Foot and leg protection - 166 entries found
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Fan J.K., McLeod C.B., Koehoorn M.
Sociodemographic, clinical, and work characteristics associated with return-to-work outcomes following surgery for work-related knee injury
This study examined the association between return-to-work (RTW) outcomes and sociodemographic, clinical, and work characteristics among a cohort of injured workers who underwent knee surgery between 2001 and 2005 in British Columbia, Canada. Workers' compensation databases were used to identify the retrospective cohort and abstract the study variables. Data available for 1394 injured workers were subjected to statistical analysis. Compared to men, women were more likely to have partial RTW (odds ratio OR 2.55) and non-RTW (OR 2.61) than full RTW; low income earners were more likely than high income earners to have partial RTW (OR 3.05) and non-RTW (OR 4.07). Moreover, workers in trade, primary resource, and processing/manufacturing occupations were more likely than those in management occupations to have non-RTW than full RTW by the end of follow-up (OR 2.97, 9.31 and OR 2.71 respectively). Surgical and clinical factors were not associated with RTW outcomes. Other findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2010, Vol.36, No.4, p.332-338. 40 ref.
10-0063.pdf [in English]
Foot protectors for VHP water jets
Les protecteurs de pieds contre les jets d'eau THP [in French]
The results of tests conducted on foot protectors capable of ensuring protection against very high pressure (VHP) water jets are presented. The test procedure adopted involved passing a foot protector at a speed of 0.5 m/s in front of a VHP water jet. The distance between the protector and the water jet nozzle was 10 cm. The perforation detection system comprised a 0.18 mm thick latex sheet, which covered the artificial foot. The latex sheet and artificial foot were inserted inside the boot to be tested. Boots were tested by using various types of jets (straight, rotating, flat, orbital). Four boot models commonly used by operators were tested. Results showed that normal leather and rubber boots should be prohibited, that woodcutter type boots can only be used for flat jets up to a pressure of 1,050 bar, and that only boots claiming protection against VHP water jets truly protect against all types of jets for a pressure up to 1,150 bars and a jet flow of 35 L/min.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2009, No.214, p.45-49. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_ND%202306/$File/nd2306.pdf [in French]
09-0691.pdf [in French]
Maki B.E., Perry S.D., Scovil C.Y., Peters A.L., McKay S.M., Lee T.A., Corbeil P., Fernie G.R., McIlroy W.E.
Interventions to promote more effective balance-recovery reactions in industrial settings: New perspectives on footwear and handrails
"Change-in-support" balance-recovery reactions that involve rapid stepping or reaching movements play a critical role in preventing falls. This article reviews research pertaining to interventions aimed at improving the ability to execute these reactions effectively. Some of these interventions have the potential to reduce fall risks in industrial settings. Balance-enhancing footwear and proximity-triggered handrail cueing systems designed to improve reach-to-grasp reactions have been found to be useful in geriatric populations. There is also some evidence that these interventions may improve balance control in younger persons; however, further research is needed to confirm their efficacy in preventing falls in industrial settings.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.46, No.1, p.40-50. Illus. 50 ref.
09-1155.pdf [in English]
Walther M., Handschin P.
Leg height of a safety shoe has no influence on the incidence of ankle sprains - A prospective study in cooperation with the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB)
Die Schafthöhe des Sicherheitsschuhs hat keinen Einfluss auf die Häufigkeit des Distorsionstraumas - Eine prospektive Studie in Kooperation mit der Schweizer Bundesbahn (SBB) [in German]
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the leg height of safety shoes on the incidence of ankle sprains among railway workers. Eighty workers of the Swiss Federal Railway (SBB) were supplied either with a high top shoe (19cm shaft) or a standard shoe (12cm shaft). The investigation lasted two years. Workers were asked to evaluate the comfort, stability and fatigue, and all foot and ankle injuries were recorded. No foot or ankle injury was observed during the time of investigation. Comfort and fatigue were assessed to be significantly better with the standard shoe than with the high top shoe. Thus, the low top shoe does not lead to an increased rate of foot and ankle injuries.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.20-27. Illus. 21 ref.
09-0926.pdf [in English]
Gaik K., Kühnert K., Ahlbäumer G.
Can appropriate shoes protect against falls, slips and trips?
