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Face and eye protection - 186 entries found

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  • Face and eye protection

2011

CIS 11-0612 Verma A., Schulz M.R., Quandt S.A., Robinson E.N., Grzywacz J.G., Chen H., Arcury T.A.
Eye health and safety among Latino farmworkers
Farmworkers face a variety of risk factors for eye injuries. This survey of eye protection use and of eye safety knowledge and beliefs involved 300 Latino farmworkers in North Carolina. Few farmworkers reported using eye protection (8.3%); most (92.3%) reported that employers did not provide eye protection. Approximately 70% reported that they were not trained in preventing eye injuries; 81% believed that their chances of getting an eye injury were low. Many farmworkers chose to take risks in order to save time. Interventions are needed that target farmworker knowledge and beliefs about eye safety.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd quarter 2011, Vol.16, No.2, p.143-152. 24 ref.
11-0612.pdf [in English]

2008

CIS 09-313 Serrano Ramos C., Jiménez Bajo L., Jerez Hidalgo M., O'Connor Pérez S., Bardón Fernández-Pacheco I., Caso Pita C.
Eye protection: Importance and use
Protección ocular: importancia y uso [in Spanish]
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and aetiology of eye injuries and to propose preventive measures. It involved 41 patients who consulted the eye emergency department of a hospital in Madrid, Spain, in April 2006 and for whom data on age, sex, occupation, industry, supply and use of eye protection, recidivism, diagnosis and medical care were available. The results showed that 25.6% of the accidents were occupational; 87.2% of the victims were males and 85.4% worked in the construction sector; the most frequent diagnosis was the impact of foreign body; 51.2% of the workers were not supplied with safety spectacles and among those for whom they were available, 48% did not wear them. Close to half of the injuries required only ambulatory treatment, implying that suitable training of plant medical physicians may allow many of the injuries to be treated on site.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.81-86. Illus. 12 ref.
09-0313.pdf [in Spanish]
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v54n213/original7.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 08-1184 Owczarek G.
Exposure of the eyes and face to mechanical hazards at the workplace - Personal protective equipment
Zagrożenia mechaniczne oczu i twarzy w miejscu pracy - Ochrony indywidualne [in Polish]
Topics addressed in this review article on personal protective equipment (PPE) for the eyes and face: definitions and characteristics of mechanical factors and hazards; groups of employees exposed to risks to their eyes and face; description of the types of PPE for the eyes and face; requirements with respect to equipment testing.
Praca i Zdrowie, 2008, No.2, p.10-16. Illus.
08-1184.pdf [in Polish]

2007

CIS 09-181 Bruzell E.M., Johnsen B., Aalerud T.N., Christensen T.
Evaluation of eye protection filters for use with dental curing and bleaching lamps
Exposure to intense radiation sources in dental practices necessitates the use of eye protective filters to avoid blue-light photochemical retinal hazard. This study assessed whether the filters protect sufficiently against retinal hazards throughout the workday. Visible light transmittance of 18 protective filters was measured. These products consisted of spectacles, stationary lamp shields and a hand-held shield intended for use in dental practice. Nine of the 18 tested filters had adequate filtering capacity according to current lamp technology and exposure limit values. These filters transmitted less than 0.1% of the radiation of wavelengths between 400nm and 525nm. Seven of the nine filters showed transmission values below the detection limit in the wavelength band between 400nm and 500nm. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2007, Vol.4, No.6, p.432-439. Illus. 19 ref.
09-0181.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-443 Haguenauer D., Marchal P., Jacques M.
Validation of test methods for switchable welding filters
Validation des méthodes d'évaluation des filtres de soudage commutables [in French]
Manufacturers of welding protective equipment supply face shields with variable light transmission. At rest, they are clear but they darken as soon as the welding arc is activated, so as to ensure eye protection against the optical radiation emitted by the arc. The aim of this study was to check whether the test methods recommended by the EN 379 standard take into account the specific characteristics of this type of filter. Checks were carried out under the conditions specified by EN 379 as well as beyond, clearly showing that when the angle of incidence of the radiation reaches or exceeds 30° from the perpendicular to the screen, the efficiency of these filters drops significantly. The standard recommends taking transmission measurements up to 15°; however, a welder is likely to work at an estimated maximum angle of 30°, a value which will be proposed when the standard is revised.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2007, No.208, p.19-33. Illus. 6 ref.
08-0443.pdf [in French]

