people with a more internal locus of control use a problem-solving conflict management strategy more often and, as a result, experience less psychological strain in cases of workplace conflict. Implications for conflict theory, for future research and for practice are discussed.
Work and Stress, 2nd quarter 2011, p.167-184. Illus. Approx. 60 ref.
Reducing_conflict-related_employee_strain.pdf [in English]
Shams M., Shojaeizadeh D., Majdzadeh R., Rashidian A., Montazeri A.
Taxi drivers' view on risky driving behavior in Tehran: A qualitative survey using a social marketing approach
In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran, were used to explore their views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviour, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing programme to reduce risky driving behaviour. Findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2011, Vol.43, No.3, p.646-651. 28 ref.
Kihlstedt A., Hägg G.M.
Checkout cashier work and counter design - Video movement analysis, musculoskeletal disorders and customer interaction
This study was conducted in order to analyse checkout cashiers' movements at a checkout counter during interaction with customers and the prevalence of work-related stress and musculoskeletal disorders in checkout cashiers. In one shop, six cashiers were videotaped during the workday and 50 cashiers from seven shops from the same chain of stores responded to a questionnaire. Cashier activities and movements, customer interaction and counter design issues were analysed from the video data. Prevalence of work-related stress and musculoskeletal disorders was obtained from the questionnaire. It was found that 76% of all items were manually turned or angled. With a better adjustment of the scanner and a standardised positioning of the barcode, many of these movements could be avoided. Furthermore the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was quite high (68% for the neck). The questionnaire results showed that many cashiers experienced stress. The behaviour of the customers was the major cause of stress. Other sources of stress arose from bad design or function of the computer system or other technical equipment.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.201-207. Illus. 19 ref.
Compassion fatigue: experiences in occupational health, human resources, counselling and police
This study examines the impact that working with distressed employees, clients and members of the public has on four caring professions: occupational health advisors (OHAs), human resource advisors (HRs), counsellors (CLs) and family liaison officers (FLOs). Data were collected by means of questionnaires from 276 professionals (64 HRs, 53 OHAs, 114 CLs and 45 FLOs). There were few differences in the level of negative beliefs between groups, although CLs were found to experience more feelings of isolation and FLOs and CLs were more likely to believe that there was no justice in the world. OHAs, CLs and FLOs were significantly more likely to demonstrate personal growth than HRs. Reflection on the work facilitated through professional or peer supervision and a healthy lifestyle was found to be associated with higher levels of personal growth and satisfaction with their performance at work.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.60, No.2, p.133-138. 19 ref.
Compassion_fatigue_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Cowlishaw S., Evans L., McLennan J.
Work-family conflict and crossover in volunteer emergency service workers
A growing body of literature indicates that organizational and work demands place pressure on the partners and families of volunteer workers, as it does on paid workers. This study evaluated a conceptual model integrating work-family conﬂict and stress crossover theoretical frameworks, to investigate the mechanisms by which emergency service volunteer work predicts outcomes for the partners of volunteers. Matched data from 102 couples in which one partner was an Australian emergency services volunteer (fire-fighter, ambulance officer or emergency rescue volunteer) were analyzed using structural equation modelling. Findings suggested that one mechanism by which inter-role conflict related to partner adjustment was through elevated withdrawn marital behaviour and decreased intimacy reported by the couple, which indirectly affected partners' distress. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.24, No.3, p.342-358. Illus. 59 ref.
Work-family_conflict.pdf [in English]
Wang L., Wheeler K., Bai L., Stallones L., Dong Y., Ge J., Xiang H.
Alcohol consumption and work-related injuries among farmers in Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China
This population-based survey aimed to study the association between alcohol use and work-related agricultural injury. Farmers in a north-eastern province of China were questioned about work-related injury in the past year, alcohol use, farming practices and sociodemographic factors. The Chi-square test and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the role of alcohol drinking in agricultural injuries. Among 2,050 farmers who completed the survey, the 12-month prevalence of work-related injury was 12.2%. The leading external cause of injury was exposure to mechanical force. The odds of injury among farmers with past month drinking, who drank distilled spirits and reported intoxication were respectively 1.77, 1.89 and 2.12. The odds of injury also significantly increased with greater average amounts of pure alcohol per day, with increased frequency of drinking per week and with greater reported years of drinking. Each alcohol use variable was associated with injury in logistic regression models while controlling for sex, age, years of farm work, months of farm work in the past 12 months, driving a motor vehicle and agricultural machinery use.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.825-835. 35 ref.
Kortum E., Leka S., Cox T.
Psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries: Health impact, priorities, barriers and solutions
This paper focuses on knowledge of potential health impact of psychosocial risks and preliminary priorities for action, and discusses potential barriers and solutions to addressing psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries. This research applied a mixed methodology including semi-structured interviews, two rounds of an online Delphi survey and four focus groups. High concern was expressed for the need to address psychosocial risks and work-related stress and their health impact. Developing country experts' knowledge about these issues was comparable to knowledge from industrialized countries; however, application of expert knowledge was reported to be weak in developing countries. Socio-economic conditions were regarded as important considerations. Priorities to be addressed were identified, and barriers to implementing possible solutions were proposed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.225-238. Illus. 56 ref.
Psychosocial_risks.pdf [in English]
Feola G., Binder C.R.
Why don't pesticide applicators protect themselves? Exploring the use of personal protective equipment among Colombian smallholders
The misuse of personal protective equipment (PPE) during pesticide application was investigated among smallholders in Colombia. Findings suggest that the descriptive social norm was significantly influencing PPE use. The following were also important: having experienced pesticide-related health problems; age; the share of pesticide application carried out; the perception of PPE hindering work. Interestingly, the influence of these factors differed for different pieces of PPE. Since conformity to the social norm is a source of rigidity in the system, behavioural change may take the form of a discontinuous transition. Suggestions for triggering a transition towards more sustainable PPE use are formulated.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.16, p.11-23. Illus. 57 ref.
Martinez-Losa Tobías J.F., Bestratén Belloví M.
Developing competencies and psychosocial risks (II). Example of an application to teaching
Desarrollo de competencias y riesgos psicosociales (II). Ejemplo de aplicación en la docencia [in Spanish]
This information note sheet complements the NTP 856 (see ISN 111696) on a model of skills development to cope with psychosocial risks. It describes an application of the model in the field of education which has yielded positive results and shown to be successful.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 18 ref.
NTP_857.pdf [in Spanish]
Martinez-Losa Tobías J.F., Bestratén Belloví M.
Developing competencies and psychosocial risks (I)
Desarrollo de competencias y riesgos psicosociales (I) [in Spanish]
This information note discusses the usefulness of implementing a model of skills development within the company to help management and workers to cope with psychosocial risks.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 8p. Illus. 18 ref.
NTP_856.pdf [in Spanish]
Madsen I.E., Diderichsen F., Burr H., Rugulies R.
Person-related work and incident use of antidepressants: Relations and mediating factors from the Danish work environment cohort study
Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who work with people are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. This study examines whether person-related work is associated with incident use of antidepressants, and whether this association is mediated by several work environment exposures. Self-reported data from 4958 participants in the Danish work environment cohort study in 2000 were linked with the use of antidepressants between 2001 and 2006. Compared to employees doing non-person-related work, the use of antidepressants was increased statistically significantly for healthcare workers and statistically non-significantly for educational workers. The use of antidepressants was not elevated for social or customer service workers, or those doing other types of person-related work. The increased risks of antidepressant-use for healthcare and educational workers were attenuated when adjusted for emotional demands at work. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.36, No.6, p.435-444. 63 ref.
Benach J., Muntaner C., Chung H., Benavides F.G.
Immigration, employment relations, and health: Developing a research agenda
International migration has emerged as a global issue that has transformed the lives of hundreds of millions of persons. A review of literature indicates that public health researchers should be concerned about the health consequences of migration processes. Migrant workers are more represented in dangerous industries and in hazardous jobs, occupations and tasks. They are often hired as labourers in precarious jobs with poverty wages and experience more serious abuse and exploitation at the workplace. Also, analyses document migrant workers' problems of social exclusion, lack of health and safety training, fear of reprisals for demanding better working conditions, linguistic and cultural barriers that minimize the effectiveness of training, as well as incomplete access to OHS services and care and compensation when injured. The overall impact of immigration on population health, however, still is poorly understood and many mechanisms, pathways and overall health impact are poorly documented. Current limitations highlight the need to engage in explicit analytical, intervention and policy research.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.338-343. 27 ref.
Badura B, Schröder H., Klose J., Macco K., eds.
Absenteeism Report 2009. Work and psyche: Reduce stress - Promote well-being - Figures, data and analyses from all sectors of the economy
Fehlzeiten-Report 2009. Arbeit und Psyche: Belastungen reduzieren - Wohlbefinden fördern - Zahlen, Daten, Analysen aus allen Branchen der Wirtschaft [in German]
This report provides detailed information on sick leave trends in the German economy, by industry sector, presents recent findings and evaluates the reasons of absenteeism faced by business. It focuses on stress, mental health and well-being. The importance of mental illness as a cause of disability has increased steadily in recent years. Often these disorders go hand in hand with long absences, which for both employees and employers involve high costs. The report includes examples and case studies highlighting the experiences and initiatives of enterprises to address this issue. Contents include: current statistics on the state of health of workers in all sectors; the main types of diseases responsible for absenteeism; the number of occupational accidents; comparative analyses by region, company size and occupation; distribution of absence by months of the year and day of the week.
Springer-Verlag GmbH, Tiergartenstrasse 17, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany, 2010, xiii, 466p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: EUR 44.95.
