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Belts, harnesses and lifelines - 137 entries found

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  • Belts, harnesses and lifelines


CIS 09-1152 Fukaya K., Uchida M.
Protection against impact with the ground using wearable airbags
This article presents three types of wearable airbag systems for protection against falls from heights, wheelchair overturns and falls on the same level. The systems consist of an airbag, sensor, inflator, and jacket. The sensor detects the fall and the airbag inflates to protect the user. Fall tests using dummies with and without the airbags demonstrated the effectiveness of these devices. In fall heights of less than 2m, the airbags reduced the impact acceleration. Head Injury Criterion values were under 1000, as per the auto-crash test requirement. The limits to the amount of protection afforded are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.46, No.1, p.59-65. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 08-956 Lan A., Daigle R.
Strength of the anchor point of a fall arrest and positioning system for reinforcing steel installers
Résistance du point d'ancrage d'un système d'arrêt de chute et de positionnement pour les poseurs d'acier d'armature [in French]
In some large dimension walls where protection against falls from heights poses a problem, ironworkers climb into the framing structure and need to be anchored to allow their positioning and protection against falls. Two important aspects must then be taken into consideration: the choice of harness, positioning and fall arrest equipment, and the presence of a sufficiently solid anchor point for the personal fall arrest system to the reinforcing bars. Scientists from the IRSST verified the strength of these anchors during tests performed on a reinforcement wall erected according to good rules of practice. The anchor point to the reinforcing bars appears to be sufficiently strong to arrest a person's fall. Furthermore, the ironworkers who participated in the tests confirm that they always add additional ties to the anchor points used for attaching the snap hook, which contributes to added safety.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. vi, 30p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: CAD 7.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 08-949 Bourret P.E., Martel S., Koutchouc M., Roux M.A., Gou M., Aubin C.E., Rancourt D.
Lift truck safety: Study on safety belt effectiveness
Sécurité des chariots élévateurs: étude de l'efficacité de la ceinture de sécurité [in French]
This report summarizes the research work carried out since the early 1990s on the effectiveness of wearing a safety belt and other devices as protection for forklift truck operators in the event of a rollover. It describes the collaborative work carried among various institutions in Canada and France to determine the contribution to safety of various devices, including safety gates, armrests and seats with wings, combined or not with a pelvic safety belt. It turns out that the wearing of a safety belt alone or the presence of a full door, combined with a head protection system, is a good means of protection against most injuries that can result from the lateral rollover of forklift trucks. Research results refute the common belief that the wearing of a safety belt significantly increases the impact velocity of the body or the head on the ground. They also demonstrate that actions prescribed by the manufacturers, namely having both hands firmly on the steering wheel and bracing the feet against the cabin floor, contribute to safety, but do not ensure effective protection against serious injuries. It is recommended that the wearing of pelvic safety equipment be regulated and that the studies already begun on the modeling and dynamic testing of lift truck rollover be continued in order to evaluate the effectiveness of additional safety devices proposed for protecting forklift truck operators in the event of rollovers.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. vii, 127p. Illus. Bibl.ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 12.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]


CIS 08-698 Martínez V.
Líneas de vida [in Spanish]
Working at height involves the risk of falling and requires the adoption of various types of protective systems, such as lifelines. This article describes the characteristics of lifelines, together with the criteria to be considered when designing or selecting this type of equipment. It also explains the correct installation, use and maintenance of these systems.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.27, No.108, p.6-22. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 08-700 Suits M.
ANSI/ASSE Z359-2007: Better fall protection
According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, falls remain the first cause of fatal accidents in the construction industry and the second cause of fatal accidents in all industries taken together. This article comments a set of five new standards, ANSI/ASSE Z359-2007 Fall Arrest Code, which came into effect in October 2007. They address the elements of a managed fall protection programme and provide the guidelines to design or strengthen existing programmes. The standards were developed by a committee that included engineers, end users, military personnel, representatives from OSHA and ANSI, trainers, fall protection equipment manufacturers, fall protection specialists, rescue experts and academics.
Occupational Hazards, Oct. 2007, p.51-58. Illus.

