Skin protection - 112 entries found
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Matterne U., Diepgen T.L., Weisshaar E.
Effects of a health-educational and psychological intervention on socio-cognitive determinants of skin protection behaviour in individuals with occupational dermatoses
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether social cognitions as embodied by the theory of planned behaviour become more favourable during a tertiary inpatient individual prevention programme (TIP) and whether the model's predictions hold in a setting to which the model has not been applied, using a longitudinal design. A questionnaire was developed and administered to 101 patients before (at admission) and after (at discharge) a 3-week inpatient TIP. The scales showed good internal consistency. Before the TIP, patients had favourable cognitions towards skin protection measures and these improved during the TIP. These and other findings are discussed. The results emphasise the importance of health-educational and psychological interventions for patients with occupational skin disease.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.183-189. 51 ref.
10-0504.pdf [in English]
The prevention campaign on skin
Die Präventionskampagne Haut [in German]
This report presents the various activities undertaken during a campaign for skin protection and the prevention of skin diseases all over Germany entitled "Your skin. The most important 2m2 of your life" which ended in 2008. The reports of partners of this campaign are presented in a CD-ROM.
Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung e.V. (DGUV), Mittelstrasse 51, 10117 Berlin, Germany, 2009, 63p. Illus. + CD-ROM.
10-0218.pdf [in English]
UV protection by textiles - Good stuff
UV-Schutz durch Textilien - Guter Stoff [in German]
Outdoor workers are exposed to UV radiation and should therefore wear protective clothing when working in the sun. This article discusses the protective measures to be adopted to protect workers as well as the UV protection factor of different protection measures (UV protection clothing, cotton clothes, sun cream). An EU-standard for sun protective clothing has been developed (EN 13758) which specifies the UV protection factor (UPF) of protective clothes. Only clothing with a UPF greater than 40 are in compliance with the standard.
Faktor Arbeitsschutz, 2009, No.3, p.12-13. Illus. 3 ref.
10-0267.pdf [in English]
Winker R., Salameh B., Stolkovich S., Nikl M., Barth A., Ponocny E., Drexler H., Tappeiner G.
Effectiveness of skin protection creams in the prevention of occupational dermatitis: Results of a randomized, controlled trial
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the publicized beneficial effects of skin protection creams could be confirmed under real working conditions during activities that expose the skin. Controlled randomized trials were performed to compare the effects of a skin protection cream before work, a skin care cream after work and hand cleansing, individually and in combination. A total of 1,006 workers from the building and timber industries were recruited, among whom 485 were examined longitudinally at least three times during one year. The main finding was that skin protection creams alone have little effect on the skin barrier expressed in terms of transepidermal water loss, while when used in combination with skin care creams, they allow moderate improvement.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2009, Vol.82, No.5, p.653-662. Illus. 33 ref.
09-1231.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Managing skin exposure risks at work
Many materials used at work can affect the skin or can pass through the skin, potentially causing diseases elsewhere in the body. This booklet provides practical advice to employers and safety and health specialists to help prevent these diseases. It covers the protective role of the skin, ill-health arising from skin exposure, recognising potential skin exposure at the workplace and managing skin exposure to prevent disease. It can help employers comply with their legal duties by preventing or controlling exposure to the hazards by using and maintaining suitable controls.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2009. iv, 24p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: GBP 8.95.
09-0341.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Preventing contact dermatitis at work
Aimed at workers, this leaflet explains that contact dermatitis can be caused by contact with a wide range of substances including detergents, toiletries, chemicals and even some natural products. While it can concern all parts of the body, the hands are most commonly affected. Contents: definition and description of contact dermatitis; high risk-jobs and workplaces (health care personnel, hairdressers, printers, cleaners, metal workers); prevention (substitution, automation, enclosure, protective gloves); legal aspects (compliance with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH, see CIS 03-1023). Replaces CIS 06-6.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2007. 6p. Illus.
08-0265.pdf [in English]
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg233.pdf [in English]
Personal protective equipment - Come on, join in!
Persönliche Schutzausrüstung - Komm, mach mit! [in German]
This booklet explains the different types of protective equipment and presents the workplace signs and pictogrammes signaling that their use is required.
Institut für Arbeisschutz der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung (IFA), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 2006. 7p. Illus.
http://www.dguv.de/psa/de/publikationen/komm.pdf [in German]
Filon F.L., Boeniger M., Maina G., Adami G., Spinelli P., Damian A.