Stress at work, an emerging risk in OHS
Stresse no trabalho, um risco emergente em SST [in Portuguese]
Occupational stress is a relatively new risk for occupational safety and health services, and is among the emerging occupational risks identified by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. This article reviews the causes, consequences and mechanisms of occupational stress, and discusses the importance of identifying its causes in order to implement prevention and reduction measures.
Segurança, July-Aug. 2010, Vol.XLV, No.197, p.40-43. Illus. 9 ref.
Alhaique D., Bertozzi C., Maliore M., Cutolo C., Tremel G., Tramontano T.
The European ESENER survey - All the new and emerging risks
L'indagine europea Esener - Tutti i rischi nuovi ed emergenti [in Italian]
This issue publishes an extensive summary of the recent EU-OSHA's investigation on new and emerging risks (ESENER) at workplaces in Europe. The survey provides comparable data for EU Member States relevant to the elaboration and implementation of new occupational safety and health policies. The data were collected in the spring of 2009 from public- and private-sector companies with more than ten employees, in all sectors of economic activity except agriculture. A large part is devoted to psychosocial hazards.
2087, Casa editrice Edit Coop, Via dei Frentani 4/A, 00185 Rome, Italy, June 2010, Vol. XII, No.6, p.1-31 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Abbe O.O., Harvey C.M., Ikuma L.H., Aghazadeh F.
Modeling the relationship between occupational stressors, psychosocial/physical symptoms and injuries in the construction industry
Injury statistics place the construction industry as a high-risk industry, making it necessary to investigate factors that influence accidents to be able to protect workers. This cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the relationship existing among occupational stressors, psychological/physical symptoms and accident/injury and work days lost outcomes as experienced by manual workers engaged in a range of industrial construction occupations. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. Some of the occupational stressors significantly associated with self-reported and OSHA logged injuries were training, job certainty and safety climate of the company. The OSHA logged injuries were associated with the occurrence of headaches and feelings of tenseness on the job. These results imply that non-physical stressors should be included as a potential input associated with injuries in injury risk models for construction workers.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.41, p.106-117. Illus. 22 ref.
Morii D., Miyagatani Y., Nakamae N., Murao M., Taniyama K.
Japanese experience of hydrogen sulfide: The suicide craze in 2008
Most of hydrogen sulfide poisoning in Japan involved industrial accidents. However, since January 2008, a burgeoning of suicide attempts using homemade hydrogen sulfide gas has become evident. By April 2008, the fad escalated into a chain reaction nationwide. Mortality of the poisoning was very high. There were 220 cases of attempted gas suicides during the period of March 27 to June 15, killing 208. An introduction of new method of making the gas, transmitted through message boards on the internet, was blamed for this "outbreak". The new method entailed mixing bath additive and toilet detergent. The National Police Agency instructed internet providers to remove information that could be harmful. Of the victims of the fad in 2008, several cases were serious enough that family members also died. Paramedics and caregivers were also injured secondarily by the gas.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, 5:28, 3p. Illus. 3 ref.
Japanese_experience.pdf [in English]
Rüegsegger R., Egli C.
Emergency psychological support - What to do in the event of a serious occupational accident?
Seelische Nothilfe - Was tun nach einem schweren Unfall am Arbeitsplatz? [in German]
Pronto soccorso psicologico - Cosa fare dopo un grave infortunio sul lavoro? [in Italian]
Aide psychologique d'urgence - Que faire après un grave accident du travail? [in French]
Topics addressed in this booklet on emergency psychological support in the event of a serious accident: post-traumatic stress; preventive emergency measures; coping with the media; specialized services. Two information sheets on emergency psychological support are included, one aimed at enterprise heads and safety officers, the other at victims, their friends and close relatives.
SUVA, Flumattstrasse 1, Postfach 4358, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1st ed., 2010. 13p. Illus.; 2p. (leaftlet 1); 1p. (leaflet 2).
Que_faire_après_un_grave_accident_du_travail.pdf [in French]
Conseils_aux_chefs_d'entreprise.pdf [in French]
Conseils_aux_victimes.pdf [in French]
Was_tun_nach_einem_schweren_Unfall_am_Arbeitsplatz.pdf [in German]
Wichtigste_Massnahmen_für_Betriebsleitung.pdf [in German]
Wichtigste_Massnahmen_für_Betroffene.pdf [in German]
Cosa_fare_dopo_un_grave_infortunio_sul_lavoro.pdf [in Italian]
Le_misure_più_importanti_per_la_direzione_aziendale.pdf [in Italian]
Le_misure_più_importanti_per_le_persone_coinvolte.pdf [in Italian]
Larivière C., Sullivan M.J., Fung J., Mecheri H., Butler H., Vadeboncoeur R.