CIS 08-453 Arteau J., Beauchamp Y., Langlais I., Vachon F.
Work at heights and fall protection for pruners
Travail en hauteur et protection contre les chutes pour les élagueurs [in French]
Originating from a request from the City of Montréal, this study evaluated the methods and equipment for access to heights used by pruners to reduce the risk of falls. The effectiveness and reliability factors were measured by means of mechanical tests in the laboratory. Several new types of equipment and systems were tested according to the specifications of fall protection standards. The level of efforts required, the mobility and the overall safety level of the tested systems were estimated in a controlled environment in urban parks and woods. The various tree-access systems were analysed and ranked by order of relevance for a given situation. A harness adapted to pruners' work was designed and evaluated. It is now in regular use.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. xii, 133p. Illus. 39 ref. + CD-ROM Price: CAD 12.72. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 07-1467 Finiel J.
Fall arresting system - Mobile fall arrester for rope
Système d'arrêt de chute - Antichute mobile sur corde [in French]
Fall arresting systems consist of a group of components that allow to immediately stop the fall of an operator in case of an incident. Each component of the system needs to be compatible with the others. This article describes the various components of fall arresting systems: anchor points; locking buckles; mobile fall arrester; fall arresting harness.
Prévention BTP, July-Aug. 2007, No.98, p.26-27. Illus.


CIS 10-0190 Personal protective equipment - Come on, join in!
Persönliche Schutzausrüstung - Komm, mach mit! [in German]
This booklet explains the different types of protective equipment and presents the workplace signs and pictogrammes signaling that their use is required.
Institut für Arbeisschutz der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung (IFA), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 2006. 7p. Illus. [in German]