Skin absorption of inorganic lead (PbO) and the effect of skin cleansers
The aim of this study was to investigate the percutaneous penetration of lead oxide (PbO) powder and the effect of two different detergents on the speed of skin decontamination. Franz cells were used to study in vitro PbO skin penetration during a 24h period. The tests were performed without or with decontamination using either a common brand of liquid soap or a new experimental cleanser 30 minutes after the start of exposure. It was confirmed that PbO can pass through the skin with a median penetration of 2.9ng/cm2. The cleaning procedure using the liquid soap significantly increased skin penetration with a median value of 23.6ng/cm2, whereas the new experimental cleanser only marginally increased penetration (7.1ng/cm2). The results indicate that it is necessary to prevent skin contamination from occurring in the first place because a short contact can increase skin penetration even if quickly followed by washing.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2006, Vol.48, No.7, p.692-699. Illus. 40 ref.
07-0647.pdf [in English]
Löffler H., Bruckner T., Diepgen T., Effendy I.
Primary prevention in health care employees: A prospective intervention study in a 3-year training period
Irritant contact dermatitis is a mayor problem in health care employees. This study investigates the efficiency of a special training program among health care apprentices. 521 apprentices from 14 nursing schools in Germany were randomly divided into an intervention group with a regular teaching protocol regarding all aspects of primary prevention and a control group without any further teaching. In the intervention group, a significantly better hand skin condition was observed at the end of the three-year training period than in the control group, with the prevalence of morphological skin changes of 66.7% and 89.3% respectively. The controls had an odds ratio of 4.8 for developing any skin changes on the hands after three years. Other findings are discussed. This study shows that primary prevention of skin disease by regularly teaching during the training period of medical employees can effectively reduce the risk of development of irritant skin changes of the hands.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 2006, Vol.54, No.4, p.202-209. 50 ref.
07-0154.pdf [in English]
Mygind K., Borg V., Flyvholm M.A., Sell L., Frydendall Jepsen K.
A study of the implementation process of an intervention to prevent work-related skin problems in wet-work occupations
The objective of this study was to document the implementation and acceptance of a skin protection programme aimed at reducing work-related skin problems in six gut-cleaning departments in swine slaughterhouses. The intervention included a top-down strategy with establishment of a management system focusing on skin risks and a bottom-up strategy with participation of a selected group of shop floor workers and the safety representative, as well as an empowerment-based educational programme, where representatives from senior management also participated. The outcome of the intervention was evaluated by telephone interviews, self-administered questionnaires, focus group interviews and written reports. A combination of a top-down and a bottom-up implementation method was found to be effective for reducing work-related skin problems and the process of implementation was found to be a significant determinant of the overall outcome.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2006, Vol.79, No.1, p.66-74. Illus. 31 ref.
06-1344.pdf [in English]
http://www.springerlink.com/content/q103372323x858l8/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Mygind K., Sell L., Flyvholm M.A., Frydendall Jepsen K.
High-fat petrolatum-based moisturizers and prevention of work-related skin problems in wet-work operations
The purpose of this study was to explore whether a high-fat petrolatum-based moisturizer could be an alternative to protective gloves in wet-work occupations. The study population consisted of gut cleaners in Danish swine slaughterhouses, divided into intervention and comparison groups. The intervention group was given written and oral information on the use of gloves and skin care. Data were collected by telephone interviews using a standardized questionnaire. 644 (88%) gut cleaners responded at baseline and 622 (72%) at a one-year follow-up. In the intervention group, the eczema frequency was reduced significantly. Detailed analyses revealed that protective gloves were the most effective means of protection and did not indicate that a high-fat moisturizer could be an alternative. A continuous focus on prevention of skin problems with information and discussions on the shop floor seemed to be most important for reducing skin problems.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2006, Vol.54, No.1, p.35-41. 27 ref.
06-1399.pdf [in English]
Dermatitis: Suspicious hand lesions
Dermatites: des lésions suspectes de la peau [in French]
Many substances used in the construction industry are allergens or irritants and may cause dermatitis. They include in particular cement, solvents, glues and resins. The hands are the most affected. This article presents a brief overview of the main causes of dermatitis, together with the recommended preventive measures (hand hygiene, use of barrier creams and protective gloves).
Prévention BTP, Feb. 2006, No.82, p.56-58. Illus. 2 ref.
06-0654.pdf [in French]
Skin protection in the food processing industry
Protección de la piel en la elaboración de alimentos [in Spanish]
In industrialized countries, skin diseases are the most frequent occupational diseases. In the food processing industry, the main skin hazards result from wet work, frequent hand washing and disinfecting, and the use of impermeable gloves. Furthermore, skin diseases and poor skin hygiene can affect the quality of food products. The food processing industry has adopted skin protection principles that yield good results while at the same time guaranteeing the cleanliness of the food products. They involve three steps: applying skin protection creams before starting work; hand washing and disinfecting with products that are well tolerated; applying suitable skin care products after work.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2005, No.174, p.58-64. Illus. 10 ref.
06-0846.pdf [in Spanish]
Flyvholm M.A., Mygind K., Sell L., Jensen A., Jepsen K.F.
