Cardiovascular diseases - 929 entries found
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Suadicani P., Hein H.O., Gyntelberg F.
Occupational noise exposure, social class, and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality - A 16-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study
This study consisted of a 16-year follow-up of 2998 men in Copenhagen, Denmark, aged 53-75 years without overt cardiovascular disease. Overall, 197 men (6.6%) died due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 1192 (39.8%) from all-causes. 1008 men (33.6%) reported exposure to occupational noise for ¿5 years; among these men, 47.3% reported hearing impairment versus only 24.8% among unexposed men (63.0%). Referencing unexposed men, the hazard ratio (HR) for IHD mortality was 0.97, and the HR for all-cause mortality was 1.01 when adjusting for potential confounders: age, hearing impairment, blood pressure, diabetes, fasting serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucosuria, cancer, body mass index, alcohol, tobacco, leisure-time physical activity, and social class. Stratified analyses of high and low social classes confirmed the overall results. In conclusion, cumulative occupational exposure to noise was strongly associated with hearing impairment, but not with death from either IHD or all-cause mortality.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Jan. 2012, Vol.38, No.1, p.19-26. 22 ref.
Occupational_noise_exposure_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Sakaguchi S., Miyai N., Takemura S., Fukumoto J., Tomura T., Shiozaki M., Kurasawa S., Yokoi K., Terada K., Yoshimasu K., Miyashita K.
Morphological classification of nailfold capillary microscopy in workers exposed to hand-arm vibration
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the morphologic classification of nailfold capillary microscopy and the clinical and demographic findings in workers exposed to hand-arm vibration. The subjects were 44 Japanese male forestry workers. The nailfold capillaries (NC) and the mean blood flow velocity were measured on the middle finger of the dominant side by a peripheral capillary observer. Findings suggest that the nailfold capillary microscopy may reflect the effect of the vibration exposure.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.49, No.5, p.614-618. Illus. 16 ref.
Morphological_classification_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Sudo¿-Szopi¿ska I., Bogdan A., Szopi¿ski T., Panorska A.K., Ko¿odziejczak M.
Prevalence of chronic venous disorders among employees working in prolonged standing and sitting postures
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and severity of chronic venous disorders (CVD) among people working in prolonged sitting or static standing postures. Clinical examination and duplex Doppler sonography were performed on 126 employees working in a sitting (96 individuals) or a standing posture (30 individuals). Evidence of CVD was found in 59.4% of individuals working in a sitting posture and in 83.4% of those working in a standing posture, and was significantly higher in employees working in a standing posture. Incompetent perforating veins, vena saphena magna valves and bilateral changes were the more frequent signs of CVD. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.17, No.2, p.165-173. Illus. 23 ref.
Prevalence_of_chronic_venous_disorders_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Baur D.M., Christophi C.A., Tsismenakis A.J., Cook E.F., Kales S.N.
Cardiorespiratory fitness predicts cardiovascular risk profiles in career firefighters
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in firefighters. It involved 968 male career firefighters. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by maximal exercise tolerance tests. Cardiovascular disease risk parameters included body composition, resting vital signs, and metabolic profiles. Higher metabolic equivalents categories were significantly associated with lower diastolic blood pressure, body fat, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total/high-density cholesterol ratio, and higher high-density lipoprotein. Firefighters should be encouraged to increase their CRF to decrease their future risk of CVD.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.53, No.10, p.1155-1160. 37 ref.
Cardiorespiratory_fitness_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Wright B.R., Barbosa-Leiker C., Hoekstra T.
Law enforcement officer versus non-law enforcement officer status as a longitudinal predictor of traditional and emerging cardiovascular risk factors
The objective of this study was to determine whether law enforcement officer (LEO) status and perceived stress are longitudinal predictors of traditional and inflammatory cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Linear hierarchical regression was employed to investigate the longitudinal (more than seven years) relationship between occupational category (LEO as opposed to non-LEO) and perceived stress scale scores, and traditional and inflammatory CV risk factors in an all-male sample of 105 LEOs and 65 non-LEOs. The occupational status of LEOs, compared with that of non-LEOs, predicted higher levels of C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference. Perceived stress across occupational categories was directly associated with diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference and inversely with fibrinogen. Perceived stress did not interact with occupational category to predict any risk factor. Traditional and inflammatory risk factors, but not perceived stress, appear to contribute to elevated CV risk among LEOs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.53, No.7, p.730-734. 38 ref.
Law_enforcement_officer_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Hamazaki Y., Morikawa Y., Nakamura K., Sakurai M., Miura K., Ishizaki M., Kido T., Naruse Y., Suwazono Y., Nakagawa H.
The effects of sleep duration on the incidence of cardiovascular events among middle-aged male workers in Japan
This survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and cardiovascular events among male workers, accounting for occupational factors that might confound the true relationship. A total of 2282 male employees of a metalworking factory in Japan aged 35-54 years were followed for 14 years. The risk of cardiovascular events was compared among 4 groups stratified based on sleep duration at baseline. Cardiovascular events included stroke, coronary events and sudden cardiac death. The hazard ratios for events were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model, with the 7-7.9-hour group serving as a reference. The model was adjusted for potential confounders including traditional cardiovascular risk factors and working characteristics. During 14 years of follow-up, 64 cardiovascular events were recorded including 30 strokes, 27 coronary events and 7 sudden cardiac deaths. After adjustment for possible confounders, the hazard ratios for cardiovascular and coronary events in the <6-hour group were 3.49 and 4.95, respectively. There was no significant increment in the risk of stroke for any sleep duration groups.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.37, No.5, p.411-417. 30 ref.
