Statistical methods - 278 entries found
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Occupational health and safety: Consolidating achievements and engaging further commitment - Strategic plan 2007-2012
This strategic plan for the Occupational Health and Safety Authority (OHSA) of Malta for the years 2007 to 2012 starts with the vision and mission of OHSA and translates them into a set of strategic objectives that are to be addressed during the six-year period. The key strategic objectives include: legislation and enforcement; capacity building; seeking partnerships; taking appropriate action against existing and emerging risks; evaluating the effectiveness of actions taken. The document includes a review of historical statistical trends in injury rates, fatality rates and fatalities in the construction sector.
Occupational Health and Safety Authority, 17, Triq Edgar Ferro, Pieta', PTA 1533, Malta, no date. 17p. Illus.
Strategic_plan_2007-2012.pdf [in English]
Menvielle G., Leclerc A.
Statistical and epidemiological glossary
Glossaire statistique et épidémiologique [in French]
This article presents a glossary of the most frequently-used terms in the field of epidemiology. It is preceded by an English-French lexicon.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 4th Quarter. 2011, No.173, 18p. Illus. 26 ref.
Glossaire_statistique_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]
Technology statistics 2010
Statistiques technologiques 2010 [in French]
Compared to 2009, the number of occupational accidents in France in 2010 increased by 1.1%, while the corresponding frequency index decreased from 23.4 to 23.2 accidents per 1000 employees. While fatal occupational accidents had seen a decrease of 5.4% in 2009, they decreased by a further 1.7% in 2010. Occupational diseases increased by 2.7%, reaching 50,688 recorded cases in 2010. Commuting accidents involving a loss of work time increased by 4.9%, with commuting accident fatalities increasing by 0.8%. This article presents these statistics by main sector of activity.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2011, No.721, p.47-51. Illus.
Statistiques_technologiques_2010.pdf [in French]
Ho S.C., Wang L.Y., Ho C.K., Yang C.Y.
Fatal occupational injuries in Taiwan, 1994-2005
This study examines the trends in rates of fatal occupational injuries in Taiwan (China) by demographic group and occupation for 1994-2005. Data on deaths due to injuries at work from 1994 through 2005 were obtained from the Department of Health, while employment data were retrieved from the "Employment and Earnings" database of the Directorate-General of Budget and Accounting Statistics. A Poisson regression model was used to examine the trends in rates of fatal occupational injuries in various occupations while controlling for demographic characteristics. Overall fatal occupational injury rates declined during the study period among all demographic groups and occupations. Adjusted annual changes in rates of fatal injuries ranged from a decrease of 13.6% a year in machine operators/related workers to a decrease of 35.9% in clerks. The annual decrement was faster for males than for females and for older workers compared to young workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2010, Vol.67, No.4. p.251-255. Illus. 33 ref.
Houdmont J., Cox T., Griffiths A.
Work-related stress case definitions and prevalence rates in national surveys
There is concern about lack of consistency in the design of case definitions used to measure work-related stress in national workforce surveys and the implications of this for the reliability and validity of prevalence estimates as well as for developments in policy and practice on tackling work-related stress. The aim of this study was to examine associations between case definitions used for the measurement of work-related stress in nationally-representative workforce surveys and the prevalence rates generated. The study focused on 18 nationally-representative workforce surveys conducted between 1995 and 2008 that involved British samples. The published report from each survey was scrutinized for evidence of the case definition used to measure work-related stress and the associated prevalence rate. Several types of case definition were identified that differed in terms of their theoretical basis, structure and content. Each was associated with a unique range of prevalence rates. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, 2010, Vol.60, p.658-661. 9 ref.
Morfeld P., McCunney R.J.
Bayesian bias adjustments of the lung cancer SMR in a cohort of German carbon black production workers
A German cohort study on 1,528 carbon black production workers estimated an elevated lung cancer SMR ranging from 1.8-2.2 depending on the reference population. No positive trends with carbon black exposures were noted in the analyses. A nested case control study, however, identified smoking and previous exposures to known carcinogens, such as crystalline silica, received prior to work in the carbon black industry as important risk factors. This study used a Bayesian procedure to adjust the SMR, based on seven independent parameter distributions describing smoking behaviour and crystalline silica dust exposure (as indicator of a group of correlated carcinogen exposures received previously) in the cohort and population as well as the strength of the relationship of these factors with lung cancer mortality. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods (MCMC) was implemented. When putting a flat prior to the SMR a Markov chain of length 1,000,000 returned a median posterior SMR estimate (that is, the adjusted SMR) in the range between 1.32 and 1.00 depending on the method of assessing previous exposures. It is concluded that Bayesian bias adjustment is an excellent tool to effectively combine data about confounders from different sources. Quantitative bias adjustment should become a regular tool in occupational epidemiology.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, 5:23, 14p. Illus. 66 ref.
Bayesian_bias_adjustments.pdf [in English]
Boal W.L., Leiss J.K., Ratcliffe J.M, Sousa S., Lyden J.T., Li J., Jagger J.
The national study to prevent blood exposure in paramedics: Rates of exposure to blood
The purpose of this analysis is to present incidence rates of exposure to blood among paramedics in the United States by selected variables and to compare all percutaneous exposure rates among different types of healthcare workers. A survey on blood exposure was mailed in 2002-2003 to a national sample of paramedics. Results for California paramedics were analyzed with the national sample and also separately. The incidence rate for needlestick/lancet injuries was 100/1,000 employee-years among the national sample and 26/1,000 employee-years for the California sample. The highest exposure rate was for non-intact skin, 230/1,000 employee-years. The rate for all exposures was 465/1,000 employee-years. California needlestick/lancet rates, but not national, were substantially lower than rates in earlier studies of paramedics. Rates for all percutaneous injuries among paramedics were similar to the mid to high range of rates reported for most hospital-based healthcare workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.191-199. 33 ref.
