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Anthropometry - 151 entries found

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CIS 11-0732 Cascioli V., Heusch A.I., McCarthy P.W.
Does prolonged sitting with minimum legroom affect the flexibility of a healthy subject and their perception of discomfort?
This study examined for differences in subjective ratings of discomfort and comfort and objective measures of hamstring, lumbar and neck flexibility in 24 healthy young subjects following 4h of sitting on stacking chairs with or without limited legroom. When comparing the limited and unlimited legroom groups for differences in subjective and objective measures over 4h, no significant findings were seen at the 5% level of confidence. However, differences in buttock, neck, shoulder and average discomfort were significantly negatively correlated to differences between post-warm up sit-reach scores. The difference in buttock discomfort was significantly negatively correlated to the difference between pre-warm up sit-reach scores, post-sitting/pre-warm up and pre-sitting/post-warm up sit-reach scores. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.471-480. Illus. 61 ref.
Does_prolonged_sitting.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0435 Chow D.H.K., Li M.F., Lai A., Pope M.H.
Effect of load carriage on spinal compression
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various load carriage methods on spinal loading over time by measuring spinal compression. Eight male adult participants were asked to carry a load equivalent to 15% of their body weight either anteriorly or posteriorly for 20 min followed by 10 min of recovery. Their statures were measured before load carriage and every 2min after carrying the load. The sequence of loading conditions was randomized and the participants took a 20-min rest with Fowler's posture for spinal length recovery prior to each testing condition. The amount of spinal compression was found to be associated with carrying duration. Spinal compression during anterior carriage was larger than that of posterior carriage. There was a mild recovery of spinal compression after the removal of the load for both the anterior and posterior carriage conditions.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.219-223. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 11-0422 Milosavljevic S., McBride D.I., Bagheri N., Vasiljev R.M., Carman A.B., Rehn B., Moore D.
Factors associated with quad bike loss of control events in agriculture
The objective of this study was to determine personal and workplace factors associated with quad bike loss of control events (LCEs) on New Zealand farms. Rural community databases were used to sample 130 farmers and farm workers. Fieldwork and survey investigated for prevalence of LCEs, farm type, farm terrain, personal measures and vehicle driving exposures. Seventy nine workers (61%) described a total of 200 LCEs. Increased driver height, increased body mass, non-flat farm terrain, increased driving speed and distance and greater whole body vibration exposure were significantly associated with LCEs. Taller and heavier drivers of quad bikes should be particularly vigilant for risk of an LCE. Vehicle speed, distance driven and choice of driving routes over difficult terrain are potentially modifiable factors which have behavioural components and should be considered as management strategies for reducing risk of on-farm quad bike LCEs.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.317-321. Illus. 21 ref.


