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Precarious employment - 207 entries found

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CIS 10-0236 Who foots the bill? Decent work for homeworkers in the leather footwear industry
Homeworkers in the leather footwear industry experience extremely poor working conditions. As companies engage in a "race to the bottom" to reduce costs, homeworkers face health problems, have no access to social security and not enough money to support their families. This booklet highlights the situation and problems of homeworkers in this industry and gives information for people who want to work in solidarity with them to defend their rights.
Homeworkers Worldwide (hww), 30-38 Dock Street, Leeds LS10 1JF, United Kingdom, no date. 23p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 11-0328 Campe J., Hoare L., Hagopian A., Keifer M.
Using community-based methods and a social ecological framework to explore workplace health and safety of bloqueros on the Olympic peninsula
Occupational safety and health issues among Latino immigrants are increasingly important as increased immigration has led to a burgeoning workforce with limited English language skills or lack of documentation status. Foreign-born Latino immigrants are consistently the ethnic group with the highest occupational mortality rates in the United States. This study aimed to understand and document the occupational safety and health hazards faced by a particularly at-risk Latino immigrant workforce, cedar block cutters (bloqueros) in a region of Washington State, USA. Key informant interviews were conducted using community-based participatory methods. Three prominent findings arose: bloqueros face occupational risks similar to those found in other forestry occupations; they face unexpected risks that are likely unique to block cutting; they face four overlapping marginalization forces (societal, economical, political, and occupational) that undermine workplace safety and health. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.438-449. 32 ref.

CIS 11-0382 Elenge M.M., De Brouwer C.
Identification of hazards in the workplaces of artisanal mining in Katanga
While artisanal mining takes place in casual framework and with total ignorance of good practices, few studies have focused on the origin of hazards specific to each workplace constitutive of this exploitation facility. Nevertheless, this study is a condition of an efficient occupational safety and health control in this sector. This study of the Ruashi artisanal mine in Congo identifies different workplaces and the hazards specific to each of them, through the observation and analysis of the various tasks, tools and processes used. The investigated exploitation facility consists of five categories of workers: diggers; crushers; washers; hand-made furnace workers; loaders. Beside the risks common to these various workplaces and ensuing notably from the lack of hygiene and working in bad positions, operating in underground galleries exposes diggers to the risks connected with collapsing parts of the mine, suffocation, dehydration or fine particles in the breathed air. Crushers are especially exposed to traumatism risks, notably ocular, and loaders are exposed to risks related to handling heavy loads. Several simple risk prevention measures are proposed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol.24, No.1, p.57-66. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 11-0377 Rabito F.A., Perry S., Salinas O., Hembling J., Schmidt N., Parsons P.J., Kissinger P.
A longitudinal assessment of occupation, respiratory symptoms, and blood lead levels among Latino day laborers in a non-agricultural setting
The reliance on Latin American migrant day labor in the United States is increasing. Prospective data on day laborers' work and health experience in non-agriculture settings are lacking and outcomes are generally restricted to injury rates. This study was conducted to quantify the number of job and job task changes held over 12 months in a cohort of 73 migrant day laborers and assessed the relation between work type, health symptoms and blood lead level. On average, participants worked 2.4 different jobs over the past year averaging 41.5 hr per week. Construction work was associated with a twofold increase in sinonasal and respiratory symptoms in both adjusted and unadjusted models and was associated with increased blood lead levels. It is concluded that despite day labor status, workers had relatively stable employment. Respiratory symptoms were common and often improved when away from work suggesting that workplace irritant exposure is likely. Migrant day laborers working in construction are vulnerable to adverse health effects associated with irritant and lead exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.366-374. 41 ref.