Harber P., Santiago S., Wu S., Bansal S., Liu Y., Yun D.
Subjective response to respirator type: Effect of disease status and gender
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of respirator type and user characteristics, such as the state of health, on the subjective response to respirator use. The subjective responses for multiple domains were evaluated in 104 volunteers performing work tasks in a simulated work environment. Each used a dual cartridge half face mask and a filtering facepiece respirator. The study population was recruited to include four groups (normal respiratory status, mild asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or chronic rhinitis). Mixed model regression analyses determined the effects of respirator type, disease, gender and age. Half face masks produced more adverse subjective response than the filtering facepiece for most scales. There were significant interactions, such that disease status modified the effect of respirator type. In general, women reported greater adverse ratings than did men. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.52, No.2, p.150-154. Illus. 32 ref.
Pesch B., Harth V., Rabstein S., Baisch C., Schiffermann M., Pallapies D., Bonberg N., Heinze E., Spickenheuer A., Justenhoven C., Brauch H., Hamann U., Ko Y., Straif K., Brüning T.
Night work and breast cancer - Results from the German GENICA study
The objective of this German population-based case-control study was to determine whether night work increases the risk of breast cancer. The GENICA (gene environment interaction and breast cancer) study involved interviews to assess shift work information in 857 breast cancer cases and 892 controls. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. Among 1749 women, 56 cases and 57 controls worked in night shifts for one year or more. Long-term night work was associated with a modest but not significant increase in breast cancer risk, while having ever done night work was not. However the precision of the results was limited by a low prevalence of night work in this study population.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.134-141. 37 ref.
Night_work_and_breast_cancer.pdf [in English]
Safety culture aboard fishing vessels
Safety at sea is a serious issue for the commercial fishing industry. Injury and fatality rates are between 25 and 40 times the national average in many European countries, Australia and the United States. A 50-item safety culture questionnaire was developed, using items from published research combined with some original items. The questionnaire was distributed to Norwegian fishermen; 209 questionnaires were returned (response rate 40%). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed nine factors, all with a Cronbach's Alpha higher than 0.68. The factors were tested using ANOVA, t-tests, correlations and regression analysis. The findings indicate significant differences between age groups, vessel types, occupations and whether or not a close family member is a fisherman. Other findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.1054-1061. Illus. 58 ref.
Fabiano B., Currò F., Reverberi A.P., Pastorino R.
Port safety and the container revolution: A statistical study on human factor and occupational accidents over the long period
This article investigates the relationship between work organization, job experience, productivity and occupational accidents, from the starting of the container expansion to the present time, considering port of Genoa, Italy, one of the largest of the Mediterranean Sea. In order to minimize possible reporting biases, such as underreporting or reclassification to a lower level of severity, injury statistics are elaborated starting from data collected directly on-site, from internal accident or medical-aid reports. An in-depth statistical analysis on occupational injuries in the years 1980-2006 was carried out, with reference to frequency indexes, mechanisms of injury and material causes. An increase of the frequency index (injuries per hundred thousand hours worked) from 13.0 to 29.7 was observed. Consideration of these and other findings may enable managerial solutions and workplace organization interventions for the prevention of injuries and safety performance improvement in port activities.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.980-990. Illus. 25 ref.
Azari M.R., Nasermoaddeli A., Movahadi M., Mehrabi Y., Hatami H., Soori H., Moshfegh E., Ramazni B.
Risk assessment of lung cancer and asbestosis in workers exposed to asbestos fibers in brake shoe factory in Iran
Occupational exposure of 61 male workers to chrysotile asbestos in a brake shoe factory in Iran was monitored. Cumulative exposures were determined through multiplication of typical exposure and work history. Risk assessment of exposed workers was estimated by risk criteria recommended by the American Environmental Protection Agency. Lung function parameters such as forced expiratory volume in one second and forced volume capacity of exposed workers were obtained. Unadjusted correlation and adjusted correlation analysis for support of the association between cumulative exposure and lung function parameters were used. Exposure of majority of exposed group was far greater than the occupational exposure limits (0.1 fibres/mL) in the range of 0.06-8.06 fibres/mL. According to the risk criteria stated by ATSDR, risk assessment of workers in term of fibrotic changes was predicted for at least 24.6% of the exposed subjects. Again, according to the lung cancer risk criteria stated by EPA, 59% of the workers will have excess risk. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.38-42. 31 ref.
Risk_assessment_of_lung_cancer.pdf [in English]
Inaba R., Mirbod S.M.
Subjective musculoskeletal symptoms in winter and summer among indoor working construction electricians
To evaluate the effects of cold exposure on the musculoskeletal system, two surveys on the subjective musculoskeletal symptoms among male electricians working in the buildings under construction were performed in winter and summer seasons. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on age, occupational career, working habits, present illness and subjective musculoskeletal symptoms. In general, prevalence rates of stiffness, numbness, pain and Raynaud's phenomenon in the fingers, finger cold sensation, dull movement of the fingers, pain in the wrist, knee joint pain, pain and numbness in the foot and foot cold sensation in winter were significantly higher than those in summer. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.29-37. 27 ref.