Schützt der richtige Schuh vor Stolpern, Rutschen, Stürzen? [in German]
Three specialists give their opinion concerning the role played by shoes in falls, slips and trips. Shoes need to be adapted to the specific operating needs and hazards of the enterprise. For example, rail workers working in marshalling yards should wear high shoes to avoid ankle injuries. Safety shoes should be selected based on orthopaedic criteria, in particular with respect to their shape, the rigidity of the upper part, the fastening, the sole and the heel. The sole must be adapted to the type of flooring and be shock-absorbing.
Arbeit und Gesundheit, 2008, No.12, p.10. Illus.
09-0690.pdf [in German]
Vanegas Jaramillo J.D.
Use of glass fibre reinforced plastic tips - Study of dielectric protection and advantages for safety shoes
Uso de punteras de seguridad fabricadas en plástico reforzado con fibra de vidrio - Estudio de protección dieléctrica y beneficios en el calzado de seguridad [in Spanish]
The tips of protective shoes are generally made of steel, which while offering excellent mechanical characteristics, have several shortcomings including electrical and thermal conductivity. Tips made of glass fibre reinforced plastics were therefore tested for compliance with current standards. Results of compression, impact resistance and dielectric strength testing are presented and discussed. Findings are promising.
Protección y seguridad, Mar.-Apr. 2008, Vol.54, No.318, p.40-43. Illus. 13 ref.
08-1165.pdf [in Spanish]
Mayer A., Cannot J.C., Migard A.
Safety footwear - Selection and use
Les articles chaussants de protection - Choix et utilisation [in French]
This guide is aimed at all persons involved in selecting safety footwear and boots and making them available in occupational settings. It applies to all work situations where it is necessary to have recourse to personal protective equipment, namely whenever collective protection measures are not possible or are insufficient. It provides information on the characteristics and scope of use of safety footwear, and proposes an approach for their selection, purchase, use and care.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Apr. 2007. 31p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: EUR 6.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/11A53C9EA2530082C125732300436D68/$FILE/ed994.pdf [in French]
08-0561.pdf [in French]
Personal protective equipment - Come on, join in!
Persönliche Schutzausrüstung - Komm, mach mit! [in German]
This booklet explains the different types of protective equipment and presents the workplace signs and pictogrammes signaling that their use is required.
Institut für Arbeisschutz der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung (IFA), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 2006. 7p. Illus.
http://www.dguv.de/psa/de/publikationen/komm.pdf [in German]
Specification for personal protective equipment - Footwear. Part 1: Safety footwear. Part 2: Test methods for footwear
Part 1 of this standard specifies basic and additional (optional) requirements for safety footwear, while part 2 specifies methods for testing footwear designed as personal protective equipment.
SNP Corporation Ltd, 1 Kim Seng Promenade, #18-01, Great World City East Tower, Singapore 237994, Republic of Singapore, 2005. 38p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: SGD 34.00 (excluding GST), (Part 1); 84p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: SGD 73.00 (excluding GST), (Part 2).
07-0943.pdf [in English]
How to ensure the physiological comfort of protective footwear
Jak zapewnić komfort fizjologiczny użytkownikom obuwia ochronnego [in Polish]
The most important functions and the indispensable properties of footwear used for foot protection against different risks are outlined. There is a detailed description of heat exchange, moisture and the microclimate around the feet.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2004. 33p. 41 ref.
04-0728.pdf [in Polish]
The use of footwear insulation values measured on a thermal foot model
The use of physiological data from human tests in modelling should consider background data, such as activity, environmental factors and clothing insulation on the whole body. This article focuses on the local thermal comfort of feet and on a special method for footwear thermal testing. It allows the use of insulation values acquired on a thermal foot model. The correlations between cold and pain sensations on one hand, and foot skin temperatures on the other, are described and related to the insulation measured on a thermal foot model. Recommendations are made for footwear choice as a function of environmental temperatures.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.1, p.79-86. Illus. 38 ref.
04-0196.pdf [in English]
Falls and trips
Chutes et faux pas [in French]
Falls of persons represent 26.5% of occupational accidents. 18.7% of these falls are falls on the level. Contents of this information leaflet on the prevention of falls, slips and trips: legal aspects (workplace layout, danger signalling, foot protection, ladders and mobile stairways); prevention of falls within the enterprise (workplace design, analysis of processes and internal traffic flows, signalling of obstacles); prevention of foot diseases and lesions (work posture, work shoes, safety shoes); stepladders, steps and ladders; examples of poor excuses for not wearing safety shoes.