The_effects_of_sleep_duration_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Bennett J.B., Broome K.M., Schwab-Pilley A., Gilmore P.
A web-based approach to address cardiovascular risks in managers - Results of a randomized trial
The objective of this study was to examine whether a Web-based health and leadership development programme designed specifically for managers was associated with changes in self-reported and biometric indicators of cardiovascular disease within the context of a randomized control trial. A total of 145 managers from eight organizations participated in a six-month Internet-based programme or a control condition. They completed pre- and posttest assessments that included both self-reported attitudes (on diet, exercise, and mental health) and biometric measures (body weight, waist circumference). The intervention was associated with improvements in dietary attitudes, dietary self-efficacy, and exercise, and reductions in distress symptoms. Women in the program reduced their waist circumference significantly more than controls. The programme showed promise for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors. Similar results across diverse organizations suggest the program may be useful across industry types.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2011, Vol.53, No.8, p.911-918. Illus. 40 ref.
A_web-based_approach_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Lee M.S., Magari S., Christiani D.C.
Cardiac autonomic dysfunction from occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAH exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart-rate variability in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Continuous 24 h monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre- and postshift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Findings provide evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.68, No.7, p.474-478. Illus. 40 ref.
Cardiac_autonomic_dysfunction_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Koskinen H.L., Kauppinen T., Tenkanen L.
Dual role of physical workload and occupational noise in the association of the metabolic syndrome with risk of coronary heart disease: Findings from the Helsinki heart study
Previous evidence indicates that occupational exposure to physical workload or noise entails development of hypertension and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, vigorous physical activity lessens the risks of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and CHD. The objective of this study was to explore this issue by studying the joint effect of physical workload or noise and MetS on risk of CHD. This 18-year follow-up study comprised 1502 middle-aged men employed in industry who participated in the second screening for the Helsinki Heart Study but were not treated with gemfibrozil, the trial drug. The CHD endpoints (ICD-9 codes 410-414 and ICD-10 codes 120-125) were obtained from official Finnish registers. The Finnish job-exposure matrix FINJEM provided information on occupational exposures. The joint effect of baseline MetS levels and both occupational exposures was estimated using Cox's regression models. Workload and noise increased CHD risk due to increased blood pressure, glucose or body mass index (BMI), separately or combined: the joint effect of workload and MetS defined using these three components yielded an relative risk RR of 5.21. However, when MetS was defined using elevated BMI, high triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, an RR of 2.19 among those with MetS only reduced to 1.20 if concurrently exposed to workload. Occupational exposure to workload or noise modifies CHD risk differently depending on which definition of MetS is used. In the presence of physical workload or noise, hypertension and blood glucose were the best predictors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.68, No.9, p.666-673. 50 ref.
Dual_role_of_physical_workload_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Bojar I., Humeniuk E., Owoc A., Wierzba W., Wojtyła A.
Exposing women to workplace stress factors as a risk factor for developing arterial hypertension
The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's exposure to stress-inducing factors at work, to define the extent of the problem and to assess the impact of occupational activity on arterial pressure. The research was conducted on four professional groups of women: working in agriculture, in clerical jobs, as seamstresses and as medical representatives in a region of Poland. A total number of 416 women were examined, aged 30-40 years, who had not been previously treated due to arterial hypertension. The women under examination had their arterial blood pressure measured twice on a working day and responded to a questionnaire on work and stress. High levels of subjective stress were observed for all groups. Strong correlations were found between subjective stress levels and arterial pressure among medical representatives and office workers. No significant dependencies were found between stress and socio-demographic variables. Implications of these findings are discussed.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2011, Vol.18, p.175-182. 44 ref.
Exposing_women.pdf [in English]
Park J., Kim Y., Hisanaga N.
Work-related cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases (WR-CVD's) in Korea
In Korea, work-related cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases (WR-CVDs) are among the most compensated cases, second only to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WR-MSDs). The average accumulated insurance benefit per injured worker is an estimated USD 75,000, which is thought to have a major impact on the financial stability of insurers. This literature survey was performed to review the physicochemical agents of cardiovascular diseases in Korea and the effects of psychosocial factors such as work-related stress on WR-CVDs in Korea, and to discuss the concepts and perspectives of WR-CVDs in Korea by comparing them with those in Japan.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.49, No.1, p.3-7. Illus. 22 ref.
Work-related_cerebrovascular_and_cardiovascular_diseases.pdf [in English]
Wang X.S., Armstrong M.E., Cairns B.J., Key T.J., Travis R.C.
Shift work and chronic disease: The epidemiological evidence
Shift work, including night work, has been hypothesized to increase the risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Recent reviews of evidence relating to these hypotheses have focussed on specific diseases or potential mechanisms, but no general summary of the current data on shift work and chronic disease has been published. Systematic and critical reviews and recent original studies were retrieved. The main conclusions are presented in text and tables. Published evidence is suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse association between night work and breast cancer but limited and inconsistent for cancers at other sites and all cancers combined. Findings on shift work, in relation to risks of CVD, metabolic syndrome and diabetes are also suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse relationship.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.78-89. 77 ref.
