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Biological monitoring - 1,161 entries found

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CIS 12-0260
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area
List of MAK and BAT values 2011
This report lists maximum permissible workplace concentrations and biological tolerance values of chemical substances in Germany. Contents of the 2011 edition, which contains new data on 61 substances: significance, use and derivation of MAK values (maximum concentrations - maximale Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration); lists of substances with MAK values; carcinogenic substances; sensitizing substances; aerosols; limitation of exposure peaks; skin absorption; MAK values and pregnancy; germ cell mutagens; substances requiring special consideration; significance and use of biological tolerance values (BAT); list of substances with BAT values; biological guideline values (Biologische Leitwerte - BLW). Replaces CIS 10-0091.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2011. 259p. Illus. + CD-ROM. Price: GBP 80.00; EUR 96.00.
List_of_MAK_and_BAT_values_2011_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]


CIS 11-0894 Shelton-Rayner G.K., Mian R., Chandler S., Robertson D., Macdonald D.W.
Quantifying transient psychological stress using a novel technique: Changes to PMA-induced leukocytes production of ROS in vitro
This study assessed the effect of exposure of volunteers to a mild, brief, psychologically stressful event, on the functional ability of leukocytes in whole blood to respond to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in vitro. Volunteers operated a car electric window and adjusted it to 4 pre-determined positions. Between each operation the mechanism's polarity was covertly altered or remained unaltered. For each treatment group 10 different subjects provided capillary blood samples pre- and post-stressor. Using a chemiluminescent technique termed leukocyte coping capacity, the ability of leukocytes to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro was assessed. ROS release differed significantly at 10 min post-stressor between treatment groups, suggesting exposure to acute psychological stress leads to a reduced ability to respond to bacterial challenge.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.17, No.1, p.3-13. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 11-0532 Bijaoui A., Pillière F., Gagnon M., Truchon G., Bérode M., De Torrenté A., Sager A., Hoët P.
Literature-based data-mining system for the workplace biological monitoring of chemicals - Setting-up of a French-speaking multidisciplinary network
Veille bibliographique sur la surveillance biologique de l'exposition aux produits chimiques en milieu de travail - Mise en place d'un réseau francophone multidisciplinaire [in French]
This article presents the steps involved in setting-up a literature-based data-mining system for the workplace biological monitoring of chemicals, carried out jointly since 2005 by four occupational health institutions in the French-speaking world, namely INRS (France), IRSST (Quebec), IST (Switzerland) and UCL (Belgium). The various steps of the methodological approach are described. Quantitative results of the six years' of operation of the system are also included.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2011, No.125, p.37-48. Illus. 6 ref.
TC_135.pdf [in French]


CIS 11-0830 Martin A., Bois F.Y., Pierre F., Wild P.
Occupational exposure to cobalt: A population toxicokinetic modeling approach validated by field results challenges the biological exposure index for urinary cobalt
This study modelled the urinary toxicokinetics of cobalt exposure based on 507 urine samples from 16 workers, followed up for one week, and 108 related atmospheric cobalt measurements to determine an optimal urinary cobalt sampling strategy at work and a corresponding urinary exposure threshold (UET). These data were used to calibrate a population toxicokinetic model, taking into account both the measurement uncertainty and intra- and inter-individual variability. Using the calibrated model, urinary sampling sensitivity and specificity performance in detecting exposure above the 20 μg/m3 threshold limit value, time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), was applied to identify an optimal urine sampling time. Total atmospheric cobalt concentrations were found to be in the 5-144 μg/m3 range, and total urinary cobalt concentrations are 0.5-88 μg/g creatinine. A two-compartment toxicokinetic model which best describes urinary elimination is presented.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2010, Vol.7, No.1, p.54-62. Illus. 22 ref.
Occupational_exposure_to_cobalt.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0840 Uzma N., Kumar B.S., Hazari M.A.H.
Exposure to benzene induces oxidative stress, alters the immune response and expression of p53 in gasoline filling workers
This study investigated the adverse effects of benzene among workers occupationally exposed to benzene in India. It involved 428 gasoline filling workers occupationally exposed to benzene and 78 unexposed individuals. A significant increase in the concentration of benzene and its byproducts in both blood and urine were found in the workers compared with the controls. Occupational exposure to benzene causes oxidative stress, immune suppression and increases the expression of tumor-suppressing gene p53 in gasoline filling workers. These bio-functional markers might be useful in screening and surveillance for occupational hazard.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.1264-1270. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 10-0548 He J., Wang P., Zhu J.Q., Wu G., Ji J.M., Xue Y.
Role of urinary biomarkers of N,N-dimethylformamide in the early detection of hepatic injury among occupational exposed workers
The objective of this study was to identify sensitive and convenient biomarkers for the early detection of hepatic injury in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) exposed workers. Seventy-nine workers at a synthetic leather factory were investigated by means of a questionnaire survey. Air, urine and blood samples were collected at the specific time point. Airborne DMF and the urine metabolites of DMF were measured by gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Traditional liver function tests and hepatic fibrosis parameters were performed by auto-chemistry analyzer and ELISA methods. It was found that workers exposed to DMF with higher N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-cysteine levels were more likely to develop liver diseases. In addition, serum bile acid and hyaluronidase have the potential to act as early indicators of toxic hepatic fibrosis activities for occupational health surveillance.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2010, Vol.83, No.4, p.399-406. 26 ref.