2006

CIS 10-0190 Personal protective equipment - Come on, join in!
Persönliche Schutzausrüstung - Komm, mach mit! [in German]
This booklet explains the different types of protective equipment and presents the workplace signs and pictogrammes signaling that their use is required.
Institut für Arbeisschutz der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung (IFA), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 2006. 7p. Illus.
http://www.dguv.de/psa/de/publikationen/komm.pdf [in German]

CIS 07-756 Protection of the eyes and face
La protection des yeux et du visage [in French]
Face and eye protectors must comply with safety and health requirements specified in European Directive 89/656/EEC (see CIS 90-385). This information note addresses the characteristics, functions, marking and conditions of use of various types of protectors, including spectacles with temple bars, goggles and welding goggles and masks. It summarizes in tabular form the main risks and eye injuries and includes a buyer's guide for the selection of suitable protectors.
Face au risque, Oct. 2006, No.426, p.63-66. Illus.
07-0756.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-585 Richard A.M.
Safety spectacles - Beyond looks
Lunettes de sécurité - Au-delà des apparences [in French]
This article examines the selection and use of safety spectacles on construction sites. Contents: aesthetics; comfort; composition of lenses; anti-condensation and scratch resistance treatment; frames; prices; daily care; standards.
Prévention BTP, Feb. 2006, No.82, p.28-29. Illus. 5 ref.
06-0585.pdf [in French]

2004

CIS 05-328 Forst L., Lacey S., Chen H.Y., Jimenez R., Bauer S., Skinner S., Alvarado R., Nickels L., Zanoni J., Petrea R., Conroy L.
Effectiveness of community health workers for promoting use of safety eyewear by Latino farm workers
To evaluate the Community Health Worker (CHW) model as a tool for reducing eye injuries in Latino farm workers, 786 workers on 34 farms were divided into three groups: group A, where CHWs provided protective eyewear and training to the farm workers; group B where CHWs provided eyewear but no training to farm workers; group C, where eyewear was distributed to farm workers with no CHW present and no training. Pre- and post-intervention questionnaires demonstrated greater self-reported use of eyewear in all groups after the intervention, with group A showing the greatest change. This was supported by field observations. Group A also showed the greatest improvement in knowledge on questions related to training content. CHWs were found to be an effective tool for training farm workers in eye health and safety.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2004, Vol.46, No.6, p.607-613. 26 ref.
05-0328.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-198 Salsi S., Lovat G., Musset O., Boquillon J.P., Oltra R.
Assessment and prevention of ocular risks during the cleaning of buildings using lasers
Evaluation et prévention des risques optiques induits par le nettoyage laser des bâtiments [in French]
Cleaning of buildings using lasers is a technique used since the early 1990s replacing conventional processes, which have often used products that were either excessively abrasive for building materials or were dangerous to the operator and/or the environment. Laser cleaning allows the total or selective elimination of black weathering crusts from stone surfaces without causing any harmful effects. Laser radiation can be partially or even totally reflected by the material being cleaned, and this reflection can cause irreversible eye injury. Wearing protective spectacles is therefore essential. However, absorption saturation effects have been observed in some safety spectacles, making them temporarily transparent to laser radiation and unreliable at high energy levels. Various safety spectacles were tested and found not to comply with the claims of manufacturers with respect to spectral transmission and optical densities. Extreme care should be taken when selecting safety spectacles for use by cleaning operators who use lasers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2004, No.196, p.7-19. Illus. 14 ref.
04-0198.pdf [in French]

2003

CIS 05-438 Werhahn O., Schirmacher A., Schmiedel M., Sutter E., Nevejina-Sturhan A., Lecher H., Siegner U., Ott G., Janssen M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Laser filters for the ns- and fs regime
Laserschutzfilter für den ns- und fs-Bereich [in German]
Non-linear interactions between light and matter such as induced transmission can impair the protective effect of filters against laser radiation. When these filters are exposed to short high-energy laser impulses, this effect induces a transient increase in the degree of spectral transmission, causing eye irradiation in excess of admissible levels, possibly resulting in lesions. This study examines the behaviour of filters against laser rays when exposed to intensive laser impulses of duration in the nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) orders of magnitude. The induced transmission effect was also observed for very short impulses of the order of femtoseconds. The residual protective effects of these types of filters are reviewed. The influence of filter temperature on induced transmission is also discussed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 126p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: EUR 13.00.
05-0438.pdf [in German]

