Hand and arm protection - 254 entries found
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Rose R.F., Lyons P., Horne H., Wilkinson S.M.
A review of the materials and allergens in protective gloves
Substances reported in literature as causing protective glove allergy are presented and for each, the strength of evidence is evaluated. Allergens that have caused both delayed hypersensitivity and contact urticaria are considered for rubber, plastic, leather and textile gloves. The current guidelines regarding glove manufacture are described. A list of materials confirmed by the industry to be used in glove production is presented together with a suggested series for the patch testing of patients with delayed type hypersensitivity and contact urticaria from glove use.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2009, Vol.61, No.3, p.129-137. 46 ref.
09-1320.pdf [in English]
Protecting the hands of working women
There are over 70 million working women in the United States. In health care, women make up 80% of the work force. Manufacturers of personal protective equipment therefore need to offer suitable designs and sizes to keep women injury-free and productive. This article discusses the specific needs of women with respect to protective gloves, together with the efforts of glove suppliers to accommodate these needs.
Occupational Hazards, Oct. 2009, Vol.2, No.10, p.29, 32. Illus.
09-1269.pdf [in English]
http://ehstoday.com/ppe/news/protecting-hands-working-women-1235/ [in English]
A practical guide to hand protection
This article reviews the various types of protective gloves and their use, including gloves for protection against chemicals (in latex rubber, nitrile rubber, polyurethane, PVC, neoprene), cut-resistant gloves (aramids, polyethylene), anti-vibration gloves and gloves providing electrical insulation.
Occupational Hazards, Sep. 2008, Vol.70, No.8, p.61-69. Illus.
09-0504.pdf [in English]
Uribe Llopis P., Barbero del Palacio P., Alonso Cobo M.T., Bardón Fernández-Pacheco I., Caso Pita M.C.
Towards a latex-free hospital
Hacia un hospital sin látex [in Spanish]
The objective of this work was to describe the steps taken in a public hospital in Spain in order to achieve the goal of being a "latex-free hospital". This policy was chosen because of the increasing number of cases of latex allergy. Besides protecting workers, the actions are also aimed at protecting patients against possible post-operation allergic reactions.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Sep. 2008, Vol.LIV, No.212, p.99-108. Illus. 15 ref.
09-0401.pdf [in Spanish]
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v54n212/original6.pdf [in Spanish]
Phalen R., Hee S.Q.
A moving robotic hand system for whole-glove permeation and penetration: Captan and nitrile gloves
The aim of this study was to develop a robotic hand to test the influence of hand movement on the permeation and penetration of captan through disposable nitrile rubber gloves. Permeation of an aqueous emulsion (217mg/mL) of captan was tested at 35°C. A surface wipe technique was used to collect captan from the inner surface of the exposed gloves. Findings are discussed. It is suggested that future research should continue to investigate the influence of hand movement and additional work factors on the permeation, penetration and physical integrity of protective gloves.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2008, Vol.5, No.4, p.258-270. Illus. 39 ref.
09-0123.pdf [in English]
Gauvin C., Dolez P., Harrabi L., Boutin J., Petit Y., Vu-Khanh T., Lara J.
Development of methods for measuring the adherence of protective gloves - Preliminary study
Mise au point de méthodes pour mesurer l'adhérence des gants de protection - Étude préliminaire [in French]
Workers wearing gloves with poor adherence may have to make additional efforts to hold the object that they are manipulating, which can cause discomfort, pain and even musculoskeletal problems. This study's main objective was to explore various approaches for characterizing the adherence of protective gloves. A biomechanical method previously developed at the IRSST was modified to measure the coefficient of friction of gloves, and applied to tests, firstly with human subjects, then with a mechanical device requiring no human intervention. Furthermore, a laboratory method for measuring the coefficient of friction was developed and applied to the measurement of 27 glove models. This study demonstrates that the mechanical method makes it easier to control the variables that affect adherence measures. It is a simple, reliable and inexpensive method that can be useful to protective glove manufacturers for measuring the adherence of their products.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. ix, 77p. Illus. 68 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 9.45. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-559.pdf [in French]
08-1404.pdf [in French]
Health and Safety Executive
Use of chemical protective gloves to control dermal exposures in the UV lithographic printing sub-sector
This project was designed to identify the most appropriate chemical protective glove for each work activity in the printing sector. Typical solvents, chemicals and protective glove materials used in lithographic printing were identified. Site visits showed how the gloves were used. It was observed that printers generally maintained a high standard of cleanliness with the inks; however they did not appear to regard the solvents as skin hazards. There were no current cases of dermatitis. Nitrile gloves of 0.4mm thickness were found to resist permeation by the greatest number of solvents. These gloves are therefore recommended as the default choice for general use in lithographic printing. Particularly aggressive chemicals may however require thicker or different types of gloves.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 55p. Illus. 26 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr525.pdf [in English]
08-1134.pdf [in English]
Personal protective equipment offering projection against cuts and piercing injuries
Persönliche Schutzausrüstungen: hieb- und stichfest [in German]
Working with knives or sharp objects (glass, sheet metal, etc.) presents a risk of injuries to the hands and arms. In the food industry in particular, 30 to 40% of all reported accidents are due to the handling of knives, of which 90% concern the hand-arm system. Metal chain mesh protective equipment exist that offer suitable hand and arm protection. They exist in the form of gloves, gauntlets and arm protectors that can reach up to the shoulder, and even as long-sleeved vests. It is recommended that gloves be worn to test their comfort and not to depend on the sizes specified by the supplier. For work requiring arms to be raised, the sleeves must be fixed so as not to slide down, in order to ensure an unfailing protection of the hands and arms.