A randomised controlled intervention study on prevention of work related skin problems among gut cleaners in swine slaughterhouses
This study evaluated the effect of an intervention to reduce work related skin problems in gut cleaning departments in Danish swine slaughterhouses. The intervention included educational activities on the use of gloves and skin care products, together with evidence based recommendations. The effect of the intervention was evaluated by telephone interviews using modified the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (see CIS 04-317). A total of 644 (87.5%) participants responded at the baseline interview and 622 (71.6%) at the follow up interview one year later. At follow up, the frequency of eczema on hands or forearms in the intervention departments within the previous three months was reduced significantly from 56.2% at baseline to 41.0%, while a slight non-significant increase was observed in the comparison departments (from 45.9% to 50.2%).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.62, No.9, p.642-649. Illus. 27 ref.
06-0593.pdf [in English]
Brouwer D.H., Aitken R.J., Oppl R., Cherrie J.W.
Concepts of skin protection: Considerations for the evaluation and terminology of the performance of skin protective equipment
This article proposes a common language for better understanding the processes involved in dermal exposure and skin protection. A conceptual model has been developed that describes the transport of agent mass from sources, eventually resulting in "loading" of the skin surface or the skin contaminant layer. Evaluation of skin protective equipment (SPE) performance has mainly focused on chemical resistance testing for permeation, penetration, or degradation of SPE materials. In practice, however, all processes will occur concurrently. Thus, SPE field performance evaluation including user-SPE interaction complementary to material testing is warranted.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2005, Vol.2, No.9, p.425-434. Illus. 24 ref.
06-0673.pdf [in English]
Sadhra S., Holloway S., Jackson C.A., Foulds I.
Health and Safety Executive
Development of a field method for the assessment of the effectiveness of barrier creams in preventing skin irritation reactions
This report presents the findings of a study designed to develop a test method using non-invasive bioengineering skin instrumentation for evaluating the effectiveness of barrier creams against chemical skin irritants used in a typical work setting. The test protocols developed can easily be adapted to different industrial settings and may be used to evaluate other barrier creams for other substances. The instruments and test protocols showed that the barrier cream evaluated was effective in protecting the skin from a strong skin irritant and one of the two oils used on the site. Among the instruments used in factory settings, measurements of skin colour and trans-epidermal water loss provided the most reliable and stable data.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. viii, 74p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
05-0404.pdf [in English]
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr300.pdf [in English]
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Occupational dermatoses
Revista do trabalhador: Dermatoses ocupacionais [in Portuguese]
These two videotapes examine the nature and causes of occupational skin diseases and outline a programme of prevention that includes substitution of chemical substances likely to cause skin disease, use of protective equipment and early diagnosis of the disease.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca. 2004]. Two videotapes (VHS format), 10min and 12min.
06-1031.pdf [in Portuguese]
Health and Safety Executive
Preventing dermatitis at work - Advice for employers and employees
This booklet explains the causes of occupational dermatitis, highlights industries with the highest risk, and describes duties of employers and employees. Precautionary measures include identification of substances likely to cause dermatitis, selection of alternative chemicals or processes, and use of protective clothing and skin creams. Legal requirements are outlined. Replaces CIS 97-598.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1996 (reprinted with amendments 2004). 11 p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg233.pdf [in English]
06-0006.pdf [in English]
Jungbauer F.H.W., Van der Harst J.J., Groothoff J.W., Coenraads P.J.
Skin protection in nursing work: Promoting the use of gloves and hand alcohol
Exposure to skin irritants is a cause of occupational skin disease in nurses. In this study, the effectiveness of soap and water, alcohol-based hand rubs and gloves in prevention programmes was investigated. In particular, two recommended procedures were evaluated: use of alcohol-based hand rubs instead of soap and water in disinfection procedures when the hands are not visibly dirty, and use of gloves in wet activities such as patient washing. The effectiveness of these recommendations was investigated in healthy volunteers over a period of three weeks, five days a week. An increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) occurred with the regular prevention method, while mean TEWL decreased among subjects using the recommended method. Skin irritation from occlusion by gloves appeared to be more pronounced in the regular method compared to the recommended method. The results of this study justify the conclusion that in nursing work, alcohol-based hand rubs are the preferred disinfectants.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2004, Vol.51, No.3, p.135-140. Illus. 23 ref.
05-0647.pdf [in English]
Kütting B., Drexler H.