CIS 11-0721 Sinisammal J., Saaranen P.
Preferred handrail height for spiral stairs - A fitting trial study
Although stairways are in general thoroughly studied, there is little scientific data on spiral stairs. The purpose of this study was to determine preferred handrail heights for a spiral stairway. The most preferred handrail height for descent was 105 cm. On the other hand, 95% of the participants regarded handrail heights between 95 and 100 cm satisfactory for descending. Participants' anthropometric data was combined with the handrail height preference to develop a model to predict preferred handrail height according to the anthropometry of user populations.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.16, No.3, p.329-335. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 11-0716 Katsuhira J., Yamasaki S., Yamamoto S., Maruyama H.
Effects of general principles of person transfer techniques on low back joint extension moment
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of general principles of person transfer techniques specifically on the low back joint extension moment. These effects were examined by the following measurable quantitative parameters: trunk bending angle; knee flexion angle; distance between the centres of gravity (COGs) of the caregiver and patient, representing the distance between the caregiver and patient; the vertical component of the ground reaction force representing the amount of the weight-bearing load on the caregiver's low back during transfers with and without assistive devices. Twenty students each took the role of caregiver, and one healthy adult simulated a patient. The participants performed three different transfer tasks: without any assistive device, with the patient wearing a low back belt, and with the caregiver using a transfer board. It was found that the distance between the COGs and the vertical component of the ground reaction force, but not the trunk bending and knee flexion angles, were the variables that affected the low back joint extension moment. These results suggest that the general principle of decreasing the distance between COGs is most effective for decreasing the low back joint extension moment during transfers under all conditions.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.796-803. Illus. 25 ref.
Effects_of_general_principles.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0397 Coca A., Williams W.J., Roberge R.J., Powell J.B.
Effects of fire fighter protective ensembles on mobility and performance
Many studies have shown that fire fighter turnout gear and equipment may restrict mobility. The restriction of movement is usually due to a decrease in range of motion (ROM). It is important to know how much the decrease in ROM affects performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fire fighter protective ensembles on mobility and performance by measuring static and dynamic range ROM and job-related tasks. Eight healthy adults participated in the study which consisted of measuring a battery of motions and fire fighter specific tasks while wearing a standard fire fighter ensemble or regular light clothing (baseline). The overall findings support the need for a comprehensive ergonomic evaluation of protective clothing systems to ascertain human factors issues.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.636-641. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 08-1432 Seidel H., Pöpplau B.M., Morlock M.M., Püschel K., Huber G.
The size of lumbar vertebral endplate areas - Prediction by anthropometric characteristics and significance for fatigue failure due to whole-body vibration
The sizes of vertebral endplates co-determine the ultimate strength of spinal units. The health risk associated with fatigue failure after repetitive dynamic loads caused by whole-body vibration (WBV) could depend on the size of endplate area, too. The objective of this study was to develop a simple low-cost method for predicting the size of vertebral endplates using CT-scans of lumbar spinal units. CT scans of 53 male donors were used to determine the size of the cross-sectional areas of endplates L3-L5, which were later measured during autopsy. The correlations were not sufficient to permit a prediction of the endplate area by anthropometric parameters. This contradicts earlier findings that describe close correlations between the size of intervertebral discs, the size of the endplates and the external diameters of large joints.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.38, No.9-10, p.844-855. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 08-972 Mehta C.R., Gite L.P., Pharade S.C., Majumder J., Pandey M.M.
Review of anthropometric considerations for tractor seat design
This article reviews the existing information on the tractor seat design that considers anthropometric and biomechanical factors. The anthropometric dimensions of agricultural workers need to be taken into consideration for design of seat height, seat pan width, seat pan length, seat backrest width and seat backrest height of tractors. Based on anthropometric data of 5434 Indian male agricultural workers, the seat dimensions recommended for tractor operator's comfort were as follows: seat height of 380mm; seat pan width 420-450mm; seat backrest width 380-400mm (bottom) and 270-290mm (top): seat pan length 370±10mm, seat pan tilt of 5-7° backward and seat backrest height of 350mm.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, May-June 2008, Vol.38, No.5-6, p.546-554. Illus. 46 ref.


CIS 08-975 Helin K., Viitaniemi J., Aromaa S., Montonen J, Evilä T., Leino S.P., Määttä T.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
OSKU digital human model in the participatory design approach - A new tool to improve work tasks and workplaces
The objective of this study was to develop a new digital human model based on a participatory approach, to be used as an evaluation tool concurrently with production design for improving manual work tasks. The tool is built from an expandable database of the main human motions, together with ergonomic analyses. It was validated in the laboratory and in several industrial enterprises, where workers were asked to identify workplace and work task problems, and to suggest alternative solutions to control physical workload and to increase productivity. These postures and motions were analyzed and fed into the database. The tool is still undergoing development.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2007. 40p. Illus. 37 ref. [in English]