Shift_work.pdf [in English]
Electromagnetic fields - When work aptitude is an issue
Champs électromagnétiques - Quand l'aptitude est en question [in French]
The return to work of an employee with a heart implant raises questions regarding the possible interference between the implant and the electromagnetic fields that are present in the work environment. This article discusses concerted solutions involving the employer, the occupational physician and the concerned worker, aimed at avoiding medical inaptitude and reconciling health and employment.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.12-14. Illus.
Champs_électromagnétiques.pdf [in French]
Dayton S.B., Sandler D.P., Blair A., Alavanja M., Beane Freeman L.E., Hoppin J.A.
Pesticide use and myocardial infarction incidence among farm women in the Agricultural Health Study
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pesticide use and myocardial infarction (MI) among farm women. Logistic regression was used to evaluate pesticide use and self-reported incident nonfatal MI among women in the Agricultural Health Study. Of those MI-free at enrollment (n = 22,425), 168 reported an MI after enrollment. No association was seen with pesticide use overall. Six of 27 individual pesticides evaluated were significantly associated with nonfatal MI, with odds ratios >1.7. These chemicals were used by <10% of the cases, and their use was often correlated, making it difficult to attribute the risk elevation to a specific pesticide. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.52, No.7, p.693-697. 23 ref.
Pesticide_use_and_myocardial_infarction_incidence_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Allesøe K., Hundrup Y.A., Thomsen J.F., Osler M.
Psychosocial work environment and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: The Danish Nurse Cohort Study
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of work pressure and job influence on the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in women. Subjects were the 12,116 women aged 45-64 years participating in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study, who responded to a questionnaire in 1993 and who were followed by individual linkage in the National Register of Hospital Discharges to the beginning of 2008. Work pressure, job influence, occupational characteristics, demographic factors and known biological and behavioural risk factors for IHD were collected at baseline. During follow-up, 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. In the fully adjusted model, nurses who reported work pressure to be much too high had a 1.4-fold increased risk of incident IHD compared with nurses who reported work pressure to be suitable. A tendency towards a dose-response effect was found. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.67, No.5, p.318-322. 31 ref.
Psychosocial_work_environment.pdf [in English]
Chang T.Y., Wang V.S., Lin S.Y., Yen H.Y., Lai J.S., Liu C.S.
Co-exposure to noise, N,N-dimethylformamide, and toluene on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in synthetic leather workers
Independent exposures to noise, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or toluene have been associated with cardiovascular effects, but the combined effects are not clear. This study investigated ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in workers co-exposed to noise, DMF, and toluene. Twenty workers in a synthetic leather manufacturing company were recruited as study subjects. Personal noise exposure and ambulatory blood pressure were measured concomitantly for 24 h; airborne co-exposure to DMF and toluene during the working period was also analyzed to identify solvents exposure. Linear mixed-effects regressions were used to estimate effects on ambulatory blood pressure by controlling potential confounders. No significant differences in SBP and DBP were found between six high-solvent-exposure workers and office workers during any periods. After the Bonferroni correction, there were no significant differences in ambulatory blood pressure between high-exposure groups and the low-exposure groups. Our findings suggest no interactive effects of co-exposure to noise, DMF and toluene on workers' ambulatory blood pressure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2010, Vol.7, No.1, p.14-22. 38 ref.
Co-exposure_to_noise.pdf [in English]
Karasek R., Collins S., Clays E., Bortkiewicz A., Ferrario M.
Description of a large-scale study design to assess work-stress-disease associations for cardiovascular disease
This article argues that a new level of studies is needed to answer a series of important questions about the expanding global chronic disease burden for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and for related conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. A proposed outline for such studies is presented, based on Stress-Disequilibrium Theory (SDT) hypotheses, building on analytic tools developed for the assessment of stress-related exhaustion effects and chronic disease risks from Heart Rate Variability (HRV) research studies. The study design is multi-stage, spanning across several levels of disease-related de-regulation, and addressing co-morbidity of the conditions themselves. It is meant to span across a broad social population at all levels and would probably be multi-site, involving several countries, to yield the larger sample increased power for finding associations with the psychological effects of work.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.293-312. Illus. 56 ref.
Description_of_a_large-scale_study.pdf [in English]
Shift work and metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and ischaemic heart disease
Shift work is associated with several health problems, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This literature survey concludes that these diseases are possibly due to an impairment of biological rhythm. The metabolic syndrome is a complex of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated among shift workers. Rotating shift work has an impact on each component of metabolic syndrome. Shift work might also have an impact on metabolic variables, and be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Only a few studies reported prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes mellitus in relation to shift work. There is rather strong evidence in favour of association between shift work and coronary heart disease and that has been repeatedly demonstrated over 20 years of research. Recent data increasingly reveal relations between shift work and plasma resistin, ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.287-291. 37 ref.
Shift_work_and_metabolic_syndrome.pdf [in English]
Effort-reward imbalance at work and cardiovascular diseases
Working conditions and employment arrangements make a significant contribution to the burden of cardiovascular disease, in particular in modern societies where mental and emotional demands and threats are becoming widespread. Occupational research has identified health-adverse features of modern work with the help of theoretical models. One such model, effort-reward imbalance, has been widely tested in epidemiological and experimental studies. The model claims that stressful experience at work is elicited by a lack of reciprocity between efforts spent at work and rewards received in return, where rewards include money, promotion prospects, job security and esteem. Results demonstrate elevated risks of coronary heart disease among employees exposed to effort-reward imbalance. Moreover, in ambulatory and experimental investigations, elevated heart rate and blood pressure and altered secretion of stress hormones were observed under these conditions. Although additional scientific evidence is needed, available findings call for practical measures towards improving quality of work, most importantly at the level of single companies and organisations. This conclusion is supported by first results from intervention studies that are guided by this theoretical approach. In view of the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to unfavourable working conditions, such efforts are well justified and need to be extended in order to promote healthy work.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.279-285. 47 ref.