CIS 04-686 Klein R.
Electro-optical filters used for arc welding - Development of a methodology for the validation of operational safety
Filtres électro-optiques de soudage à l'arc - Elaboration d'une méthodologie et validation de la sûreté de fonctionnement [in French]
This article is primarily intended for standardization experts, designers and certification bodies. It proposes answers to problems related to the safety of the electronic circuits fitted to auto-darkening electro-optical filters used for arc welding, in particular by taking design requirements into account and applying a validation method.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2003, No.193, p.9-18. Illus. 13 ref.
04-0686.pdf [in French]
http://www.hst.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_date1_view_view/550BE5E478AC5877C1257026003214CE/$FILE/visu.html?OpenElement [in French]

CIS 03-765 Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Pulido E.V.
Using respirators and goggles to control exposure to air pollutants in an anatomy laboratory
This study explored the feasibility of wearing one or a combination of respirators and goggles to control exposure to chemicals in laboratories of anatomy. A total of 28 subjects were trained in wearing protective equipment and asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their subjective reaction after having worn the assigned protective equipment while carrying out their normal work. The subjects' exposure to formaldehyde was also measured and it generally exceeded the recommended limits. When a full-face respirator or the combination of a half-mask respirator and goggles were worn, a majority of subjects reported no odour problem and no irritation to the eyes or the upper respiratory system. Subjects accepted the protective equipment to a certain degree, but those using respirators encountered difficulties communicating with others. The combination of a half-mask respirator and goggles was found to be the best combination to control exposure to air pollutants in a laboratory of anatomy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.43, No.3, p.326-331.19 ref.
03-0765.pdf [in English]

2002

CIS 03-608 Personal protective equipment - Face and eye protectors
Środki ochrony indywidualnej - Środki ochrony oczu i twarzy [in Polish]
This guide provides information on the characteristics and scope of use of personal eye and face protective equipment, and proposes three-step approach to selecting the protective device: analysing the hazards and constraints; selecting the appropriate suppliers; acquiring the equipment and making it available to users. Appendices include European and Polish regulations and standards, an indicative list of suppliers, and the marking of protective devices according to the EN 166 standard. Polish translation of INRS publication ED 798.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2002. 34p. Illus. 19 ref.
03-0608.pdf [in Polish]

2001

CIS 02-1895 Falco M.D., Lepore M., Indovina P.L.
Assessment of exposure to laser radiation in research laboratories
Valutazione dell'esposizione alla radiazione laser nei laboratori di ricerca [in Italian]
Overview of the methods for radiance measurement and other parameters for the laser sources most widely used in research establishments. These methods are compared with those recommended by safety standards. The use of safety spectacles is recommended for eye protection, as well as that of beam stops or attenuators.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.187-202. Illus. 8 ref.
02-1895.pdf [in Italian]

CIS 02-463 Lönnroth E.C., Shahnavaz H.
Users' demands regarding dental safety glasses. Combining a quantitative approach and grounded theory for the data analysis
Despite the frequency of eye infections among dentists, few use proper eye protection. To understand users' demands behind the low use of safety glasses, a questionnaire was mailed to all dentists and dentists' assistants in Sweden on the factors they found most important when choosing protective glasses; they were also asked to rate the importance of 31 statements regarding ergonomic aspects of dental safety glasses. Results showed that dentists ranked the visual aspects as most important, while for the assistants, the protective aspects were given a higher priority. Protective glasses which satisfy the highly visual demanding work performed by dentists are not yet available on the market, which may explain the low use level.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.49-59. Illus. 10 ref.
02-0463.pdf [in English]

1999

CIS 02-911 Koschinski W., Schirmacher A., Sutter E., Ott G., Janßen M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Automatic setting of the glare protection level of electro-optical welding protection filters
Automatische Schutzstufeneinstellung elektrooptischer Schweißerschutzfilter [in German]
Arc welding in Germany generally requires the use of shields rated between 9 and 13 (corresponding to light transmission values of between 10-4 and 10-6) to avoid glare. Such low transmission values do not allow details of the workplace to be visible before the arc is ignited. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of shields developed by two manufacturers having the capability of changing shade according to the light intensity. Over 100 field tests were carried out, during which the shields were rated by experienced welders under various conditions of light intensity corresponding to the scale of 9 to 13. In most cases, the welders considered the resulting shades to be "correct".
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 110p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: EUR 12.00.
02-0911.pdf [in German]