Chronic low back pain - The relationship between the psychological factors associated with pain and some lumbar deficiency neuromuscular measurements - REPAR Program - IRSST
Lombalgie chronique - La relation entre les facteurs psychologiques associés à la douleur et certaines mesures neuromusculaires de déficiences lombaires - Programme REPAR-IRSST [in French]
The lumbar deficiencies of workers suffering from chronic low back pain are evaluated during the execution of standardized tasks, which allows better isolation of the physiological phenomena considered. This study was interested in the deficiencies associated with trunk muscle coordination. Certain pain-related psychological variables can have an impact on muscle coordination measurements, which makes their interpretation more difficult. The study evaluated the possible association between a selection of psychological variables (fear of movement, pain catastrophizing) and neuromuscular measurements collected during three tasks. They also verified, in a more exploratory way, to what extent attentional demand modulates the impact of psychological processes on these neuromuscular measurements. The results obtained suggest that a certain variation in these neuromuscular responses could be explained by the level of attention given to pain. This study does not provide recommendations about the conditions that would reduce these variations and for which types of subjects in particular. However, it concludes that pain-related psychological variables do not affect these neuromuscular responses to the point of generating major effects.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. vii, 84p. Illus. 91 ref. Price: CAD 12.60. Downloadable version free of charge.
Rapport_R-658.pdf [in French]
Wang J., Schmitz N., Smailes E., Sareen J., Patten S.
Workplace characteristics, depression, and health-related presenteeism in a general population sample
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between workplace psychosocial factors, work-family conflicts, depression and health-related presenteeism. It was conducted in the form of a cross-sectional survey of 4032 employees representative of the working population aged 25 to 64 years in Alberta, Canada. Data about workplace characteristics, depression and health-related presenteeism were collected through telephone. Among the participants, 47.3% and 42.9% reported some degree of impaired job performance in completing work and avoiding distraction, respectively. Major depression is the strongest factor associated with avoiding distraction. Job strain and effort-reward imbalance seemed to affect job performance through severity of depression but not major depression. It is concluded that a negative work environment may directly and indirectly affect job performance. Workplace health promotion activities should target organizational factors such as job strain, effort-reward imbalance and work-family conflicts so as to reduce the risk of depression and the direct and indirect effects of these risk factors and depression on productivity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.52, No.5, p.836-842. 32 ref.
Borritz M., Christensen K.B., Bültmann U., Rugulies R., Lund T., Andersen I., Villadsen E., Diderichsen F., Kristensen T.S.
Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA study among human service workers
The objective of this study was to examine whether burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Data were collected at 82 work units in human services in the framework of the PUMA study (PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and Job satisfaction). The cohort was followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long-term sickness absence for more than 18 months based on data from a national absence register were used. Long-term sickness absence was predicted by psychosocial factors and by burnout at work unit level. To reduce sickness absence, organizations within human services should improve the psychosocial work environment, and equally important, the organizations should be attentive to employees with symptoms of burnout.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.52, No.10, p.964-970. 44 ref.
Matterne U., Diepgen T.L., Weisshaar E.
Effects of a health-educational and psychological intervention on socio-cognitive determinants of skin protection behaviour in individuals with occupational dermatoses
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether social cognitions as embodied by the theory of planned behaviour become more favourable during a tertiary inpatient individual prevention programme (TIP) and whether the model's predictions hold in a setting to which the model has not been applied, using a longitudinal design. A questionnaire was developed and administered to 101 patients before (at admission) and after (at discharge) a 3-week inpatient TIP. The scales showed good internal consistency. Before the TIP, patients had favourable cognitions towards skin protection measures and these improved during the TIP. These and other findings are discussed. The results emphasise the importance of health-educational and psychological interventions for patients with occupational skin disease.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.183-189. 51 ref.
Hansen Å.M., Blangsted A.K., Hansen E.A., Søgaard K., Sjøgaard G.
Physical activity, job demand-control, perceived stress-energy, and salivary cortisol in white-collar workers
The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers. Physical activity during the previous week was assessed during work and leisure time by a Danish version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and saliva samples were collected. The study group comprised 389 white-collar workers, aged 25-67 years, of which 257 were women. Physical activity during leisure time was associated with higher perceived energy, and for men also with lower perceived stress. Furthermore, physical activity at leisure time affected the association between salivary cortisol and perceived stress and energy, so that respondents being physically active at leisure time and perceiving higher energy showed higher evening saliva cortisol. It is concluded that physically active employees perceive less stress and more energy and that the association between stress-energy and salivary cortisol is affected by vigorous physical activity. Based on these results, it is recommended that office workers exposed to high job strain and inactivity at the job perform physical activity, preferably of high intensity, in order to reduce stress and increase energy.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.143-153. Illus. 50 ref.
Löve J., Grimby-Ekman A., Eklöf M., Hagberg M., Dellve L.