CIS 06-1235 Anthropometric dimensions of farm youth of the north eastern region of India
The design of improved agricultural machines requires a knowledge of the anthropometric data of the operators. A survey was conducted to collect the anthropometric dimensions of male farmers aged between 20 and 30 years in the north eastern region of India. Thirty-three anthropometric dimensions were measured from 280 male farmers in seven states of the region. These dimensions were compared with those of the northern, central, eastern, southern and western regions of India. It was found that the body dimensions of the farm youth of the north eastern region were mostly lower than those from other regions except southern and eastern regions. They were also compared with those of China, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Germany, Britain and the USA. All the dimensions were lower than those from other parts of the world.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Nov. 2005, Vol.35, No.11, p.979-989. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 06-740 Xiao G., Lei L., Dempsey P.G., Lu B., Liang Y.
Isometric muscle strength and anthropometric characteristics of a Chinese sample
This study examined data on isometric muscle strength and anthropometric dimensions from a sample of 146 male and 47 female Chinese subjects. These basic data are important for workplace, task and equipment design. Five measures of muscle strength were recorded: left and right hand grip, arm lift, shoulder lift and torso pull strengths. The mean female strengths were about 50% lower than the male values. There were several significant positive correlations between anthropometric measures and isometric strength. Comparisons between the results of this study and those from published studies in China and the United States are provided.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, July 2005, Vol.35, No.7, p.674-679. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 06-479 Barroso M.P., Arezes P.M., da Costa L.G., Miguel A.S.
Anthropometric study of Portuguese workers
This study describes a procedure for collecting anthropometric data for Portuguese adult workers and the development of an anthropometric database. 891 individuals aged between 17 and 65 years were measured (399 female and 492 male). A set of 24 static anthropometric measures plus body weight was obtained for each individual. Results suggest that the procedure adopted is valid for anthropometric data acquisition. Additionally, the statistical analysis carried out on the data show that some statistical parameters, such as the variation and correlation coefficients, are within expectations and comparable to those of other populations.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, May 2005, Vol.35, No.5, p.401-410. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 05-460 Haines V., Elton E., Hussey M.
Health and Safety Executive
Revision of body size criteria in standards - Protecting people who work at height
This report describes a programme of work undertaken to consider whether the body size criteria in standards which are used to test the safety of personal protective equipment (PPE) need revision. It describes the methodology used to obtain a selection of anthropometric data from a sample of 589 people who worked at height, in order to accurately establish whether the dimensions and requirements of PPE test apparatus need reviewing. Recommendations are made for the modification of some standards.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. xii, 159p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: GBP 30.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 06-232 Jürgens H.W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Compilation of anthropometric measurements for the updating of DIN 33402 - Part 2
Erhebung anthropometrischer Masse zur Aktualisierung der DIN 33 402 - Teil 2 [in German]
The current DIN standard 33402, part 2, is based on anthropometric measurements that are no longer valid. This report presents the results of anthropometric measurements for the 41-55 year age group, which complement those of the 18-40 year age group collected earlier, in order to allow an updating of the standard. The results include more than 69 measures (as against 57 in the current version of the standard) which are broken down by age group and sex.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 86p. Illus. Price: EUR 10.50.

CIS 05-314 Del Prado-Lu J. L.
Risk factors to musculoskeletal disorders and anthropometric measurements of Filipino manufacturing workers
This study investigated the risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and established anthropometric measurements of Filipino workers in 29 manufacturing industries. Anthropometric measurements of 1,805 workers were taken, and 495 were surveyed by means of questionnaires. Limitation of motion was found in 0.8% of the respondents, problems in daily living activities were seen in 1.6% and 3.2% felt discomfort in the head and neck. Upper trunk pain and low back pain were experienced by 23.8%. Workers were 29 times more likely to develop low back pain when standing for 2-8 hrs a day than when sitting throughout. Anthropometry can be a useful tool for the design of workstations and work furniture.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.349-359. Illus. 15 ref.


CIS 06-220 Han D.H., Choi K.L.
Facial dimensions and predictors of fit for half-mask respirators in Koreans
This study investigated the relationship between facial dimensions and the fit of half-mask respirators using fit factors and selected good facial dimension predictors of fit for designing respirators for Korean workers. Three different brands of half-mask respirators were fit-tested on 112 men and 38 women. Before fit-testing, 10 facial dimensions were measured. Data were analyzed and facial dimensions to be preferentially considered when designing a half-mask respirator for Korean workers were identified.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2003, Vol.64, No.6, p.815-822. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 03-1962 Carmona Benjumea A.
Anthropometric aspects of the Spanish working population applied to industrial design
Aspectos antropométricos de la población laboral española aplicados al diseño industrial [in Spanish]
This document describes and analyses the anthropometric characteristics of the Spanish working population that are useful for the ergonomic design of machinery, equipment and workplaces. Three population subsets were considered; men, women and a mixed gender population. Measurements are provided for sitting and standing postures, specific parts of the body and functional aspects.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2003. 380p. Illus. Approx. 550 ref. Price: EUR 22.81. [in Spanish]