CIS 01-1413 Specification for personal eye-protectors - Part 2: Selection, use and maintenance
This is the second part of the standard on personal eye protectors, providing guidance to the selection of eye protectors as a function of the intended use, the working environment and the protection against specific hazards. Selection criteria include luminous transmittance, resistance to physical impact from dust and metallic particles, molten slag, chemical droplets and splashes, as well protection from exposure to gases and heat. A final section covers the issues of maintenance and identification markings. See also CIS 01-1412.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Singapore, 1999. 33p. 3 ref.
01-1413.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-1412 Specification for personal eye-protectors - Part 1: General requirements
This is the first part of the standard on personal eye protectors, based on ISO 4849. It deals with general considerations relating to eye protectors such as designation, classification, requirements applicable to all eye-protectors, certain specific requirements, sampling and identification. It was prepared so as to be in line with the current international standard, with the aim of providing a wider range of safety eye protectors to the wearers. See also CIS 01-1413.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Singapore, 1999. 63p. Illus. 16 ref.
01-1412.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-1391 Brett Y.B.
Personal protection - Face and eye protection
Protection individuelle - Le visage et la vue protégés [in French]
Finding the best compromise when selecting face and eye protective equipment involves analysing the hazards facing the workers, constraints of the task and of the work environment, and aspects specific to the individual worker. Topics covered by this article include: main types of personal protective equipment; main hazards; human factors (reluctance by workers to wear protective equipment); guide to the selection of equipment as a function of the exposure hazard; types of safety spectacles; check-list developed by the French Occupational Safety and Health Institute (INRS) in order to help employers to analyse hazards to the eyes; European standards.
Face au risque, Mar. 1999, No.351, p.23-26. Illus.
01-1391.pdf [in French]

1998

CIS 99-1472 García-Pintos J.P.
Eye and face protection: Guidelines for selection and use of PPE
Protectores oculares y faciales: guía orientativa para la elección y utilización de los EPI [in Spanish]
Topics: check lists; data sheet; face and eye protection; face shields; maintenance; personal protective equipment; protection criteria; safety spectacles; Spain; training manuals; training material; welders helmets.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Servicio de Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 20p. Illus.
99-1472.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 99-1663 Salsi S., Cnockaert J.C., Mayer A., André J.C., Brun A., Georges P.
Personal protective equipment against laser beams: Non-linear behaviour induced by high irradiance of safety goggles against laser beams
Equipement de protection contre les lasers: comportement non linéaire induit par les flux lumineux élevés des oculaires utilisés pour les lunettes de protection contre les lasers [in French]
Topics: filter glasses; filtration efficiency; laser radiation; lasers; light transmission factor; luminous flux; optical density; personal protective equipment; safety spectacles.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1998, No.171, Note No.2075-171-98, p.129-137. Illus. 8 ref.
99-1663.pdf [in French]

CIS 99-1144 Winder C., Dingsdag D., Dain S.
Development of training programs for eye safety in the NSW coal mining industry
Eye safety programmes were reviewed as part of a larger project on eye safety in the New South Wales coal mining industry. Forty-five manager representatives in 20 mines were surveyed using an interview questionnaire. Eye safety was perceived as an important safety issue, although the presence and quality of eye safety programmes were very variable, from absent altogether to eyewear availability (but no training), from informal programmes to formal programmes. The availability of training to support these programmes was also very variable and, apart from a few mines, was considered inadequate. Further, different mineworker groups have different training needs. The content and structure of eye safety training programmes for mine managers, mineworkers and safety professionals is outlined. Topics: coal mining; face and eye protection; questionnaire survey; safety programmes; safety training in industry; training course.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1998, Vol.14, No.6, p.599-606. Illus. 5 ref.
99-1144.pdf [in English]