Effort-reward_imbalance.pdf [in English]
Collins S., Karasek R.
Reduced vagal cardiac control variance in exhausted and high strain job subjects
The objectives of this study were to propose methodological strategies for analyzing vagal cardiac control based on the Stress Disequilibrium Theory (SDT) using high frequency power of heart rate variability (HFP) and short term variance of HFP, as well as to provide evidence of reduced vagal cardiac control range and variability in high strain job and exhausted subjects. Job strain was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire, diary reports and a standardized occupational code linkage in 36 healthy mid-aged males with varying strain jobs. Subjects were Holter-monitored for 48 hours, including a work and rest day. Comparisons were made between 10 high and 22 low job strain jobs. Furthermore, four subjects categorized as exhausted were analyzed separately. Findings support the hypothesis that job strain is associated with reductions in cardiac vagal variance, and that reduced system variability may be a characteristic of exhaustion.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.267-278. Illus. 26 ref.
Reduced_vagal_cardiac_control.pdf [in English]
Bortkiewicz A., Gadzicka E., Siedlecka J., Szyjkowska A., Viebig P., Wranicz J.K., Kurpesa M., Dziuba M., Trzos E., Makowiec-Dąbrowska T.
Work-related risk factors of myocardial infarction
The aim of the study was to find out which occupational factors account for the risk of the myocardial infarction. It was conducted in the form of a questionnaire survey of 1053 patients (692 men and 361 women) hospitalized at a Polish University Hospital. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part comprised demographic data, health status at admittance, traditional risk factors for the ischaemic heart disease and was filled-in by physicians. The second part was administered by occupational hygiene specialists and referred to education, job title and characteristics, employment data, self-assessment of work-related and general stress, fatigue, socio-economic status, physical activity, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and dietary habits. Findings indicate that, among a wide spectrum of occupational factors, stress, noise and fine particulate dust are major contributors to the increased risk of myocardial infarction.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.255-265. Illus. 41 ref.
Work-related_risk_factors.pdf [in English]
Netterstrøm B., Kristensen T.S., Jensen G., Schnor P.
Is the demand-control model still a usefull tool to assess work-related psychosocial risk for ischemic heart disease? Results from a 14 year follow up in the Copenhagen City heart study
The objective of this study was to test the usefulness of the Demand-Control Model as predictor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). 1146 actively-employed men and women from the general population of Copenhagen participated at baseline in 1993-1994. They filled in questionnaires on the Demand-Control Model, job title, work place, civil status, family income, leisure time activity, smoking, medication, social support, social relations, conflicts, job responsibility, satisfaction, and insecurity and went through a medical examination, including measurements of coronary risk factors. All deaths and hospital admissions due to IHD, including first myocardial infarction (MI) in the cohort were traced in the Danish registries of deaths and hospital admissions to June 2007. 104 cases of first-time hospitalisation or death due to IHD including 49 cases of MI occurred during 14 years follow up. Odds ratios (ORs) compared to the relaxed group was 1.1 (0.1-3.1) among women and 1.6 (0.4-4.9) among men after confounder adjustment. Neither demands nor control were significantly associated with IHD. Among men 50 years of age or more, the risk for IHD was, however, elevated in the job strain group and the active group (odds ratio (OR) 3.5 and 3.2 respectively). Job insecurity was strongly associated with IHD in men (OR 2.7) after all adjustments. The risk was increased for MI too (OR 2.7). Among women, the only significant association with IHD was for job dissatisfaction (OR 3.0).
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.217-224. 27 ref.
Is_the_demand-control_model.pdf [in English]
Shift work and metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and ischaemic heart disease
This review article on health problems associated with shift work concludes that metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases are possibly due to an impairment of biological rhythm. The metabolic syndrome is a complex of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated among shift workers. Rotating shift work has an impact on each component of metabolic syndrome. Shift work might also have an impact on metabolic variables, and be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Only a few studies report prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes mellitus in relation to shift work. There is strong evidence of an association between shift work and coronary heart disease. Recent data increasingly reveal relations between shift work and plasma resistin, ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.287-291. 37 ref.
Shift_work_and_metabolic_syndrome.pdf [in English]
Bortkiewicz A., Gadzicka E., Siedlecka J., Szyjkowska A., Viebig P., Wranicz J.K., Kurpesa M., Dziuba M., Trzos E., Makowiec-Dąbrowska T.
Work-related risk factors of myocardial infarction
The aim of the study was to find out which occupational factors account for the risk of the myocardial infarction. A questionnaire survey was performed during the period of one calendar year in all patients (1053 subjects, 692 men and 361 women) hospitalized at a Polish University Hospital for a first myocardial infarction. For both men and women, most of myocardial infarction cases were noted in the age interval of 56-60 years. The majority of examined men were farmers, low and middle management, and self-employed workers, while the women consisted mainly of clerks, seamstresses and farmers. The most frequent occupational risk factors were: work-related stress, experienced by 54.2% of the examined subjects, occupational noise (45.5%), dust (41.7%) and various chemical factors (33%). A majority of the study group (76.5% women and 54.4% men) linked the cardiac infarction with stress, while 39.1% men vs. 16.5% women correlated it with physical effort.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.255-265. Illus. 41 ref.