Subjective_musculoskeletal_symptoms.pdf [in English]
Rui F., Bovenzi M., Prodi A., Belloni Fortina A., Romano I., Peserico A.,, Corradin M.T., Carrabba E., Larese Filon F.
Nickel, cobalt and chromate sensitization and occupation
Exposure to nickel, cobalt and chromate are important causes of occupational contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of nickel, cobalt and chromate allergy in a population of consecutive patients of an occupational health clinic in Italy, and to investigate the possible association with individual and occupational risk factors. A total of 14,464 patients (67.6% women and 32.4% men) with suspected allergic dermatitis underwent patch tests. The associations between patch test results and occupations were studied by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were observed in 24.6% of the patients, while 10.2% reacted positively to cobalt chloride and 8.7% to potassium dichromate. Nickel sensitization was higher in women aged 26-35 years in comparison with the youngest group (15-25 years) and the older group (> 45 years). In women, the prevalence of positive reactions to nickel was positively associated with metal and mechanical work. Chromate sensitization was more prevalent in building trade workers for both women and men. Cobalt sensitization was associated with textile and leather work in women.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 2010, Vol.62, No.4, p.225-231. 39 ref.
Åkerstedt T., Kecklund G., Selén J.
Disturbed sleep and fatigue as predictors of return from long-term sickness absence
Long-term sickness absence has doubled in Sweden, as have complaints of disturbed sleep. The present study sought to investigate the prospective link between long-term sickness absence and disturbed sleep or fatigue. Sleep and fatigue from a representative national sample was followed up 1.5-2 yr later in terms of return from long-term (≥90 d) and intermediate term (14-89 d) sickness absence. 8,300 individuals participated in the survey, out of which 372 were on long-term and 1,423 were on intermediate term sick leave. The data was analyzed using logistic regression analysis with adjustment for background and work environment variables. Findings are discussed. The results indicate that disturbed sleep and fatigue are predictors of lack of return from long-term and intermediate-term sickness absence.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.209-214. 31 ref.
Disturbed_sleep_and_fatigue.pdf [in English]
Scutaru C., Quarcoo D., Takemura M., Welte T., Fischer T.C., Groneberg-Kloft B.
Density-equalizing mapping and scientometric benchmarking in industrial health
Bibliometric techniques have been introduced to the field of industrial health in the past two decades. Since then, several studies have assessed progression of science in this area using quantitative measures and qualitative measures such as the impact factor or H-indices. Since novel procedures such as density-equalizing mapping have not been used so far, the present study combined classical bibliometric tools with novel scientometric and visualizing techniques. All "INDUSTRIAL HEALTH" entries listed in the ISI database since 1987 were screened and analyzed. Using bibliometric approaches, a continuous increase in qualitative markers such as collaboration numbers or citations were found while quantity markers such as author numbers or publication numbers remained relatively constant. The combination with density equalizing mapping revealed a distinct global pattern of research productivity and citation activity with Japanese institutions at the leading position. Radar chart techniques were used to visualize bi- and multilateral research cooperation and institutional cooperation.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.197-203. Illus. 26 ref.
Density-equalizing_mapping.pdf [in English]
Zepf K.I., Voelter-Mahlknecht S., Wriede U., Husemann B., Escobar Pinzón L.C.
Commuting accidents in the German chemical industry
Due to accident severity and the extent of claim payments, commuting accidents are a significant expense factor in German industry. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for commuting accidents. A retrospective analysis of commuting accidents recorded between 1990 and 2003 was conducted in a major chemical company in Germany. A logistic regression-model was calculated in order to determine factors influencing the duration of work inability as a result of commuting accidents. The analysed data included 5,484 employees with commuting accidents. Findings are discussed. The study identifies specific groups at risk for commuting accidents and underlines the need for developing group-specific prevention strategies.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.164-170. 14 ref.
Commuting_accidents_in_the_German_chemical_industry.pdf [in English]
Haruyama Y., Muto T., Matsuzuki H., Ito A., Tomita S., Muto S., Haratani T., Seo A., Ayabe M., Katamoto S.
Evaluation of subjective thermal strain in different kitchen working environments using subjective judgment scales
To elucidate the subjective thermal strain of workers in kitchen working environments, a cross-sectional study involving 991 workers in 126 kitchen facilities in Japan was performed, using a self-reporting questionnaire survey and subjective judgment scales (SJS). The ambient temperature, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index were measured in 10 kitchen facilities among the 126 kitchens. The association of SJS with the types of kitchen was estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of the 991 kitchen workers, 809 (81%) responded to the questionnaire survey. Compared with electric kitchens, the proportion of workers who perceived the room temperature as hot to very hot was significantly higher, and the ambient temperature, MRT and WBGT were significantly higher in gas kitchens. Compared with electric kitchens, workers in gas kitchens had a more than fivefold (males) and tenfold (females) higher SJS adjusted for confounding factors (male odds ratio (OR), 5.13 and female OR 10.9). Although SJS was affected by some confounding factors, the results suggest that workers in gas kitchens might be exposed to a higher heat strain than those in electric kitchens.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.135-144. Illus. 29 ref.
Evaluation_of_subjective_thermal_strain.pdf [in English]
Micheli G.J.L., Cagno E.