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2004. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
03-1425.pdf [in French]
Their knees are vulnerable - Protect them by providing them with suitable protective clothing
Leurs genoux sont fragiles ... Protégez-les en les équipant d'un vêtement de protection adapté [in French]
This leaflet presents the risks incurred by persons working in a kneeling position (knee hygroma) together with the resulting social costs. It also presents a new concept of protection: protective clothing with an insert which protects the knees. It was the result of a technological collaboration between three manufacturers of work clothing.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2e ed., Dec. 2003. 6p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/D3B89B000B99E507C1256CD9005186C0/$FILE/ed786.pdf [in French]
08-0266.pdf [in French]
Safety shoes - PPEs that are the fruit of technological progress
Calzado de seguridad - Un E.P.I. fruto del progreso tecnológico [in Spanish]
Thanks to technological progress, it is now possible to manufacture safety shoes that are very similar in appearance to regular shoes while maintaining their protection characteristics. Following a brief overview of the main elements of the shoe that provide protection and a reference to sectors of activity where the wearing of safety shoes is essential, this article goes on to describe the various tests that safety shoes have to undergo, including: raw material tests (leather, laces, textile materials, soles, safety toe tips); tests during manufacture (soles) and tests on the finished shoe.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2003, No.163, p.36-47. Illus.
03-0896.pdf [in Spanish]
Personal protective equipment - Safety shoes
Środki ochrony indywidualnej - Obuwie ochronne [in Polish]
This guide is aimed at safety engineers, industrial physicians, enterprise managers, members of occupational safety and health committees and at all persons responsible for the selection of safety shoes and for making them available in industrial settings. It provides information on the characteristics and scope of use of protective shoes, and proposes an approach for their selection, purchase, use and maintenance. Appendices include a list of suppliers of work shoes and information on their marking. Polish translation of INRS publication ED 811 (see CIS 01-385).
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2002. 29p. Illus.
03-0613.pdf [in Polish]
Personal protective equipment - Equipment for leg protection
Środki ochrony indywidualnej - Środki ochrony nóg [in Polish]
This guide provides information on the characteristics and scope of use of personal protective equipment for leg protection (against chemical hazards, thermal hazards and electrical hazards), guidance concerning the proper selection of this equipment and information regarding the compliance of Polish standards with European Union directives. Polish translation of INRS publication ED 529.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2002. 25p. Illus.
03-0610.pdf [in Polish]
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Development of a method for measuring the interior dimensions of safety shoes
Entwicklung einer Methode zur Vermessung des Innenraumes von Sicherheitsschuhen [in German]
For safety shoes to be accepted by users, they have to be well adapted to the foot. The inside of the shoe must comply with anatomic requirements resulting from different foot morphologies. BAUA, the German Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, has specified the shape of the shoe sole that satisfies these anatomic requirements, as well as a system for measuring different foot widths that manufacturers have to implement even though they retain a certain margin for the design of different models. A method that enables the measurement of the interior dimensions of shoes is therefore required. This report describes such a method based on a tool developed at the institute.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 48p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: EUR 8.00.
02-0974.pdf [in German]
Rolin D., Nousbaum M.
Acceptance of the wearing of safety shoes at work
Acceptation en entreprise du port de chaussures de sécurité [in French]
Foot injuries represent an important part of all occupational accidents (6.7% during 1998 in France). To prevent their occurrence, it is necessary to implement collective protective measures, often completed with a requirement for wearing safety shoes. This requirement is sometimes not well accepted by the workers, and can give rise to conflicts. There are a wide variety of causes for refusal, including allergies, poor comfort or poor aesthetics. In order to better understand these issues, a one-year survey was carried out in 1997 among 310 workers of four companies where the use of safety shoes was required. At the same time, 16 medical consultations involving difficulties in using safety shoes at a centre for occupational diseases were identified and analysed. Several practical proposals for increasing the acceptance and use of safety shoes among workers are included.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2000, No.84, p.371-387. Illus.
02-0416.pdf [in French]
Protective footwear - Choice and use
Les articles chaussants de protection - Choix et utilisation [in French]
Aimed at safety engineers, occupational physicians, company management, members of hygiene and safety committees and all persons involved in the selection of personal protective equipment, this safety guide provides information on the characteristics and scope of application of protective footwear, and proposes an approach for their selection, purchase, use and care.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., Apr. 2000. 36p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
01-385.pdf [in French]
Agreement modifying the Mexican Official Standard NOM-113-STPS-1994 on safety shoes [Mexico]
Acuerdo que modifica la Norma Oficial Mexicana, Calzado de protección [México] [in Spanish]
This agreement modifies the Official Mexican Standard NOM-113-STPS-1994 on safety shoes (see CIS 01-6). It specifies the information that certification organizations must provide in their conformity documents.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 17 Nov. 1999, No.13, p.78.