CIS 10-0545 Pignatti P., Pala G., Pisati M., Perfetti L., Banchieri G., Moscato G.
Nasal blown secretion evaluation in specific occupational nasal challenges
The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of nasal blown secretion evaluation during specific nasal provocation tests (sNPT) in diagnosing occupational rhinitis (OR). To validate the method, nasal blown secretions from 103 healthy subjects and 30 allergic rhinitis patients were analysed. Furthermore, nasal blown secretions of 29 subjects with work-related rhinitis symptoms (WRRS) who underwent the diagnostic pathway for OR were collected before and after sNPT, and analysed. Rhinoscopy and nasal symptom score were used to define a positive sNPT. A total of 89.6% WRRS subjects provided suitable nasal secretions. Eosinophils significantly increased after positive sNPT compared to negative sNPT. Four percent and/or 1 × 104 eosinophils/mL was the cut-off for a significant post-sNPT eosinophil increase. A total of 4/13 (33%) WRRS subjects with negative sNPT, assessed by rhinoscopy and nasal symptom score, presented a significant post-sNPT nasal eosinophil increase, and were identified as possible OR. It is concluded that eosinophil evaluation in nasal blown secretions is an important tool in monitoring the response to occupational specific nasal challenges.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.217-223. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 10-0528 da Silva C.S.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Critical study of the health of electroplating workers based on relationships between ambient measurements, biological measurements and ENT examinations
Um estudo crítico sobre a saúde dos trabalhadores de galvânicas por meio das relações entre as avaliações ambientais, biológicas e otorrinolaringológicas [in Portuguese]
Second edition of the study analyzed under CIS 01-847. The objective of this thesis work was to examine the working environment and health of electroplating workers, and to establish relationships between the concentration in air of various chemicals, their urinary concentrations and observed nasal injuries. 461 workers employed at 22 electroplating plants using various coating processes were studied. Ambient concentrations of acid vapours as well as of chromium, zinc and nickel were measured, together with the urinary concentrations of these metals among exposed workers. Although the ambient levels were far below the threshold values accepted in Brazil, rhinoscopic examination revealed that 35.5% of workers showed moderate or serious injury of the upper respiratory tract (ischaemia, ulcerations or perforations of the nasal septum) and 40.1% showed signs of initial phases of injury or non-specific injury. These results show that the accepted limits in Brazil are insufficient to ensure adequate protection of workers' health.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2nd ed., 2010. 167p. Illus. 127 ref.

CIS 10-0091
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
List of MAK and BAT values 2010
This report lists maximum permissible workplace concentrations and biological tolerance values of chemical substances in Germany. Contents of the 2010 edition, which contains new data on 61 substances: significance, use and derivation of MAK values (maximum concentrations - maximale Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration); lists of substances with MAK values; carcinogenic substances; sensitizing substances; aerosols; limitation of exposure peaks; skin absorption; MAK values and pregnancy; germ cell mutagens; substances requiring special consideration; significance and use of biological tolerance values (BAT); list of substances with BAT values; biological guideline values (Biologische Leitwerte - BLW). Replaces CIS 08-411.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007. 259p. Illus. + CD-ROM. Price: GBP 80.00; EUR 96.00.


CIS 11-0833 Hopf N.B., Carreón T., Talaska G.
Biological markers of carcinogenic exposure in the aluminum smelter industry - A systematic review
Exposure monitoring programs have been used in the aluminium smelter industry for decades to decrease the risk of cancer from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biological monitoring of PAHs incorporates all routes of exposure. Measuring postshift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP), a metabolite of pyrene, determines worker's daily PAH exposures, while measuring DNA adducts reflect chronic exposures to PAHs. This study reviewed the scientific literature to identify changes over time in 1OHP levels, DNA adduct levels and other contributing factors associated with 1OHP and DNA adduct levels in the aluminium smelter industry. No trends were observed in 1OHP and DNA adduct levels. Possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, No.9, p.562-581. Illus. 77 ref.
Biological_markers.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0891 Thomas C., Hertzman C., Power C.
Night work, long working hours, psychosocial work stress and cortisol secretion in mid-life: Evidence from a British birth cohort
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between exposure to workplace factors (night work, extended working hours, psychosocial work stress) and cortisol secretion, and to test whether workplace factors interact, resulting in combined effects. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to test relationships between workplace factors and cortisol secretion in the 1958 British birth cohort at 45 years. Salivary cortisol was measured twice on the same day to capture the post-waking decline, facilitating the analysis of cortisol patterns at different times of the day. Models were adjusted for socioeconomic position at birth and in adulthood, qualifications, marital status, dependent children and smoking status. Findings suggest that night work in particular is associated with elevated cortisol secretion and that cortisol deregulation may exist in subgroups with specific combinations of stressors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2009, Vol.66, No.12, p.824-831. 42 ref.