Arbeit und Gesundheit, 2007, No.11, p.10. Illus.
08-0697.pdf [in German]
Why wear gloves and how to get rid of contaminated gloves
Pourquoi porter des gants et comment ôter les gants souillés [in French]
Comic strip giving advice on wearing and removing single-use and re-usable protective gloves.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2007. 4p. Illus. Price: EUR 2.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
08-0525.pdf [in French]
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/55FDA797A92866ADC1256CD90051412A/$FILE/ed883.pdf [in French]
Vu-Khanh T., Dolez P., Harrabi L., Lara J., Larivière C., Tremblay G., Nadeau S.
Characterization of the flexibility of protective gloves by mechanical and biomechanical methods
Caractérisation de la souplesse des gants de protection par des méthodes mécaniques et biomécaniques [in French]
Protective gloves help reduce the number and severity of hand injuries, but they often hinder task execution and require increased muscular effort, which explains the reluctance of workers to wear them. A biomechanical test developed in a previous study (see CIS 04-729) demonstrated some potential for characterizing glove flexibility. This study consists of a refinement of the method and the evaluation of its sensitivity using a larger number of gloves. The findings show that it is possible to predict the effects of a rigid glove on muscle function. In addition to providing essentially the same information as tests carried out on human subjects, the mechanical double curvature test is much simpler, requires fewer resources, is less costly, is less subject to variation and is more sensitive to subtle differences in flexibility.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. iv, 85p. Illus. 47 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 9.54. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
08-0479.pdf [in French]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-506.pdf [in French]
Gauvin C., Tellier C., Daigle C., Petitjean-Roget T.
Evaluation of dexterity tests applied to protective gloves
Evaluation de tests de dextérité appliqués aux gants de protection [in French]
While workers may be protected from frequent and severe hand injury risks by wearing gloves suited to the task, these gloves can however significantly reduce dexterity and tactile sensitivity, limit hand movements and lower productivity, thus causing workers to modify this protective equipment or to refuse its wear. It is therefore important to be able to characterize the dexterity allowed by these gloves. This study involved comparing various dexterity tests, with 30 volunteers carrying out dexterity tasks while wearing different types of gloves. The scores obtained together with subjective data collected by means of questionnaires were subjected to statistical evaluation. Results enabled the definition of a broad framework for the future definition of an experimental protocol for classifying gloves according to their degree of dexterity.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. x, 70p. Illus. 83 ref. Price: CAD 10.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
08-0480.pdf [in French]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-491.pdf [in French]
Materials and their use in hand protection
Materialen und Ihr Einsatz im Handschutz [in German]
According to the statistics of the Federation of German Professional Associations (HVBG), hand and wrist injuries are the most frequent reportable occupational accidents in the country. The HVBG registered about 772,000 compulsorily reportable industrial accidents for 2005, of which 316,000 (41%) involved the hand or wrist. This article presents the properties of various materials used in protective gloves, together with their advantages and areas of application. Contents: cuts are avoidable; causes and location of injuries; materials providing resistance against cuts; synthetic fibres (polyamides, aramids, highly-oriented polyethylenes).
Sicherheitsingenieur, 2007, No.4, p.32-37. Illus.
07-1464.pdf [in German]
Personal protective equipment - Come on, join in!
Persönliche Schutzausrüstung - Komm, mach mit! [in German]
This booklet explains the different types of protective equipment and presents the workplace signs and pictogrammes signaling that their use is required.
Institut für Arbeisschutz der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung (IFA), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 2006. 7p. Illus.
http://www.dguv.de/psa/de/publikationen/komm.pdf [in German]
LaMontagne A.D., Radi S., Elder D.S., Abramson M.J., Sim M.
Primary prevention of latex related sensitisation and occupational asthma: A systematic review
Eight primary prevention intervention studies on natural rubber latex (NRL) published since 1990 were identified and reviewed. Substitution of powdered latex gloves with low protein powder-free NRL gloves or latex-free gloves was found to greatly reduce NRL aeroallergens, NRL sensitization and NRL-asthma in healthcare workers. This substitution promises benefits to workers' health, and cost and human resource savings for employers. This message should be broadly disseminated beyond the hospital sector to include other healthcare settings (such as aged care facilities) as well as food service and other industries where latex gloves might be used.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.63, No.5, p.359-364. 22 ref.