01-0007.pdf [in Spanish]
Kuklane K., Geng Q., Holmér I.
Thermal effects of steel toe caps in footgear
The possible thermal effects of steel toe caps in footwear were investigated. Two models of boots were used, each manufactured in two variants - with and without steel toe caps. Boot insulation was measured with an artificial, heated foot (AHF). Cold exposure consisted of sitting for 60min at -10°C. There were no differences between insulation levels of boots with and without steel cap for one boot model, but the differences were statistically significant for the second model, showing slightly higher insulation values for the boot without steel cap. Significant differences were found for both models regarding the rate of change of heat loss from AHF when its location was changed from warm to cold and back to warm. The rise and decrease of heat loss from AHF depended on the rate of temperature change of the boots. The results showed that a faster change in heat loss from AHF occurred for boots without steel toe caps. The effect may be attributed to the higher mass and heat contents of the boots with steel toe cap. Topics: cold workplaces; exposure evaluation; foot; safety footwear; skin temperature; thermal comfort; toe caps.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 1999, Vol.23, No.5-6, p.431-438. Illus. 11 ref.
992050.pdf [in English]
Safety shoes: Guidelines for selection and use of PPE
Calzado de uso profesional: guía orientativa para la elección y utilización de los EPI [in Spanish]
Topics: check lists; comfort criteria; data sheet; insulating footwear; maintenance; personal protective equipment; protection criteria; safety shoes; Spain; training manuals; training material.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Servicio de Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 16p. Illus.
99-1474.pdf [in Spanish]
Kuklane K., Geng Q., Holmér I.
Effect of footwear insulation on thermal responses in the cold
Topics: foot; insulating footwear; protection against cold; safety footwear; sensation tests; skin temperature; subjective assessment; thermal comfort; thermal insulation; toe caps.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1998, Vol.4, No.2, p.137-152. Illus. 13 ref.
99-282.pdf [in English]
Kuklane K., Holmér I.
Effect of sweating on insulation of footwear
Topics: insulating footwear; protection against cold; safety footwear; tests on models; thermal insulation; toe caps.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1998, Vol.4, No.2, p.123-136. Illus. 5 ref.
99-281.pdf [in English]
Specification for safety footwear
Topics: antistatic footwear; compressive strength; description of equipment; directive; equipment testing; labelling; protection criteria; safety footwear; Singapore; standard; thermal insulation; toe caps.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 1997. 71p. Illus. 18 ref.
00-861.pdf [in English]
Better understanding of the equipment used for personal protection (body, feet and hands)
Mieux connaître les équipements de protection individuelle (corps, pieds et mains) [in French]
Verstandig omgaan met persoonlijke beschermingsmiddelen (voeten, handen en lichaam) [in Dutch]
Topics: Belgium; falls from heights; foot and leg protection; hand and arm protection; personal hygiene; personal protective equipment; protective clothing; protective gloves; safety footwear; safety guides; training material.
Association nationale pour la prévention des accidents du travail, rue Gachard 88/4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1997. 21p. Illus. 6 ref.
98-90f.pdf [in French]
98-90nl.pdf [in Dutch]
Krijnen R.M.A., de Boer E.M., Adèr H.J., Osinga D.S.C., Bruynzeel D.P.
Compression stockings and rubber floor mats: Do they benefit workers with chronic venous insufficiency and a standing profession?
Topics: diseases of veins; floor mats; flooring; leg protection; meat industry; Netherlands; standing posture.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1997, Vol.39, No.9, p.889-894. Illus. 26 ref.
98-326.pdf [in English]
Evaluation of the slip resistance of six types of women's safety shoe using a newly developed testing machine
The slip resistance of six types of women's safety shoe was assessed using a machine designed by Worksafe Australia for measuring the coefficient of friction between shoes and floor samples under realistic slipping conditions. The machine and test procedures are described. Differences were found between the six tested safety shoes, but all gave reasonable performance. The machine gave consistent results under test conditions recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 1997, Vol.13, No.2, p.175-182. Illus. 11 ref.