CIS 09-1302 Hsiao P.K., Lin Y.C., Shih T.S., Chiung Y.M.
Effects of occupational exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene on hematologic, kidney, and liver functions
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) on kidney, liver and haematological functions of workers in insect repellent factories in Taiwan. It involved 46 exposed workers and 29 non-exposed workers. Health information was collected using questionnaires and biochemical tests. The concentration of urinary 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), the major metabolite of 1,4-DCB, was analyzed by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Exposed workers had higher urinary 2,5-DCP concentrations (105.38µg/L) than controls (1.08µg/L). Exposure to 1,4-DCB also increased the white blood cell count and serum alanine aminotransferase level. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2009, Vol.82, No.9, p.1077-1085. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-1322 Mari M., Schuhmacher M., Domingo J.L.
Levels of metals and organic substances in workers at a hazardous waste incinerator: A follow-up study
The objective of this study was to determine the blood and urine concentrations of various metals and organic substances in workers at a hazardous waste incinerator in Catalonia, Spain, and to compare the findings with those of previous surveys in 2000 and 2005. For all metals and organic compounds analyzed, there was no significant increase compared to previous levels. However, the levels of certain specific PCBs and PCDD/Fs were very significantly lower than the baseline concentrations.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.519-528. 51 ref.

CIS 09-1329 Broding H.C., Michalke B., Göen T., Drexler H.
Comparison between exhaled breath condensate analysis as a marker for cobalt and tungsten exposure and biomonitoring in workers of a hard metal alloy processing plant
Cobalt (Co), tungsten (W) and tungsten carbides (WC) are major constituents of hard metal alloys. This study examined the feasibility of using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as an alternative to urinary determinations for evaluating exposures to Co and W. A total of 62 subjects were recruited from a hard metal processing plant in Germany. Examinations included the airborne workplace concentrations, spirometry, and determinations of Co and W in EBC and urine. It is concluded that urinary concentrations of Co and W remain more reliable indicators of current workplace exposure than EBC concentrations. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2009, Vol.82, No.5, p.565-573. Illus. 75 ref.

CIS 09-1106 Jost M., Pletscher C.
Biological monitoring and tolerable biological values
Biologisches Monitoring und biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte [in German]
Monitoring biologique et valeurs biologiques tolérables [in French]
The risks incurred by persons exposed to substances at work depend on the quantities of these substances absorbed by the body. The evaluation of the internal load or solicitation by means of biological monitoring as a complement of determinations of these substances in ambient air therefore plays an important role. To interpret the results of biological monitoring measurements, one needs to take into account the novel concept of tolerable biological values (TBVs) of the substances handled, together with other possible practical problems. This article presents the TBV concept, discusses certain practical problems and describes the application of biological monitoring in the context of the occupational hygiene.
Suva Medical, 2009, No.80, p.28-38. Illus. 7 ref. [in German] [in French]

CIS 09-890 Karaman A., Pirim I.
Exposure to bitumen fumes and genotoxic effects on Turkish asphalt workers
The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to asphalt fumes among Turkish asphalt workers and to determine whether any effects could be detected with genotoxic tests. The study included 26 asphalt workers and 24 control subjects. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) were determined in peripheral lymphocytes. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) excretion was used as a biomarker of occupational exposure to PAHs. The asphalt workers had a significant increase in SCEs and MN. A positive correlation existed between the duration of exposure and rates of SCE or MN frequencies. The concentration of 1-OHP in urine was higher for the asphalt workers than for the controls. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the urinary 1-OHP concentration and SCEs or MN frequencies.
Clinical Toxicology, Apr.-May 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.321-326. Illus. 59 ref.

CIS 09-710 Elfman L., Riihimäki M., Pringle J., Wålinder R.
Influence of horse stable environment on human airways
This study examined seasonal differences in indoor air quality in a horse stable and assessed whether air quality was associated with respiratory signs or selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. The horse stable environment and 13 stable workers were investigated three times, in winter, in late summer and the third time in the following winter. Measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergens, microorganisms, endotoxins and glucans. Workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Findings are presented and discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, May 2009, Vol.4, No.10, 7p. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 09-396 Sobus J.R., Waidyanatha S., McClean M.D., Herrick R.F., Smith T.J., Garshick E., Laden F., Hart J.E., Zheng Y., Rappaport S.M.
Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene as biomarkers of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds
This study investigated the utility of unmetabolised naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) in urine as biomarkers of exposures to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It involved 39 workers exposed to diesel exhausts (low PAH exposure level), 26 exposed to emissions from asphalt (medium PAH exposure level) and 28 exposed to emissions from coke ovens (high PAH exposure level). Levels of Nap and Phe were measured in urine from each subject. Published levels of airborne Nap, Phe and other PAHs in the relevant sectors were taken into account. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that levels of Nap and Phe in urine reflected the workplace atmospheric concentrations of these compounds and therefore constitute promising surrogates for occupational exposures to PAH mixtures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.66, No.2, p.99-104. Illus. 25 ref.