CIS 08-703 Smith T., Couper G., Donaldson W., Neale M., Caroll J.
Health and Safety Executive
Seatbelt performance in quarry vehicle incidents - Final report
The most frequent type of accident in quarries is those involving vehicles, accounting for approximately 40% of all accidents. Various industry standards have been implemented in the United Kingdom, including those applying to all-round visibility from vehicles, edge protection and brake testing, in order to reduce the number of casualties. The effectiveness of restraint systems is considered as the next step to achieving further safety improvements. In this study, current standards and practices of several countries were firstly reviewed. Next, a range of accident conditions were simulated using human body numerical models that were evaluated against data from full scale tests. Findings are discussed. Restraint of the torso was shown to provide additional benefits over the current lap belts.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 141p. Illus. 42 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-705 Richard A.M.
Preventing falls: Harnesses
Prévention des chutes: le harnais [in French]
Falls from heights still represent the most frequent cause of fatal accidents on construction sites. While collective protective measures must be favoured whenever possible, personal protective measures are needed on construction sites where access is difficult. This article describes the design of fall-arresting harnesses and their selection as a function of the various tasks to be undertaken.
Prévention BTP, Oct. 2005, No.78, p.30-31. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 05-460 Haines V., Elton E., Hussey M.
Health and Safety Executive
Revision of body size criteria in standards - Protecting people who work at height
This report describes a programme of work undertaken to consider whether the body size criteria in standards which are used to test the safety of personal protective equipment (PPE) need revision. It describes the methodology used to obtain a selection of anthropometric data from a sample of 589 people who worked at height, in order to accurately establish whether the dimensions and requirements of PPE test apparatus need reviewing. Recommendations are made for the modification of some standards.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. xii, 159p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: GBP 30.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 05-454 Cameron I., Duff R, Gillan G.
Health and Safety Executive
A technical guide to the selection and use of fall prevention and arrest equipment
This report describes fall prevention and arrest equipment available to the construction industry, including trolley systems, safety decking, fall arrest mats, safety netting and cable and track fall arrest systems. When selecting appropriate safety equipment for working at height, the order of preference should be: prevention (guardrails, barriers, trolleys, safety decking); passive arrest (safety nets, fall arrest mats); active arrest (cable and track-based systems); mitigation of the consequences of an accident. The risk of a fall must, wherever possible, be eliminated at the design stage. If this is not possible, the above hierarchy must be followed in equipment selection. Good practices derived from interviews with system users, experts in selection and planning of accident protection methods, and observations of live case study sites are described.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. xxiii, 311p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: GBP 35.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 04-602 Le Brech A., Feller E.
Personal flotation devices
Equipements individuels de flottaison [in French]
Personal floatation devices (PFDs) are mainly used in leisure activities. This makes the choice of PDFs for occupational safety particularly difficult given the wide variety of models available. This safety information sheet provides guidance for purchasers or users on the selection of the most suitable PFD. Contents: hazards in aquatic environments and precautions to be taken; description of the various types of PFDs (life jackets or vests with permanent buoyancy, inflatable jackets); selection criteria; use, maintenance and checks; relevant regulations; standards on PFDs; information that must appear on the PFD.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, July-Aug. 2004, No.642. 4p. Illus.$File/ed119.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-215 Riches D.
Health and Safety Executive
Preliminary investigation into the fall-arresting effectiveness of ladder safety hoops
Various legislative and guidance documents specify ladder safety hoops on fixed access ladders, and give the impression that the purpose of the hoops is to protect workers from fall risks. The aim of this investigation was to update the current state of understanding in regard to what ladder safety hoops actually are and what their intended purpose is, and to establish by preliminary testing whether or not they could provide any form of fall-arresting capability. Work involved a literature survey, a survey of fixed ladder manufacturers and users, an analysis of accident data and practical test measurements. The tests used a mannequin to simulate a worker falling off a caged ladder, and compared the results with those obtained on ladder-mounted fall arresters using the same test conditions. It is concluded that ladder-mounted fall arresters provide far better protection.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. viii, 212p. Illus. 97 ref. Price: GBP 35.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 07-941
Health and Safety Executive
Safety in window cleaning using rope access techniques
Window cleaning increasingly involves the use of rope access which can cause accidents with severe injuries. These accidents may often due to the misunderstanding of the complexities of using this method. This information sheet sets out practical precautions to help window cleaners reduce risks to as low a level as possible, taking into account the needs of the job. Contents: choice of access method; general requirements for a safe system of work; management and planning; personnel involved; access equipment; control of working equipment; types of rope access methods; specific requirements for rope access operations; use of work equipment; rescue; first aid; relevant legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2003. 6p. 12 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1955 Chen Y.L.
Effectiveness of a new back belt in the maintenance of lumbar lordosis while sitting: A pilot study
With the expanding use of video display terminals, a high incidence of low back pain is reported among operators working at screens in sitting postures. This study describes a new design of back belt for use by operators working at screens in seated postures and compares the conditions of wearing this belt with those of no belt wearing. Nine subjects performed a data entry task while sitting at a desk during 60-min periods, during which the trunk and lumbosacral angles were observed. Results showed that there were significant differences in trunk angle and lumbar posture when wearing or not wearing the belt (with an average difference of -14.1° in lumbar lordosis and 16.9° in trunk angle) during the final 10-min stage of the task. The belt seemed to provide support for the back by the counter-supporting force from the knees. The results suggest that the belt may be useful in seated tasks because of its maintenance of lumbar lordosis and erect trunk.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 2003, Vol.32, No.4, p.299-303. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 03-1391 Basic principles - Risks of falls
Fundamentos teóricos - Riesgo de caída [in Spanish]
This article recalls the laws of physics that apply to falls from heights, as well as the forces to which the human body are subjected during the acceleration, deceleration and static suspension phases of the fall. These principles are then applied to the understanding of the forces and effects on the human body when the fall is interrupted by a fall arresting device. During falls, fall arresters have to operate within the limits of certain physical parameters in order to avoid body injuries. In particular, the deceleration phase has to begin before the fall distance reaches 1.8m and the stop must not take place in less than 0.3s so as to ensure that the breaking forces remain tolerable to the body.
Protección y seguridad, Mar.-Apr. 2003, Vol.49, No.288, p.34-41. Illus.