Dealing with SMEs as a whole in OHS issues: Warnings from empirical evidence
In Italy, 72% of the employees work in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and they are affected by the 80% of the reported accidents. Some studies suggest that SMEs have serious problems aggravated by limited access to human, economic and technological resources. Moreover, it is now acknowledged that methods developed specifically for large enterprises (LEs) cannot be simply transferred to smaller enterprises. Although the debate concerning essentially the size of the enterprises and their corresponding accident rates is ongoing, very little attention is paid to the difference between the micro- (MiEs), the small- (SEs) and the medium-sized enterprises (MEs). Indeed, in most of the cases, SMEs are bundled together and considered as a whole, in opposition to LEs. Within the framework of the E-merging project, a project financed by the Italian National Institute for Insurance against Occupational Accidents - INAIL, who's main objective is to develop a software with a web-based interface capable of supporting SMEs in their safety management activities, some differences have been identified on the basis of two existing data sources.
Safety Science, July 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.729-733. 26 ref.
Saloniemi A., Salminen S.
Do fixed-term workers have a higher injury rate?
The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that fixed-term workers have a risk of occupational injury that is several times higher than permanent workers. The analysis was based on three large independent statistical data sets. In the Work and Health Study, 10.9% of fixed-term and 10.0% of permanent workers experienced occupational injury during the previous 12 months. In The Victim Survey of Finland, 5.4% of fixed-term and 6.5% of permanent workers were injured at work. In The Quality of Working Life Survey, 3% of fixed-term and 5% of permanent workers were involved in occupational injury. These three data sets showed unanimously that fixed-term workers did not have a higher occupational injury rate than permanent workers. The most important explanatory factor was that in Finland fixed-term contracts are concentrated in public services such as education and health care, with a predominance of female workers. Still, the connection remained after adjusting the basic background variables of age, socio-economic status and industry.
Safety Science, July 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.693-697. 33 ref.
Scuffham A.M., Legg S.J., Firth E.C., Stevenson M.A.
Prevalence and risk factors associated with musculoskeletal discomfort in New Zealand veterinarians
A cross-sectional study using a modified Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was addressed to 867 New Zealand veterinarians concerning the presence or absence of musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD). A binary logistic regression analysis was used to quantify the association between identified risk factors and the presence of MSD requiring absence from work in the previous 12 months. The overall period prevalence of MSD was 96%; 67% of the participants had normal activities being affected and 18% reported that they had been absent from work due to MSDs. The lower back was the body site most commonly reported for MSDs (73%). Factors increasing the odds of MSDs requiring time off work for clinical veterinarians were 10-year increases in age (odds ratio (OR) 1.26), work involving awkward grip and hand movements 100% of time (OR 12.91) and dissatisfaction with the level and difficulty of the work (OR 2.27). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.444-453. 67 ref.
Pillastrini P., Mugnai R., Bertozzi L., Costi S., Curti S., Guccione A., Mattioli S., Violante F.S.
Effectiveness of an ergonomic intervention on work-related posture and low back pain in video display terminal operators: A 3 year cross-over trial
This study investigated the effectiveness of a workstation ergonomic intervention for work-related posture and low back pain (LBP) in Video Display Terminal (VDT) workers. A total of 100 VDT workers were selected to receive the ergonomic intervention, while 100 were assigned to a control group. The two groups were then crossed-over after 30 months from baseline. Follow-ups were repeated at 5, 12, and 30 months from baseline and then at 6 months following crossover. Work-related posture and LBP point-prevalence were assessed using the Rapid Entire Body Assessment method and a Pain Drawing, respectively. The ergonomic intervention at the workstation improved work-related posture and was effective in reducing LBP point-prevalence both in the first study period and after crossover, and these effects persisted for at least 30 months. Findings confirm that individualized ergonomic interventions may be able to improve work-related posture and reduce LBP for VDT workers.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.436-443. Illus. 63 ref.
Chang T.Y, Huang K.H, Liu C.S., Shie R.H., Chao K.P, Hsu W.H.;, Bao B.Y.
Exposure to volatile organic compounds and kidney dysfunction in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) workers
Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted during the manufacturing of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs), exposures to some of which have been reported to be associated with kidney dysfunction, but whether such an effect exists in TFT-LCD industry workers is unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to VOCs and kidney dysfunction among TFT-LCD workers. The results showed that ethanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate were the four dominant VOCs present in the workplace. The 63 array workers studied had a risk of kidney dysfunction 3.21-fold and 3.84-fold that of 61 cell workers and 18 module workers, respectively. Workers cumulatively exposed to a total level of isopropyl alcohol, PGMEA and propylene glycol monomethyl ether of 324 ppb-year or more had a significantly higher risk of kidney dysfunction (adjusted odds ratio=3.41) compared with those exposed to less than 25 ppb-year, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 2010, Vol.178, No.1-3, p.934-940. Illus. 34 ref.
Riipinen A., Sallmén M., Taskinen H., Koskinen A., Lindbohm M.L.
Pregnancy outcomes among daycare employees in Finland
The aim of this study was to investigate whether working as a daycare employee increases the risk of perinatal death, pre-term birth, low birth weight, smallness for gestational age, or congenital malformations. A register-based cohort study was conducted among daycare employees and women from various occupations of healthcare (reference group). Study subjects were identified from the files of Finnish trade unions and the National Authority for Medico-legal Affairs. Pregnancy outcomes, antenatal occupation and working status were obtained by linkage to national registers. The final data consisted of 13,299 and 12,182 singleton births in the study and reference groups, respectively. Pregnancy outcome data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations and linear regression. Daycare employees were not, in general, at an increased risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. However, efforts should nevertheless be made to prevent their exposure to harmful viruses and heavy physical load during pregnancy.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, May 2010, Vol.36, No.3, p.222-230. Illus. 43 ref.