07-1111.pdf [in English]
Formaldehyde in reusable protective gloves
Following clinical findings in a case of hand dermatitis, formaldehyde was suspected to be present in reusable protective gloves. Nine types of gloves were investigated with the semi-quantitative chromotropic acid method. It was found that six gloves emitted some formaldehyde and that four gloves emitted ≥40µg of formaldehyde. Most of the formaldehyde was found on the inside of the gloves. To get an indication of the clinical relevance, a comparison with a protective cream containing the formaldehyde-releasing agent diazolidinyl urea was performed by comparing areas of gloves with areas of cream layers with thickness 1-2mg/cm2. The amounts of formaldehyde emitted from the gloves were in the same range as those emitted from a layer of cream.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2006, Vol.54, No.5, p.268-271. 17 ref.
07-0406.pdf [in English]
Gloves - A wider range for better comfort
Gants - Une gamme élargie au service du confort [in French]
It is estimated that 25% of occupational accidents involve the hands. Wearing suitable gloves would significantly lower this hazard. This article describes the various types of gloves used in the building and construction sector. Topics addressed: choosing glove material (leather or synthetic materials such as natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile rubber or PVC); quality marking, pictogrammes and standards; care of gloves.
Prévention BTP, Apr. 2006, No.84, p.28-29. Illus. 2 ref.
06-1458.pdf [in French]
Mygind K., Sell L., Flyvholm M.A., Frydendall Jepsen K.
High-fat petrolatum-based moisturizers and prevention of work-related skin problems in wet-work operations
The purpose of this study was to explore whether a high-fat petrolatum-based moisturizer could be an alternative to protective gloves in wet-work occupations. The study population consisted of gut cleaners in Danish swine slaughterhouses, divided into intervention and comparison groups. The intervention group was given written and oral information on the use of gloves and skin care. Data were collected by telephone interviews using a standardized questionnaire. 644 (88%) gut cleaners responded at baseline and 622 (72%) at a one-year follow-up. In the intervention group, the eczema frequency was reduced significantly. Detailed analyses revealed that protective gloves were the most effective means of protection and did not indicate that a high-fat moisturizer could be an alternative. A continuous focus on prevention of skin problems with information and discussions on the shop floor seemed to be most important for reducing skin problems.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2006, Vol.54, No.1, p.35-41. 27 ref.
06-1399.pdf [in English]
Martin P., Ferrari P., Pierrel M.
Testing the chemical resistance of gloves to four frequently-used glycol ethers
Tests de résistance chimique des gants vis-à-vis de quatre éthers de glycol d'utilisation fréquente [in French]
The objective of this study was to determine the resistance of a set of gloves to four glycol ethers, namely 2PG1MEA (2-propylene glycol 1-methyl ether 2-acetate), EGBE (ethylene glycol n-butyl ether), DEGEE (diethylene glycol ethyl ether) and DEGBE (diethylene glycol butyl ether). The need to test protective gloves in relation to these glycol ethers required developing specific analytical methods implemented within the framework of European standards EN 369 and EN 374 testing procedures. This study led to determining permeation times for the different gloves, enabling users of these chemicals to protect themselves effectively against penetration of glycol ethers through the skin. The results revealed the superiority of two thicknesses (0.45 and 0.65mm) of butyl gloves made by two manufacturers. Permeation measurements for these gloves were interrupted after eight hours of recording without reaching the threshold concentration downstream of the sample. Permeation times for other materials were shorter and less uniform, depending on the glycol ether concerned.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2006, No.202, p.23-30. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202242/$File/ND2242.pdf [in French]
06-1159.pdf [in French]
Gonzaga M.C., Funes Abrahão R., Braunbeck O.A.
Use of protective gloves for the manual harvesting of sugar cane
O uso das luvas de proteção no corte manual de cana-de-açúcar [in Portuguese]
This study on gloves used for the manual harvesting of sugar cane resulted from a tripartite negotiation between FUNDACENTRO, a workers' union and a sugar mill. A key factor of glove efficiency is their adherence to the knife handle. Data on the quality of four models of gloves were collected by means of questionnaires distributed to 47 workers. Their friction coefficient with wood was also measured. The qualitative research showed that workers prefer gloves made of leather straps and nylon because they fit their hands comfortably, without causing aches or blocking their movements. Other findings are discussed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2005, Vol.30, No.111, p.35-40. Illus. 17 ref.
07-1465.pdf [in Portuguese]
Koh D., Ng V., Leow Y.H., Goh C.L.
A study of natural rubber latex allergens in gloves used by healthcare workers in Singapore
The aims of this study were to quantify the levels of specific allergens in rubber gloves used in Singapore, to determine if these levels were above thresholds that may cause natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy and to compare the levels of these specific allergens in gloves used for different purposes, namely gloves used for examination purposes or for surgical procedures. Forty-nine rubber gloves were obtained from major hospitals and healthcare departments in Singapore and were analysed for their NRL allergen levels. An immunometric assay technique was used to determine the specific allergen levels in the gloves. It was found that NRL allergen levels in the majority of examination gloves used by healthcare workers in Singapore were high enough to cause NRL allergy among sensitized persons. The information can serve as evidence for a possible requirement for manufacturers to produce gloves with low NRL allergen levels and to state the allergen level in gloves in the product information.