1997

CIS 00-1739 Gallardo Aguilar E.
Selection of face shields and safety goggles
Selección de pantallas faciales y gafas de protección [in Spanish]
Topics: comment on standard; data sheet; European Communities; face and eye protection; face shields; infrared radiation; laser radiation; radiation protection; safety spectacles; solar radiation; Spain; standard; ultraviolet radiation; welding and cutting.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1997. 16p. 21 ref.
00-1739.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 99-53 Better understanding of personal protective equipment (eyes, ears, respiratory tract and head)
Mieux connaître les équipements de protection individuelle (Yeux, oreilles, voies respiratoires et tête) [in French]
Verstandig omgaan met persoonlijke beschermingsmiddelen (Ogen, oren, ademhaling en hoofd) [in Dutch]
Topics: face and eye protection; gas removing respirators; head protection; hearing protection; particulate removing respirators; personal protective equipment; respirable dust; respirators; safety guides; safety helmets; safety spectacles; training material.
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1997. 20p. Illus. 5 ref.
99-053FR.pdf [in French]
99-053nl.pdf [in Dutch]

CIS 98-1701 Sutter E., Schirmacher A., Decker I., Zeise R., Ott G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Electro-optic welding filters and welding screens
Elektrooptische Schweisserschutzfilter und Abschirmungen an Schweisserarbeitsplätzen [in German]
Topics: arc welding and cutting; comment on standard; face and eye protection; filter glasses; Germany; glare; job study; light transmission factor; manual arc welding; screens.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Bürgermeister-Smidt-Str. 74-46, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1997. 170p. Illus. 41 ref.
98-1701.pdf [in German]

CIS 97-978 Tenkate T.S.D., Collins M.J.
Angles of entry of ultraviolet radiation into welding helmets
An ultraviolet (UV) radiation detector was placed in the eye socket of a head form that was then fitted with a range of welding helmets. The head form was exposed to a beam of UV radiation from various orientations, and the amount of infiltration was measured. Radiation was reflected from the filter plate and into the detector (eye) after entering either through an opening between the edge of the shield and the side of the face, or through an opening between the top edge of the shield and the top of the head. Results highlight the potential for ocular UV exposure of welders from infiltrating UV radiation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1997, Vol.58, No.1, p.54-56. Illus. 10 ref.
97-0978.pdf [in English]

1996

CIS 00-1723 Sutter E., Schirmacher A.
Automatic setting of shades by electro-optic filters
Topics: filter glasses; glare; light transmission factor; luminance measurement; safety by design; safety spectacles; welding and cutting.
PTB Mitteilungen - Forschen und Prüfen, Dec. 1996, Vol.106, No.6, p.416-422. Illus. 15 ref.
00-1723.pdf [in English]

CIS 97-997 Gates E.
Sight safe
Reports of occupational eye injuries in the United Kingdom are briefly reviewed and legal requirements for the provision and use of adequate eye protection are outlined. British and European performance standards for eye protection products are examined, and the responsibility of employers to enforce the use of eye protection is discussed. The role of insurance companies in terms of education and ensuring that employers comply with regulations is also highlighted.
Health and Safety at Work, Dec. 1996, Vol.18, No.12, p.19-20. Illus.
97-0997.pdf [in English]

1995

CIS 97-779 Some safety thoughts: A collection of short articles on safety
This safety booklet covers: back pain; slips and falls; safer kitchens; fires; electrical safety; smoking and fires; fireworks; treating burns; safe toys; safe driving; driving and alcohol; planning a safe office; keeping the workplace clean; eye protection; good safety management.
Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India, 1995. 44p. Illus.
97-0779.pdf [in English]

CIS 96-1459 Okuno T.
Eye protectors against optical radiation
Shakō hogogu [in Japanese]
Review of safety glasses, goggles and masks used at work for protection against optical radiation: definitions, functions, types, optical transmittance of various materials and relevant citations of Japanese Industrial Standards. Specific examples of protection against the hazards of arc welding, gas welding, iron and steel manufacture and lasers.
Journal of Industrial Hygiene of Japan - Rōdō eisei kōgaku, 10 July 1995, Vol.34, p.21-32. Illus. 7 ref.
96-1459.pdf [in Japanese]

CIS 96-854 Liu D., Wong H., Quinlan P., Blanc P.D.
Welding helmet airborne fume concentrations compared to personal breathing zone sampling
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.280-283. Illus. 14 ref. ###

CIS 95-1653 Eye and hearing protection
Lunettes de protection et protecteurs d'ouïe [in French]
Augen- und Gehörschutzmittel [in German]
Mezzi di protezione degli occhi e dell'udito [in Italian]
Main contents of this guide to eye and ear protectors: protective glasses (the eye, uses of protective glasses, polycarbonate devices, cleansers, glass cases); hearing protectors (the ear and hearing function, types of protectors, earmuffs, plastic, foam earplugs, spare parts). Placing an order.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Jan. 1995. 26p. Illus.