"Pushing oneself too hard": Performance-based self-esteem as a predictor of sickness presenteeism among young adult women and men--a cohort study
The aim of this study was to examine whether young adults with highly performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) were present at work/studies when ill more frequently than were others. The association between PBSE and sickness presenteeism (SP) >5 times/yr (retrospectively at 1-year follow-up) was examined by data from a Swedish cohort of 5582 young adults aged 20 to 25 years. PBSE was a predictor of SP even when adjusting for general health, psychological demands, physical demands, economic problems and main occupation. A synergy effect was also observed between PBSE and environmental and personal factors in relation to SP. The effect of PBSE on SP was four times higher among individuals with poor health, compared to individuals with good health. These results provide support for the role of personality characteristics as a predictor of frequent SP.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2010, Vol.52, No.6, p.603-609. Illus. 42 ref.
Tucker P., Folkard S., Ansiau D., Marquié J.C.
The effects of age and shiftwork on perceived sleep problems: Results from the VISAT-combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study
With the workforces in industrialized countries getting older, this study sought to determine how shift work affects sleep in later life. Longitudinal data were collected from a large sample in 1996, 2001 and 2006 from employees who were 32, 42, 52 and 62 years old in 1996. The effects of shift work were most apparent in the early and middle years of working life. Former shift workers reported more sleep problems than both current shift workers and those who had never worked shifts. Giving up shift work off-set the age-related accumulation of sleep problems, with the net result that former shift workers showed little or no change in sleep problems over the three measurement occasions. It is concluded that while the effects of shift work on sleep may persist for a long time after giving up shift work, they are not permanent.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2010, Vol.52, No.4, p.392-398. Illus. 13 ref.
Harrington C.B., Feuerstein M.
Workstyle in office workers: Ergonomic and psychological reactivity to work demands
The objective of this study was to investigate whether variation in work demands were related to keyboard force, postural change, cognitive reactivity, physiological arousal and work output in asymptomatic office workers who varied in workstyle. Eighty asymptomatic office workers prescreened for level of workstyle (high = 39, low = 41) were enrolled in the study. Participants were exposed to a high- and low-demand work task, and biomechanical, physiological, and psychological reactivity were measured. Results indicate that the high workstyle group demonstrated elevated keyboard force, greater awkward posture, more negative mood changes, and more negative work-related cognitions. Asymptomatic office workers with higher levels of self-reported adverse workstyle responded to a manipulation of work demands with greater psychological and biomechanical strain.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2010, Vol.52, No.4, p.375-382. Illus. 29 ref.
Choobineh A., Movahed M., Tabatabaie S.H., Kumashiro M.
Perceived demands and musculoskeletal disorders in operating room nurses of Shiraz City hospitals
Excessive demands on operation room nurses may result in high rates of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This study was conducted among Shiraz city hospital nurses to determine the prevalence of MSDs and to examine the relationship between perceived demands and reported MSDs. In this cross-sectional study, 375 operating room nurses participated (response rate: 80%). Data were collected by means of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and the Job Content Questionnaire. Lower back symptoms were found to be the most prevalent problem, with a past year prevalence of 60.6%. Perceived physical demands were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms (odds ratio ranged from 2.04 to 7.24). Manual material handling (MMH) activities were most frequently associated with reported symptoms. Association was also found between perceived psychological demands and reported symptoms (odds ratio 1.68 or higher). Based on the findings, it is concluded that operating theatres are not only physically, but also psychologically demanding environments. Any interventional program for preventing or reducing MSDs among nurses should focus on reducing physical demands, particularly excessive MMH demands as well as considering psychological aspects of the working environment.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.74-84. 47 ref.
Perceived_demands_and_musculoskeletal_disorders.pdf [in English]
Shibaoka M., Takada M., Watanabe M., Kojima R., Kakinuma M., Tanaka K., Kawakami N.
Development and validity of the Japanese version of the organizational justice scale
Organizational justice has recently attracted attention as a predictor of employee mental and physical health. However, the lack of a Japanese translation of the original English-language organizational justice scale (OJS) has precluded its application in Japan. The present study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the measure of organizational justice. A total of 229 employees responded to the Japanese version of the OJS (OJS-J), the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). To assess construct validity, job satisfaction was recorded using the visual analog scale (VAS). Exploratory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure model of OJS-J. Correlation coefficients between the OJS-J and ERI, K10 and VAS were statistically significant, indicating a reasonable degree of construct validity. Obtained internal consistency was markedly high and test-retest reliability as analyzed with an intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.91. These results suggest that the OJS-J is a reliable and valid measure that may be suitable for use as a predictor of employee health in Japanese workplaces.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.66-73. Illus. 20 ref.
Development_and_validity.pdf [in English]
Åkerstedt T., Kecklund G., Selén J.