British Journal of Dermatology, 2005, Vol.153, p.954-959. 20 ref.
07-0389.pdf [in English]
Latza U., Haamann F., Baur X.
Effectiveness of a nationwide interdisciplinary preventive programme for latex allergy
This study describes a nationwide awareness campaign aimed at reducing exposure to powdered high-protein latex gloves among health care workers in Germany and evaluates the effectiveness of the programme. Data on compensation claims for latex-related skin and airway diseases were compared before and after implementation of the programme. A survey on change in glove use was also conducted after implementing the programme. The number of compensation claims for latex-induced skin diseases increased from 664 at the start of the programme in 1996 to 884 in 1998, and then decreased to 567 in 1999 and 204 in 2002. Similar decreases were observed for respiratory diseases. This programme was found to be effective and can be regarded as a model for the reduction of other occupational diseases such as bakers' or isocyanate asthma.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2005, Vol.78, No.5, p.394-402. Illus. 47 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/lp3ef1rrqr5xxmylwa7w/contributions/j/3/3/1/j3314532m7844317.pdf [in English]
06-0630.pdf [in English]
Vu-Hhanh T., Vu T.B.N., Nguyen C.T., Lara J.
Protective gloves: Study of the resistance of gloves to multiple mechanical aggressors
Gants de protection: étude sur la résistance des gants aux agresseurs mécaniques multiples [in French]
Wearing protective gloves adapted to the type of hazard involved and the type of work carried out can help reduce hand injuries, which represent about 20% of all compensated injuries. Cuts, scratches and pricks are common in workplaces where metal parts, glass or tools are handled. Earlier research has shown that gloves that protect against cuts do not necessarily protect against pricks, and vice versa. The objective of this project was to develop a better understanding of rupture mechanisms and to generate data to help manufacturers improve the resistance of gloves to complex mechanical hazards. Laboratory tests were conducted with the cooperation of glove and material manufacturers and validated through workplace testing.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. viii, 74 Illus. 67 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 10.70. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-424.pdf [in French]
06-0433.pdf [in French]
Gao P., El-Ayouby N., Wassell J.T.
Changes in permeation parameters and the decontamination efficacy of three chemical protective gloves after repeated exposures to solvents and thermal decontaminations
Chemical protective clothing and gloves are usually too expensive to be considered disposable. Their repeated use without effective decontamination may result in secondary exposure. However, decontamination may change the physical and chemical properties of the barrier material, causing variations in breakthrough time (BT) and steady-state permeation rate (SSPR). Neoprene, butyl rubber and nitrile rubber were selected for this study, while toluene and acetone were chosen as the challenge chemicals. Permeation was measured in a closed loop system using a 2.5cm permeation cell and an infrared analyser. Following the permeation test, the samples were thermally decontaminated. After each exposure and decontamination cycle, BT and SSPR were measured. Permeation test results were collected on each material/chemical combination for ten cycles. Findings with respect to changes in BT and SSPR as a function of glove material, solvent and number of cycles are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2005, Vol.47, No.2, p.131-143. Illus. 15 ref.
04-0633.pdf [in English]
Jungbauer F.H.W., Van der Harst J.J., Groothoff J.W., Coenraads P.J.
Skin protection in nursing work: Promoting the use of gloves and hand alcohol
Exposure to skin irritants is a cause of occupational skin disease in nurses. In this study, the effectiveness of soap and water, alcohol-based hand rubs and gloves in prevention programmes was investigated. In particular, two recommended procedures were evaluated: use of alcohol-based hand rubs instead of soap and water in disinfection procedures when the hands are not visibly dirty, and use of gloves in wet activities such as patient washing. The effectiveness of these recommendations was investigated in healthy volunteers over a period of three weeks, five days a week. An increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) occurred with the regular prevention method, while mean TEWL decreased among subjects using the recommended method. Skin irritation from occlusion by gloves appeared to be more pronounced in the regular method compared to the recommended method. The results of this study justify the conclusion that in nursing work, alcohol-based hand rubs are the preferred disinfectants.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2004, Vol.51, No.3, p.135-140. Illus. 23 ref.
05-0647.pdf [in English]
Protection des mains [in French]
Collection of support documents for a two-day course on hand protection, including leaflets entitled "Hands at work" and "Tips for hand protection", a booklet entitled "Seven steps for better hand protection" and a CD-ROM containing various slide shows on hand protection (why implement a hand protection policy, legislation, check lists, hazard evaluation and preventive measures, safety gloves, working safely with knives, washing one's hands).
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, Bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2004. Leaflets and booklet (2p., 4p., 8p) + CD-ROM containing slide shows in ppt (Powerpoint) format.
05-0020.pdf [in French]
Larivière C., Plamondon A., Tellier C., Lara J., Boutin J.