Hara T., Hoshuyama T., Takahashi K., Delgermaa V., Sorahan T.
Cancer risk among Japanese chromium platers, 1976-2003
The aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess cancer mortality risks among chromium platers. The cohort comprised 1193 male platers (626 with exposure to chromium, the remainder with no exposure) with a follow-up period of 27 years (1976 to 2003). Mortality risk was assessed by the standardized mortality rate (SMR) with reference to the national population. Lung cancer mortality was elevated only in the chromium plater subgroup, with borderline statistical significance (SMR=1.46). The chromium plater subgroup also showed elevated mortality risks for brain tumour (SMR=9.14) and malignant lymphoma (SMR=2.84). Risks were also particularly elevated for lung cancer (SMR=1.59) and malignant lymphoma (SMR=3.80) among workers with initial chromium exposure prior to 1970. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, May 2010, Vol.36, No.3, p.216-221. 19 ref.
Cancer_risk.pdf [in English]
Rijn R.M., Huisstede B.M.A., Koes B.W.
Associations between work-related factors and specific disorders of the shoulder - A systematic review of the literature
The aim of this study was to provide a quantitative assessment of the exposure-response relationships between work-related physical and psychosocial factors and the occurrence of specific shoulder disorders in occupational populations. A systematic literature review was conducted on the associations between type of work, physical load factors, and psychosocial aspects at work, on the one hand, and the occurrence of tendinitis of the biceps tendon, rotator cuff tears, subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) and suprascapular nerve compression, on the other hand. Associations between work factors and shoulder disorders were expressed as odds ratios or relative risks. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that highly repetitive work, forceful exertion in work, awkward postures and high psychosocial job demand are associated with the occurrence of SIS.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, May 2010, Vol.36, No.3, p.189-201. Illus. 46 ref.
Associations_between.pdf [in English]
Laitinen H., Päivärinta K.
A new-generation safety contest in the construction industry - A long-term evaluation of a real-life intervention
A new-generation safety campaign has been taking place in southern Finland since 1997. The Finnish Construction Employers' Association, together with trade unions, safety inspectorates and other institutions have been organising a safety contest based on the standardised TR-observation method. Safety inspectors conduct evaluation visits without previous notice to the sites, and best performing companies and sites are rewarded at annually held public seminars. Even though participation was voluntary, more than 70% of the construction sites in the target area participated in the contest, and the results have been successful. A key success factor may be the adoption among firms of a new, standardised safety monitoring method which has been used effectively by senior management teams. The method employs a combination of penalties and incentives in order to set and enforce new safety targets. Another success factor is the close co-operation between the construction industry, labour organisations and safety authorities.
Safety Science, June 2010, Vol.48, No.5, p.680-686. Illus. 6 ref.
Analysis on occupational-related safety fatal accident reports of China 2001-2008
This study examines the epidemiological characteristics on fatal accidents in China. Data of the State Administration of Work Safety on accidents that caused more than nine deaths each having occurred between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2008 were analysed. Nine hundred and sixty two occupational-related fatal accidents were found in 31 provinces, causing 17,112 deaths and 8222 injuries. The occurrence of occupational accidents can be associated with risk factors from multiple perspectives such as workers, occupational environment, social environment, natural environment, regulations, and injury objects. Strength of supervision and adjustment of public health policy are needed in China to decrease the occurrence rate of fatal accidents.
Safety Science, June 2010, Vol.48, No.5, p.640-642. Illus. 7 ref.
Houston S., Mitchell S., Evans S.
Application of a cardiovascular disease risk prediction model among commercial pilots
In this cross-sectional study, a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction model was applied to United Kingdom commercial pilots. Variables included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, current smoking and diabetes status. Individual 10-year absolute CVD risk scores (also referred to as 10-yr global CVD risk) were calculated using a model developed by the Framingham Heart Study, a long-term ongoing cardiovascular cohort study on residents of a locality of the United States. None of the female pilots and 9.7% of male pilots were found to be at high risk. High-risk pilots are concentrated around 60 years of age. These pilots may require more comprehensive risk assessment. Other findings are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2010, Vol.81, No.8, p.768-773. Illus. 17 ref.
Nag A., Vyas H., Nag P.K.
Gender differences, work stressors and musculoskeletal disorders in weaving industries
This study was undertaken to identify the work stressors among male and female weavers in the powerloom and handloom sectors and to examine the association of work stressors with the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It involved 516 workers. There was a high overall prevalence of MSDs, with women more prone to developing MSDs in upper back and lower back, while men were more prone to developing pain in the knee and hand. Multivariate analysis indicated that a job duration of over ten years, manual material handling and poor machinery safety were significant risk factors of MSDs in the powerloom sector. Among handloom weavers, significant risk factors of pain included being aged over 25 years, poor machinery design, mental overload and skill requirements.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.339-348. Illus. 32 ref.
Huang S.L., Li R.H., Tang F.C.
Comparing disparities in the health-promoting lifestyles of Taiwanese workers in various occupations
This study describes the various levels of overall health-promoting lifestyles and behaviours of workers within different occupational categories, and examines the effects of occupational category, perceived workload and BMI level. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 796 participants by means of self-reporting questionnaire which included the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) to measure the overall HPLP and six health-promoting behaviors (nutrition, health responsibility, self-actualization, interpersonal support, exercise and stress management). Multiple regression analysis showed that the various occupational categories sustained significant differences in overall HPLP, nutrition, self-actualization, interpersonal support and stress management (after controlling for certain specific factors). The obese group had less participation in overall health-promoting lifestyles and stress management when compared with the moderate BMI group. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.256-264. 35 ref.