Effectiveness of skin protection creams as a preventive measure in occupational dermatitis: A critical update according to criteria of evidence-based medicine
This literature survey examines evidence for the effectiveness of the generally recommended three-step skin protection programme in the prevention of occupational skin disease (skin protection before work, cleaning and skincare after work). Data in the literature are conflicting: some publications report on the positive aspects of skin protection, others stress the negative ones. Not enough data have been accumulated to prove the benefit of skin protection measures under real workplace conditions. It is unclear whether the various in vitro and in vivo methods used are suitable for the simulation of workplace conditions and if these test results can be related to real occupational exposures. For the evidence-based recommendation of skin protection, further studies are needed that evaluate the contribution of each single element of the skincare programme (products, frequency of application and education programme) under daily working conditions.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2003, Vol.76, No.4, p.253-259. 63 ref.
05-0646.pdf [in English]
Klotz A., zur Mühlen A., Veeger M.
New skin protection formulations
Nuevos preparados de protección cutánea [in Spanish]
The protective properties of a new multiphase water/oil/water emulsion system were studied, together with its effect on skin irritated with a test solution consisting of 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate in water. 15 persons were subjected to a repeated irritation patch test under occlusive dressing, with the irritation being then treated either with the new product, with vaseline or with a water/oil emulsion, or not treated at all. The new product showed the best results in terms of protection. Furthermore, it had a positive influence on the regeneration of skin irritated with sodium lauryl sulfate. The product was also tested among 180 employees of three production units of a large engine component manufacturer, who responded to a questionnaire on their use of skincare products. 67% declared regularly using such products, 29% rarely and 4% never. Only 8% of the persons questioned stated that the product they had used previously offered superior protection. The absorptive properties and the propensity for repair were judged very good by 72% of the respondents and good by 90%. 88% expressed the wish to use this novel product again once all the testing would be completed.
Prevención, July-Sep. 2003, No.165, p.29-34. Illus.
03-1291.pdf [in Spanish]
Kresken J., Klotz A.
Occupational skin-protection products - A review
Skin-protection products are used in the occupational hygiene field to protect the skin against hazards at the workplace. Their use is appropriate only for non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and non-sensitizing low-grade irritants such as water, detergents and cutting fluids. They should not be considered as replacements for other protective measures such as gloves. The selection of the appropriate protective product depends on the physical and chemical properties of the agent against which protection is sought. A table lists suited applications for selected protective cream formulations.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2003, Vol.76, No.5, p.355-358. 34 ref.
03-1276.pdf [in English]
Woolley T., Buettner P.G., Lowe J.
Sun-related behaviors of outdoor working men with a history of non-melanoma skin cancer
The present study describes sun exposure and sun protection behaviour of Northern Australian outdoor workers with previous non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). In 1999, a cross-sectional study of northern Australian men with previous NMSC was conducted by self-administered questionnaire. Compared to other men, outdoor workers spent more time in the sun on average working days and days off. Outdoor workers with sun-sensitive skin reported that more skin lesions had been removed. The workplace did not reinforce sun-safe practices of 36.8% of workers who spent half their time or more outdoors. Sun protective behaviour was not different between in- and outdoor workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.44, No.9, p.847-854. 52 ref.
03-0871.pdf [in English]
Bauer A., Kelterer D., Bartsch R., Pearson J., Stadeler M., Kleesz P., Elsner P., Williams H.
Skin protection in bakers' apprentices
To study skin protection and skin care measures among first year bakers' apprentices, apprentices were assigned either to a skin protection group trained in skin protection measures trained (n=39) or to a control group (n=55) and followed-up during four months. Barrier cream use in the skin protection group reached 100% by the end of the examination period. At that time, only 3.2% of the controls used barrier creams. The level of acceptance of protective gloves (skin protection group 43.3%; controls 32.3%) was considerably lower than that of barrier creams. The initial level of regular skin care was high in both groups (skin protection group 67.6%, controls 61.7%). After the intervention, the acceptance of skin care rose to 88.9% in the skin protection group compared to 68.1% in the controls. It is concluded that high rates in the compliance of skin protection measures can be achieved through intervention.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.81-85. 26 ref.
02-1827.pdf [in English]
Perrenoud D., Gallezot D., van Melle G.
The efficacy of a protective cream in a real-world apprentice hairdresser environment
The aim of this study was to compare the protective action of a new barrier cream and that of its vehicle in the context of hand irritation of apprentice hairdressers caused by repeated shampooing and exposure to hair-care products. This was a double-blind crossover study comparing the barrier cream (containing aluminium chlorohydrate 5% as active ingredient) against its vehicle alone. The efficacy of the creams was evaluated taking into account the clinical scores by researchers, biometric measurements and subjective opinions of the participants. An analysis of variance was performed considering the order of application, degree of atopy, and reported number of shampoos. Very little difference in efficacy between the protective cream and its vehicle was observed. However, the presence of aluminium chlorohydrate in the protective cream was shown to have a positive effect against work-related irritation. The participants rated the cosmetic qualities of the creams to be as important as their real protective and hydrating properties, an important factor in compliance issues.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2001, Vol.45, No.3, p.134-138. Illus. 23 ref.