CIS 03-1447 Laing R., Holland E., Niven B., Webster J.
General adult male population limited for sizing occupational protective clothing
The objectives of this research were to describe the body size and shape of New Zealand forestry workers in order to provide the basis for sizing protective clothing and other products; to identify any differences in dimension between the two main ethnic groups employed in the forestry sector; and to ascertain whether body dimensions of the comparable general New Zealand population (that is, males aged 16-65 years) differ significantly from those of forestry workers and of active firefighters. Sixty-five body measurements were obtained from a sample of 377 New Zealand forestry workers using direct measurement. Comparisons were made with body dimensions of sections of the general New Zealand population, and with body dimensions of active firefighters. It was found that the body dimensions of forestry workers more closely matched those of the general population of males matched by age than did those of active firefighters.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2003, Vol.19, No.5, p.477-487. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 03-945 Lu J.L.P.
Risk factors for low back pain among Filipino manufacturing workers and their anthropometric measurements
This cross-sectional study investigates low back pain among workers in manufacturing industries in the Philippines. Various workstations from 31 industrial enterprises were studied. 544 randomly-selected workers within these industries were sampled for anthropometric measurements, among whom 495 were surveyed for possible lumbar symptoms by means of a questionnaire. Responses showed that 5.1% experienced discomfort and 2% had trunk rigidity. Logistic regression showed that low back pain was significantly associated with leaning, bending, carrying for 2-8 hours and standing for 2-8 hours. Low back pain was also found to affect work performance. The results of the anthropometric measurements of male and female workers are discussed. It is recommended that these results be used for the design of working equipment ergonomically adapted to Filipino workers.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2003, Vol.18, No.3, p.170-176. Illus. 12 ref.


CIS 03-948 Ghosh P.C., Iqbal R.
Workstation ergonomics
Various studies have been carried out in India to develop a set of data on human body dimensions for use in workstation and equipment design. Key results of a study entitled "A national project on anthropometry: Study on sedentary population" carried out in 2001 are presented in several tables. The article goes on to explain how these anthropometric data should be used in the workstation design process.
INDOSHNEWS, July-Sep. 2002, Vol.7, No.3, p.6-10. 10 ref.

CIS 03-559 Garcia C.A.
Brazilian ergonomics
Ergonomia brasileira [in Portuguese]
This document presents the Brazilian approach to ergonomics, which contrasts with the mainstream American approach (adaptation of man to machine) and the French approach (man-task system). In the Brazilian approach, ergonomics is defined as work carried out according to the laws of nature. It is based on an anthropometric model.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2002. 21p. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 03-450 Mokdad M.
Anthropometric study of Algerian farmers
An anthropometric study involving 36 body dimensions was carried out in a population of Algerian date-palm farmers. Effects of age were studied, and data of Algerian farmers and farmers from both developed and developing countries were compared. It was found that both stature and weight correlated significantly with many body dimensions. In addition, age was found to affect body height and weight. Moreover, it was found that stature and weight have increased with time: currently, farmers are taller and heavier than farmers of the 1960s. Algerian farmers are also taller and heavier than farmers of many developing countries. However, when compared with the farmers of developed countries, they are shorter and lighter.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 2002, Vol.29, No.6, p.331-341. Illus. 26 ref.


CIS 03-959 Atlas of human body measures - Data sheets for ergonomic design and evaluation
Atlas miar człowieka - Dane do projektowania i oceny ergonomicznej [in Polish]
The publication presents main anthropometric and biomechanical data for the Polish population, necessary for the ergonomic design and evaluation of structures, and especially workplaces and personal protective equipment.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 106p. Illus.


CIS 01-1844 Windberg H.J.
Machine safety and human body measurements - Could worldwide standards be implemented?
Maschinensicherheit und menschliche Körpermasse - Weltweite Standards vor dem Durchbruch? [in German]
The objective of a draft ISO standard is to harmonize all national measurement tables across the world so as to enable the easy comparison of anthropometrical data. This project is relevant to the area of machine safety. Indeed, the measurements and anthropometrical reference data are essential to the design and layout of space surrounding the machines, allowing operators to move around safely. A worldwide standardization in this area will also help ensure that products manufactured in developing countries comply with European safety guidelines.
Amtliche Mitteilungen der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, 2000, No.1, p.3-5. Illus.


CIS 00-1166 Das B., Kozey J.W.
Structural anthropometric measurements for wheelchair mobile adults
Structural anthropometric measurements for males and females were determined for wheelchair-mobile adults. A photogrammetry methodology was used to obtain the measurements. The various subject demographics including age, level or type of dysfunction as well as the specified anthropometric dimensions of the wheelchair-mobile subjects were identified. The data are useful for the design of industrial workstations for wheelchair-mobile adults. Present workstation design principles based on seated able-bodied anthropometric measurements would not be suitable for this population.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1999, Vol.30, No.5, p.385-390. 9 ref.