Specialized underground engineering in Europe - Analysis of accidents having occurred between 1998 and 2008
Spezialtiefbau in Europa - Analyse des Unfallgeschehens in den Jahren 1998 bis 2008 [in German]
This article analyses approximately 4000 accidents having occurred between 1998 and 2008 in specialized underground engineering work in 13 European countries, on the basis of accident reports. The results are expressed by sector of activity, age group, hour of day, day of the week, shift duration, type of job and accident cause. Data on the location of injury and the severity rate by age group are also presented.
Tiefbau, Apr. 2009, Vol.121, No.4, p.220-224. Illus.
Wada K., Sakata Y., Theriault G., Aratake Y., Shimizu M., Tsutsumi A., Tanaka K., Aizawa Y.
Effort-reward imbalance and social support are associated with chronic fatigue among medical residents in Japan
The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of effort-reward imbalance and social support with chronic fatigue among medical residents in Japan. A total of 104 men and 42 women at 14 teaching hospitals participated in this study. Data on chronic fatigue, effort, reward, overcommitment and social support were collected by means of questionnaires. Sleeping hours for the last 30 days were estimated based on the number of overnight shifts worked, the average number of sleeping hours, and the number of hours of napping during overnight work. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between these variables and chronic fatigue. In both men and women, effort-reward imbalance was positively associated, and higher social support was negatively associated with chronic fatigue. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.331-336. Illus. 29 ref.
Taswell K., Wingfield-Digby P.
Occupational injuries statistics from household surveys and establishment surveys - An ILO manual on methods
This manual aims to assist persons responsible for compiling data on occupational injuries with newly-developed tools for collecting these data from household and enterprise surveys. A second aim is to enhance compatibility of data between countries by encouraging the application of the latest international statistical standards, which form the basis of the new methodological tools. Among the contents of the manual: practical guidance for the production of statistics on occupational injuries through household and enterprise surveys; detailed explanations of the concepts underlying the statistics, as well as types of data, classification schemes, calculation of indicators and international standards; a step-by-step approach for developing household and establishment surveys and processing and disseminating the data; model questionnaires; training materials.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2008. x, 175p. Illus. Price: CHF 55.00.
Taswell K., Wingfield-Digby P.
Occupational injuries statistics from household surveys and establishment surveys - An ILO manual on methods
This manual aims to assist persons responsible for compiling data on occupational injuries with newly developed tools for collecting these data from household surveys and establishment surveys, to supplement the data available from official sources of information. A second aim of the manual is to enhance compatibility of data between countries by encouraging the application of the latest international statistical standards, which form the basis of the new methodological tools. It provides: practical guidance for the production of statistics on occupational injuries through household surveys and establishment surveys; in-depth explanation of the concepts underlying the statistics, including the types of data, classification schemes, indicators and international standards; a step-by-step approach for developing household and establishment surveys and processing and disseminating the data; model questionnaires; training materials.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2008. x, 184p. Illus. Price: CHF 55.00.
Iavicoli I., Bocca B., Carelli G., Caroli S., Caimi S., Alimonti A., Fontana L.
Biomonitoring of tram drivers exposed to airborne platinum, rhodium and palladium
The aim of this study was to evaluate urinary levels of platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh) and palladium (Pd) in occupationally exposed subjects. A total of 122 healthy male subjects were studied, including municipal tram drivers and 58 control subjects. There were statistically significant differences between urinary Pt and Rh levels among exposed subjects and controls, while no difference in Pd levels was observed. Urinary concentrations of Pt and Rh, though still low, could be of some concern among workers heavily exposed to urban car traffic.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.109-114. Illus. 16 ref.
Kiesswetter E., Schäper M., Buchta M., Schaller K.H., Rossbach B., Scherhag H., Zschiesche W., Letzel S.
Longitudinal study on potential neurotoxic effects of aluminium: I. Assessment of exposure and neurobehavioural performance of Al welders in the train and truck construction industry over 4 years
This study examined the reliability of aluminium biomonitoring as indicator of individual long-term exposure, together with long-term changes of neurobehavioural performance among aluminium welders in relation to exposure. Data on aluminium exposure neurological behaviour were obtained over a period of four years from a group of aluminium welders and an unexposed age-matched control group. The measurements of exposure included total dust in air as well as aluminium in pre-shift and post-shift plasma and urine samples. Neurobehavioural methods comprised symptoms, verbal intelligence, logic thinking, psychomotor behaviour, memory and attention. Computer-aided tests from the Motor Performance Series (MLS) and the European Neurobehavioural Evaluation System (EURO-NES) were used. Data were examined with regression analysis. The aluminium welders who had been working in this profession for an average of 15 years showed no significantly increased symptom levels compared with the control group. Statistical analyses revealed neither a correlation between biomonitoring and performance variables nor a significant difference between exposed and control groups.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.41-67. Illus. 57 ref.
Descatha A., Roquelaure Y., Evanoff B., Niedhammer I., Chastang J.F., Mariot C., Ha C., Imbernon E., Goldberg M., Leclerc A.