Work-related_risk_factors.pdf [in English]
Härmä M., Kecklund G., eds.
Shift work and health - How to proceed?
In Europe, only a quarter of the workforce is engaged in regular day work. The rest of employees and over 90% of the self-employed have irregular or flexible working hours. This editorial introduces a special issue of the journal focusing on shift work and health, in particular cardiovascular disease, cancer, eating habits and gastrointestinal cancers. Other topics include countermeasures to the negative effects of shift work and night work, and ergonomic shift scheduling to reduce sleep disturbances.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.81-84. 26 ref.
Shift_work.pdf [in English]
Holtermann A., Mortensen O.S., Burr H., Søgaard K., Gyntelberg F., Suadicani P.
Physical work demands, hypertension status, and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study
Increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from high physical work demands has been observed among men with low physical fitness and leisure time physical activity. This study tested whether hypertensive men are at a particularly high risk of IHD mortality when exposed to high physical work demands. A 30-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Male Study of 5249 gainfully employed men aged 40-59 years was carried out. Of these, 274 men with a history of myocardial infarction or prevalent symptoms of angina pectoris or intermittent claudication were excluded from the follow-up. Physical work demands were determined by self-reported questions. Of the eligible study population, 587 men (11.9%) died due to IHD. Hypertensive men had more than a doubled risk of IHD mortality. Cox analyses adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, diabetes, physical fitness, leisure time physical activity and social class showed that high physical work demands were associated with an increased risk of IHD and all-cause mortality among normotensive men, but not among the hypertensive men, using men with low physical work demands as the reference. Overall, hypertensive men did not have a higher risk of IHD or all-cause mortality from high physical work demands than normotensive men.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.36, No.6, p.466-472. 16 ref.
Physical_work_demands.pdf [in English]
Yorifuji T., Kashima S., Tsuda T., Takao S., Suzuki E., Doi H., Sugiyama M., Ishikawa-Takata K., Ohta T.
Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and mortality in Shizuoka, Japan
The number of studies investigating the health effects of long-term exposure to air pollution is increasing; however, most studies have been conducted in Western countries. The health status of Asian populations may be different to that of Western populations and may, therefore, respond differently to air pollution exposure. This study was therefore conducted to evaluate the health effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Shizuoka, Japan. Individual data were extracted from participants of an ongoing cohort study. A total of 14,001 older residents, who were randomly chosen from all 74 municipalities of Shizuoka, completed questionnaires and were followed from December 1999 to March 2006. Individual nitrogen dioxide exposure data, as an index for traffic-related exposure, were modelled using a land use regression model. Participants were assigned an estimated concentration of nitrogen dioxide exposure during 2000-2006. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for a 10 μg/m3 increase in exposure to nitrogen dioxide for all-cause or cause-specific mortality was then estimated. The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 1.02. Regarding cause-specific mortality, the adjusted HR for cardiopulmonary mortality was 1.16; in particular the adjusted HR was 1.27 for ischaemic heart disease mortality and 1.19 for pulmonary disease mortality. Furthermore, among non-smokers, a 10 μg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was associated with a higher risk for lung cancer mortality (HR 1.30). Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution, indexed by nitrogen dioxide concentration, increases the risk of cardiopulmonary mortality, even in a population with a relatively low body mass index and increases the risk of lung cancer mortality in non-smokers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.67, No.2, p.111-117. Illus. 31 ref.
Beaune J., eds.
Public access to defibrillation - Practical guide aimed at enterprises
Accès public à la défibrillation - Guide pratique à destination des entreprises [in French]
Contents of this practical guide on the installation of defibrillators in the enterprise: understanding cardiac arrest; first aid organization within the enterprise; training; equipping the enterprise; cooperation with other parties (cardiologists, emergency service physicians, first-aid workers); additional information (main suppliers of equipment, supporting materials for communication, regulations).
Fédération française de cardiologie, 5 rue des Colonnes du Trône, 75012 Paris, 2010, 51p. Illus. 13 ref.
Bouza Prego M.A., Saleta Canosa J.L., Castro Rodríguez M.P., Bellido Guerrero D., Pita Fernández S.
Cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome in a population of overweight and obese seafarers
Prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y de síndrome metabólico en una población de trabajadores del mar con sobrepeso y obesidad [in Spanish]
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome (MS) in a population of 439 overweight or obese seafarers. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumference), calculation of body mass index (BMI), blood pressure measurements and analytical tests (glucose, triglycerides, LDL and HDL cholesterol) were carried out. The presence or absence of MS was also determined. Findings are discussed. The results show that the percentage of workers with cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk factors rises with the degree of overweight or obesity.
Medicina Marítima, June 2010, Vol.10, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 26 ref.
Lowden A., Moreno C., Holmbäck U., Lennernäs M., Tucker P.
Eating and shift work - Effects on habits, metabolism and performance
Compared to day workers, shift workers are at higher risk of a range of metabolic disorders and diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal problems, failure to control blood sugar levels and metabolic syndrome. At least some of these complaints may be linked to the quality of the diet and irregular timing of eating; however other factors that affect metabolism are likely to play a part, including psychosocial stress, disrupted circadian rhythms, sleep debt, physical inactivity, and insufficient time for rest and revitalization. This literature survey examined studies on food and nutrition among shift workers. The discussion focuses on the quality of existing dietary assessment data, nutritional status parameters (particularly in obesity), the effect of circadian disruptions, and the possible implications for performance at work. Dietary guidelines as a basis for managing the nutrition of shift workers are proposed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.150-162. Illus. 96 ref.