CIS 00-564 Liu W.C.V., Sanchez-Monroy D., Parga G.
Anthropometry of female maquiladora workers
This paper presents 12 body dimensions of female workers of the maquiladora industry along the Mexico-US border. These data are compared with anthropometric characteristics of Mexican-American females and females in Colombia, Japan, Korea and the US. Anthropometric characteristics of female maquiladora workers were found to be significantly different from those of the Mexican-American females. On the average, the maquiladora females were 47mm shorter in stature than Mexican-American females. The maquiladora females also had smaller biacromial breadth, by 18mm, and wider bitrochanter breadth, by 25mm, than the Mexican-American females. The results also show that maquiladora females and Japanese females shared similar anthropometric characteristics. This paper provides a preliminary data set for the anthropometric characteristics of the maquiladora females.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 1999, Vol.24, No.3, p.273-280. 16 ref.

CIS 99-1364 Park S.J., Park S.C., Kim J.H., Kim C.B.
Biomechanical parameters on body segments of Korean adults
Anthropometric and kinetic characteristics of Korean adults are investigated. Dimensions, immersion method for volumes and reaction board method for centers of masses are directly measured. The anthropometric characteristics of eighteen body segments on a sample of 1,199 male subjects and 937 female subjects whose ages range between 20 and 39 are used to estimate segment lengths as a fraction of body height. Thirty-one male subjects and 29 female subjects in their twenties and thirties are served for anthropometric and kinetic measurements of body segments according to the Röhrer index. Obtained data are compared with cadaver data in Dempster (1955), Matsui (1958) and Clauser et al. (1969). Also, to observe anthropometric and kinetic trends of Korean adults, results are compared with the results in Jung (1993) and Lim (1994). Topics: anthropometry; body mechanics; computerized data bases; ergonomic evaluation; ergonomics; Korea Rep. of; sex-linked differences.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Jan. 1999, Vol.23, No.1-2, p.23-31. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 99-1363 Wang E.M., Wang M.J., Yeh W.Y., Shih Y.C., Lin Y.C.
Development of anthropometric work environment for Taiwanese workers
First-stage extended results of an anthropometry survey project in Taiwan are presented. The purpose of the project was to construct a static and dynamic anthropometric database for local workers, for use by engineers involved in designing work-related facilities. Based on the worker population structure in Taiwan's main industries, 1,200 subjects were measured. The database consists of data for 266 static-body dimensions and 42 dynamic ranges of motion. The statistical data are presented in a conventional paper hardcopy handbook and a computerized on-line searching system. It is expected that the data can be used by engineers to create ergonomically designed equipment, devices, and work environment for local workers, thereby ensuring a safe work environment. Based on such data, the primary dimensions for work environment design applications are also proposed. Topics: anthropometry; body mechanics; computerized data bases; ergonomic evaluation; ergonomics; sex-linked differences; Taiwan (China); workplace design.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Jan. 1999, Vol.23, No.1-2, p.3-8. Illus. 5 ref.


CIS 01-1254 Babirat D., Küchmeister G., Nagel K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Human body measurements - Range of comfort of joint angles
Körpermasse des Menschen - Komfortbereich der Gelenkwinkel der Körpergelenke [in German]
Topics: anthropometry; comfort assessment; ergonomics; human experiments; motion study; posture recording; work posture.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1998. iv, 131p. Illus. 68 ref.

CIS 99-670 Botha W.E., Bridger R.S.
Anthropometric variability, equipment usability and musculoskeletal pain in a group of nurses in the Western Cape
A group of nurses in hospitals in Western Cape, South Africa, reported numerous problems in the working environment, including lumbar backache, inadequate space and equipment that caused bodily discomfort. Anthropometric variables were measured and there were consistent and significant associations between the frequency of occurrence of these problems and the anthropometric data. Results indicate that the problems were caused or amplified by body size variability and were not simply general usability problems which could affect all nurses irrespective of their body dimensions. Topics: anthropometry; backache; design of equipment; ergonomic evaluation; manual lifting; musculoskeletal diseases; nursing personnel; questionnaire survey; South Africa; workplace design.
Applied Ergonomics, Dec. 1998, Vol.29, No.6, p.481-490. 34 ref.