1994

CIS 95-1163
Arbeidstilsynet
Design, formation and production of personal protective equipment [Norway]
Konstruksjon, utforming og produksjon av personlig verneutstyr [in Norwegian]
Directive on the Norwegian requirements pertaining to personal protective equipment. It is harmonized with European directives 89/686/EEC (CIS 90-381), 93/95/EEC (CIS 94-778) and 93/68/EEC (CIS 94-751); it came into force 19 Aug. 1994. Procedures for evaluation of compliance and marking are described. The requirements cover the performance of the equipment, and are of a general nature. Examples of equipment dealt with are: protection against falls, hearing protection, vibration protection, protection against heat and cold, protection against drowning, protection against radiation, protection of respiratory organs, protection of skin and eyes.
Tiden Norsk Forlag, Postboks 8813 Youngstorget, 0028 Oslo, Norway, 19 Aug. 1994. 34p. Illus.

CIS 94-1608 Griffith G.A.P., Jones N.P.
Eye injury and eye protection: A survey of the chemical industry
In a population of 62,839 chemical industry workers studied for one month (approximately 10 million man-hours), 60 eye injuries (45.1% of all eye injuries) were caused by chemicals (eye injury incidence 11.4 per 1,000 employees per year). Six patients (10%) required hospital attention; no sight-threatening injuries occurred. It is recognized that most of these injuries are avoidable. Eye protectors were not a requirement in some situations where injury occurred, were not used where specified in some cases, and in others failed to prevent injury even when worn. This low incidence of injury can be further reduced by appropriate selection and wear of protectors, by education and by legislation.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1994, Vol.44, No.1, p.37-40. 10 ref.

1993

CIS 94-1530 Eye protection
Augenschutz [in German]
La protezione degli occhi [in Italian]
Protection des yeux [in French]
This pamphlet replaces SBA no. 85. It is aimed at management of enterprises as guidelines for the choice of appropriate eye protection devices. It explains the anatomy and physiology of the eye and the causes and prevention of eye damage. The problems involving light and vision at the workplace are also outlined.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Oct. 1993. 67p. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 94-1764 Garrett S.J., Robinson J.K.
Disposable protective eyewear devices for health care providers: How important are they and will available designs be used?
To assess the efficacy of five types of disposable protective eye wear devices, to determine variables affecting the use of protective eye wear, and to determine the frequency of eye splatter, 100 volunteer health care providers were assigned to one of five groups and given a protective eye wear device to use for two weeks in an urban teaching referral centre. Questionnaires were used to survey eye wear habits and other variables before the study. The devices were 88% effective overall, and there was no statistically significant difference between groups. The incidence of splatter was 50%. Even though disposable eye wear providing full frontal and lateral eye coverage is effective in preventing eye splatter, health care providers working in nonsurgical areas may be more exposed to eye splatter than previously assumed because of the lack of recognition of splatter by the workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.35, No.10, p.1043-1047. 21 ref.

CIS 94-737 Aydinli S., Kaase H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Technical and ergonomic evaluation of equipment for shading off daylight from offices
Lichttechnische und ergonomische Bewertung von Anlagen zur Abschirmung von Tageslicht im Büro [in German]
A method for the evaluation of sun shades and blinds for offices was developed. The light transmission and reflection factors of 29 different blinds or textile curtains were measured with a new spherical photometer under various conditions of natural lighting. In addition, illumination levels and luminance inside the offices were determined. Impairment of the view of the external environment was assessed on a five-point scale. Heat transfer through the various kinds of blinds and curtains was measured. The results are presented in tables.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. 95p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: DEM 21.00.