Disturbed sleep and fatigue as predictors of return from long-term sickness absence
Long-term sickness absence has doubled in Sweden, as have complaints of disturbed sleep. The present study sought to investigate the prospective link between long-term sickness absence and disturbed sleep or fatigue. Sleep and fatigue from a representative national sample was followed up 1.5-2 yr later in terms of return from long-term (≥90 d) and intermediate term (14-89 d) sickness absence. 8,300 individuals participated in the survey, out of which 372 were on long-term and 1,423 were on intermediate term sick leave. The data was analyzed using logistic regression analysis with adjustment for background and work environment variables. Findings are discussed. The results indicate that disturbed sleep and fatigue are predictors of lack of return from long-term and intermediate-term sickness absence.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.209-214. 31 ref.
Disturbed_sleep_and_fatigue.pdf [in English]
Working conditions at recycling centres in Sweden - Physical and psychosocial work environment
The aim of this study was to investigate physical and psychosocial working conditions for employees at recycling centres in Sweden, to describe how they were perceived, to compare differences between subgroups, and further to identify proposals for improvement. The study population comprised 122 employees of 42 recycling centres which responded a postal questionnaire. Of these, 32 employees from 16 recycling centres were interviewed, as well as their employer. The work at recycling centres was reported to be a meaningful service job comprising many social interactions with users, but also substantial physical strain. There was a high frequency of injuries and minor injuries. Several risks were identified. There is a need for several preventive actions, including better planning when building recycling centres, better machines and equipment, and more training, especially in handling hazardous waste.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.347-354. Illus. 37 ref.
Kawai K., Yamazaki Y, Nakayama K.
Process evaluation of a web-based stress management program to promote psychological well-being in a sample of white-collar workers in Japan
The article describes the evaluation of a web-based stress management programme designed to improve psychological well-being. A total of 168 employees participated in the intervention. The pre-test was conducted at the time of registration and the post-test upon the completion of the programme. To facilitate analysis, a model was build based on the programme impact theory and a path analysis was conducted. It was found that the majority of participants evaluated the program positively in all sessions. Participant evaluations directly predicted changes in psychological well-being. It is concluded that programmes where participants feel enjoyment and enhance their self-rated capability to cope with stress can be effective.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.265-274. Illus. 36 ref.
Huang S.L., Li R.H., Tang F.C.
Comparing disparities in the health-promoting lifestyles of Taiwanese workers in various occupations
This study describes the various levels of overall health-promoting lifestyles and behaviours of workers within different occupational categories, and examines the effects of occupational category, perceived workload and BMI level. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 796 participants by means of self-reporting questionnaire which included the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) to measure the overall HPLP and six health-promoting behaviors (nutrition, health responsibility, self-actualization, interpersonal support, exercise and stress management). Multiple regression analysis showed that the various occupational categories sustained significant differences in overall HPLP, nutrition, self-actualization, interpersonal support and stress management (after controlling for certain specific factors). The obese group had less participation in overall health-promoting lifestyles and stress management when compared with the moderate BMI group. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.256-264. 35 ref.
Occupational accidents - Managing post-traumatic stress disorders
Accident du travail - Savoir gérer les troubles posttraumatiques [in French]
Being a witness to a serious and possibly fatal building site accident may cause intense emotions and even depression. In an SME, such post-traumatic stress disorders may chronically affect the functioning of the enterprise, and possibly even threaten its sustainability. The availability of specialized psychological support following accidents is still not common. This collection of articles on managing post-traumatic stress disorders in the construction sector explains how to cope with occupational accidents, includes the advice of a psychologist and presents the policy adopted by a large French construction firm with respect to the setup of a psychological cell.
Prévention BTP, June 2010, No.130, p.12-17. Illus.
Chang Y.H., Wang Y.C.
Significant human risk factors in aircraft maintenance technicians
This study examined significant human risk factors among aircraft maintenance technicians in Taiwan. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire from 20 technicians having more than 15 years of supervisory experience. The study identified 46 possible risk factors, of which nine were found to be critical. This list will help airlines to improve their risk management and maintenance operations.
Safety Science, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.54-62. Illus. 34 ref.
Griffin S.C., Neitzel R., Daniell W.E., Seixas N.S.
Indicators of hearing protection use: Self-report and researcher observation
This study compares workers' self-reported use of hearing protection with their observed use in three workplaces with two types of noise environments: one construction site and one fixed industry facility with a variable noise environment, and one fixed industry facility with a steady noise environment. Subjects reported their use of hearing protection on self-administered surveys and activity cards, which were validated using researcher observations. Good agreement was found overall between subjects' self-reported HPD use and researcher observations. Workers in the steady noise environment self-reported hearing protection use more accurately on the surveys than workers in variable noise environments. The findings demonstrate the potential importance of noise exposure variability as a factor influencing reporting accuracy.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2009, Vol.6, p.639-647. Illus. 31 ref.
Rosa V., Alessandri G.