CIS 03-1389 Martínez Pascual J.R.
Role of fall arresters in ensuring safety
El papel de los salvacaídas en la seguridad [in Spanish]
This article describes the different types of fall arresters, the theoretical aspects of their operation and their use in various situations of work at height. There are three fall arrester systems: basic systems consisting of an anchoring device and an energy absorber, fall arresters with a retractable fall arrest system and sliding fall arresters. Current regulations and standards applicable to work at heights and to fall arresters are also presented.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2003, Vol.23, No.90, p.3-9. Illus. 9 ref.


CIS 07-1471 Seddon P.
Health and Safety Executive
Harness suspension: Review and evaluation of existing information
The objective of this review was to identify and evaluate literature dealing with the effects of being suspended in a harness, together with issues regarding various types of harnesses, including the position of their attachment points. In addition, selected harness standards were examined to see if and how they addressed the topic of suspension. Over 50 documents were located from sources in the United Kingdom, Germany, France and Australia and the Internet. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. x, 104p. Illus. 106 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 03-612 Personal protective equipment - Body protection
Środki ochrony indywidualnej - Odzież ochronna [in Polish]
This guide lists the manufacturers of personal protective equipment for whole-body protection available in Poland. Contents: general regulations; regulations, standards and suppliers by type of product; fall arresters; heat and flame protective clothing; cold and weather protective clothing; protective clothing against mechanical hazards; miscellaneous protective clothing; distributors by region. For each type of equipment, this guide mentions the applicable Polish and European regulations. Polish translation of INRS publication ED 319 (see CIS 95-322).
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2002. 29p. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 03-415 Martínez Pascual J.R., Lara Huerta J
Safety specialists: Message aimed at responsible managers
Los técnicos de prevención: Aviso para navegantes responsables [in Spanish]
There is always a risk of workers falling when they work at heights. Aimed at the occupational safety services of enterprises and at safety specialists, this article discusses the differences between fall arrestors and supporting systems. It stresses the need for a common and coherent technical terminology in line with that of the UNE-EN standards on protective equipment against falls from heights (Class 3 PPEs), for defining common work procedures and for ensuring the proper training of workers. Among Class 3 PPEs, one needs to differentiate between three systems: access systems (for access to the workplace), positioning systems (to enable the positioning at the workplace and to free the hands for work) and safety systems (to arrest the fall safely).
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.87, p.3-7. Illus.

CIS 03-425
Health and Safety Executive
Inspecting fall arrest equipment made from webbing or rope
This booklet is mainly aimed at employers responsible for the use of fall arrest equipment made from webbing or rope. Synthetic fibres used for making webbing or rope may degrade under the effects of abuse, wear, ultraviolet radiation or chemicals, and therefore the equipment should be inspected at regular intervals. Contents: legal requirements; inspection regime; scope of the inspections; examples of defects and damage; withdrawing faulty equipment from use; examples of equipment that have been withdrawn.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2002. 17p. Illus. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1915 Grieger E.
Safety belts may present a fatal risk
Haltegurte sind lebensgefährlich [in German]
Risks of falls from heights exist in many occupational situations. Persons at risk should therefore wear suitable protective equipment capable of arresting their fall while not constituting a health hazard. This article warns of serious injuries that can be caused by safety belts in the event of falls and recommends against the use of this type of equipment as fall arresters. It recommends the use of safety harnesses that maintain the body in a posture that results in less load on the lumbar column and internal organs. The importance of training of emergency teams is emphasized, in particular for avoiding orthostatic shock.
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.112, No.5, p.18-19. Illus.