Development of biomechanical tests for evaluating the adherence and flexibility of protective gloves
Développement de tests biomécaniques pour l'évaluation de l'adhérence et de la souplesse des gants de protection [in French]
All too often, the stiffness, thickness, adherence or fit of gloves provided to workers make them inappropriate for the task to be carried out, which consequently requires a greater effort by the forearm muscles than if the work is done with bare hands. As a result, workers often refuse to wear protective gloves, which has a negative impact on injury prevention. In this study, a methodology based on dynamometric and electromyographic measurements was developed for evaluating the flexibility and adherence of gloves during standardized tasks, and for evaluating how sensitive this methodology is to the wearing of different types of gloves. The tests involved 30 subjects who carried out standardized gripping tasks aimed at assessing the efficiency of the gloves. Findings are discussed, and further research is proposed.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. vii, 51p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-372.pdf [in French]
04-0729.pdf [in French]
Proctective gloves in the health care sector
Gants de protection pour les métiers de santé [in French]
In health care settings, using gloves that are suited to the task contributes to the safety of both health care staff and their patients. Consequently, one needs to understand the advantages and limitations of the various types of gloves and their constituent materials. This practical safety information sheet presents the regulations and standards that apply to protective gloves, together with good practices for their use. Contents: types of gloves; efficiency of gloves with respect to protecting against biological hazards; good practices in the use of gloves. In boxes: materials used in glove manufacture; prevention of allergies; regulations and standards.
Travail et sécurité, May 2004, No.640, insert 4p. Illus. 5 ref.
04-0601.pdf [in French]
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/61D6621BDA9647D8C1256EC3004DCE4B/$FILE/visu.html?OpenElement [in French]
Sorock G.S., Lombardi D.A., Peng D.K., Hauser R., Eisen E.A., Herrick R.F., Mittleman M.A.
Glove use and the relative risk of acute hand injury: A case-crossover study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between glove use and traumatic occupational hand injury. A case-crossover design was used to control differences between individuals such as occupation, injury history, age, sex, risk-taking behaviour, manual dexterity and muscle strength. 1188 hand-injured workers were interviewed regarding the use of glove at the time of the injury. The self-reported average duration of glove use in the previous month was the measure of expected wearing of gloves. 19% of the workers reported wearing gloves at the time of the injury. The expected glove use in the past month of work was 27.9%. Glove use was associated with a lower risk of laceration and punctures, but not crush, fractures, avulsions, amputations and dislocations.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2004, Vol.1, No.3, p.182-190. Illus. 32 ref.
03-1759.pdf [in English]
Specification for protective gloves - General requirements and test methods
This standard defines the general requirements and relevant test procedures for protective glove design and construction, resistance of glove materials to water penetration, innocuousness, comfort and efficiency, marking and information supplied by the manufacturer. It does not apply to gloves used by the medical profession, for protection against electrical hazards or in clean-room environments (food industry, electronics industry). Replaces Singapore Standard SS 261:1997 (CIS 00-818).
SPRING Singapore, 2 Bukit Merah Central, Singapore 159835, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 36p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: SGD 34.00 (excluding GST).
07-0183.pdf [in English]
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Use of protective gloves and gauntlets against laceration and piercing caused by knives
Benutzung von Stechschutzhandschuhen und Armschützern [in German]
This Directive of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association applies to the selection and use of protective gloves and gauntlets against laceration and piercing caused by knives that employers are required to provide to their employees according to the provisions of the law on occupational safety and health. It defines the various types of protection of the upper extremities (short- or long-cuff gloves, gauntlet gloves, thumb protectors), criteria for selecting a suitable type of glove and rules for their use, hygiene, maintenance, repair and storage.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Apr. 2003. 28p. Illus.
06-0196.pdf [in German]
http://www.hvbg.de/d/fa-psa/service/pdf/bgr200.pdf [in German]
Korniewicz D.M., Garzon L., Plitcha S.
Health care workers: Risk factors for nonlatex and latex gloves during surgery
This study examined glove failure factors in both non-latex and latex surgical gloves after routine use. Surgical gloves were collected from persons directly involved in surgical procedures. A total of 11,118 surgical gloves were examined in the laboratory for visual defects and barrier integrity. The overall defect rate was 7.8%; non-latex gloves were significantly more likely to fail (8.4%) than latex gloves (6.9%). Latex and non-latex gloves fail under different conditions. Latex gloves fail primarily due to length of use, whereas non-latex gloves are more sensitive to conditions of us (e.g. type of health care worker and type of surgery). Users can help guard against glove defects by double gloving and by changing gloves often, especially when using non-latex gloves in higher-risk surgeries.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2003, Vol.64, No.6, p.851-855. 43 ref.
06-0152.pdf [in English]
Matthieu L., Godoi A.F.L., Lambert J., Van Grieken R.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from bisphenol A in vinyl gloves
Allergic contact dermatitis caused by polyvinyl chloride gloves is rarely reported, and in only two cases was bisphenol A considered to be the responsible sensitizer. In this case report, a patient developed occupational hand dermatitis after the use of a new type of high-density vinyl (HDV) gloves. Patch tests showed positive reactions to both used and new HDV gloves and to bisphenol A. Chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of bisphenol A in the HDV gloves. Replacement by nitrile rubber gloves resulted in complete clearance of the hand dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2003, Vol.49, No.6, p.281-283. Illus. 15 ref.