Teachers' efficacy: Promoting job commitment and job satisfaction
L'efficacia dei docenti: come promuovere l'impegno nell'organizzazione e la soddisfazione lavorativa [in Italian]
Self-efficacy is a strong predictor of teachers' job commitment and active participation. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the soundness and validity of a theoretical model regarding the influence of personal and collective self-efficacy on two key organizational variables within the school context: job commitment and job satisfaction. The theoretical model was checked against data using structural-equation models, a statistical tool that allows an empirical test of the degree to which a theoretical model explains the empirical co-variance observed within a set of empirical data. Findings attest the validity of the proposed theoretical model.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Dec 2009, Vol.5, No.3/4, p.73-84. Illus. 39 ref.
L'efficacia_dei_docenti.pdf [in Italian]
Teachers'_efficacy.pdf [in English]
Laaksonen M., Piha K., Martikainen P., Rahkonen O., Lahelma E.
Health-related behaviours and sickness absence from work
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare associations of health-related behaviours with self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations can be explained by psychosocial and physical working conditions and occupational social class. The study included 5470 female and 1464 male employees of the City of Helsinki surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine associations of smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, dietary habits and relative weight (body mass index) with self-certified (1-3 days) and medically confirmed (≥4 days) absence spells. Population-attributable fractions were calculated to quantify the sickness absence burden related to the behaviours. Health-related behaviours, smoking and high relative weight in particular, were associated with subsequent sickness absence independently of psychosocial and physical working conditions and social class. Decreasing smoking and relative weight is likely to provide important gains in work ability and reduce sickness absence.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2009, Vol.66, No.12, p.840-847. 36 ref.
Thomas C., Hertzman C., Power C.
Night work, long working hours, psychosocial work stress and cortisol secretion in mid-life: Evidence from a British birth cohort
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between exposure to workplace factors (night work, extended working hours, psychosocial work stress) and cortisol secretion, and to test whether workplace factors interact, resulting in combined effects. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to test relationships between workplace factors and cortisol secretion in the 1958 British birth cohort at 45 years. Salivary cortisol was measured twice on the same day to capture the post-waking decline, facilitating the analysis of cortisol patterns at different times of the day. Models were adjusted for socioeconomic position at birth and in adulthood, qualifications, marital status, dependent children and smoking status. Findings suggest that night work in particular is associated with elevated cortisol secretion and that cortisol deregulation may exist in subgroups with specific combinations of stressors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2009, Vol.66, No.12, p.824-831. 42 ref.
Secondhand smoke in Geneva, 1996-2006 - Changes in exposure, opinions, and workplace smoking bans in the absence of national legislation
Postal surveys were conducted in 1996 and 2006 to assess change in duration of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), frequency of smoking bans at the workplace, and opinions on smokefree measures in Geneva, Switzerland, in the absence of national smoke-free legislation. A random sample of 742 participants in 1996 and 1487 in 2006 showed length of exposure to SHS decreased from 7h/week to 4h/week, with the largest decrease among 26-45 year olds. Workplace smoking bans increased from 33.4% to 66.3%. Agreement that SHS is dangerous to health increased from 77.5% to 86.0%. Agreement that all restaurant tables should be reserved to nonsmokers also increased, from 14.8% to 41.4%. Opinions were more favourable to all smoke-free measures in 2006 than in 1996, except, "More information should be given on the health dangers of SHS," suggesting a level of saturation was reached for information on SHS.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2009, Vol. 15, No.2, p.159-165. 57 ref.
Hansez I., Bertrand F., Barbier M.
Evaluation of stress diagnosis practices in Belgian companies: Blocking and stimulating factors
Evaluation des pratiques de diagnostic de stress au sein d'entreprises belges: facteurs bloquants et facteurs stimulants [in French]
The objectives of the study were to evaluate occupational stress diagnosis practices in Belgian companies, and to identify factors that stimulate or block the implementation of stress management interventions at the workplace. A survey was used to collect data about work stress diagnosis practices. The first objective was explored through open questions about stress diagnosis and intervention. The second objective was achieved using a specific questionnaire designed on the basis of scientific literature. The sample included 180 Belgian companies from different sectors of activity, ranging in size from 20 to more than 10,000 workers. Only one out of six companies had implemented a stress diagnosis. Among those who had done so, only one out of two had implemented actions, and only one out of four had moved onto an evaluation stage. Other findings are discussed.
Travail humain, Apr. 2009, Vol.72, No.2, p.127-153. 38 ref.
Caponecchia C., Wyatt Y.
Distinguishing between workplace bullying, harassment and violence: A risk management approach
This article describes a risk management model that can be used to deal with workplace bullying, and reviews suggestions for workplace policies. It aims to help organizations to control the risk of workplace bullying by identifying unique aspects of bullying and implementing appropriate strategies to address them, leading to improved outcomes for employees and, in turn, positive aspects on business performance.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2009, Vol.25, No.6, p.439-449. Illus. 61 ref.