1992

CIS 94-1053 Sutter E., Ott G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Physical and optical characteristics of eye protection equipment and their measurement
Physikalisch-optische Eigenschaften von Augenschutzgeräten und deren Messung [in German]
Different types of eye protection equipment were tested with respect to various criteria. The equipment included welders' goggles and devices providing protection against ultraviolet and infrared radiation, sunlight and laser beams. The tests covered transmission and reflection characteristics, mechanical strength and stability over time. The report also includes a survey of criteria relevant for producers and users of eye protection equipment. Summaries in English, German and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1992. 204p. Illus. 58 ref.

CIS 93-304 Hattori Y., Kodama Y., Kawamoto T.
Questionnaire survey for the fitness of protective equipments used by workers
Rōdō eisei hogogu no mondaiten - Rōdōsha ni taisuru ankēto chōsa [in Japanese]
Questionnaire surveys on the opinions of workers regarding personal protective equipment were conducted for three consecutive years (1987-1989) at a personal protective equipment exhibition which is held annually at an industrial enterprise during Japan's Labour Hygiene Week, and is attended by workers of the enterprise and associated enterprises. One out of five to six returned questionnaires indicated problems associated with protective equipment at work, but the number and rate of such complaints declined from year to year. Safety spectacles were by far the most common source of complaint (10% of total questionnaire returned), followed by earplugs (1.3%) and dust masks (1.2%), but the number and rate of complaints on protective spectacles decreased each year; the most frequent complaints were: "lens becoming misty", "cords becoming weakened", and "lens easily scratched".
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.40-41. 3 ref.

CIS 92-1884 Núñez-Samper Pizarroso C., Jato Díaz A.M., Sobrino Serrano F.J.
Foreign object accidents
Accidentes por cuerpo extraño [in Spanish]
After conducting a retrospective study of clinical histories of patients who came to the emergency department of a Spanish hospital for treatment of foreign object injuries, it was found that two out of three foreign object injuries affected the ocular region. The mechanisms through which foreign objects enter the body and cause damage are reviewed, as well as actions to take in case of accidents and appropriate preventive measures kept (personal protection).
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.46, p.37-39. Illus.

1991

CIS 93-2057 del Pino Lázaro F., Barrios Muñiz C.
Eye protectors against impacts and/or splashes: Guidelines for selection, use and maintenance
Protectores visuales contra impactos y/o salpicaduras: guías para la elección, uso y mantenimiento [in Spanish]
Selection, use and maintenance criteria for eye protectors and face shields are discussed in this information note. Selection criteria are presented according to hazard evaluation, availability in the market and technical characteristics. Classification in terms of impact resistance and additional protection is included. Use criteria refer to proper use involving information and training, and length of use. Maintenance criteria include appropriate maintenance, including periodic checks, correct storage, and respecting expiry dates.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, C/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 6p. 8 ref.

CIS 92-1685 Chou B.R., Cullen A.P.
Evaluation of ocular hazards due to electric arc flash at an in-line switch
The ocular damage resulting from operation of a solid blade pole-mounted in-line electrical switch at between 16 and 17kV with current loads between 38A and 340A was investigated. Spectroradiometric data for the electric arcs produced as the switch was opened were obtained over the waveband 200-1500nm. The eyes of rabbits were exposed to the flash arc at a distance of 2m. The ocular tissues were assessed clinically and histologically up to 48h postexposure. Threshold damage was clinically detectable only in eyes exposed to a 340A arc. It is concluded that at the normal current loads on a 17kV electric power transmission line, the principal oculovisual hazards are due to molten metal fulminated from the switch by the arc, and after-images due to the bright visible light flash. At a working distance of 2m the ultraviolet ocular hazard is negligible. Adequate eye protection is provided by clear polycarbonate safety lenses.
Health Physics, Oct. 1991, Vol.61, No.4, p.473-479. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 92-1194 Häfliger K.
Eye injuries due to occupational accidents - Causes and recommendations
Les lésions oculaires dues aux accidents du travail. Causes et recommandations [in French]
Gli infortuni oculari sul lavoro: Cause e raccomandazioni [in Italian]
Statistics on eye injuries in Switzerland in 1986-1988. Causes of accidents are analysed with respect to the activity carried at the time accidents occur, how they occur and what kind of foreign element is involved. Direct and indirect costs are studied. Annexes: statistical evaluation of accidents reported according to the class of risk (abrasive operations; metalworking; wood, cork products, plastics, paper and graphic art; textiles; chemical industry, food industry; construction and forestry; transport; trade; power production and distribution; offices).
Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, Sécurité au travail, Case postale, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, June 1991. 47p. Illus.