Selected questions on biomechanical exposures for surveillance of upper-limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders
Questionnaires for assessment of biomechanical exposure are frequently used in surveillance programmes, though few studies have evaluated which key questions are needed. The objective of this study was to reduce the number of variables on a surveillance questionnaire by identifying which variables best summarized biomechanical exposure. Data on 2685 subjects for which 37 variables assessing biomechanical exposures were available for the years 2002 to 2003 from the French experimental network of Upper-limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders were used and subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It was concluded that 26 of the original 37 variables were sufficient to characterize major biomechanical constraints.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.1-8. Illus. 30 ref.
Duguay P., Massicotte P., Godin J.F., Hébert F., Gervais M.
Sources of data on working conditions related to occupational health and safety: Document I - Summary; Document II - Directory
Sources de données sur les conditions de travail en lien avec la santé et la sécurité au travail: Document I - Synthèse; Document II - Répertoire [in French]
In this study, 20 sources of data in Canada, the United States and Europe that can be used to establish links between working conditions and safety and health impacts on workers were identified and examined. The results are presented in two documents. The first provides a summary of the working conditions addressed by the surveys. The second documents the sources of data and contains, for each, a descriptive fact sheet and a grid of the working conditions covered. The information is intended mainly for Québec occupational safety and health researchers and practitioners.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. vii, 47p. 93 ref. Price: CAD 8.48. (Document I - Summary); iii, 162p. 83 ref. Price: CAD 15.90. (Document II - Directory); downloadable versions (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-496.pdf [in French]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-495.pdf [in French]
Rosenman K.D., Kalush A., Reilly M.J., Gardiner J.C., Reeves M., Luo Z.
How much work-related injury and illness is missed by the current national surveillance system?
This study examined the underestimation of occupational injuries and illnesses in the existing US national surveillance system. Companies and individuals who reported work-related injuries and illnesses in 1999, 2000, and 2001 in Michigan were matched with companies and individuals reported in four other Michigan databases and other sources of information. Calculations revealed that the current national system for work-related injuries and illnesses markedly underestimates the magnitude of these conditions. A more comprehensive system, such as the one developed for traumatic workplace fatalities, that is not solely dependent on employer based data sources, is needed to better guide decision-making and the evaluation of public occupational safety and health programmes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.48, No.4, p.357-365. 19 ref.
The arduousness of work: Statistical evaluation
Pénibilité du travail: évaluation statistique [in French]
This paper provides a statistical evaluation of the arduousness of work based on surveys carried out in France, in particular the SUMER survey 2002/03 (Surveillance médicale des risques professionnels - Medical surveillance of occupational hazards). Three main categories of factors contributing to arduousness were identified: physical workload, atypical hours of work and exposure to carcinogens. Different ways of evaluating arduousness are proposed corresponding to levels of exposure. Results demonstrate wide disparities among economic sectors. Exposure to at least one physical factor for 20 hours or more per week ranged from 4% of workers (in the education sector) to 47% (leather and shoe industry). While certain sectors (public administration, financial activities) had a low rate of exposure to toxic substances, some 51% of workers in the woodworking sector were exposed to carcinogens. The highest percentage of workers frequently exposed to night work (more than 200 nights per year) was 6%, in the food and agriculture sectors.
Centre d'Etudes de l'Emploi, 29, Promenade Michel Simon, 93166 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex, France, 2006. 84p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.cee-recherche.fr/fr/doctrav/penibilite_travail_evaluation_statistique_55.pdf [in French]
Castejon Vilella E.
Inventory and analysis of national systems for the notification of occupational accidents
Inventaire et analyse des systèmes nationaux de déclaration des accidents du travail [in French]
The European Statistics of Accidents at Work (ESAW) project, aimed at harmonizing statistical data on occupational accidents, was launched in 1990 following the Framework Directive on occupational safety and health (89/391/EEC). Since 1993, Eurostat has compiled statistics on occupational accidents based on data provided by the responsible bodies within the Member States. This study was carried out to identify and analyse factors that could distort national data and make comparisons difficult. A questionnaire consisting of 83 items grouped under 12 topics such as notification, compensation or the treatment of statistical data was addressed to European Union Member States. Three main factors were identified as being responsible for biases in data comparisons: coverage of self-employed workers, treatment of travel and traffic accidents, and the proportion of total accidents declared.
EUROGIP, 55 rue de la Fédération, 75015 Paris, France, Oct. 2005. 4p. Internet document.
http://www.eurogip.fr/docs/Inventaire-Systemes-Declaration.pdf [in French]
Design and administration of occupational safety and health information in nine countries - Background and methods
In order to improve the capabilities of an occupational safety and health (OSH) information system used in Thailand, the Thai Ministry of Labour commissioned an evaluation of the national programmes of the following countries: Australia, Canada, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore and the United States. Data were obtained from these countries mostly by questionnaire. This article describes the design of the questionnaire and the data collection process and sets out the main components of an OSH information system used as a basis for analysing the data.
IAIABC Journal, Fall 2005, Vol.42, No.2, p.139-152. Illus.
Design and administration of OSH information systems in nine countries
This report was prepared for the Thai Department of Labour Protection as part of a study to explore the possibility of revising the country's national OSH information system. It summarizes information obtained by a questionnaire survey concerning the collection, compilation and publication of statistics on work-related injuries and diseases in nine countries. The report describes the design of the questionnaire and the data collection process, defines terms related to OSH information systems used by the nine countries and proposes the structure of an OSH information system and a framework in which to summarize the diverse systems discussed in the study.
Department of Labour Protection and Welfare, Ministry of Labour, Thailand, Aug. 2005. 114p. Bibl.ref.