02-0848.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Choice of skin care products for the workplace
Certain substances used at the workplace can damage the skin. This guidance booklet is aimed at employers and safety and health specialists who may have to provide skin care products for workers. Main topics covered: signs and symptoms of occupational dermatitis (contact dermatitis, eczema) and industrial sectors involved; how dermatitis is caused (irritation, sensitization); employers' responsibilities; various types of skin care products (pre-work or barrier creams, skin cleansers, after-work creams or moisturisers) and their effectiveness; allergic reactions to skin care products; criteria for choosing skin care products. An appendix includes examples of substances which can cause dermatitis.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2001. iv, 12p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 3.00.
01-0726.pdf [in English]
Skin protection and care
Protección y cuidados de la piel [in Spanish]
Occupational skin diseases can be avoided if the employer adopts a plan of specific measures aimed at protecting the skin before work starts and providing proper care at the end of the working day. Such an approach has two advantages: it ensures that workers have a healthy skin, and it costs little in comparison with curative measures in the event of lesions. Following a brief introduction on the structure and functions of the skin, preventive measures to be adopted and various types of topics for skin care and protection are presented. Advice for implementing a skin protection plan within the enterprise is also included.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2000, Vol.20, No.79, p.25-35. Illus.
01-424.pdf [in Spanish]
Berndt U., Wigger-Alberti W., Gabard B., Elsner P.
Efficacy of a barrier cream and its vehicle as protective measures against occupational irritant contact dermatitis
In a randomized, double-blind study, a new barrier cream and its moisturizing vehicle were compared regarding their skin compatibility, efficacy and resulting acceptance. Two panels of 25 hospital nurses each with mild signs of skin irritation were asked to use one of the test products (barrier-cream or vehicle) over a period of four weeks. Effects of both types of preparations were studied weekly. No significant differences were found between the barrier cream and its vehicle. In both groups, clinical skin status improved and stratum corneum hydration increased significantly during the study period. Both preparations were well tolerated and accepted, thus showing both skin protection and skin care. These results contribute to the debate as to whether a strict distinction between "skin care" and "skin protection" products is justified.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2000, Vol.42, No.2, p.77-80. Illus. 14 ref.
00_467.pdf [in English]
Essentials of occupational skin management
This guide is aimed at all persons involved in the prevention of ill health due to workplace skin exposure. Contents: dermatological engineering; legislation and the skin at work; skin as a barrier; occupational skin disease; occupations giving rise to occupational skin diseases; risk assessment for non-respiratory hazards; exposure control through engineering; exposure control through protective equipment; selection and use of gloves; barrier creams; skin care; cross infection and the skin; creating an effective skin management system; investigating problems at work; technology and skin management.
The Limited Edition Press, 633 Liverpool Road, Southport, PR8 3NG, United Kingdom, 1998. xi, 454p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 30.00.
Baur X., Chen Z., Allmers H., Raulf-Heimsoth M., Degens P.
Influence of a skin protective cream and of the allergen concentration in latex gloves on the results of wear tests of gloves
Einfluss einer Hautschutzcreme und des Allergengehaltes von Latexhandschuhen auf das Ergebnis des Handschuh-Tragetests [in German]
In experiments with 92 volunteers with suspected type I allergy to gloves made of natural rubber latex the protection provided by a protective cream was studied. Gloves rich in allergens and gloves with a low allergen content were used in the experiments. Most of the volunteers were health care workers. The gloves with the high allergen content produced a hypersensitivity reaction in 20% of the subjects while no such reaction was triggered among subjects wearing the gloves with the low allergen content. The use of a protective cream increased the number of hypersensitivity reactions to 34% among the wearers of gloves with high allergen content and to 3% among wearers of gloves with low allergen content. The negative effect of the protective cream and of the gloves with high allergen content could be confirmed in further experiments with 55 volunteers who tested the two kinds of gloves in parallel.
Allergologie, Dec. 1998, Vol.21, No.12, p.583-587. 15 ref.
01-0156.pdf [in German]
Hygiene and skin protection - Regulations, formulations and constituents
Hygiène et protection cutanée - Réglementation, formulation, composants [in French]
Topics: binders; dermal toxicity; dermatomycoses; disinfectants; emulsifiers; France; legislation; physiology of skin; skin allergies; skin cancer; skin cleansers; skin creams; skin diseases; skin protection; stabilizers; standard; surfactants.
Les éditions d'ergonomie, B.P.138, 13267 Marseille Cedex 08, France, 1998. 185p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: FRF 200.00.
01-0164.pdf [in French]
Protection and care of skin at work
Protección y cuidado de la piel en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Topics: barrier creams; protective clothing; protective gloves; safety and health training; skin cleansers; skin creams; skin diseases; skin protection.