CIS 12-0072 Macdonald E.B., Sanati K.A.
Occupational health services now and in the future: The need for a paradigm shift
Occupational health services (OHS) evolved in response to the needs of hazardous industries and on the premise that work was harmful. In the developed world, most of these industries have disappeared, and classical occupational diseases are uncommon. The evidence now is that most work is safe and safe work is good for health. Access to OHS is inconsistent, and there is no continuity of care for workers who move to another employer or leave work because of ill health. OHS therefore care for survivor populations and generally those in large enterprises who need OHS the least. From a societal viewpoint, OHS have not adapted to the evolving small business and more informal work sector. The health impact of long-term unemployment is large and the workless need access to the competencies of OHS. In the future, OHS should develop to meet the needs of the working-age population and to maximize the functional capacity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2010, Vol.52, No.12, p.1273-1277. Illus. 43 ref.
Occupational_health_services_now_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 11-0385 Labour inspection in Europe: Undeclared work, migration, trafficking
L'inspection du travail en Europe: travail non déclaré, migration et la traite des êtres humains [in French]
La inspección del trabajo en Europa: trabajo no declarado, migración y tráfico de trabajadores [in Spanish]
This report was prepared as a reference document for a meeting held in Budapest (29-30 October 2009) on labour inspection and undeclared work migration and trafficking in Europe. It highlights some of the labour inspection measures taken in law and practice by the European Union countries and it is based in part on a questionnaire filled out by participants prior to the event, as well as on a series of guidelines prepared and endorsed by the experts, with the hope that they will assist labour inspectorates and policy makers as they work toward developing more effective and better coordinated labour inspection responses to the phenomenon of undeclared work.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2010. vii, 44p.
Labour_inspection.pdf [in English]
L'inspection_du_travail.pdf [in French]
La_inspección_del_trabajo.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0169 Aldrich T.E., Seidu D., Bahr D., Freitas S., Brion G.M., Tollerud D.
Time-period mortality patterns in a gaseous diffusion plant workforce
The objective of this study was to assess the mortality risks in a sub-group of workers employed solely during the refit period of a gas diffusion plant in the United States, a time of suspected higher exposure to metal dusts (nickel, arsenic, chromium and uranium) and trichloroethylene. The exposures and causes of death for 754 workers employed exclusively during the period of 1975-1979, with 1554 workers who worked in this period as well as other years are compared. This interval was when the gaseous diffusion cascade facilities were re-fitted. The elevated mortality observed for this subgroup concerned social factors (suicide, homicide) related to their ethnicity, skill level and employment conditions, and appears unrelated to exposures to metal dusts or trichloroethylene.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.23, No.2, p.145-151. Illus. 25 ref.
Time-period_mortality.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0211 Borre K., Ertle L., Graff M.
Working to eat: Vulnerability, food insecurity, and obesity among migrant and seasonal farmworker families
In this study on the relationship between food insecurity and obesity among migrant and seasonal farm workers (MSFWs), 36 Latin American MSFW families in North Carolina completed interviews, attended focus groups and were visited at home. It was found that 63.8% of the families were food insecure and of those, 34.7% experienced hunger; 32% of pre-school children were food insecure. Food secure families spent more money on food. Obesity was prevalent in adults and children but the relationship to food insecurity remains unclear.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.443-462. Illus. 77 ref.

CIS 11-0208 Minkler M., Lee P.T., Tom A., Chang C., Morales A., Liu S.S., Salvatore A., Baker R., Chen F., Bhatia R., Krause N.
Using community-based participatory research to design and initiate a study on immigrant worker health and safety in San Francisco's Chinatown restaurants
Restaurant workers have among the highest rates of work-related illness and injury in the United States, but little is known about the working conditions and occupational health status of Chinese immigrant restaurant workers. Community-based participatory research was employed to study restaurant working conditions and worker health in San Francisco's Chinatown. A community/academic/health department collaborative was formed and 23 restaurant workers trained on research techniques and worker health and safety. A worker survey instrument and a restaurant observational checklist were collaboratively developed. The checklist was piloted in 71 Chinatown restaurants, and the questionnaire administered to 433 restaurant workers. Findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.361-371. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 11-0207 Ahonen E.Q., López-Jacob M.J., Vázquez M.L., Porthé V., Gil-González D., García A.M., Ruiz-Frutos C., Benach J., Benavides F.G.
Invisible work, unseen hazards: The health of women immigrant household service workers in Spain
This study examines the occupational hazards and health effects identified by immigrant women household service workers. It involved 46 documented and undocumented immigrant women in household services in Spain. Data were collected between September 2006 and May 2007 through focus groups and semi-structured individual interviews. In a second phase of analysis, data on psychosocial hazards were organized using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire as a guide. Participants reported a number of environmental, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards and corresponding health effects. Psychosocial hazards were especially strongly present in data. Data on reported hazards were similar by documentation status and varied by several emerging categories: whether participants were primarily cleaners or household helpers and whether they lived in or outside of the homes of their employers. Documentation status was relevant in terms of empowerment and bargaining, but did not appear to influence work tasks or exposure to hazards directly. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.405-416. 48 ref.