CIS 02-1561 Montes Mayorga M.
Life vests and flotation equipment: guide to the selection and use of PPEs
Chalecos salvavidas y equipos auxiliares de flotación: guía orientativa para la elección y utilización de los EPI [in Spanish]
Contents of this guide to the selection and use of life vests and flotation equipment: definition of personal protective equipment (PPE); functions of PPEs; risks to which workers without life vests are exposed (drowning); risks resulting from their use (discomfort, sweating, impeded movement, etc.); precautions to be taken; position adopted by the body in water with and without the wear of appropriate life vests; structure and properties of different types of life vests (with foam core, gas inflatable); description of accessories; different types and classes according to floatability properties; labelling (text and pictograms); selection criteria; use and storage; maintenance. An appendix includes a check list for selecting life vests adapted to the needs of individual workers.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 21p. Illus. Price: EUR 2.89.


CIS 02-965 Milanese S.
External lumbar supports: Used as personal protective equipment for low back pain prevention
The use of external lumbar supports (ELS), in the form of lumbar corsets or back braces, as personal protective equipment (PPE) for the risk control of low back pain has increased in popularity in industries involving significant manual handling demands. Despite the widespread acceptance of PPE for the control of other hazards (for example noise-induced hearing loss, eye injuries, etc.), published literature on rehabilitation is not unanimous regarding advantages of using ELS as PPE for low back pain. This article explores the issues reported in the literature associated with the use of an ELS, and recommends that the implementation of ELS becomes part of a comprehensive preventive strategy.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2001, Vol.17, No.5, p.515-520. 32 ref.

CIS 02-421 Long A., Lyon M., Lyon G.
Health and Safety Executive
Industrial rope access - Investigation into items of personal protective equipment
Rope access refers to climbing or descending by means of a rope. This report investigates items of equipment used for work at height through rope access in industry and arboriculture. The investigation comprises tests and evaluations of ropes and attachments, including rope adjustment devices such as back-up devices, ascenders and descenders. Evaluations include discussions on how rope access and work-positioning may be effected using devices aimed at minimising or eliminating falls. Reference is made to existing and draft European and British standards.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2001. iv, 159p. Illus. Price: GBP 20.00.


CIS 02-1437 Edwards M.J., Neale M.
Health and Safety Executive
The effectiveness of lap straps as seat restraints on tractors in the event of overturning
The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER, see CIS 99-1429) requires an employer in Great Britain to fit seat restraints to tractors. Two-point lap belts are the only means of providing this protection in retrofitted existing tractors, since the fitting of restraints such as a three-point harness would involve drilling or welding fittings to the safety cab, which is illegal unless approved by the original manufacturer. In order to develop a better understanding of the effectiveness of lap straps, a numerical model of a overturning tractor was developed and used to provide a comparative analysis of the likely injuries to a restrained and unrestrained operator for a number of overturning scenarios. The model was based on the dimensions of a commercially-available tractor, which was also used for the validation tests. It was found that the body regions most likely to be injured would be the head and neck due to impact with the cab interior and, in addition, the lumbar spine for the restrained operator.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iv, 29p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 02-181 Meyer J.P.
Backache and back belts
Lombalgie et ceinture lombaire [in French]
The frequency with which low back pain occurs and the recognition of its more severe forms such as acute crural pain or sciatica among warehousemen or drivers may result in the adoption of personal protection methods based on back belts. In occupational settings however, the effectiveness of back belts is not proven. Nonetheless, requests for using back belts as a means of prevention or their spontaneous use by workers are frequent. The objective of this literature review was to address questions on the use of back belts and to provide practical guidance. Contents include: effects of back belts; back belts as a means of low back pain prevention; use of back belts; role of occupational physicians.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2000, No.84, p.349-362. Illus. 107 ref.

CIS 01-741 Portillo García-Pintos J.
Personal protective equipment against falls from heights
Equipos de protección individual contra caídas de altura [in Spanish]
This guide on personal protective equipment against falls from heights describes the different parts of fall arresters (harness and connection to join the harness to the anchoring system) and shows examples of different types of fall arresters and of CE labelling for these devices. The main hazards due to falls from heights when wearing the fall arresters (hazards from movement limitation, feet being caught in the anchorage system, braking, oscillation or suspension during the fall) are described. Guidelines for the selection, use and maintenance are given along with a check list for their specifications.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 14p. Illus.