Puttonen S., Härmä M., Hublin C.
Shift work and cardiovascular disease - Pathways from circadian stress to morbidity
In order to establish a causal relation between shift work and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the pathways from the former to the latter need to be verified. This article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms between shift work and CVD. Shift work can increase the risk of CVD by several interrelated psychosocial, behavioural, and physiological mechanisms. The psychosocial mechanisms relate to difficulties in controlling working hours, decreased work-life balance and poor recovery following work. The most probable behavioural changes are weight gain and smoking. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changed lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. The data provide evidence for possible disease mechanisms between shift work and CVD, but compelling evidence on any specific mechanism is missing.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.96-108. Illus. 129 ref.
Shift_work_and_cardiovascular_disease.pdf [in English]
Kaewboonchoo O., Morioka I., Saleekul S., Miyai N., Chaikittiporn C., Kawai T.
Blood lead level and cardiovascular risk factors among bus drivers in Bangkok, Thailand
This study aimed to clarify the role of blood lead level (Pb-B) as a cardiovascular risk factor. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk, the second derivative finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG) was used. The subjects comprised of 420 male bus drivers in Thailand. The SDPTG-AI increases with age, Pb-B, smoking and alcohol consumption. There was significant correlation between Pb-B and SDPTG-AI after controlling for age, body mass index and lifestyle factors. These results suggest that Pb-B is possibly an independent cardiovascular risk factor for bus drivers exposed to lower level of lead.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.61-65. Illus. 18 ref.
Blood_lead_level.pdf [in English]
Song Y.K., Lee K.K., Kim H.R., Koo J.W.
Job demand and cardiovascular disease risk factor in white-collar workers
This study was conducted to determine whether job demand played a role as a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases by comparing changes of blood pressure, heart rate and rate pressure product (RPP) showing myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO@2l) according to levels of job demand. The cross-sectional study divided 177 male white-collar workers without a cardiovascular or metabolic disease according to their job demand and analyzed their body composition and results of graded exercise testing. There was no significant difference in height, body weight, body mass, waist to hip ratio and body fat percentage according to job demand. Maximal oxygen consumption and anaerobic threshold (AT) also did not show a significant difference. However, systolic blood pressures at the seventh and eighth stages over AT during exercise were significantly different and RPP was found to have a significant difference overall according to the job demand. These results mean that job demand affects systolic pressure in physical activities or at exercise intensity over AT and reduces energy efficiency of myocardium during physical activities. The results suggest that high job demand may be a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.12-17. 37 ref.
Job_demand_and_cardiovascular_disease.pdf [in English]
Groeneveld I.F., Proper K.I., van der Beek A.J., Hildebrandt V.H., van Mechelen W.
Lifestyle-focused interventions at the workplace to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease - A systematic review
The goal of this review was to summarize the evidence for an effect of lifestyle-targeted interventions at the workplace on the main biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). An extensive systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCT) was performed. A nine-item methodological quality list was used to determine the quality of each study. A best-evidence system was applied, taking into account study quality and consistency of effects. The review included 31 RCTs, describing a diversity of interventions, including counselling, group education and/or exercise. Of these studies, 18 were of high quality. Strong evidence was found for a positive effect on body fat, one of the strongest predictors of CVD risk. Among populations considered to be at risk, there was strong evidence for a positive effect on body weight. Other findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, May 2010, Vol.36, No.3, p.202-215. Illus. 75 ref.
Eyraud F., Chouwdhury Repon A.R., Rantanen J., Leman A.M., Othma F., Omar A.R., Surjono B., Wang Y., Lindfor T., Lehtinen S.
Occupational health and safety training
Collection of articles on occupational safety and health training of relevance to countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Contents: improving OSH through a participatory training approach in Bangladesh; the challenge of occupational diseases; occupational safety and health training in Malaysia; role of workers' unions in occupational health and safety at industry level; OSH training in the food industry in China. Other topics: Presentation of the ILO training centre in Turin, Italy; review of a conference on occupational cardiovascular diseases held in March 2010 in Espoo, Finland; presentation of the objectives and activities of the International Commission for Occupational Health (ICOH).
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, May 2010, Vol.17, No.1, p.3-23 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
OSH_training.pdf [in English]
Chamoux A., Malaville P.Y.
Occupational cardiovascular diseases
Pathologies cardiovasculaires professionnelles [in French]
With about two million deaths each year, cardiovascular diseases are highest cause of mortality in the European Union, accounting 42% of all deaths. The nine main cardiovascular risk factors (abnormal blood lipids, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, abdominal obesity, stress, alcohol consumption, insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables, and insufficient physical activity) allow to predict 90% of the cardiovascular risk. Occupational risk factors include in particular the stress that results from psychological constraints and shift work. This article addresses the risk factors, diagnosis, work capacity, prevention and compensation of occupational cardiovascular diseases. Replaces CIS 99-1173.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 13p. Illus. 48 ref.
Chouanière D., François M., Guillemy N., Langevin V., Pentecôte A., Ven de Weerdt C., Weibel L., Dornier G., Montagnez A.