CIS 11-0157 Forst L., Avila S., Anozie S., Rubin R.
Traumatic occupational injuries in Hispanic and foreign-born workers
Hispanic and foreign-born workers suffer high rates of occupational fatality in the U.S. Reasons for this are not well understood. The aim of this study was to gather information about the details related to severe, non-fatal occupational injuries in this vulnerable population. Eight years of data were obtained from an urban trauma center in the United States. In addition, medical consultations of individuals admitted for an occupational injury during an 8-month period are reported. Hispanics were more highly represented than expected. They were more likely to be injured by machinery and hand tools. Workers reported hazardous working conditions, lack of workers compensation, short time in current employment, and not working in their usual job. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.344-351. 35 ref.

CIS 11-0156 Porthé V., Ahonen E., Vázquez M.L., Pope C., Agudelo A.A., García A.M., Amable M., Benavides F.G., Benach J.
Extending a model of precarious employment: A qualitative study of immigrant workers in Spain
This study examines the working conditions of 129 immigrant workers in Spain with documented and undocumented administrative status. Immigrant workers reported that precarious employment is characterized by high job instability, a lack of power for negotiating employment conditions, and defenselessness against high labor demands. They described insufficient wages, long working hours, limited social benefits, and difficulty in exercising their rights. Undocumented workers reported greater defenselessness and worse employment conditions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.417-424. 38 ref.

CIS 11-0155 Schenker M.B.
Migration and occupational health: Shining a light on the problem
This editorial summarizes and comments the various articles presented in the whole issue of the journal devoted to migrant workers and occupational health.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.327-328.

CIS 11-0154 Benach J., Muntaner C., Chung H., Benavides F.G.
Immigration, employment relations, and health: Developing a research agenda
International migration has emerged as a global issue that has transformed the lives of hundreds of millions of persons. A review of literature indicates that public health researchers should be concerned about the health consequences of migration processes. Migrant workers are more represented in dangerous industries and in hazardous jobs, occupations and tasks. They are often hired as labourers in precarious jobs with poverty wages and experience more serious abuse and exploitation at the workplace. Also, analyses document migrant workers' problems of social exclusion, lack of health and safety training, fear of reprisals for demanding better working conditions, linguistic and cultural barriers that minimize the effectiveness of training, as well as incomplete access to OHS services and care and compensation when injured. The overall impact of immigration on population health, however, still is poorly understood and many mechanisms, pathways and overall health impact are poorly documented. Current limitations highlight the need to engage in explicit analytical, intervention and policy research.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.338-343. 27 ref.

CIS 11-0185 Villarejo D., McCurdy S.A., Bade B., Samuels S., Lighthall D., Williams D.
The health of California's immigrant hired farmworkers
Hispanic immigrant workers dominate California's hired farm workforce. Little is known about their health status; even less is known about those lacking employment authorization. The California Agricultural Workers Health Survey (CAWHS) was a statewide cross-sectional household survey conducted in 1999. Six hundred fifty-four workers completed in-person interviews, comprehensive physical examinations and personal risk behavior interviews. The CAWHS PE Sample is comprised mostly of young Mexican men who lack health insurance and present elevated prevalence of indicators of chronic disease: overweight, obesity, high blood pressure, and high serum cholesterol. The self-reported, cumulative, farm work career incidence of paid claims for occupational injury under workers compensation was 27% for males and 11% for females. The survey finds elevated prevalence of indicators of chronic disease but lack of health care access. Participants without employment authorization reported a greater prevalence of high-risk behaviors, such as binge drinking, and were less knowledgeable about workplace protection.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.387-397. 33 ref.