CIS 10-0248 Ducos P., Berode M., Francin J.M., Arnoux C., Lefèvre C.
Biological monitoring of exposure to solvents using the chemical itself in urine: Application to toluene
Biomonitoring of solvents using the unchanged substance in urine as exposure indicator is still relatively scarce due to some discrepancies between the results reported in the literature. Based on the assessment of toluene exposure, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of some steps likely to bias the results and to measure urinary toluene in six volunteers experimentally exposed and in 29 rotogravure printing workers. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that provided certain experimental precautions are adopted, urinary toluene can be recommended as a biomarker of choice for toluene exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.273-284. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 10-0247 Kawai T., Ukai H., Inoue O., Maejima Y., Fukui Y., Ohashi F., Okamoto S., Takada S., Sakurai H., Ikeda M.
Evaluation of biomarkers of occupational exposure to toluene at low levels
The purpose of this study was to compare various biomarkers of occupational exposure to toluene (Tol) at low levels. The focus was placed on the comparison of un-metabolized toluene in urine (Tol-U) and peripheral blood (Tol-B) with hippuric acid in urine (HA-U). The study was conducted at 16 workplaces with the participation of male solvent-exposed workers. Urine and peripheral blood samples were collected at the end of the shifts. Time-weighted average exposures were monitored by diffusive sampling for toluene and other four solvents. Blood samples were subjected to the analyses for Tol-B, whereas urine samples were analyzed for HA-U and Tol-U. Solvent exposures were low. The correlation analyses of the biomarkers in urine and blood with Tol exposure showed that Tol-U and Tol-B were more closely related than HA-U. Results of receiver operator characteristic analyses were in agreement with the correlation analysis results. Tol in the end-of-shift spot urine sample appears to be the marker of choice for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to Tol at low levels.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.253-262. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 09-1141 Anderson J.L., Spitz H.B., Daniels R.D.
Population monitoring for acute exposure to 210Po
The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using urine samples to monitor internal radiation exposure in the event of a radiological incident involving the intentional dispersal of 210Po. Computer modelling was used to evaluate urinary excretion of 210Po and to calculate effective doses subsequent to an acute unit intake of 210Po. It was concluded that the collection and analysis of urine samples is adequate to identify persons who may be exposed in the event of a radiological emergency involving 210Po.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.916-923. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 09-1096 Seldén A.I., Lundholm C., Johansson N., Wingfors H.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), thyroid hormones and cytokines in construction workers removing old elastic sealants
The objective of this study was to estimate the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) level among workers specialized in PCB abatement in buildings and to measure possible effects of PCBs on their thyroid function and immune system. Thirty six workers removing old elastic sealants containing PCBs and 33 control construction workers unexposed to PCBs provided blood samples. The PCB exposed group was reinvestigated after 10 months for a trend assessment. The concentrations of PCB congeners from the exposed group were twice those of controls (580 vs. 260 ng/g lipid). No statistically significant increase in overall PCB levels was observed in the abatement workers at follow-up and some congeners even declined, suggesting that the high concentrations were essentially due to historical exposures. Thyroid function was not associated with PCB exposure. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.99-106. 29 ref.

CIS 09-630 Steinfort D.P., Pilmore J., Brenton S., Hart D.H.L
Absence of platinum salt sensitivity in autocatalyst workers exposed to tetraamine platinum dichloride
All 26 subjects employed at an automobile catalyst production plant undertook medical surveillance including reporting of symptoms, biological tests, skin prick tests and spirometry. Environmental testing of the workplace was also performed to determine the level of exposure to tetraamine platinum dichloride and other platinum-group elements. No subjects described the development of new respiratory or dermatological symptoms. No worker developed positive skin reactivity to platinum salts. FEV1 remained unchanged for all subjects over the course of the study period. It is concluded that tetraamine platinum dichloride should be used preferentially to other catalysts in view of its low sensitizing potential.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.58, No.3, p.215-218. 13 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-403 Park E.K., Duarte Tagles H., Gee S.J., Hammock B.D., Lee K., Schenker M.B.
Recruiting strategy and 24-hour biomonitoring of paraquat in agricultural workers
Agricultural workers in Costa Rica were recruited to participate in a 24-hour urine collection for paraquat exposure assessment and compare the 24-hour sampling to end-of-shift sampling. Participants included 187 workers from coffee, banana, and palm oil plantations exposed to paraquat, and 54 unexposed workers from the same plantations. This study showed that it was possible to reliably obtain 24-hour urine samples from a farm worker population. Furthermore, comparison between the paraquat levels in end-of-shift and 24-hour urine samples demonstrated that for this compound, end-of-shift urine samples are a reliable substitute for 24-hour collections.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.4, p.207-217. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 09-158 Nuernberg A.M., Boyce P.D., Cavallari J.M., Fang S.C., Eisen E.A., Christiani D.C.
Urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG concentrations in boilermakers with welding exposure
To investigate the association of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) with DNA damage and oxidative stress in boilermakers exposed to welding fumes, 41 workers were monitored over 24 hours during which baseline, post-shift, bedtime, and next morning urine samples were collected. Blood samples were also collected pre-shift and the following morning. Twenty-two unexposed workers participated as controls. Linear regression was used to model changes in u-8-isoprostane and u-8-OHdG. Acute welding fume exposure was found to be associated with a post-shift blunting of systemic inflammation, as measured by 8-isoprostane, in chronically exposed workers. The level of oxidative DNA damage as measured by 8-OHdG was less clear.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.182-189. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 09-142 Cocco P., Brennan P., Ibba A., de Sanjosé Llongueras S., Maynadié M., Nieters A., Becker N., Ennas M.G., Tocco M.G., Boffetta P.
Plasma polychlorobiphenyl and organochlorine pesticide level and risk of major lymphoma subtypes
There is conflicting epidemiological evidence concerning the relationship between the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and plasma levels of organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). The concentration of 17 OC pesticides was measured in the plasma samples of 174 NHL cases and 203 controls from France, Germany and Spain. The risk of NHL and its major subtypes associated with increasing blood levels of OC pesticides and PCBs was calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Findings are discussed. Overall, there was no evidence of an association between NHL risk and plasma levels of OC pesticides and PCBs.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.65, No.2, p.132-140. 35 ref.