97-2039.pdf [in English]
Mutual recognition legislation: End-user protection levels for occupational protective footwear may be less than the Australian Standard
Mutual recognition legislation enables a manufacturer or importer of occupational protective footwear to enter the marketplace through a participant jurisdiction and then legally trade that footwear in all other participating jurisdictions. Since the Australian standard for protective footwear (AS/NZS 2210) is not mandatory for the sale of this footwear throughout Australia, end-user protection levels can be below those required by the standard. It is recommended that the standard be enacted as a mandatory safety standard in all Australian jurisdictions.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1997, Vol.13, No.1, p.27-32. 5 ref.
97-1842.pdf [in English]
Folachier M., Tisserand M., Lugdunum B., Tissot C., Bastide J.C., Goris A.M., Richez J.P.
Tripping is funny only before it happens
"La glissade n'est risible ... qu'avant l'accident" [in French]
Accidents due to slipping account for about 10% of all occupational accidents, and for an even higher proportion of home and leisure accidents. Preventive action must be taken on three fronts: preventing slippery materials from spilling on the ground, choosing slip-resistant flooring and equipping personnel with anti-slip footwear. This article discusses: the protection offered by safety shoes as a function of floor surface; characteristics of footwear; analysis of 72 accidents; descriptions of some accidents; cases of falls on the level; main aspects of the hazard; recommended floor coverings; descriptions of the situation in the food industry and in a machine-building enterprise; the many factors behind slips; 600 in-situ measurements of slip resistance; characteristics of slip-resistant floors; anti-slip footwear; methods of measuring slip resistance; applicable French regulations.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 1996, No.545, p.16-30, 35-52. Illus. 6 ref.
96-1040.pdf [in French]
Mexican Official Standard on safety shoes [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana: Calzado de protección [México] [in Spanish]
This standard establishes the minimum technical requirements of safety shoes supplied to workers. Testing methods are specified. The characteristics of these shoes vary depending on the risks they protect against. This Standard was modified in 1999 (see CIS 01-7).
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 22 Jan. 1996, No.15, p.54-62.
01-0006.pdf [in Spanish]
Field tests with knee pads for work in kneeling posture
Feldversuch mit Knieschützern für Arbeiten, die eine kniende Haltung erfordern [in German]
The comfort of ergonomically designed knee pads was tested in jobs involving a kneeling position, such as paving roads with cobblestones, asphalting, tiling, floor-laying and plumbing. Questionnaires were distributed to assess the knee pads. Of 1,068 wearers, 425 found the comfort of the knee pads better than average, 416 found them average and 272 found them unsuitable. Hot asphalt destroyed the polyurethane material the knee pads were made of. Floor-layers in particular liked the knee pads; tilers and pavers followed.
Die BG, June 1995, No.6, p.300-303. Illus.
96-1498.pdf [in German]
Schutzschuhe [in German]
This practical leaflet provides information on the characteristics, selection criteria, uses and maintenance of safety footwear.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1201 Wien, Austria, 1995. 11p. Illus.
96-0353.pdf [in German]
Leclercq S., Tisserand M., Saulnier H.
Slip-resistant footwear - Application of experiments to occupational risk prevention
Les chaussures antidérapantes - Application de l'expérimentation à la prévention [in French]
The effects on slip resistance of several factors linked to the manufacture or use of safety footwear were studied: 1) dispersion of slip resistance of various samples of different shoe models, assessed over a 3-year period: fluctuations varying from 14 to 55% were observed, according to the model; 2) effects of shoe wear through walking: slip resistance increased from 0 to 54% for compact elastomer soles and from 33 to 100% for polyurethane foam soles; 3) influence of the hardness of sole material: on smooth, greasy floors the effect, if any, is very slight; 4) effect of halogenation of the sole: no consistent effect on slip resistance. The shoe slip resistance measurement method standardized in France and Italy is outlined. The influence of other factors, particularly tread pattern and sole shape, is emphasized.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1995, No.158, Note No.1982-158-95, p.47-55. Illus. 20 ref.
Tisserand M., Leclercq S., Saulnier H.
Service Ergonomie et Psychologie Industrielle, Section Ergonomie des Postes de Travail
Characterization of the friction coefficients of footwear sole elastomers by using material resistance?