CIS 10-0068 Nogareda C.
Accident prevention among migrant workers: Issues to keep in mind and guidelines of intervention
La prevención de accidentes en trabajadores inmigrantes: aspectos a considerar y pautas de intervención [in Spanish]
In Spain, the proportion of immigrant workers within the active population has considerably increased during the past ten years. These individuals often have precarious working conditions, which coupled to the language barrier, result in a high rate of accidents. This information note discusses the main preventive aspects to take into account against accidents among this worker population, together with the possible intervention measures (work organization, integration, training and information).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 13 ref.
La_prevención_de_accidentes_en_trabajadores_inmigrantes.pdf [in Spanish]


CIS 12-0043 Boden P., Rees P.
Health and Safety Executive
Improving the reliability of estimates of migrant worker numbers and their relative risk of workplace injury and illness
This study has reviewed the literature on migrant workers for substantive evidence that migrant workers are more susceptible to injury and illness in the workplace. Survey sources typically fail to adequately capture migrant populations, whilst administrative sources lack the richness of data content. Statistics on accidents in the workplace (RIDDOR) are subject to considerable under-recording, particularly for the self-employed, for smaller businesses and, the evidence suggests, for migrant workers. No information is captured to differentiate migrant workers by their nationality, country of birth or first language. Health records are generally only accessible through health surveillance schemes; providing limited coverage on health and the workplace and with no statistics on nationality, country of birth or first language. These combined inadequacies result in a dearth of United Kingdom studies that make an explicit link between migrant workers, the workplace and health outcomes. The few studies which looked explicitly at the relationship between migrant status and occupational injury/illness have typically reported inconclusive evidence on the effect of migrant workers upon issues of safety and health, primarily due to inadequate data capture and coverage of the target population. However, a number of studies that have examined the impact of the recent influx of migrants from outside the United Kingdom have reinforced the general view that migrant workers, engaged in low-skilled jobs, are more at risk of accident and injury due to the nature of the work they are doing and the conditions in which they are doing it. Implications of these findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, xii, 117p. Illus. Approx. 200 ref.
Improving_the_reliability_of_estimates_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0152 Domestic work - Decent work - A "smart guide" for domestic workers in Thailand
Aimed at migrant workers employed as domestic servants in Thailand, this booklet summarizes their rights and the precautions to be taken to ensure that they work under decent conditions. Also available in Burmese, in Po Karen, Sakaw Karen, Shan and Thai.
ILO Sub-regional Office for East Asia, 10th Floor, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue Bangkok 10200, Thailand, 2009. 24p. Illus.
Domestic_work.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0028 Private employment agencies, temporary agency workers and their contribution to the labour market
Les agences d'emploi privées, les travailleurs intérimaires et leur contribution au marché du travail [in French]
Las agencias de empleo privadas, los trabajadores cedidos por medio de agencias de trabajo temporal y su contribución al mercado de trabajo [in Spanish]
This paper has been prepared by the International Labour Office as a basis for discussions at the Tripartite Workshop to Promote Ratification of the Private Employment Agencies Convention, 1997 (No. 181). Its purpose was to promote ratification of the Convention by European and other countries where the private employment agency market was developing and by major sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. From 2010 onwards, the focus will be more specifically on temporary workers in private services sectors. Contents: Political and economic background and main provisions of Convention No.181; overview of private employment agencies and main provisions of Convention No.181; sectorial aspects of the labour market for temporary agency workers; the economic crisis and private employment agencies; developing social dialogue on temporary agency work; support for further ratification. The full text of Convention No.181 is included in an appendix.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2009. ix, 58p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]