Statistical analysis of socio-economic costs of accidents at work in the European Union
This study was carried out as part of the strategy of the European Commission to improve the body of knowledge on the economic and social cost of occupational accidents and illnesses. An initial literature survey performed in this prospect revealed a lack of comprehensive studies in this domain. This project produced a preliminary model to estimate these costs at the EU level as a function of a number of variables. The model was based on cost data from a questionnaire survey and administrative statistical data on numbers and characteristics of accidents at work and on labour costs. Despite the preliminary nature of the model and the derived estimates, the results provided a useful cost perspective to the issue of safety at work.
EUROSTAT, Joseph Bech building, 5 rue Alphonse Weicker, 2721 Luxembourg, 2004. 114p. 32 ref.
Statistical_analysis.pdf [in English]
Richardson D., Loomis D., Bailer A.J., Bena J.
The effect of rate denominator source on US fatal occupational injury rate estimates
The Current Population Survey (CPS) is often used as a source of information for analyses of US fatal occupational injury rates. However; given the relatively small sample size of the CPS, analyses that examine the cross-classification of occupation or industry with demographic or geographic characteristics may produce imprecise estimates. The Decennial Census of Population (DCP) provides an alternative source of information. This study investigates the comparability of fatal injury rates derived using these two sources of information. It is concluded that the DCP offers a reasonable source for deriving fatal injury data in situations where the CPS does not provide sufficiently precise data, although the DCP may underestimate the population-at-risk in some industries with seasonal variations in employment.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.261-270. Illus. 19 ref.
Reynolds S.J., Thorne P.S., Donham K.J., Croteau E.A., Kelly K.M., Lewis D., Whitmer M., Heederik D.J.J., Douwes J., Connaughton I., Koch S., Malmberg P., Larsson B.M., Milton D.K.
Comparison of endotoxin assays using agricultural dusts
The objective of this study was to compare endotoxin analyses in laboratories using Limulus-based assays for analysis of organic dusts in three agricultural environments: chicken barns, swine barns and corn processing facilities. Precision of assays performed within laboratories was good, with pooled coefficients of variation for replicate samples ranging from 1 to 11% over all laboratories and dust types. There were significant differences among laboratories for all three dust types. The pattern of differences between laboratories varied by dust type. For chicken dust, laboratories using the endpoint method reported higher results than those using kinetic methods. For swine and corn dusts, laboratories using the kinetic method reported the highest endotoxin values. Statistical differences in performance between laboratories may be related to extraction and analysis methods. These findings will be useful for the standardization of sampling and analysis of airborne endotoxin in agriculture.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.430-438. Illus. 46 ref.
Symanski E., Greeson N.M.H.
Assessment of variability in biomonitoring data using a large database of biological measures of exposure
Biological monitoring data that examined workers' exposures to metals, solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides were collected from 53 published studies. This study evaluates intra- and inter-individual sources of variation in biological measures of exposure collected from workers employed at the same plant. In 60% of the data sets, there was more variation among workers than variation from day to day. The relative magnitude of the intra- to inter-individual source of variation was larger for biomarkers with short compared to long half-lives, which suggests that biomarkers with half-lives of seven days or longer offer advantages when compared to short-lived biomarkers or exposures assessed by air monitoring. The use of biological indices of exposure, however, places an additional burden on the strategy used to evaluate exposures, because data may be serially correlated, resulting in biased estimates of the variance components if autocorrelation is undetected or ignored in the statistical analyses.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.390-401. 102 ref.
Contents of this annual compilation of data on fatal and nonfatal injuries in the United States: all unintentional injuries; occupational accidents and diseases; motor-vehicle accidents; domestic accidents; environmental health; data by State.
Research and Statistics Department, National Safety Council, 1121 Spring Lake Drive, Itasca, Illinois 60143, USA, 2001. vi, 170p. Illus. 15 ref. Index.
Bestratén Belloví M., Gil Fisa A., Piqué Ardanuy T.
Integral management of occupational accidents (II): Statistical control
La gestión integral de los accidentes de trabajo (II): control estadístico [in Spanish]
Occupational accidents and incidents are an essential source of information for the management of occupational safety and health. This information note covers the statistical analysis of occupational accidents as part of an integrated management of occupational hazards. This analysis is of key importance. Its purpose is to classify data so as to highlight the main risk factors within the enterprise, thereby enabling the control of the programme of preventive measures through the analysis of trends in accident indices (accident frequency, severity and incidence rates, average absenteeism). See also CIS 04-68 and CIS 04-70.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 5p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_593.htm [in Spanish]
Wong O., Harris F., Rosamilia K., Raabe G.K.
Updated mortality study of workers at a petroleum refinery in Torrance, California, from 1959 to 1997
This cohort study involved 3328 workers employed at a refinery for at least one year between 1959 and 1997, with an observation period from 1960 to 1997. Mortality data were analysed in terms of cause-specific standardized mortality ratios with expected deaths based on US national data. The overall mortality of the cohort was significantly lower than expected. Overall cancer mortality was also lower than expected, with significant mortality deficits being observed for certain specific sites. For other diseases, no significant increases were observed, with specific mortality deficits for ischaemic heart disease, chronic endocardial disease and other myocardial insufficiencies, all other heart disease, and influenza and pneumonia. Detailed analysis by length of employment did not reveal any significant mortality excess or upward trend. Analyses of male employees by job classification (process and maintenance) showed significantly elevated mortality from cirrhosis of the liver and suicide among maintenance workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.43, No.12, p.1089-1102. 15 ref.
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