CIS 09-161 Kwapniewski R., Kozaczka S., Hauser R., Silva M.J., Calafat A.M., Duty S.M.
Occupational exposure to dibutyl phthalate among manicurists
The objective of this study was to measure manicurists' exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) contained in nail polish at work and to determine whether workplace characteristics influence this exposure. DBP has been found to be a reproductive and developmental toxicant in rats. Pre-shift and post-shift urine samples were collected from 40 manicurists. There was a statistically significant cross-shift increase of the urinary concentration of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MNBP), the major metabolite of DBP. Use of gloves reduced MNBP concentrations by 15.1ng/mL below the pre-shift concentration compared with a 20.5ng/mL increase if gloves were not worn.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.705-711. 46 ref.

CIS 09-119 Xing X., Wu G., Wei F., Liu P., Wei H., Wang C., Xu J., Xun L., Jia J., Kennedy N., Elashoff D., Robbins W.
Biomarkers of environmental and workplace boron exposure
The purpose of this work was to identify an accurate, noninvasive biomarker of boron exposure that could be used in worker populations. Total daily boron exposure was determined from samples of 24-hr food and fluid intake, plus workplace personal air monitoring in boron workers and comparison groups in northern China during 2003 and 2004. Boron was also measured in blood, semen, creatinine-corrected post-shift urine and 24-hr urine. Total daily boron exposure (mg/day) averaged 41.2 for men working in the boron industry and 2.3 for the comparison group. Boron concentration in post-shift urine was correlated with total daily boron exposure, indicating that this value could be used as a biomarker of boron exposure in worker populations.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2008, Vol.5, No.3, p.141-147. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 08-1401 Tardif R., Charest-Tardif G., Truchon G., Brochu M.
Impact of workload on the biological exposure indicators of five solvents
Influence de la charge de travail sur les indicateurs biologiques d'exposition de cinq solvants [in French]
This project is the third part of a study programme on the environmental and physiological factors leading to biological variability. Earlier projects identified that the workload could have a major effect on the value of biological exposure indicators (BEIs) for industrial solvents. Using human volunteers, this project aimed at understanding how to take into account the effect of the physical activity level in the development and application of physiologically-based toxicokinetic models, in order to propose and better interpret BEIs. The effect of workload on the kinetics of five solvents was evaluated. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. v, 45p. Illus. 45 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 08-1380 Ferrari M., Negri S., Zadra P., Ghittori S., Imbriani M.
Saliva as an analytical tool to measure occupational exposure to toluene
Biomonitoring of toluene exposure is commonly performed using blood or urine sampling. Sampling of saliva may be a simple and a viable alternative. In this study, solvent concentrations in urine and saliva were measured in a group of 36 workers exposed to toluene in the synthetic leather industry. Their environmental exposure to toluene was assessed using passive samplers. Toluene in urine, saliva and environmental samples was measured by GC-MS. Environmental toluene levels ranged from 0.22 to 57.20mg/m3, while the concentrations of the solvent in saliva and urine ranged from 0.12 to 18.30µg/L and from 0.47 to 26.64µg/L, respectively. The correlation coefficients between biological and environmental levels of toluene were 0.77 and 0.93, respectively, for saliva and urine samples. These findings suggest that saliva monitoring could be a simple and practical method of evaluating exposure to toluene.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2008, Vol.81, No.8, p.1021-1028. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 08-1301 Fireman E., Lerman Y., Stark M., Schwartz Y., Ganor E., Grinberg N., Frimer R., Landau D.A., Zilberberg M., Barenboim E., Jacovovitz R.
Detection of occult lung impairment in welders by induced sputum particles and breath oxidation
This study evaluated particulate matter in combined induced sputum (IS) and oxidation in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), in order to test whether underlying inflammatory changes are present in asymptomatic welders. Thirty welders from the Israel Defence Forces exposed to aluminium/iron (Group 1), 16 exposed to cadmium/chromium/iron/lead/nickel (Group 2) and 27 non-exposed administrative staff were studied. IS was recovered and particle size distribution, hydrogen peroxide and pH were measured; exhaled breath condensate also was collected. Group 2 had a higher percentage of neutrophils than all other participants and a higher percentage of particles of more than 2µm in diameter. Percent particles and years of exposure highly correlated. All welders' EBC samples had higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide than controls. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2008, Vol.51, No.7, p.503-511. Illus. 43 ref.


CIS 10-0246 Iavicoli I., Bocca B., Carelli G., Caroli S., Caimi S., Alimonti A., Fontana L.
Biomonitoring of tram drivers exposed to airborne platinum, rhodium and palladium
The aim of this study was to evaluate urinary levels of platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh) and palladium (Pd) in occupationally exposed subjects. A total of 122 healthy male subjects were studied, including municipal tram drivers and 58 control subjects. There were statistically significant differences between urinary Pt and Rh levels among exposed subjects and controls, while no difference in Pd levels was observed. Urinary concentrations of Pt and Rh, though still low, could be of some concern among workers heavily exposed to urban car traffic.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.109-114. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-1105 Sakr C.J., Kreckmann K.H., Green J.W., Gillies P.J., Reynolds J.L., Leonard R.C.
Cross-sectional study of lipids and liver enzymes related to a serum biomarker of exposure (ammonium perfluorooctanoate or APFO) as part of a general health survey in a cohort of occupationally-exposed workers
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), a biomarker of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) exposure, and lipids and liver enzymes among 1025 workers with potential occupational exposure to APFO. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between PFOA and selected outcomes from a standard metabolic health screening survey. Most outcome parameters were within normal limits. However after adjusting for potential confounders, modest but statistically significant positive relationships were observed between serum PFOA and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein and γ-glutamyl aminotransferase.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2007, Vol.49, No.10, p.1086-1096. 39 ref.