Caractérisation du coefficient de frottement des élastomères par la résistance des matériaux [in French]
The intrinsic coefficients of friction of footwear sole elastomers were compared with other mechanical parameters that characterize the products: hardness, strength, strain corresponding to an elongation of 200%. Constraints associated with removing a sample from the product, the multiplicity of relevant factors and the diversity of products on the market made the determination of an intrinsic friction coefficient difficult. Results did, however, confirm tendencies observed in other studies, in conditions that were very often quite different from those used in this study (e.g. hardness of the sole). Other tendencies, such as the evolution of the friction coefficient in terms of the resiliency of the sole, did not agree with previously observed behaviour. This may be due to the specific nature of the friction measurements used in this study, i.e. steel measurement surface and presence of glycerine. Other studies have used rough surfaces, in a wet or dry state.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 1994. ii, 46p. Illus. 40 ref.
96-1483.pdf [in French]
Design, formation and production of personal protective equipment [Norway]
Konstruksjon, utforming og produksjon av personlig verneutstyr [in Norwegian]
Directive on the Norwegian requirements pertaining to personal protective equipment. It is harmonized with European directives 89/686/EEC (CIS 90-381), 93/95/EEC (CIS 94-778) and 93/68/EEC (CIS 94-751); it came into force 19 Aug. 1994. Procedures for evaluation of compliance and marking are described. The requirements cover the performance of the equipment, and are of a general nature. Examples of equipment dealt with are: protection against falls, hearing protection, vibration protection, protection against heat and cold, protection against drowning, protection against radiation, protection of respiratory organs, protection of skin and eyes.
Tiden Norsk Forlag, Postboks 8813 Youngstorget, 0028 Oslo, Norway, 19 Aug. 1994. 34p. Illus.
Kirk P., Parker R.
The effect of spiked boots on logger safety, productivity and workload
In a study of the effectiveness of spike-soled (caulked) boots, four loggers were intensively observed at work while wearing their conventional rubber-soled boots and then spike-soled boots. Results indicated that spike-soled boots were associated with a significant reduction in the frequency of slips and had no adverse effect on work methods, physiological workload or productivity. Spike-soled boots are now being promoted for use by loggers in New Zealand as a simple method to reduce slipping, tripping and falling accidents.
Applied Ergonomics, Apr. 1994, Vol.25, No.2, p.106-110. 15 ref.
Grönqvist R., Hirvonen M., Tuusa A.
Slipperiness of the shoe-floor interface - Comparison of objective and subjective assessments
Four shoe types were tested by subjects walking on a smooth stainless floor contaminated with viscous glycerol. The friction utilization ratio was measured with a force platform and the sliding distance was measured and videotaped. A subjective assessment of the slipperiness of the footwear was obtained and objective friction measurements were performed with a laboratory apparatus. The friction utilization ratios obtained during the walking trials were a poor indicator for anti-slip assessments. The apparatus-based kinetic friction values, however, showed a significant correlation with subjective evaluation and sliding distances.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 1993, Vol.24, No.4, p.258-262. Illus. 10 ref.
König D.H., Kirchner J.H., Fischer D.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Clearance for leg movement when pushing trolleys - Determination of safe distances
Freiraum für Beinbewegungen an handgeschobenen Wagen - Ermittlung sicherheitsgerechter ergonomischer Masse [in German]
The clearance necessary for the free movement of the legs when pushing a hand truck was determined by experiments on 89 volunteers of both sexes and of various body size. The volunteers performed various tasks under different conditions with a hand-propelled trolley. The distances needed for unimpaired leg movement were recorded by on-line motography. From the results, which were adapted to fit all sizes of the general population, the following clearances were derived for hand trucks: leg space 380mm up to a height of 210mm and knee space 200mm up to a height of 600mm.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. 140 p. Illus. 14 ref.
Skiba R., Wieder R., Cziuk N.
Assessment of friction coefficient results obtained by walking tests on an inclined plane
Valeur des mesures de coefficient de frottement obtenues au moyen d'essais de marche sur plan inclinable [in French]
To measure the slip resistance of floors and shoe soles, German Mutual Accident Insurance Funds and other bodies propose to use "walking tests". This translation of an article published in 1986 in Kautschuk und Gummi. Kunstoffe, 1986, 39, 10, p.907-911 reports on a test in which a subject walks on an increasingly inclined plane. The coefficient of friction is calculated on the basis of the angle of incline at which the subject no longer feels safe. From the point of view of the objectivity, reliability (repeatability) and validity (representativeness) of the results obtained, this method compares very poorly with those using mechanical devices. It is therefore not recommended as a standard method; efforts should be made to continue improving the mechanical devices.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1993, No.152, Note No.1936-152-93, p.445-452. Illus. 8 ref.
Marr S.J., Quine S.