Prevención, Apr.-June 1997, No.140, p.37-46. Illus.
99-467.pdf [in Spanish]
Terzaghi G.F., Settimi L., Peverelli C., Sevosi L., Duca P.G.
Experimental assessment of the effectiveness of 4 types of cleansing agents for 3 types of dyes to which workers are exposed in the dying and printing industry
Valutazione sperimentale di efficacia di 4 tipi di detergenti per 3 tipi di coloranti ai quali sono esposti i lavoratori delle tinto-stamperie [in Italian]
This study reports on the assessment of the effectiveness of four types of skin cleansers for three types of dyes involved in occupational exposure in the dye and printing industry. A randomized double blind trial, involving each time eight workers, yielded a statistical significant difference between the effectiveness of the detergents: i.e. sodium hydrosulfite detergent was superior to that of commonly used tensioactive agents for all three categories of tested dyes.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1996, Vol.87, No.1, p.44-50. Illus. 3 ref.
96-1784.pdf [in Italian]
Ramsing D.W., Agner T.
Effect of glove occlusion on human skin (II) - Long term experimental exposure
The effect of long-term glove occlusion on normal skin (6h/day for 14 days) was studied and, in addition, the effect of a cotton glove worn under the occlusive glove. Two studies were performed: Study A comprised 19 volunteers wearing an occlusive glove on normal skin for 6h/day for 14 days on one hand only; Study B comprised 18 volunteers wearing occlusive gloves on both hands on normal skin; a cotton glove was worn under the occlusive glove on one hand only. Skin barrier function was evaluated by measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration by electrical capacitance and inflammation by erythema index. The gloves used were hypoallergenic, non-latex gloves. Results of Study A: the glove occlusion had a significant negative effect on skin barrier function, as measured by TEWL; results of Study B: the negative effect on skin barrier function from occlusive gloves was prevented by the use of a cotton glove. Gloves may be a substantial factor in the pathogenesis of cumulative irritant contact dermatitis and recommendations as to their use are important.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1996, Vol.34, No.4, p.258-262. Illus. 21 ref.
96-0614.pdf [in English]
Lara J., Hetelson H., Drolet D.
Glove resistance to chemical mixtures - Report
La résistance des gants aux mélanges de produits chimiques - Rapport [in French]
Main subjects dealt with in this report on glove resistance to chemical products: solubility and diffusion of solvents through polymeric materials; permeability testing and results of experiments with different solvents (pure and mixtures).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), Direction des communications, 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montréal, Québec H3A 3C2, Canada, June 1995. i, 45p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: CAD 5.35 + CAD 15.00 mailing charges.
97-0583.pdf [in French]
Practical safety data sheet. Personal hygiene products in the work environment
Fiche pratique de sécurité. Produits d'hygiène corporelle en milieu de travail [in French]
This data sheet presents the characteristics and conditions of use of the personal hygiene products that are most often used in the workplace (skin cleansers, soaps, handwashing detergents, antiseptics, protective creams), as well as ways of drying the hands after washing.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 1995, No.543, p.685-688. Illus. 4 ref. Also available as an offprint from the INRS.
96-0587.pdf [in French]
Gawkrodger D.J., Healy J., Howe A.M.
The prevention of nickel contact dermatitis: A review of the use of binding agents and barrier creams
Chelating agents and other substances can be used to bind nickel or reduce its penetration through the skin and hence to reduce the symptoms of nickel sensitivity. Topical usage is mostly described but chelating agents are also used systemically. The most effective ligand for nickel has been proved to be 5-chloro-7-iodoquinolin-8-ol (clioquinol). Although normally regarded as safe, its usage in some situations may be limited by concerns about its toxicity. Other ligands with demonstrable effect include EDTA, diphenylglyoxime and dimethylglyoxime. Cation exchange resins can effectively bind nickel and work through the skin. Corticosteroids and cyclosporin work in nickel dermatitis by suppressing the immunological reaction rather than through an effect on nickel. Studies of the oral administration of ligands have given conflicting results. Further work is required to develop the existing agents and to look at the use of novel combinations.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1995, Vol.32, No.5, p.257-265. Illus. 54 ref.
Pilz B., Frosch P.J.
Skin protection for hairdressers - Protection by two barrier creams against shampoos in the repetitive irritation test
Hautschutz für Friseure - Die Wirksamkeit von zwei Hautschutzprodukten gegenüber Detergentien im Repetitiven Irritationstest [in German]
Two different hair shampoos and sodium lauryl sulfate as the sole agent were applied in different concentrations to the skin on the back of 10 volunteers with and without protection by two barrier creams. The applications were repeated daily from Monday to Friday in the first week and from Monday to Thursday in the second week. Each test lasted 30 minutes. Both barrier creams succeeded in reducing the skin irritations caused by the two shampoos and the sole agent on the unprotected skin. The barrier cream which contained beeswax was significantly better in protecting the skin than the new barrier foam that is not yet on the market.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Sep.-Oct. 1994, Vol.42, No.5, p.199-202. Illus. 12 ref.