CIS 08-1389 Kalahasthi R.B., Rajmohan H.R., Rajan B.K., Karuna Kumar M.
Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in workers exposed to cadmium at cadmium plating
This case-control study was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium exposure on urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and its isoenzymes A and B among cadmium plating workers. It involved 100 workers of a telephone manufacturing plant in India, including 50 cadmium plating workers and an equal number of age and sex matched unexposed administrative staff. A significant increase of urinary total NAG and its isoenzymes A and B were noted in exposed group compared to controls. The levels of urinary NAG and its isoenzymes A and B were significantly correlated with cadmium levels in urine. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that urinary NAG could be used as a biomarker for exposure to cadmium.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, July 2007, Vol.2, No.5, 7p. 28 ref.

CIS 08-1392 Attarchi M.S., Aminian O., Dolati M., Mazaheri M.
Evaluation of liver enzyme levels in workers exposed to vinyl chloride vapors in a petrochemical complex: A cross-sectional study
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of mild to moderate long-term exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) on the liver, and to assess the suitability of liver enzyme measurements as a screening tool for these effects. Liver enzyme levels of 52 exposed workers were compared to 48 unexposed controls. Cases worked in a PVC production unit in a petrochemical complex in Iran, and the controls were randomly selected from office personnel of the same complex. Both groups answered a questionnaire on personal factors and work history. There were statistically-significant differences between cases and controls in ALP and GGT; there were also differences in AST, ALT and bilirubin, but this difference was not statistically significant. Mild exposure to VCM can cause mild liver cholestasis; cholestasis assessment tests such as ALP and GGT should be considered in the regular monitoring of liver function among PVC production workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Aug. 2007, Vol.2, No.6, 6p. 26 ref.

CIS 08-1070 Sikkeland L.I.B., Haug T., Stangeland A.M., Flatberg G., Søstrand P., Halvorsen B, Kongerud J.
Airway inflammation in paper mill workers
Paper mill workers are exposed to microorganisms. To study whether inflammatory airway response could be detected in sputum of non-symptomatic workers, 29 healthy nonsmoking men were recruited from four paper mills in Norway; 17 were exposed to high levels of and 12 workers to low levels of microorganisms. A reference group of 22 healthy, nonsmoking, non-exposed men was also studied. Differential cell counts of induced sputum were performed, gene expressions of isolated sputum macrophages were studied and inflammatory parameters were analyzed. Sputum from highly-exposed workers had a significantly higher percentage of neutrophils than that from low-exposed and non-exposed workers. There was also an increased gene expression of various inflammatory parameters in induced sputum from the highly-exposed group. These findings show that paper industry workers exposed to microorganisms develop sub-clinical airway inflammation.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2007, Vol.49, No.10, p.1135-1142. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 08-1053 Ulvestad B., Randem B.G., Andersson L., Ellingsen D.G., Barregard L.
Clara cell protein as a biomarker for lung epithelial injury in asphalt workers
This study investigated whether asphalt workers showed signs of lung epithelial injury as shown by increased Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) in serum after six months of exposure. Asphalt pavers, asphalt plant operators and engineers from a large Norwegian road construction and repair enterprise underwent lung function tests and blood sampling before the start and at the end of the road working season. Blood samples were analysed for concentration of CC16 and interleukin-6 (IL-6). After adjustment for smoking, pavers had a significantly larger increase in CC16 concentration after the season as compared with that of engineers and plant operators. Among pavers, changes in serum CC16 were correlated with those of IL-6. CC16 increases over the season in pavers and appears to be a useful biomarker for lung epithelial injury in exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2007, Vol.49, No.10, p.1073-1078. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 08-737 Sun J., Wang S., Zhang J.Q., Li W.
Assessing the cumulative effects of stress: The association between job stress and allostatic load in a large sample of Chinese employees
Allostatic load (AL) is an index that is derived from a set of biological measures for assessing chronic stress. In this study, a 13-parameter index was used to examine the relationship between job strain and AL. Participants were 1219 healthy Chinese employees. Job strain was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire, and AL was assessed by various stress responses, including blood pressure, cholesterol, indicators of glucose metabolism, and hormone and inflammation markers. AL in the high job strain group differed sharply from that in the low job strain group. AL was positively associated with age and educational level. Analyses indicated that decision latitude and job demands were significantly related to AL. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2007, Vol.21, No.4, p.333-347. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 08-393 Im-Saroeun C.
Percutaneous exposure to chemicals - Findings of a study on the evaluation methodology used and approaches adopted in practice
Exposition percutanée aux agents chimiques - Résultats d'une étude sur la méthodologie d'évaluation et les pratiques de terrain [in French]
Once they penetrate the skin, dangerous substances are transported by the blood to all organs, where they deploy their toxic effects. This article presents the findings of a survey on methodologies used for evaluating skin exposure to chemicals, together with the prevention approaches used in practice in France. Contents: current understanding on skin absorption; current situation of prevention measures; findings of visits to enterprises and questionnaire surveys among health service and laboratory workers; possible leads for preventive actions.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2007, No.111, p.349-364. Illus. 36 ref.$File/TF162.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-391 Robert A., Ducos P., Francin J.M., Marsan P.
Exposure to MDI in 19 French enterprises - Urinary MDA as a biomarker of exposure
Exposition au MDI dans 19 entreprises françaises - La MDA urinaire comme biomarqueur de l'exposition [in French]
Animal experiments have proven that skin exposure to 4,4'- methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) causes respiratory allergies. It is therefore necessary to take skin exposure into account when evaluating exposure to MDI. Determination of 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) in urine is considered to be a reliable method for evaluating exposure to MDI by all routes of entry. This study was aimed at evaluating the level of skin exposure to MDI in 19 French enterprises in various sectors of activity, my means of measuring the urinary excretion of MDA. Taking the existing technical and analytical capabilities into account, a biological limit of 7µg/L (5µg/g creatinine) for urinary MDA, not to be exceeded at the end of the shift, could be proposed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2007, No.208, p.7-17. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 08-388 Koh D.S.Q., Koh G.C.H.
The use of salivary biomarkers in occupational and environmental medicine
This review article on the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid explains the many advantages of the technique, including the fact that it contains a wide array of constituents and that saliva collection is non-invasive compared with phlebotomy. As a result, it is more acceptable to patients. Self-collection by patients is possible and there is no need for trained staff. Moreover, it does not carry the risk of needle-stick injuries. Saliva collection is also less likely to cause stress compared with other invasive procedures such as phlebotomy, an important consideration when researching biomarkers of stress. Lastly, saliva samples can reflect real-time levels of biomarkers, unlike other biological fluids, such as urine, which is stored in the bladder for a few hours before sampling.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2007, Vol.64, No.3, p.202-210. Illus. 80 ref.