CIS 01-569
Health and Safety Executive
Operator seat restraints for mobile work equipment in agriculture and forestry
United Kingdom regulations require employers to ensure that all mobile machines used at work have suitable restraining systems fitted to the seats, including passenger seats. Aimed at employers and self-employed persons, this information sheet offers guidance on the requirements to fit and use these restraints in tractors, self-propelled machines and other agricultural or forestry work equipment. Topics covered: responsibilities of employers; types of equipment and operations for which the fitting of restrains are required; special provisions for children; legal requirement to wear seat belts.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2000. 2p. Illus.


CIS 00-1774 Lee Y.H., Chen C.Y.
Lumbar vertebral angles and back muscle loading with belts
The study examined effects of lumbar and pelvic belts on the change of lumbosacral angle (LSA) and back muscle activity in postures of standing, erect sitting and slump sitting. Eighteen healthy male subjects participated in this study. Though no significant belt effect was identified on the back muscle EMG, the radiographic data revealed an interactive effect of postures and belts on the change of LSA. In standing, the belts increased LSA. In erect sitting, the lumbar belt had no effect but the pelvic belt decreased LSA. While sitting slump with a trunk flexion of 15°, both belts increased LSA by restricting the movement of the pelvis. Belt effect on LSA was accompanied with a change of pelvic angle.
Industrial Health, Oct. 1999, Vol.37, No.4, p.390-397. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 99-2051 Palmer J.A.
Updated fall protection for scaffold erectors
Topics: anchoring devices; comment on directive; erection and dismantling; fall arresters; legislation; protection against falls from heights; public OSH institutions; responsibilities of employers; safety and health training; USA.
Occupational Hazards, Oct. 1999, Vol.61, No.10, p.139-146. Illus.

CIS 99-1871 Kraus J.F., McArthur D.L.
Back supports and back injuries: A second visit with the Home Depot cohort study data on low-back injuries
Back supports have been controversial as means of reducing injuries to the lower back. Diverse issues bear on the interpretation of data obtained in a major epidemiologic investigation of the utility of back supports in the retail-trade home improvement industry. These concerns are focused on alternative explanations for the changes in injury rates observed over the six-year study period, on individual and group factors other than the use of the back support that might have contributed to reducing the risk of injury, and on related methodologic issues. Each issue is addressed with specific reference to how it might affect the analyses and the conclusion that supports show a protective effect. Topics: back belts; backache; epidemiologic study; frequency rates; lifting of loads; manual lifting; materials handling; musculoskeletal diseases; personal protective equipment; retail trade.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.9-13. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 08-457 Fall protection in construction
Each year in the United States, between 150 and 200 workers are killed and more than 100,000 are injured as a result of falls at construction sites. OSHA recognizes that fall accidents are generally complex events frequently involving a variety of factors, and has therefore developed a standard for fall protection that deals with both the human and equipment-related issues. This booklet describes the key requirements of the standard and explains what employers and workers need to do to avoid falls, namely select fall protection systems appropriate for given situations, use proper construction and installation of safety systems, ensure proper supervision, use safe work procedures and train workers in the proper selection, use and maintenance of fall protection systems.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 1998. iv, 37p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 01-1222 Paureau J., Jacqmin M.
Lifelines: Specifications and testing
Lignes de vie: spécifications, essais [in French]
This article describes the two main types of lifelines: those which include devices such as springs designed to increase the angle of equilibrium of the cable, and those that do not. It lists the information required for the design of lifelines and explains how to determine the characteristics of the different components (cables, springs and, where applicable, the proper settings, i.e. cable slack) in relation to the mechanical strength of the anchorage structure. It gives a method for calculating fall arrest distances and compares the results with those obtained experimentally. Information is provided on materials that ensure improved durability, and on the rational use of lifelines. Finally, the initial results obtained with a new type of lanyard absorber that pays rope out at a constant force, avoiding the disadvantages of "tear-type" absorbers are described. This new type of absorber should provide better control of fall arrest distances and help optimize lifeline design.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1998, No.173, p.413-428. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 00-1744 Bessac C.
Evacuating an employee in trouble
Evacuer un agent en difficulté [in French]
Topics: description of equipment; escape and exit; fall arresters; falls from heights; France; harnesses; legislation; pole-top work; protection against falls from heights; work at height.
Vigilance, Sep. 1998, No.119, p.12-15. Illus.