96-1413.pdf [in German]
Fenske R. A., Lee C.
Determination of handwash removal efficiency: Incomplete removal of the pesticide chlorpyrifos from skin by standard handwash techniques
To develop standard procedures for evaluating the removal efficiency of handwash techniques, a known amount of the insecticide chlorpyrifos was transferred to volunteers' hands, which were then washed by standard techniques. Time between exposure and washing, the amount of washing solvent and skin loading were measured. Prewashing with ethanol increased removal efficiency; removal efficiency immediately following contact decreased for lower skin loading levels. Substantial amounts of the insecticide were either absorbed or adsorbed through the skin, and pesticide residue levels recovered by standard handwashing techniques did not represent accurate estimates of dermal exposure. Appropriate laboratory-based removal efficiency studies should be conducted prior to field investigations if handwashing is to be used to estimate dermal exposure in the workplace.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1994, Vol.55, No.5, p.425-432. Illus. 20 ref.
Goh C.L., Gan S.L.
Efficacies of a barrier cream and an afterwork emollient cream against cutting fluid dermatitis in metalworkers: A prospective study
The prevalence of cutting fluid dermatitis and changes in transepidermal water vapour loss (TEWL) were studied in groups of machinists who used either a barrier cream, an afterwork emollient cream or no cream controls at all over a six month period. All machinists handled cutting fluid (neat mineral oil) during their work. Barrier cream and afterwork emollient cream did not appear to have any significant effect against either cutting fluid dermatitis or TEWL changes. However, afterwork emollient cream appeared clinically to help reduce the prevalence of cutting fluid irritation.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1994, Vol.31, No.3, p.176-180. 16 ref.
VanRooij J.G.M., Bodelier-Bade M.M., Hopmans P.M.J., Jongeneelen F.J.
Reduction of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene excretion in coke-oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to improved hygienic skin protective measures
The effect of hygienic skin protective measures on the internal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in 13 coke-oven workers over two consecutive weeks. In one week the subjects worked under normal circumstances, in the other extra hygienic skin protective measures were taken: laundered working clothes and a new pair of gloves were provided before each 8h work shift, and both hands and face were washed before each break. The effect of the extra hygienic measures on the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene excretion which indicates internal PAH exposure was assessed by biological monitoring. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration over the four-day work week was on average 37% lower when extra hygienic measures were taken, being 1.3 instead of 2.3µmole 1-hydroxypyrene per mole creatinine (p=0.03, n=13). Thus, simple hygienic skin protective measures resulted in a significant reduction of the internal PAH exposure.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 1994, Vol.38, No.3, p.247-256. Illus. 19 ref.
Peter C., Bohne-Matusall R., Hoting E., Egmose K.
Material testing of protective gloves for hairdressers
Materialprüfung von Arbeitsschutzhandschuhen für den Friseurberuf [in German]
Most of the protective gloves used by hairdressers are made of natural or nitrile latex. The breakthrough times and permeation rates of the hair dye constituents ammonium persulfate and paraphenylenediamines as well as of glyceryl monothioglycolate, used in permanent waves, were determined. The glove made of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber was impermeable to all chemicals tested for the testing period of 60 minutes. The natural latex glove was impermeable to glyceryl monothioglycolate for the 60-minute period but was penetrated by the other chemicals after 24 and 38 minutes.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Jan.-Feb. 1994, Vol 42, No.1, p.10-14. Illus. 34 ref.
Duca P.G., Pelfini G., Ferguglia G., Settimi L., Peverelli C., Sevosi I., Terzaghi G.
Efficacy of barrier creams in preventing skin complaints in workers of a fabric dyeing and printing factory. Results of a random experiment
Efficacia dell'uso di creme-barriera nel prevenire affezioni dermatologiche in lavoratori delle tintostamperie - Risultati di una sperimentazione randomizzata [in Italian]
A total of 942 workers of 13 dyeing and printing factories in the area of Como, Northern Italy, were examined in order to detect skin complaints on the hands and forearms. Of these, 868 participated in a controlled and randomized experiment aimed at assessing the efficacy of using barrier creams under practical circumstances. 657 workers underwent all three control examinations arranged over about one year. In the randomized group for treatment with barrier creams the cumulative incidence of objective skin lesions was significantly lower than in the group in which no particular recommendation of use was made (44.5% versus 54.4% positive for objective examination in at least one of the three control examinations after recruitment). The use of a hydrocarbon-based cream was significantly more effective than that of a silicone cream.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1994, Vol.85, No.3, p.231-238. 22 ref.