Distinguishing_between_workplace_bullying_harassment_and_violence.pdf [in English]
OSH in figures: Stress at work - Facts and figures
According to the fourth European Survey of Working Conditions, carried out in 2005 in all Member States of the European Union, stress was experienced by an average 22% of working Europeans. In 2002, the annual economic cost of work-related stress in 15 EU countries was estimated at EUR 20 billion. Contents of this report on stress at work in Europe: introduction; prevalence of stress at work; stress by age; stress by gender; stress by sector and occupation; stress by employment status; expert survey on emerging psychosocial risks; cost of stress-related health problems; legislation.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 132p. Illus. 76 ref.
Roelen C.A.M., Koopmans P.C., Bültmann U., Groothoff J.W., van der Klink J.J.L.
Psychosocial work conditions and registered sickness absence: A 3-year prospective cohort study among office employees
The objective of this study was to investigate associations between various psychosocial work conditions and sickness absence. It involved 395 employees working in an insurance office. Data on psychosocial work conditions were obtained by means of self-administered questionnaires in 2002 and linked to registered sickness absence from 2002 to 2004, adjusting for earlier sick leave and psychological distress. Overall findings were not conclusive.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2009, Vol.82, No.9, p.1107-1113. 23 ref.
Merecz D., Drabek M., Mościcka A.
Aggression at the workplace - Psychological consequences of abusive encounter with coworkers and clients
The aim of the study was to evaluate the consequences of workplace aggression from coworkers and the public among nurses and public service workers in a Polish locality. Data on violent incidents, burnout, physical health, mental health and work satisfaction were obtained by means of questionnaires and subjected to multiple regression models. It was found that employees experiencing workplace aggression were less satisfied with work, showed symptoms of burnout and their general health was poorer. The effect of aggression by coworkers was stronger than that by the public. Aggression from the public usually resulted in compassion of peers, and it was perceived as the organizational problem that should be solved, while dealing with an aggressive co-worker was usually perceived as the employee's own problem, resulting in isolation and a sense of unfairness.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.3, p.243-260. 25 ref.
Hovmand Lysdal S., Duus Johansen J.
Fragrance contact allergic patients: Strategies for use of cosmetic products and perceived impact on life situation
The objective of this survey was to investigate whether persons with diagnosed fragrance contact allergy continued to use scented products, how they identified tolerated products, and whether fragrance allergy affected their daily living. Persons diagnosed with fragrance contact allergy in a 20-month period were sent a postal questionnaire, to which 117 (79.6%) replied. Close to half reported having found scented products they could tolerate; roughly one third had not attempted to find scented products while roughly one fifth had tried but could not find any. Other findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2009, Vol.61, No.6, p.320-324. 15 ref.
Manufacturing work and organizational stresses in export processing zones
This survey investigated the interaction between organizational and management factors among workers and supervisors in manufacturing units in export processing zones in the Philippines. The survey involved 23 establishments, 630 workers, and 47 supervisors. Both workers and supervisors reported health problems and job dissatisfaction. The most prevalent issues among workers were the need to upgrade skills, being pressured at work, fast paced work, repetitive work, and that work is both physically and mentally tiring. Supervisors described their work as challenging and stimulating, needing regular upgrading of skills and needing literacy in information technology.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.543-550. 31 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_543.pdf [in English]
Tei-Tominaga M., Akiyama T., Miyake Y., Sakai Y.
The relationship between temperament, job stress and overcommitment: A cross-sectional study using the TEMPS-A and a scale of ERI
This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between temperament, job stress, and overcommitment. Self-administered questionnaires were obtained from 730 employees of a Japanese IT services company. Data were subjected to a hierarchical regression analysis. Findings showed that depressive and anxious temperaments attenuated the influence of working hours on stress, and influenced the effects of effort and rewards independently.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.509-517. 34 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_509.pdf [in English]
Urakawa K., Yokoyama K.
Sense of coherence (SOC) may reduce the effects of occupational stress on mental health status among Japanese factory workers
To examine if sense of coherence (SOC) can reduce the adverse effects of job stress on mental health status, self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 740 workers in a manufacturing industry (participation rate 62.8%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that for both men and women, mental health status was adversely related to job demand whereas it was positively associated with SOC. Similarly, the mental health status was affected adversely by managerial work in males, whereas was positively by co-workers support in females. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.503-508. 29 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_503.pdf [in English]
Shimazu A., Schaufeli W.B.
Is workaholism good or bad for employee well-being? The distinctiveness of workaholism and work engagement among Japanese employees
The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the empirical distinctiveness of workaholism and work engagement by examining their relationships with well-being in a sample of 776 Japanese employees. Questionnaires were used to measure workaholism, work engagement and well-being. Structural equation modeling showed that workaholism was positively associated with ill-health and negatively associated with life satisfaction and job performance. In contrast, work engagement was negatively associated with ill-health and positively associated with life satisfaction and job performance.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.495-502. Illus. 45 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_495.pdf [in English]
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