Shoe concerns and foot problems of wearers of safety footwear
In Australia workers in many industries are required to wear safety footwear (footwear incorporating a steel toe cap). An investigation of the problems reported by 321 workers (70 per cent male) employed in a broad range of work activities and required to wear safety footwear was conducted in 1990 and 1991. Respondents were interviewed by a professionally trained podiatrist using a structured questionnaire followed by a foot examination. An extremely high percentage (91 per cent) of subjects reported one or more foot problems (which were verified by the podiatrist), and most considered that the safety footwear either caused the problem or adversely affected an existing foot condition. The main shoe concerns reported were excessive heat (65 per cent of all respondents), inflexible soles (52 per cent), weight (48 per cent) and pressure from steel toe cap (47 per cent). Certain differences between men and women were identified. General recommendations are made.
Occupational Medicine, May 1993, Vol.43, No.2, p.73-77. 5 ref.
Jung K., Fischer A.
An ISO test method for determining slip resistance of footwear. Determination of its precision
An interlaboratory trial was conducted using a total of eight test facilities for determining shoe anti-slip characteristics. The examination plan was based on an ISO-draft proposal defining requirements for the testing machines. Tests were carried out to determine the friction coefficient between a shoe and a smooth steel plate covered with a lubricant. Results indicated that although each test machine gave results of acceptable accuracy, the measuring results of the various machines differed considerably. It was agreed that the test method in its present form is not acceptable as an international standard.
Safety Science, Apr. 1993, Vol.16, No.2, p.115-127. Illus. 2 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Method of determining the water vapour permeability of safety shoes
Methode zur Bestimmung der Wasserdampfdurchlässigkeit von Schutzschuhen [in German]
A measurement chamber for the determination of the water vapour permeability of safety shoes is described and illustrated. The entire shoe is involved in the measurement, while the method described in German standard DIN 53333 determines only the water vapour permeability of the material used for the shoe uppers. The accuracy of the method was verified and the water vapour permeability of a number of different safety shoes was determined. A clear connection with the size and shape of the shoes was found. The results did not correlate with those of the DIN method. A standardised procedure for carrying out the measurements on the complete shoe is described. Detailed summaries in German, English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1992. 62p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: DEM 17.00.
Pellmann P., Thümler P.
Ergonomic design of knee pads
Ergonomische Gestaltung von Knieschützern [in German]
An assessment of all commercially available knee pads for work in a kneeling posture revealed that none fitted the shape of the knee nor offered adequate protection. A method of imaging knee anthropometry was developed and recommendations for the ergonomic design of knee pads were derived. A knee pad designed according to these recommendations is illustrated. Also shown is an ergonomically designed folding chair which allows for a distribution of the body weight other than on the knee only. Summaries in German, English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1992. 45p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: DEM 20.00.
Study on slip-resistance measurements for footwear: 2nd report - Development of measuring system for slip-resistance
Kutsu nosuberi shiken hōhō ni kansuru kenkyō: dai 2 hō - Suberi shiken sōchi no kaihatsu [in Japanese]
A new measuring system for the slip resistance of footwear was developed by the Research Institute of Industrial Safety (RIIS). In Japan, no appropriate slip resistance meter for footwear had existed until recently. In a pilot test using a prototype on a lubricated floor, the coefficient of dynamic friction and the slipperiness felt by test participants who walked on the floor were convincingly correlated. On the basis of the prototype test results, an improved model incorporating an artificial foot was built. The device introduced here is considerably different from the type of slip meter which is often used by architects when they choose floor materials. The RIIS meters are meant to be used for measuring at a place where actual slipping occurs. Given that slower slipping is less risky, an attempt was made to evaluate with the new measuring instruments less dangerous slips of footwear on a slippery surface. Much more attention had to be paid to dynamic friction than to static friction.
Research Reports of the Research Institute of Industrial Safety, 10 May 1991, p.233-40. Illus. 18 ref.
Changes in anti-slip properties of safety shoes during wear
Änderung der rutschhemmenden Eigenschaften von Schutzschuhen während des Tragens [in German]
Roughness and anti-slip properties of the soles of 76 pairs of safety shoes in 13 different styles were tested at certain intervals during wear at work. Anti-slip properties were determined by walking on a slippery test-surface, the angle of inclination of which was gradually increased. Sole roughness was found to diminish between the 1st and 17th day of wear. From the 17th to the 70th day of wear no significant changes in roughness were found. The angles of inclination which were tolerated by the worn shoe soles are presented in a table.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, Feb. 1991, Vol.41, No.2, p.38-44. Illus. 2 ref.