05-0627.pdf [in English]
Bonny J.S., Yéboué-Kouamé B.Y., Pillah M.A., Wognin S.B., Kouassi Y.M., Tchicaya A.F.
Intolerance to latex gloves among healthcare workers at teaching hospitals in Abidjan
L'intolérance aux gants de latex chez le personnel soignant des centres hospitaliers universitaires d'Abidjan [in French]
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the degree of intolerance to latex gloves among healthcare workers at the three teaching hospitals in Côte d'Ivoire. Subjects included 609 healthcare workers. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, dermatological examinations and skin tests among workers reporting latex intolerance. Among the main findings: 9.8% of the workers reported signs of intolerance to latex gloves; clinical signs were found on 80% of the intolerant subjects, including eczema (39.5%), irritant contact dermatitis (33.3%) and urticaria (27.1%); the most frequent localization was the back of the hands (37.5%) and the most concerned services were paediatrics (16.2%), laboratory and radiology services (12.5%) and surgery (7.4%); concerned workers included nurses (15.8%), physicians (14%) and midwives (9.7%). Skin tests were carried out among 66.7% of workers with signs of latex intolerance, allowing an estimation of the rate of allergy as 2% of the healthcare workers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2003, Vol.64, No.5, p.329-333. 16 ref.
05-0100.pdf [in French]
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Test method for protective gloves against PAHs during renovation work
Prüfmethode für Handschuhe zum Schutz gegen PAK bei Sanierungsarbeiten [in German]
Demolition and renovation workers may be exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The barrier effect of protective clothing and gloves cannot be assessed by existing standard testing methods. This report describes a new method for testing the permeation of PAHs through barrier membranes using essential elements of the testing standards EN 374-3, ASTM F739 and ISO 6529, but with a solid medium as receptor. The testing method is based on typical durations of exposure, real glove temperatures and realistic material stretching conditions. Several types of gloves were evaluated using this method. These tests showed that even higher molecular compounds such as PAHs can permeate through elastomers after prolonged use.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 54p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: EUR 8.50.
03-1814.pdf [in German]
Pareja Torres M.C., de la Iglesia Huerta A.
Health surveillance of users of protective gloves
La vigilancia de la salud en los usuarios de guantes de protección individual [in Spanish]
Many workplaces present specific hazards to the skin of the hands and require the wearing of protective gloves. The use of protective gloves may cause undesired effects or be counter-indicated, which is why medical supervision is necessary. Contents of this review article on the medical supervision of users of protective gloves: definition of personal protective equipment (PPE) and protective gloves; classification of protective gloves according to their shape, type of hazard and material; proper use of protective gloves; undesired effects of using protective gloves (occlusion, mechanical irritation, sensitization); situations where use is counter-indicated (atopy, allergies, multiple surgery, dermatitis, hyperhidrosis); diagnosis of the aptitude to wear gloves (medical history, clinical examinations, skin tests, determination of IgEs and histamine release, measurement of percutaneous loss of water); medical examinations (pre-employment examinations, specific and periodical examinations); health surveillance by means of a skin disease prevention protocol, an example of which is included.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.26, p.25-40. Illus. 23 ref.
03-1635.pdf [in Spanish]
Boileau P.E., Boutin J.
Interlaboratory evaluation of gloves used for hand-arm vibration damping
Evaluation interlaboratoire de gants destinés à réduire l'exposition aux vibrations main-bras [in French]
This study presents the results of the evaluation of four types of vibration protection gloves in three laboratories, using the methodology described in the international standard ISO 10819:1996. Important differences between the laboratories were highlighted, particularly with certain types of gloves when subjected to an excitation spectrum in the range of frequencies from 200 to 1000Hz. An alternative method for evaluating glove transmission factors based on the evaluation of vibration response curves was also developed and validated. Use of the new method would considerably simplify the measurements necessary for evaluating gloves.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Aug. 2003. iv, 33p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CAD 5.35.
03-1364.pdf [in French]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-340.pdf [in French]
Gloves against chemical hazards
Des gants contre les risques chimiques [in French]
There are constant risks in many workplaces from burns, skin diseases, skin irritation and even poisoning through skin absorption. Consequently, the use of protective gloves plays an important role in overall prevention efforts. This safety information sheet recalls a few basic definitions and provides the key elements enabling persons responsible for prescribing the use of these gloves or for their purchase to make effective use of the information provided by manufacturers. Contents: types of gloves (thickness, shape, composition); resistance criteria; hazard evaluation and constraints of the job; selection of appropriate gloves; glove use and care.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, Oct. 2003. 4p. Illus. 2 ref.
03-1329.pdf [in French]
Geier J., Lessmann H., Uter W., Schnuch A.