CIS 99-2088 van Poppel M.N.M., Koes B.W., van der Ploeg T., Smid T., Bouter L.M.
Lumbar supports and education for the prevention of low back pain in industry - A randomized controlled trial
Low-back pain is a costly and often seriously disabling condition that affects industry in all countries. Low-back injuries are a major industrial cause of disability in the United States with 2% of the workforce incurring back injuries each year. Back injuries are the most expensive health care problem for the 30- to 50-year-old age group and are the leading cause of disability in the United States for persons younger than 45 years. Each year, 15% to 20% of the US population experiences back problems. The total cost to industry that results from low-back pain was estimated to be between USD 26.8 billion and 56 billion in 1988. Strategies to improve prevention of back injuries in the workplace are therefore an important public health issue. Topics: air transport; back belts; backache; evaluation of control measures; information of personnel; lumbar column; manual handling; manual lifting; muscular strength; Netherlands; sickness absenteeism.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 10 June 1998, Vol.279, No.22, p.1789-1794, 1826-1828. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-1678 Opara D.
Horizontal movable wire ropes to which lifeline fall arresters are hooked
Anschlageinrichtungen mit horizontalen, beweglichen Drahtseilen als Absturzsicherung [in German]
Horizontal wire ropes are used on construction sites by roofers to secure their lifeline fall arresters. In 10 experiments the forces were determined to which wire ropes with different diameters and designs are subjected during falls which burden the ropes with 6kN. The wire ropes were prestressed with 1 to 5kN. Forces increased with increasing pretension of the rope, frequency of use, diameter and stiffness. Recommendations for the safe use and the design of wire ropeways are given. Topics: construction industry; equipment testing; experimental determination; fall arresters; falls from heights; force; protection against falls from heights; roofing; safety by design; wire ropes.
Tiefbau, Nov. 1998, Vol.110, No.11, p.780-783. Illus.

CIS 98-1500 Lavender S.A., Chen S.H., Li Y.C., Andersson G.B.J.
Trunk muscle use during pulling tasks: Effects of a lifting belt and footing conditions
Topics: back belts; electromyography; flooring; lumbar column; manual handling; measurement of load on muscles; physical workload; pulling tasks; slippery floors; work posture.
Human Factors, Mar. 1998, Vol.40, No.1, p.159-172. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 98-1468 Sullman M.J.M.
Short communication: Increasing seat belt usage in logging machinery
Topics: comfort criteria; design of equipment; logging and forestry operations; logging equipment; safety belts; warning lights.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, May 1998, Vol.21, No.5, p.397-405. Illus. 17 ref.


CIS 00-859 Specification for industrial safety belts and harnesses - Part 2: Permanent anchors
Topics: anchoring devices; belts, harnesses and lifelines; description of equipment; directive; equipment testing; labelling; screw anchors; Singapore; snaps; standard.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 1997. 23p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 00-858 Specification for industrial safety belts and harnesses - Part 1: General requirements
Topics: belts, harnesses and lifelines; description of equipment; directive; equipment testing; fall arresters; harnesses; labelling; safety belts; Singapore; snaps; standard.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 1997. 21p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 98-1717 Bariod J., Théry B.
Medical effects of being suspended in harnesses
Medizinische Auswirkungen des Hängens in Sicherheitsgurten [in German]
Topics: arrhythmia; cold stress; experimental determination; France; harnesses; human experiments; protection against falls from heights; pulse rate; shock following injury; unconsciousness; vertigo.
Die BG, Jan. 1997, No.1, p.8-11. 16 ref.