Wulfhorst B., Schwanitz H.J.
Protection by skin protecting creams
Zur Wirksamkeit von Hautschutzpräparaten [in German]
Various kinds of barrier creams are described, such those used against lubricants, nickel, disinfectants and cleaning agents. Methods for testing barrier creams and the results are given. It is concluded that presently available barrier creams do not provide full protection in all cases. This is mainly true for skin creams applied to prevent contact with allergens such as nickel or chromates.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Feb. 1994, Vol.29, No.2, p.84-92. Illus. 67 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Skin creams and skin protection in the engineering sector
This information sheet provides guidance on precautions to be taken to avoid the risk of skin diseases in employees exposed to substances that may adversely affect their skin. The level of protection offered by both pre-work and after-work creams is described along with other methods for reducing the risk of skin diseases. Guidance is also given on maintaining a healthy skin.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. 2p. 6 ref.
Surviving the elements - Outdoor workers' safety
The hazards associated with work in Australia's extreme climatic conditions are examined along with an outline of the legal responsibilities of employers and safety precautions. Government guidelines have established a clear recognition of the hazards of solar radiation and the risk of skin cancer and the precautions necessary. While no specific regulations exist with regard to climatic heat, an employer's basic obligations are usually encapsulated under relevant state occupational safety and health legislation. Policies adopted for both hot and cold conditions should be based on common sense and education of personnel along with proper protective equipment.
Australian Safety News, Dec. 1993, Vol.64, No.11, p.28-39. Illus. 14 ref.
Frosch P.J., Schulze-Dirks A., Hoffmann M., Axthelm I.
Efficacy of skin barrier creams - II. Ineffectiveness of a popular "skin protector" against various irritants in the repetitive irritation test in the guinea pig
A popular "skin protector" consisting of an emulsion-like foam of lipophilic and hydrophilic substances (Marly skin) was evaluated in a repetitive irritation test involving the guinea pig described in CIS 93-1861. The product failed to inhibit the irritation due to sodium lauryl sulfate and toluene, and the irritant response of sodium hydroxide was aggravated, as demonstrated by significant differences for all test parameters (clinical score for erythema and scaling, transepidermal water loss, blood flow volume). The results show that protection against chemical irritants may be quite specific and that some formulations may actually be harmful.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1993, Vol.29, No.2, p.74-77. 9 ref.
Frosch P.J., Schulze-Dirks A., Hoffmann M., Axthelm I., Kurte A.
Efficacy of skin barrier creams - I. The repetitive irritation test (RIT) in the guinea pig
An animal model for the evaluation of skin protective creams against chemical irritants is described. The following irritants were applied daily for 2 weeks to the skin of young guinea pigs: sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium hydroxide, and toluene. The barrier cream was applied 2h prior to and immediately after exposure to the irritant. Control animals were treated with the irritant only. The irritant reaction was evaluated by various tests on 90 guinea pigs, consisting of individual panels of 5 to 10 animals. While one barrier cream (Stokoderm) significantly suppressed the irritation due to sodium lauryl sulfate and toluene, the other (Contra-Alkali) failed to do so and even aggravated the response, which was particularly evident with sodium hydroxide. This model may be useful in developing more effective barrier creams.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1993, Vol.28, No.2, p.94-100. Illus. 15 ref.
Protective gloves against chemicals
Chemikalienschutzhandschuhe [in German]
Types and properties of materials used: natural rubber; chloroprene rubber; acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber; isobutylene-isoprene-rubber; fluorinated rubber; polyvinyl chloride; polyvinyl alcohol; methods used to assess protection against chemicals (permeability, resistance to degradation and stretching). Critical discussion of various criteria and concepts used to evaluate the resistance of protective gloves.
Die BG, Aug. 1992, Vol.8, p.460-466. Illus.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Protection from sunlight
Illustrated brochure usable for the safety training of workers on how to avoid excess exposure to sunlight in outdoor occupations and how to protect oneself against the risks of such exposure (skin cancer, other kinds of skin damage, eye damage).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1991. 6p. Illus. 1 ref.
Conde-Salazar L., Guimaraens Juanena D., Romaguera Sagrera C.
Protection and prevention measures for occupational skin diseases
Medidas de protección y prevención de las dermatosis profesionales [in Spanish]
Collective and personal protective measures for occupational skin diseases are reviewed. The importance of identifying the hazards related to different production processes and work stations is noted. Preventive measures can be summarised as follows: information and training; skin hygiene; protective clothing, including footwear, gloves and barrier creams; industrial hygiene, including ventilation; machine maintenance.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Oct.-Dec. 1990, Vol.37, No.150, p.30-39. 21 ref.
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