Occupational rubber glove allergy: Results of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK), 1995-2001
Among the patients with occupational contact dermatitis registered in the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (known under the German acronym IDVK) during the years 1995-2001, 2047 were patch tested for suspected rubber glove allergy. Reaction frequencies to thiurams, dithiocarbamates, mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and its derivatives, thioureas, and 1,3-diphenylguanidine (1,3-DPG) were analysed. Thiurams were by far the most frequent allergens in these patients (16.2% positive reactions). Although manufacturers have increased the use of dithiocarbamates and MBT derivatives in rubber glove production in recent years, these allergens elicited positive reactions in only about 3% of the patients tested, and showed no increasing trend. Thioureas and 1,3-DPG are not widely used in rubber glove production, and play only a minor role in rubber glove contact allergy. Most of the positive reactions to 1,3-DPG are probably false-positive, irritant reactions.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2003, Vol.48, No.1, p.39-44. Illus. 23 ref.
03-0762.pdf [in English]
Crippa M., Belleri L., Mistrello G., Carsana T., Neri G., Alessio L.
Prevention of latex allergy among health care workers: Evaluation of the extractable latex protein content in different types of medical gloves
Since the 1980s, there has been increased use of latex gloves by health care workers and a concomitant increase of irritant and allergic reactions. The total protein content and the latex allergenic protein content of 29 different types of medical gloves commonly used in a hospital were evaluated with the Lowry modified method and the RAST inhibition assay in glove samples and extracts to acquire information useful for preventing latex allergy in hospital personnel. The highest concentrations of total proteins and allergenic latex proteins were found in examination powdered latex gloves and in surgical powdered latex gloves; a significant amount of latex proteins was found in some brands of nitrile gloves. The clear association between the total protein levels and the allergenic latex protein levels suggests that the gloves with highest total protein content have the greatest allergenic potential. Therefore, it is recommended that manufacturing companies provide package inserts including the total protein contents and possibly allergenic latex protein levels They should declare whether they have added latex to their nitrile glove formulation. RAST-inhibition assays directly on glove samples instead of glove extract seems to be a highly reliable and faster alternative for the evaluation of the allergenic potential of latex gloves.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2003, Vol.44, No.1, p.24-31. Illus. 20 ref.
03-0322.pdf [in English]
Personal protective equipment - Equipment for hand and arm protection
Środki ochrony indywidualnej - Środki ochrony rąk [in Polish]
This guide provides information on the characteristics and scope of use of arm guards and protective gloves, guidance concerning the proper arm guard and protective glove selection and information regarding the compliance of Polish standards with European Union directives. Polish translation of INRS publication ED 275 (see CIS 99-110).
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2002. 26p. Illus.
03-0611.pdf [in Polish]
Edelstam G., Arvanius L., Karlsson G.
Glove powder in the hospital environment - Consequences for healthcare workers
Exposure to starch powder from natural rubber latex medical gloves can cause allergy symptoms due to the absorption of latex protein antigens onto the starch powder. A questionnaire was distributed to all employees working within the medical centre of a hospital. The procedure was repeated after the centre had been changed to a powder-free working environment. The focus of the questions was to determine the extent of symptoms that could be associated with glove powder or latex proteins. Responses were compared before and eight months after a new powder-free glove policy was fully implemented. The study pointed out that a relatively high percentage of the hospital workers were suffering from glove-related symptoms. A significant reduction of itching on the hands, hand eczema and upper respiratory-tract disorders was found after the change to a powder-free environment.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.75, No.4, p.267-271. Illus. 18 ref.
03-0319.pdf [in English]
Protective gloves for medical staff
Rękawice ochronne dla personelu medycznego [in Polish]
Contents of this booklet on protective gloves for medical staff: regulations in Poland applicable to the protection of medical staff; requirements with respect to physical properties and testing of protective gloves; types of protective gloves; means of prevention of diseases related to the use of latex gloves.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 24p. 17 ref.
03-0931.pdf [in Polish]
Liss G.M., Tarlo S.M.
Natural rubber latex-related occupational asthma: Association with interventions and glove changes over time
Until 1999, there were 60 compensated claims for occupational asthma following exposure to latex in the Canadian province of Ontario. Of these, 49 were among health care workers (HCWs). The number of claims among HCWs varied between zero and two per year up to 1990, increased to between seven and eleven per year from 1991 to 1994 and declined to three per year in 1995-1996 and to between one and two per year in 1997-1999. In eight of the ten institutions having two or more occupational asthma latex claims, all claims occurred in 1996 or earlier. At the largest hospital, there were five accepted claims between 1993 and 1995. These findings suggest that despite the effect of increasing recognition of latex-related occupational asthma, the introduction of gloves with reduced powder or protein, and other interventions have resulted in actual declines the number of cases.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.347-353. Illus. 24 ref.
02-0823.pdf [in English]
Macheleidt M., Windel A., Mehlem P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Development of a method for testing the resistance of protective gloves to pricks from cannula used in medicine
Entwicklung einer Prüfmethode zur Bestimmung der Stichfestigkeit von Schutzhandschuhen gegenüber medizinischen Kanülen [in German]
A new method for measuring the resistance of protective gloves to puncturing from cannula or needles used in medicine has been developed. It allows the evaluation of glove piercing resistance under conditions close to those encountered in practice in a reliable manner. This document also presents the contents of a proposed new testing standard.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 87p. Illus. 6 ref.
02-0349.pdf [in German]
Cortis L., Gori E.