CIS 97-1330 Mechanical vibration and shock - Human exposure - Biodynamic coordinate systems
Vibrations et chocs mécaniques - Exposition de l'individu - Systèmes de coordonnées biodynamiques [in French]
This international standard specifies anatomical and basicentric coordinate systems for biodynamical measurements, for reference purposes in cognate standards development, and for precisely describing human exposure to mechanical vibration and shock. The segmental anatomical coordinate systems defined in the standard for the head, root of the neck, pelvis and hand. General principles are stated for the establishment of corresponding anatomical coordinate systems for other skeletal body segments.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1997. iv, 14p. Illus. 26 ref.


CIS 97-1388 Basic human body measurements for technological design
This International Standard provides a description of anthropometric measurements which can be used as a basis for the comparison of population groups. The basic list is intended to serve as a guide for ergonomists who are required to define population groups and apply their knowledge to the geometric design of the places where people work and live. This list is not intended to serve as a guide to the taking of anthropometric measurements, but only as a source of information to the ergonomist and designer on the anatomical and anthropometrical bases and principles of measurement which are applied in the solution of design tasks. This International Standard may be used in conjunction with national or international regulations or agreements to assure harmony in defining population groups. In its various applications, it is anticipated that the basic list will be supplemented by specific additional measurements. Contents: scope; definitions; measuring conditions; basic anthropometric measurements.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1996. 21p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 97-496 Masset D., Malchaire J., Piette A., Cock N.
Cross-sectional study of low back pain and functional capabilities of the trunk
Lombalgies et capacités fonctionnelles du tronc - Etude transversale [in French]
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the interest of anthropometric measurements and isometric and dynamic performances of the trunk as discriminators between two groups of subjects with (L.B.P.) or without (N.L.B.P.) low back pain. These groups were composed respectively of 78 steelworkers having reported L.B.P. during the last 12 months and 315 without lumbar history. The protocol included an interview with questions about the lumbar symptoms, a clinical examination, anthropometric measurements and a series of functional tests performed with an isoinertial dynamometer. L.B.P. was significantly more frequent among the workers presenting gait abnormalities, impaired cervical mobility and of the static characteristics of the lower limbs in the frontal plane, while the anthropomorphic differences between the two groups concern solely the mesomorphy and ectomorphy indices of the Heath-Carter somatotype method. The functional performances of the trunk of the L.B.P. workers were almost uniformly reduced, but the differences reached significance only for the angular velocities and, to a lesser extent, for the dynamic torques. However, the discrimination analyses point out the poor interest of the isoinertial tests in the individual follow-up of the workers in occupational medicine.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, July 1996, Vol.57, No.4, p.256-263. 29 ref.

CIS 97-325 Pheasant S.
Bodyspace - Anthropometry, ergonomics and the design of work
Contents of this manual: introduction to ergonomics, anthropometry, human proportion and design; principles and practice of anthropometry; workspace design in relation to reach, clearance and posture; sitting posture and seat design; anthropometry of the hand, handle design, and biomechanics of tool design; ergonomics in the office (design of desks and chairs, visual demands of screen-based work, keyboard use); ergonomics in the home; health and safety at work (human factors in industrial safety, ergonomic injuries, back injuries, lifting and handling, upper limb disorders); anthropometry characteristics of different populations; tables of anthropometry data.
Taylor & Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG24 8PR, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1996. xi, 244p. Illus. 340 ref. Index. Price: GBP 24.50.