CIS 92-1034 Coblentz R., Mollard R., Ignazi G.
Three-dimensional face shape analysis of French adults, and its application to the design of protective equipment
In a preliminary survey, anthropometric measurements were collected on 301 females and 208 males and a sampling strategy was designed to select 30 females and 30 males as test subjects. A stereophotogrammetric method was used for face data acquisition and stereorestitution was made on pairs of photographs placed in an analytical plotter. Three-dimensional values for each subject were processed using computer-aided design software and five groups of fore-faced size were identified. The study demonstrates that stereometric measurements of the face can be used as basic data for the design of protective equipment for the fore-face.
Ergonomics, Apr. 1991, Vol.34, No.4, P.497-517. Illus. 38 ref.

1990

CIS 92-452 Protection of the eyes
Contents of this guidance booklet: legal obligations; eye hazards and principles of protection (solid particles, liquids, vapour and gases, radiation); selection and maintenance of personal protective equipment; precautions for contact lens wearers; personal hygiene; training and discipline; pre-employment examination; areas of high eye-injury risk. An appendix provides information on the treatment of eye injuries.
Chemical Industries Association, King's Buildings, Smith Square, London SW1 3JJ, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 1990. 23p.

1989

CIS 95-463
Health and Safety Executive
Eyes in industry
Videotape in 4 sections: basic anatomy and physiology of the eye; radiation eye damage; eye injuries; common eye conditions encountered in the workplace.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1989. Videotape. Length: 38min. Price: GBP 85.10. ###

CIS 94-184 Tourte J., Loriot J., Méreau P.
Contact lenses - Risks and advantages in the workplace
Les lentilles de contact - Risques et avantages en milieu de travail [in French]
Updated survey of the hazards and advantages of contact lenses in the workplace. The wearing of contact lenses is increasing in popularity, and it must be kept in mind that they do not substitute for safety glasses. A psychological study is made of the rumours concerning occupational accidents affecting contact lens wearers, which became widespread after an actual incident in Baltimore in 1967 affecting an arch welder. The results of recent experiments are summarized. Survey of mechanical, chemical, physical and infectious hazards to contact lens wearers in the workplace in the absence of preventive measures. The particular problems of sensitive workplaces (control centres etc.) long work-shifts and respirators are reviewed. Other topics covered: advantages of contact lenses in certain jobs, what to do after an accident, role of the occupational physician, legislation in France, medical supervision.
Le concours médical, 1989, Vol.111, No.39, p.3467-3475. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 91-1957 Liao G., Beale S.B.
Computer simulation of the misting of eye protectors
This report describes how a general purpose computer code was used to model the misting processes inside 4 typical types of protective eyewear. It is shown that models with substantial ventilation holes or slots do not mist easily, while inadequately ventilated protective eyewear is sensitive to variations in face temperature.
Health and Safety Executive, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Trinity Road, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1989. 44p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 90-1492 Raman R.
Eye care
Special issue of an Indian OSH journal, devoted to training information on hazards affecting the eye in the workplace and their prevention. Hazards covered: infection: mechanical hazards: radiation (visible, ultraviolet, infrared); VDU work: welding. Disorders of vision are also discussed.
The OHS tide, July 1989, Vol.7, No.1, p.1-16. (whole issue). Illus.

CIS 90-1685 Proctor T.D., Harris G.W., Gray M.I.
New developments in the testing and design of anti-mist goggles
Surveys in UK industry have shown that misting of lenses is one of the major reasons given by workers for not wearing protective goggles. The problem arises in many industries. A test method has been developed that enables goggles to be assessed for their ability to resist misting. The method involves the use of an instrumented dummy head designed to simulate condensation of moisture on lenses from the evaporation of moisture around the eyes. Experiments have shown that the provision of adequate air exchange behind the lens is more important than whether the lens is anti-mist coated or double-glazed. Laboratory testing of various goggle designs has led to the development of an anti-mist goggle with superior performance. Prototype testing by industrial workers has proved successful.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Nov. 1989, Vol.11, No.2, p.111-120. 6 ref.

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