CIS 08-159 Hinson A.V., Dedjan H., Fayomi B.E.
Biomarkers, clinical and behavioural indicators of pesticide exposure at community level
Pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in developing countries. It is estimated that each year, exposure to pesticides result in three million severe acute poisonings and 220,000 deaths. In Benin, there were 245 recorded cases of pesticide poisoning and 19 deaths during the period 1998 to 2002. This article describes a cross-sectional study conducted to evaluate clinical and biological indicators of pesticide poisoning. Participants included 76 farmers (men and women) from a cotton-growing region of Benin. Data were collected through interviews, medical examinations and biological sample analysis. Findings are discussed.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2007, Vol.17, No.1, p.14-16. Illus. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1374 Taylor A., Angerer J., Arnaud J., Claeys F., Kristiansen J., Mazzarrasa O., Menditto A., Patriarca M., Pineau A., Valkonen S., Weykamp C.
Differences in national legislation for the implementation of lead regulations included in the European directive for the protection of the health and safety of workers with occupational exposure to chemical agents (98/24/EC)
La Directive 98/24 du Conseil concernant la protection de la santé et de la sécurité des travailleurs contre les risques liés à des agents chimiques sur le lieu de travail (voir CIS 98-1094) renferme des dispositions relatives à la surveillance biologique et environnementale, avec mention spécifique de valeurs seuils et de mesures de surveillance médicale ayant force obligatoire pour les personnes exposées au plomb. Le but de cette étude était de comparer la manière dont la Directive a été mise en ¿uvre au niveau national dans les Etats Membres et de déterminer dans quelle mesure les travailleurs bénéficient de mesures de protection comparables. Des informations sur des aspects clés choisis ont été recueillies dans 14 pays de l'UE au moyen d'un questionnaire structuré. Les résultats indiquent que la protection des travailleurs contre le risque d'exposition au plomb est loin d'être uniforme. De telles disparités peuvent également avoir des conséquences sur les exigences définies au niveau national pour les laboratoires pratiquant les mesures de plombémie ou de plomb dans l'air. Dans l'intérêt d'une harmonisation au sein de l'UE, on devrait prêter plus d'attention à l'Annexe II de la Directive 98/24 et prendre en compte les propositions concernant l'abaissement des valeurs limites ayant force obligatoire pour le plomb.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2007, Vol.80, No.3, p.254-264. 20 ref.