CIS 96-723 Cail F.
Computer-aided design (CAD) tasks - Physical factors and ergonomic guidelines
Tâches de conception assistée par ordinateur - Environnement physique et dimensionnement du poste [in French]
Workplaces representing different types of computer-aided design tasks were analyzed in eight firms. The data gathered concern the equipment used, data presentation, workplace dimensions and the physical environment. As a rule, the optical quality of VDU screens is good. Workplace design and layout, however, are not always suitable for CAD tasks. Specific ergonomic guidelines are proposed for CAD work.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1995, No.161, Note No.2005-161-95, p.489-496. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 96-1145 Radecki P.
Variability in the median and ulnar nerve latencies: Implications for diagnosing entrapment
Electrodiagnostic studies were performed on 1472 patients with upper-extremity symptoms. Age and anthropometric measurements were the major determinants of median and ulnar nerve latency variability at the wrist. For patients with work-related complaints, there was only slight correlation between workplace factors and latency. An increased wrist ratio, an increased body mass index and ageing were associated with prolongation of median latencies, and ageing and increased height with prolongation of ulnar latencies. Interpretation of electrodiagnostic studies of the median and ulnar nerves should include consideration of age and anthropometric measures, otherwise entrapment neuropathies such as carpal tunnel syndrome will be overdiagnosed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1995, Vol.37, no.11, p.1293-1299. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 96-1143 Kumar S.
Development of predictive equations for lifting strengths
Lifting strengths were measured for 30 subjects (18 males and 12 females) performing stoop lifts and squat lifts. For each lift, strengths were tested in standard posture, and isokinetic and isometric modes at half, three-quarters and full horizontal individual reach distances in sagittal, 30° lateral and 60° lateral planes. There was a significant correlation between lifting strength on one hand and the sex of the subject, and the reach, plane and velocity of the lift on the other; more than 70% of variance in lifting strength was accounted for by the anthropometric variables and sagittal plane strength values. Human lifting strength capabilities may be predicted based on simple anthropometric and strength characteristics.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1995, Vol.26, No.5, p.327-341. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 96-1127 Hochanadel C.D.
Computer workstation adjustment: A novel process and large sample study
An automated process based on linked-segment anthropometry was developed to analyze computer workstations, identify improper configurations and recommend adjustments. A survey of over 3300 employees in a large industrial complex indicated significant relationships between hours or years worked and symptoms associated with computer use. In a follow-up study, 90% of the respondents indicated a clear understanding of recommendations and an increased knowledge of proper workstation configurations. 80% of those making recommended changes indicated benefits through enhanced work efficiency and comfort. Limitations of the study are discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1995, Vol.26, No.5, p.315-326. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 95-1143 Smyth G., Gagnon M., Roy R.
Predictive models of lumbar loadings when handling boxes
Predictive models based on easily measured anthropometric variables and task variables were developed for estimating compression forces on intervertebral disks when lifting and lowering boxes. Compression forces were estimated in subjects lifting or lowering 3.3kg to 22kg boxes between heights of 15cm and 185cm. The predictive performances of the models are compared and statistical methods used for the selection of the best predictive model are described. The equations represent a practical tool for a better planning of occupational handling tasks.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.64-77. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 95-1140 Chatigny C., Seifert A.M., Messing K.
Repetitive strain in nonrepetitive work - A case study
A study was made of the movements and forces involved in a factory job in which a woman worker developed epicondylitis. Although tasks were extremely varied, certain movements at risk for epicondylitis were repeated many times, in particular the turning of valves. Strain on the elbow was particularly intense for the woman worker because of the design of the workplace. Although it cannot be concluded that the worker's epicondylitis was due to her job, results suggest that equipment and worksites should be adapted to a wider range of potential worker sizes. Issues concerning the definition of repetitive strain in epidemiologic studies are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.42-51. Illus. 30 ref.


CIS 95-778 Ashizawa K., Okada A., Kouchi M., Horino S., Kikuchi Y.
Anthropometrical data of middle-aged Japanese women for industrial design applications
Anthropometric measurement were made on 62 women workers aged 36-56 years in an audio manufacturing company in Japan. The mean and standard deviations of 79 measurements are presented. The data should be useful in the design of working spaces and tools for women.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1994, Vol.23, No.1, p.73-80. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 95-777 Mamansari D.U., Salokhe V.M., Intaranont K.
Anthropometric evaluation of agricultural laborers in selected parts of Thailand
Forty-four physical dimensions of 50 men and 50 women agricultural labourers in Thailand were measured. The average body dimensions, standard deviation and 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th and 95th percentiles were determined. Differences in the dimensions within different age groups are discussed and the data are compared with those from some Asian and Western countries. The data may be used in the design of agricultural machinery and equipment for Asian countries.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1994, Vol.23, No.1, p.59-72. 22 ref.

CIS 95-783 Steinberg U.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsmedizin
Work postures
Arbeitsbedingte Körperhaltungen [in German]
Literature survey covering descriptions of the methods of analysis and evaluation of work postures. They include questionnaire surveys, observations, video recordings, photography, computer analyses and anthropometric and intracorporal methods such as ultrasonic and X-ray techniques.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1994. 154p. Illus. 743 ref. Prix: DEM 28.00.