Current knowledge concerning occupational stress
Le point des connaissances sur le stress au travail [in French]
Occupational stress is a problem faced by enterprises of all sizes. 22% of European workers claim to be suffering from health problems caused by occupational stress. This information sheet on occupational stress addresses the following topics: precise definition of occupational stress; factors that give rise to occupational stress; physiological mechanisms involved in the onset of stress; health effects; effects on the productivity of enterprises; how to organize work so as to avoid or limit stress; occupational stress research programmes undertaken by the INRS. Replaces CIS 03-1000.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2010, No.704, 4p. Insert. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/4A7C92097628CD0BC1256DC2002C8CF3/$FILE/ed5021.pdf [in French]
Hintsa T., Hintsanen M., Jokela M., Pulkki-Råback L., Keltikangas-Järvinen L.
Divergent influence of different Type A dimensions on job strain and effort-reward balance
This study examined whether different Type A behaviour dimensions have divergent influence on work stress. The sample comprised 752 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Data were collected by questionnaires. Type A behaviour was reported in subjects' adolescence and adulthood, and work stress was reported in adulthood. Work stress was measured according to Karasek's job demands-job control model and Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance (ERI). High leadership predicted lower job strain. High hard-driving predicted higher job strain. High leadership predicted lower ERI and higher reward at work. High aggression, hard-driving and eagerness-energy predicted ERI. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2010, Vol.52, No.1, p.1-7. 52 ref.
Houston S., Mitchell S., Evans S.
Application of a cardiovascular disease risk prediction model among commercial pilots
In this cross-sectional study, a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction model was applied to United Kingdom commercial pilots. Variables included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, current smoking and diabetes status. Individual 10-year absolute CVD risk scores (also referred to as 10-yr global CVD risk) were calculated using a model developed by the Framingham Heart Study, a long-term ongoing cardiovascular cohort study on residents of a locality of the United States. None of the female pilots and 9.7% of male pilots were found to be at high risk. High-risk pilots are concentrated around 60 years of age. These pilots may require more comprehensive risk assessment. Other findings are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2010, Vol.81, No.8, p.768-773. Illus. 17 ref.
Li Q., Morikawa Y., Sakurai M., Nakamura K., Miura K., Ishizaki M., Kido T., Naruse Y., Suwazono Y., Nakagawa H.
Occupational class and incidence rates of cardiovascular events in middle aged men in Japan
This study investigated whether occupational class affects the incidence of cardiovascular events among Japanese factory workers. The evaluation involved 1794 male workers aged 40-59, including 632 non-manual and 1162 manual workers, employed in a metal products factory in Japan. The hazard ratios of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiovascular events (combined stroke, MI and sudden cardiac death) for manual workers were compared with non-manual workers as estimated by the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Findings are discussed. The study did not reveal significant occupational class inequalities in the rate of cardiovascular events, contradicting the findings of studies from other industrialized countries.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.324-330. 25 ref.
Panasevich S., Leander K., Rosenlund M., Ljungman P., Bellander T., de Faire U., Pershagen G., Nyberg F.
Associations of long- and short-term air pollution exposure with markers of inflammation and coagulation in a population sample
Exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollutants can lead to adverse cardiovascular effects. Potential mechanisms include systemic inflammation and perturbation of the coagulation balance. The objective of this study was to investigate the long- and short-term effects of air pollution exposure on serum levels of inflammatory and coagulation markers relevant for cardiovascular pathology. The study group consisted of a population sample of 1028 men and 508 women aged 45-70 years from Stockholm. Long-term air pollution exposure was assessed using spatial modelling of traffic-related NO2 and heating-related SO2 emissions at each subject's residential addresses over retrospective periods of 1,5 and 30 years. Short-term exposure was assessed as averages of rooftop measurements over 12-120 h before blood sampling. Long-term exposures to both traffic-NO2 and heating-SO2 emissions showed consistent associations with IL-6 levels. 30-year average traffic-NO2 exposure was associated with a 64.5% increase in serum IL-6 per 28.8 μg/m3 and 30-year exposure to heating- SO2 with a 67.6% increase per 39.4 μg/m3. The association appeared stronger in non-smokers, physically active people and hypertensive subjects. Short-term exposure to O3 was associated with increased, and SO2 with decreased, fibrinogen levels. These results suggest that exposure to moderate levels of air pollution may influence serum levels of inflammatory markers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.747-753. Illus. 38 ref.
Sjögren B., Barlow L., Weiner J
Ischemic heart disease among cooks, cold buffet managers, kitchen assistants, and wait staff
The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of ischaemic heart disease in a cohort of restaurant workers in Sweden, constituted from the data of the Swedish National Census of 1970. The cohort was followed from 1970 until 1995 and linked to the death registry. An increased risk due to ischaemic heart disease mortality was observed among kitchen workers, possibly related to air pollutants in these work environments.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2009, No.7, Suppl.1, p.24-29. 37 ref.
Skoczyńska A., Poręba R., Steinmentz-Beck A., Martynowicz H., Affelska-Jercha A., Turczyn B., Wojakowska A., Jędrychowska I.
The dependence between urinary mercury concentration and carotid arterial intima-media thickness in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between urinary mercury concentration and carotid intima-media thickness to find the best markers of mercury cardiovascular toxicity. The study included 154 workers of a chemical factory exposed to mercury. A positive linear relationship was found between occupational exposure to mercury vapour and early, asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis. This dependence was clearer among non-smokers and furthermore strongly related to high-density lipoproteins. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.2, p.135-142. Illus. 29 ref.