CIS 07-1372 Fustinoni S., Mercadante R., Campo L., Scibetta L., Valla C., Consonni D., Foà V.
Comparison between urinary o-cresol and toluene as biomarkers of toluene exposure
This case-control study compared urinary o-cresol (U-OC) and urinary toluene (U-TOL) as biomarkers of occupational exposure to toluene. One hundred healthy male rotogravure printing workers and 161 male and female control subjects unexposed to toluene were studied. Personal exposure to airborne toluene (TOL-A) during the shift was determined as a time weighted average. Simple analytical procedures based on solid phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were applied to the determination of end-shift U-OC and U-TOL. Median TOL-A was 48mg/m3 in printers and 0.021mg/m3 in controls. U-OC was 0.185mg/g creatinine in printers and 0.027mg/g in controls. U-TOL was 7.6µg/L in printers and 0.140µg/L in controls. U-TOL was found to be a slightly more reliable biomarker to toluene exposure than U-OC.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2007, Vol.4, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 08-145 Saito H., Mori I., Ogawa Y., Hirata M.
Relationship between blood lead level and work related factors using the NIIH questionnaire system
A study on the management and improvement of the work environment was conducted from 1990 to 2000 at 259 lead-handling factories in Japan. Data were obtained by means of questionnaires addressed to employers. Various factors affecting blood lead levels (PbBs), including gender, age, employment duration, factory size, work environment control and job categories were analyzed. The PbB of men was found to be higher than that of women, and may be due to the differences in job distribution. PbB increased along with increasing age and employment duration. PbB declined as the factory size increased. The odds ratio (OR) of PbB higher than 20µg/dL according to factory size was significantly high even after adjusting for work environment control class. This demonstrates that not only the working environment but also safety management was poorer among small-scale factories than among large-scale factories. Smelting or refining lead had the highest risk for lead exposure while painting had the lowest risk. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2006, Vol.44, No.4, p.619-628. 30 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1369 Sennbro C.J., Lindh C.H., Mattsson C., Jönsson B.A.G., Tinnerberg H.
Biological monitoring of exposure to 1,5-naphthalene diisocyanate and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate
Biological monitoring of exposure to occupational sensitizers, such as 1,5-naphthalene diisocyanate (NDI) and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is of high importance. In this study, the breathing atmosphere exposure to NDI and MDI was monitored for 30 workers at four different plants. In parallel, urinary as well as blood plasma samples were collected. 1,5-naphthalenediamine (NDA) and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) in hydrolysed urine and plasma were evaluated as biomarkers of exposure to NDI and MDI, respectively, by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Air exposure to both MDI and NDI was correlated to their corresponding biomarkers, but with a large individual variation.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2006, Vol.79, No.8, p.647-653. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 07-1126 Liao Y.H., Hwang L.C., Kao J.S., Yiin S.J., Lin S.F., Lin C.H., Lin Y.C., Aw T.C.
Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to aluminium, gallium, indium, arsenic, and antimony in the optoelectronic industry
The objective of this study was to investigate whether exposure to aluminium, gallium, indium, arsenic, and antimony induces lipid peroxidation in humans. Blood and urine levels of 103 exposed electronic industry workers and 67 referents were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean plasma MDA level of the exposed workers was significantly higher than that of the referents. The levels of MDA in the exposed workers were correlated significantly with the levels of urinary gallium and arsenic.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.48, No.8, p.789-793. 35 ref.

CIS 07-1113 Di Lorenzo L., Silvestroni A., Martino M.G., Gagliardi T., Corfiati M., Soleo L.
Evaluation of peripheral blood neutrophil leucocytes in lead-exposed workers
The objective of this study was to verify whether occupational lead exposure induces changes in the number of blood neutrophil leucocytes, and to assess a possible dose-response relationship between blood lead (Pb-B) and the circulating neutrophil count in exposed workers. It involved 68 lead-exposed male workers and 59 unexposed male controls. A standardized questionnaire on occupational and non-occupational factors was administered to all the subjects. Blood and urine samples were collected and analysed. Compared to controls, exposed workers had significantly higher Pb-B and mean absolute neutrophil count (ANC). ANC correlated significantly with the biological lead dose and effect indices. Moreover, there was a dose-dependent increase of ANC with increasing Pb-B levels. There was also an interaction between Pb-B level and smoking habit in increasing the number of blood neutrophils among lead-exposed workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2006, Vol.79, No.6, p.491-498. 44 ref.

CIS 07-393 Paulsson B., Larsen K.O., Törnqvist M.
Hemoglobin adducts in the assessment of potential occupational exposure to acylamides - Three case studies
Workers in three types of occupations with potential exposure to acrylamide were examined by measurement of acrylamide adducts in haemoglobin. The first case concerned workers transporting acrylamide-contaminated waste soil, where no exposure was detectable. The second case included workers handling a sealing product containing acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide, where moderate exposure was detected and where the sealant was replaced as a precautionary measure. The third case concerned a worker with observed neurotoxic symptoms, working with a sealing product containing acrylamide. This worker had an extremely high acrylamide-adduct level (23 nmol/g globin). The acrylamide product was replaced, and the adduct level substantially decreased within a year. These studies illustrate the usefulness of in vivo dose measurement using haemoglobin adducts for occupational surveillance and as a basis for the health risk assessment of electrophilically-reactive compounds.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.32, No.2, p.154-159. 29 ref.

CIS 07-376 Sudakin D.L.
Pyrethroid insecticides: Advances and challenges in biomonitoring
Pyrethroids are structurally diverse chemicals that are synthetically derived from naturally occurring pyrethrin insecticides. Significant advances in analytical chemistry have led to the development of biomarkers of exposure to pyrethroids, and these methods are currently being applied to study exposure in the general population. This article reviews the chemistry and toxicology of pyrethroid insecticides, with an emphasis on the development of biomarkers. Future challenges in the application of these biomarkers in epidemiological studies are explored, as is the need for improved understanding of the toxicokinetics of pyrethroids in humans.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 2006, Vol.44, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 06-1406 Chakroun R., Hedhili A., Faidi F., Nouaigui H., El Mabrouk A., Nehdi H., Bahri S., Ben Abdelkader N., Maâlej M., Khayati N., Ben Laiba M.
Evaluation of urinary hippuric acid as a biomarker of exposure to toluene
Evaluation de l'acide hippurique urinaire en tant qu'indicateur biologique d'exposition au toluène [in French]
This article describes a high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of hippuric acid in urine as a biomarker of exposure to toluene. The employed mobile phase and the chromatographic conditions allowed relatively low detection limits (0.1 to 0.2 mg/L). The method was tested on 38 workers (five women and 33 men) in the paint industry, and on 38 non-exposed subjects as controls. The method was found to be simple, sensitive and reliable.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Apr. 2006, No.37, p.24-26. Illus. 11 ref.

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