CIS 94-728 Hawes M.R., Sovak D., Miyashita M., Kang S.J., Yoshihuku Y., Tanaka S.
Ethnic differences in forefoot shape and the determination of shoe comfort
The study population consisted of 708 Caucasian North American males and 513 Japanese or Korean males. Eleven measurements were taken on the right foot bearing full body weight. No difference in foot shape was found between the Japanese and Korean subgroups, but the Caucasian and Oriental groups differed according to several measures. Thus, shoes for the two populations must be built on different lasts in order to be worn with comfort. Although this study was motivated by sport shoe design, the data are applicable to any footwear, and are more detailed than those appearing in such compendia as the ILO's International Data on Anthropometry (CIS 90-1389).
Ergonomics, Jan. 1994, Vol.37, No.1, p.187-196. 10 ref.


CIS 93-1740 Erichsen K., Jürgens H.W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Human body measures - Dynamic body measures
Study of video recordings of the gestures of persons sitting or standing at simulated workstations showed the complex mechanisms that underlie dynamic anthropometric measurements. For example, reach distance does not depend only on the dimensions of the upper limb, but also on the dimensions of the trunk and the flexibility of many joints. Some 122 envelopes of movement are illustrated for the 5th percentile female and 95th percentile male (presumably European) body.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1993. 182p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 93-1389 Marras W.S., Kim J.Y.
Anthropometry of industrial populations
Industrial anthropometric data were collected from workers (384 males and 124 females) in various manufacturing industries in the mid-western United States. Eleven length dimensions (including spine length and standing elbow rest height), weight and age were assessed at the worksites. Descriptions and statistical analyses of the data are summarised and compared to other civilian and military anthropometric data. Significant differences between these populations exist in abdominal dimensions and weight; these differences were observed to vary with age. The data may be used in the design of industrial workplaces and equipment or with biomechanical models.
Ergonomics, Apr. 1993, Vol.36, No.4, p.371-378. 8 ref.


CIS 93-687 Pham D.T., Onder H.H.
A knowledge-based system for optimizing workplace layouts using a genetic algorithm
A knowledge-based system for optimum workplace design is described. The system is constructed using a commercially-applicable hybrid development tool. It is interfaced to a database of anthropometric data and an optimising programme which employs a genetic algorithm. Details of the system are presented along with a brief overview of knowledge-based systems and genetic algorithms.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1992, Vol.35, No.12, p.1479-1487. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 92-2067 Fernandez J.E., Uppugonduri K.G.
Anthropometry of South Indian industrial workmen
Results of an anthropometric survey of South Indian male workers in the electronics industry indicate that, in general, South Indian men are smaller than men from Central, Western and Northern parts of India and also smaller than American, German and Japanese men with whom comparisons were made. This difference needs to be allowed for when considering buying and using imported equipment for the electronics industry in South India.
Ergonomics, Nov. 1992, Vol.35, No.11, p.1393-1398. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 92-1729 Al-Haboubi M.H.
Anthropometry for a mix of different populations
Anthropometric data available in the literature relate to specific nationalities, while in many countries a mixture of individuals may live in a particular community. In this study, 19 body dimensions of 408 males affiliated with a university in Saudi Arabia and from a wide range of racial backgrounds were measured. The body dimensions are reported and compared with other studies. The concept of designing for the user population is emphasised.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1992, Vol.23, No.3, p.191-196. 14 ref.

CIS 92-1728 Ratnaparkhi M.V., Ratnaparkhi M.M., Robinette K.M.
Size and shape analysis techniques for design
A method for summarising and clustering forms is described which should be observer-invariant. The method is illustrated by using points selected along a horizontal cross-section of the head. The points are first transformed into values called curvatures which are subsequently transformed into a series of Fourier coefficients used for arriving at shape clusters or groupings. The shape differences and similarities within and between clusters are examined graphically and discussed. Methods of extending the technique to the three-dimensional case are also discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1992, Vol.23, No.3, p.181-185. 9 ref.

CIS 92-1390 Kirchner A., Kirchner J.H., Kliem M., Müller J.M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Spatial ergonomic design - Handbook
Räumlich-ergonomische Gestaltung - Handbuch [in German]
Chapter headings: anthropometry for engineers and designers; somatography, the draftsman's representation of the human body; spatial ergonomic design (relating the shape of objects and spaces to body dimensions, postures and movements); collected data for spatial ergonomic design. The references cover not only research publications and standards but also sources of templates.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaften GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1992. 334p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

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