Sauni R., Pääkkönen R., Virtema P., Jäntti V., Kähönen M., Toppila E., Pyykkö I., Uitti J.
Vibration-induced white finger syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome among Finnish metal workers
The purpose of this study was to estimate the cumulative exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) and the prevalence of clinically diagnosed cases of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a population of Finnish metal workers. A questionnaire on vibration exposure at the workplace and symptoms of the upper extremities was sent to a sample of 530 metalworkers' union members. Those reporting VWF or CTS symptoms were also invited to take part in clinical examinations. Their cumulative lifelong exposure to HAV was evaluated. The incidences VWF and CTS were 8.4% and 4.2% respectively, suggesting that VWF is under-diagnosed in Finland. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.445-453. Illus. 31 ref.
Friesen M.C., Fritschi L., Del Monaco A., Benke G., Dennekamp M., de Klerk N., Hoving J.L., MacFarlane E., Sim M.R.
Relationships between alumina and bauxite dust exposure and cancer, respiratory and circulatory disease
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between alumina and bauxite dust exposure, and cancer incidence and circulatory and respiratory disease mortality among bauxite miners and alumina refinery workers. It involved 5770 male workers in Australia linked to national mortality and cancer incidence registries, for which cumulative exposures were estimated using job histories and historical air monitoring data. Findings suggest that cumulative bauxite exposure may be associated with an excess risk of death from non-malignant respiratory diseases, while cumulative alumina dust exposure may be associated with an excess risk of death from cerebrovascular disease. Neither exposure appears to increase the risk of incident cancers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.66, No.9, p.615-618. 17 ref.
Björ B., Burström L., Jonsson H., Nathanaelsson L., Damber L., Nilsson T.
Fifty-year follow-up of mortality among a cohort of iron-ore miners in Sweden, with specific reference to myocardial infarction mortality
This cohort study investigated both general mortality and mortality from myocardial infarction among men employed in two iron-ore mines in Sweden. The cohort was comprised of men who had been employed for at least one year between 1923 and 1996. The causes of death were obtained from the national cause of death register from 1952 to 2001. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for four main causes, including myocardial infarction. SMR for total mortality was 1.05. Mortality was significantly higher for lung cancer, injuries, poisonings and respiratory diseases. The SMR for myocardial infarction was 1.12. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2009, Vol.66, No.4, p.264-268. 28 ref.
Nyberg A., Alfredsson L., Theorell T., Westerlund H., Vahtera J., Kivimäki M.
Managerial leadership and ischaemic heart disease among employees: The Swedish WOLF study
To investigate the association between managerial leadership and ischaemic heart disease (IHD), data on 3122 Swedish male employees were drawn from a prospective cohort study. Baseline screening was carried out in 1992-1995. Managerial leadership quality was rated by subordinates. Records of employee hospital admissions with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina and deaths from IHD or cardiac arrest to the end of 2003 were used to ascertain IHD. Cox proportional-hazards analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios for IHD. Higher leadership scores were associated with lower IHD risk, with the inverse association stronger for long time spent in the same workplace. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.51-55. 43 ref.
Lin C.M., Li C.Y.
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwanese healthcare workers
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a sample of 2034 employees of a Taiwanese hospital. Subjects were classified into four job categories: physicians, nursing staff, medical technicians and non-medical workers. Various cardiovascular risk factors, including blood biochemical parameters, body-mass index and blood pressure were measured for each worker. Data were subjected to multivariate logistic regression analyses. Overweight and obesity were independently associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Additionally, compared to non-medical workers, medical technicians had a significantly greater prevalence of hypertension. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.411-418. 33 ref.
Frost P., Kolstad H.A., Bonde J.P.
Shift work and the risk of ischemic heart disease - A systematic review of the epidemiological evidence
The objective of this literature survey was to evaluate the epidemiologic evidence for a causal relation between shift work and ischemic heart disease. Relevant information was retrieved from 14 studies. Most studies based on fatal events showed no or weak associations while studies that combined fatal and non-fatal events showed modest positive associations. Overall, the epidemiological evidence for a causal relation between shift work and ischemic heart disease was found to be weak and inconclusive.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2009, Vol.35, No.3, p.163-179. Illus. 54 ref.
McNamee D.A., Legros A.G., Krewski D.R., Wisenberg G., Prato F.S., Thomas A.W.
A literature review: The cardiovascular effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields
The effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on human cardiovascular parameters remain undetermined. Epidemiological studies have utilized dosimetry estimations of employee workplace exposure using altered heart rate variability (HRV) as predictive of certain cardiovascular pathologies. Laboratory studies have focused on macrocirculatory indicators including heart rate, HRV and blood pressure. Findings have been largely inconclusive. Future studies should investigate the macro- and microcirculatory relationship and the use of laboratory geomagnetic shielding.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.919-933. 79 ref.
Greene B.L., Miller J.D., Brown T.M., Harshman R.S., Richerson G.T., Doyle J.J.
Economic impact of the BP downshift program on blood pressure control among commercial driver license employees
The objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of a hypertension educational and awareness programme commercial drivers employed by a power generation and distribution company in the United States. An economic simulation model was developed to evaluate the costs and benefits of implementing the programme. Results showed a 16.3% (more than USD 540,000) reduction in costs for a sample of 499 drivers over two years. On a per-employee basis, annual cost savings were estimated to be USD 542.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.51, No.5, p.542-553. Illus. 53 ref.
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