CIS 97-1690 Riches D.
Some design principles of horizontal fall protection systems
Basic requirements of fall protection systems are outlined and the horizontal life line system is described. The system provides a continuous attachment for a safety harness in an operator's place of work. Design considerations discussed include: maximum arrest force; ergonomic factors; provision of anchorages to attach the system to the structure where it is needed; stretching cables and energy dissipation; and system testing.
Safety and Health Practitioner, June 1997, Vol.15, No.6, p.17-21. Illus.


CIS 98-937 Window cleaning anchor systems: Non-galvanized anchors
Dispositifs d'ancrage pour le nettoyage des vitres: dispositifs non galvanisés [in French]
Topics: anchoring devices; Canada; data sheet; fall arresters; material failure; steels; window cleaning.
Professional and Specialized Services, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, June 1996. 2p. 3 ref.

CIS 98-941 Inspection of full body harness
Inspection de harnais de sécurité [in French]
Topics: Canada; data sheet; harnesses; inspection; protection against falls from heights.
Construction Health and Safety Program and Professional and Specialized Services, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, May 1996. 1p.

CIS 97-1341 Crawford H.
Health and Safety Executive
Energy absorbers for tree surgeons: An investigation of fall distances for tree climbers equipped with sit harness or with full harness
This report presents the results of an investigation into fall heights and fall arrest forces for tree climbers. It focuses on the suitability of tree climbers' harnesses in relation to the fall arrest hazard. The study involved a literature survey, and a drop test programme. Results of the test programme provide a set of guidelines relating to situations suitable for a sit harness, a full harness, and a full harness with energy absorber. Recommendations are also given for developments in full harness design.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 46p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 97-995 Workman T.
Fall arrest systems - The principles and the practice
The principles behind the installation of cable-based fall arrest systems are explained and some problems are highlighted. Factors considered include defining the requirements of individual sites, load control, positioning of supports, choice of cable, and computer calculation for load control. Three examples of fall-arrest system design are included.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Dec. 1996, Vol.14, No.12, p.49-51. Illus.

CIS 97-686 Rafacz W., McGill S.M.
Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure
Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored for 20 subjects performing a variety of tasks both with and without an abdominal belt. Wearing the belt significantly increased diastolic blood pressure, even during tasks not associated with strenuous exercise. Changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate were not significant. Individuals considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks associated with the additional cardiovascular load.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1996, Vol.38, No.9, p.925-927. 7 ref.

CIS 97-286 Kössler F.
Do supports of the lumbar spine help to prevent back disorders caused by heavy work?
Nutzen Lumbal-Stützgurte zur Prävention von Rückenbescherden bei körperlicher Schwerarbeit? [in German]
Back belts are worn to support the spine during heavy manual lifting tasks. The present knowledge of the effects of back belts on trunk muscle activity, intra-abdominal and intra-discal pressure and on the cardiovascular system is outlined. The subjectively perceived benefits of back belts and the present knowledge on the reduction of backache by back belts are included in the literature survey. It is concluded that improper or irregular use of the lumbar belt can be more hazardous than beneficial in heavy lifting tasks. It is recommended to give priority to training the personnel in assuming an ergonomic body posture for lifting heavy loads. The personnel that uses back belts needs instructions on how to use them properly. Monitoring the frequency of use and the back problems that occur with and without the use of back belts will provide information that can be contributed to the ongoing discussion of the benefits of back belts.
Die BG, June 1996, No.6, p.418-426. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 97-316 Magnusson M., Pope M.H., Hansson T.
Does a back support have a positive biomechanical effect?
In a study of the biomechanical effects of back supports, 12 subjects performed a simulated lifting task according to NIOSH guidelines. The back support reduced the electromyographic signal in the dorsal muscles and also reduced the height loss as measured by a stadiometer. In most subjects, the support also gave a subjective impression of increased support and increased lifting capacity.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1996, Vol.27, No.3, p.201-205. Illus. 38 ref.

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