Guidelines on the supply of personal protective equipment during the use of hand knives
Linee guida per l'individuazione degli indumenti di protezione contro i rischi meccanici nell'uso di coltelli a mano [in Italian]
Guide to Italian guidelines for the selection of protective gloves, aprons and other personal equipment against the risks of hand knives.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.14, No.1, p.37-48. Illus.
02-0411.pdf [in Italian]
Wearing test with two different types of latex gloves with and without the use of a skin protection cream
Among 72 subjects reporting symptoms indicating Type I hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves, 44 (60%) had a positive prick test to NRL. They underwent wearing tests using 2 types of NRL gloves with high and low allergen contents. Gloves with a high allergen content caused positive skin reactions in 47% of SPT-positive subjects. After application of a skin protection cream, the frequency of positive skin responses in wearing tests decreased to 30% in prick-test-positive subjects. The gloves with low allergen caused hypersensitivity with and without skin protection cream in 2 cases (5%) of the prick-test-positive. No prick-test-negative subjects showed any urticaria during the glove-wearing test. The study demonstrates that high allergen contents in latex gloves frequently elicit skin responses in NRL-sensitized subjects. Hand skin cream may hamper the uptake of allergens from gloves, thus decreasing allergic reactions.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2001, Vol.44, No.1, p.30-33. Illus. 16 ref.
02-0300.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Cost and effectiveness of chemical protective gloves for the workplace
This guidance booklet provides practical advice to employers on the cost and effectiveness of chemical protective gloves used in the workplace. Main topics covered: legal requirements; cost factors (purchase and replacement; comfort and dexterity; protection level; storage, maintenance and disposal; training); glove resistance to permeation, penetration and degradation; selection of suitable protective gloves. Appendices include examples of cost calculations of protective glove programmes, as well as permeation, penetration and degradation resistance test methods and standards.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2001. iv, 24p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
01-0727.pdf [in English]
Murphy R., Gawkrodger D.J.
Occupational latex contact urticaria in non-health-care occupations
Three case reports of latex contact urticaria are presented, involving workers in non-health-care occupations: a ceramic tiler, a car cleaner and a automobile mechanic. All three wore gloves at work. All tested positive to natural latex rubber patch and prick tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2000, Vol.43, No.2, p.111. 6 ref.
02-0818.pdf [in English]
Knudsen B.B., Hametner C., Seycek O., Heese A., Koch H.U., Peters K.P.
Allergologically relevant rubber accelerators in single-use medical gloves
Quantitative measurements of the residual amounts of rubber accelerators are needed to assist sensitized patients and consumers in selecting gloves. The aim of the study was to develop an analytical method by which rubber accelerators could be determined qualitatively and quantitatively. 19 different brands of single-use medical gloves were analysed for residual content of rubber accelerators, and the results were compared to manufacturers' claims. ZDEC, ZDBC, ZMBT and ZPC were the most frequently detected chemicals. Both phosphate buffer and acetone were tested as extraction media. No accelerators were detectable with the described chemical analysis in phosphate extracts, whereas acetone was demonstrated to be a technically suitable medium for extraction. However, further kinetic studies of the extraction procedure and skin penetration are needed to document that the extraction procedure simulates the clinical situation.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2000, Vol.43, No.1, p.9-15. 25 ref.
01-486.pdf [in English]
Lindberg M., Silverdahl M.
The use of protective gloves and the prevalence of hand eczema, skin complaints and allergy to natural rubber latex among dental personnel in the county of Uppsala, Sweden
To evaluate the prevalence of acrylate allergy and natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy among dentists, dental nurses and dental hygienists were given a self-administered questionnaire. The most common problem among the 527 respondents was dry skin, fissures and/or itching of the hands. Of the 72 persons reporting to have suffered from hand eczema during the past 12 months, 41 were patch tested. In the patch-tested group, 9.8% reacted to one or more of the acrylates. In addition, 389 persons were tested for NRL allergy with the Pharmacia Upjohn CAP-RAST test, and of these, 7.2% were found to be positive. The prevalence of self-reported hand eczema and the number of positive CAP-RAST tests differed between the 3 occupations, with higher figures for the dentists. There was also a correlation between atopic eczema and hand eczema. Of those reporting skin symptoms, 67.7% associated them with the workplace and 28.8% with the use of gloves.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2000, Vol.43, No.1, p.4-8. 27 ref.
01-505.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Latex and you
Natural latex rubber is commonly used in the manufacture of protective gloves in the health care field, since it provides good protection against infection while at the same time allowing sensitivity and control. There has been a steady increase in the number of reported cases of asthma and skin complaints attributed to natural latex rubber during the 1990s. Possible reasons include greater awareness of the problem and an increased use of natural latex rubber in protective gloves and other health care equipment. This booklet is aimed at health care workers who may be exposed to natural latex rubber in the course of their work, and stresses the importance of consulting a medical practitioner in the event of any symptoms of skin irritation or asthma. Responsibilities of employers under current United Kingdom legislation are also described.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2000. 11p. 5 ref.
01-0061.pdf [in English]
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