Paureau J., Rollin M.
Antistatic safety footwear - Assessment of the main methods used to determine insulation resistance
Chaussures de sécurité anti-électrostatique. Evaluation des principales méthodes de détermination de la résistance d'isolement [in French]
The main methods used by manufacturers and test laboratories are DIN 4843, ISO 2878, draft ISO-TC 94/SC3 and tentative standard T 47-132. The test results provide useful information for users and manufacturers as to the suitability of antistatic footwear commercially available in France. To test the different methods used, an apparatus was developed and validated on the basis of on-foot tests (considered as a reference). 40 antistatic shoes representing most of the products on the market in France were tested to evaluate ISO, AFNOR and DIN methods. The results of these standard methods differed considerably from those obtained by the INRS: the differences varied from a ratio of 1 to 3 in the case of the ISO-TC 94/SC3 draft (the best of the standard methods currently in use) to a ratio of 1 to 360 in the case of the DIN 4843 method. The factors at the root of these differences were identified and studied by using the INRS method. Almost all the shoes tested were satisfactory from the point of view of electrical risk protection, but over 40% were too well insulated for adequate static charge dissipation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1990, No.139, Note No.1781-139-90, p.405-419. Illus. 9 ref.
Redfern M.S., Marcotte A., Chaffin D.B.
A dynamic coefficient of friction measurement device for shoe/floor interface testing
A dynamic coefficient of friction (COF) measurement device for use in recording shoe/floor slip resistance is described. This device is computer-controlled and allows changes in the shoe/floor interface velocity and vertical force applied during a test. Different sole materials, floors, and contaminants such as water or oil are testable. Repeatability tests of the device were conducted of four velocities (1, 2, 5, and 10cm/s), three vertical force levels (5, 10 and 20kg), and three floor conditions (dry, wet, and oily). These tests showed that the COF measurements were highly repeatable with trial-to-trial standard deviations of from 0.5% to 4% of the means under all conditions.
Journal of Safety Research, Summer 1990, Vol.21, No.2, p.61-65. Illus. 9 ref.
Bottoms D.J., Butterworth D.J.
Foot reach under guard rails on agricultural machinery
Foot and leg injuries of workers using agricultural field machines frequently occur when contact is made with rotating components. The results of a study carried out to determine how far people can reach under barriers are presented. They show that even at a low barrier height of 200mm above the ground some short people can get their lower leg well under the barrier and reach considerable distances. Guarding of machines to minimise leg and foot injuries is therefore likely to be a compromise between desirable standards and practical considerations.
Applied Ergonomics, Sep. 1990, Vol.21, No.3, p.179-186. Illus. 5 ref.
Well fitting safety shoes
Fussgerechte Schutzschuhe [in German]
Taking into account differences in lengths, widths and shapes of feet a new shoe tree for safety shoes has been designed. Measurements yielded feet lengths between 247mm and 300mm and at least four widths (8, 9, 10 and 11 according to Mondopoint). From these lengths and widths, 32 different combinations were obtained to serve as shoe sizes for safety footwear.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, 1989, Vol.11, No.4, p.11-13. Illus. 5 ref.
Grönqvist R., Roine J., Järvinen E., Korhonen E.
An apparatus and a method for determining the slip resistance of shoes and floors by simulation of human foot motions
An apparatus to measure the coefficient of kinetic friction between the shoe sole and the underfoot surface was constructed, and a method including criteria to evaluate the risk of slipping during waling was developed. The apparatus is a prototype stationary step simulator capable of simulating the movements of a human foot and the forces applied to the underfoot surface during an actual slip, and the drainage capability of the contact surface between the shoe sole and the flooring when different lubricants or contaminants are used. The apparatus consists of a movable artificial foot controlled by a computer with the aid of three hydraulic cylinders. The frictional force, the normal force and their ratio are measured with a two-way force platform when the foot slides along its surface. Two separate gait patterns, heel-slide and sole-slide gait pattern, are used for the evaluations. The method classifies studied shoe, lubricant and underfoot surface combinations into five slip resistance classes according to the measured heel-slide gait pattern. The slip resistance assessments are specified by other complementary safety criteria. The reliability of the developed measurement method was assessed in an international comparison test. The method seems to be valid and the slip resistance measurements repeatable.
Ergonomics, Aug. 1989, Vol.32, No.8, p.979-995. Illus. Bibl.
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