CIS 09-1256 Boscolo P., Di Donato A., Di Giampaolo L., Forcella L., Reale M., Dadorante V., Alparone F., Pagliaro S., Kouri M., Magrini A., Fattorini E.
Blood natural killer activity is reduced in men with occupational stress and job insecurity working in a university
The objective of this study was to examine the immune response to job strain and insecurity among men working in an Italian university. Anxiety, job strain, job insecurity and subjective symptoms were measured by questionnaires. Blood NK cytotoxic activity was determined by an in vitro method and lymphocyte subpopulations by flow-cytometry analysis. Library workers aged over 40 showed higher values of job strain, anxiety and subjective symptoms and lower blood NK activity. Young temporary employees also had reduced blood NK activity. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that not only anxiety and depression but also high levels of job strain and/or insecurity may present risks to health by reducing blood NK activity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2009, Vol.82, No.6, p.787-794. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 09-1088 Ravallec C, Brasseur G., Ginibrière G.
Interim - Temporary workers, permanent risks?
Interim - Travail temporaire, risque permanent? [in French]
Temporary workers are employees faced with constantly-changing work situations and are in a sense always in the situation of new hires. As a consequence, they are exposed to high levels of risk. This collection of articles presents some of the measures adopted by employment agencies in France aimed at improving the working conditions of this category of workers. Contents: key statistics of occupational accidents involving temporary workers; improvements in the exchange of information between employment agencies and user enterprises concerning the hazards related to the specific job being offered; training of employment agency staff in evaluating the hazards facing temporary workers; awareness training of drivers to road hazards; improvements obtained following an agreement between a temporary employment agency and a paper manufacturer aimed at lowering the frequency and severity of accidents among temporary workers; codes of good practice in occupational safety and health.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2009, No.698, p.14-27. Illus.

CIS 09-929 Cole H.P., McKnight R.H., Donovan T.A.
Epidemiology, surveillance and prevention of farm tractor overturn fatalities
Census data concerning fatal occupational injuries identify six states of the United States that have the highest rates of agricultural tractor overturn deaths. Demographic, economic, geological and geographic data that characterize farms in these states were examined. These data suggest that a majority of farms in these states are small acreage livestock operations, located on terrain with steep slopes, with low prevalence of tractors equipped with rollover protective structures and operators who work at off-farm jobs over 200 days per year.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.164-171. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 09-853 Waché O.
Induction training of new workers
L'accueil de nouveaux collaborateurs [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on the prevention of occupational hazards among newly-hired workers in the construction industry: summary of accident statistics highlighting the increased risks among newly-hired workers, in particular young workers; proposals for a successful induction programme; set of tools for safety and health training of newly-hired workers developed by the French professional body for safety and health in the construction sector (OPPBTP).
Prévention BTP, July-Aug. 2009, No.120, p.30-39. Illus.


CIS 11-0625 Equality of treatment and occupational health
Igualdad de trato y salud laboral [in Spanish]
Proceedings of one-day international conference on the topic of equality of treatment and occupational health, organized by the government of the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, held on 2 May 2008. Topics addressed: discrimination and health; inequalities in occupational health; immigration, work and health; work of women and health; work of women and invisible hazards related to toxic substances; developing a gender-specific perspective in trade union occupational health strategies.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de la Provincia de Santa Fe, Rivadavia 3049/51 Ciudad de Santa Fe, S3000FWI, Argentina, 2008. 84p. Illus.

CIS 09-1008 Tompa E., Scott-Marshall H., Fang M.
The impact of temporary employment and job tenure on work-related sickness absence
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of temporary employment and job tenure on work-related sickness absence of one week or more. A longitudinal analysis was undertaken of the time to work-related sickness absence from the start of a job using the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. The sample consisted of 4777 individuals who experienced 7953 distinct job episodes and 167 absences. There were 114,488 person-job-month observational units. Individuals in temporary jobs were found to be as likely to have a work-related sickness absence as individuals in permanent jobs. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.65, No.12, p.801-807. 45 ref.

CIS 09-553 Kim I.H., Khang Y.H., Muntaner C., Chun H., Cho S.I.
Gender, precarious work, and chronic diseases in South Korea
This study examined whether nonstandard workers in South Korea reported poorer health compared to standard workers. Data were taken from a representative sample of 1,563 men and 1,045 women aged 20-64. Nonstandard employment included part-time work, temporary work and day labor. Self-rated health and self-reported chronic disease conditions were used as health measures. Nonstandard employment was significantly associated with higher risk of self-rated health and chronic conditions after adjusting for socioeconomic position (education, occupational class, and income) and health behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, regular exercise and health examinations). Among men, nonstandard work arrangements were significantly associated with musculoskeletal disorders and liver disease, while among women, nonstandard employment was related to mental disorders.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.748-757. 51 ref.

CIS 09-98 Saha A., Kumar S., Vasudevan D.M.
Factors of occupational injury: A survey in a chemical company
This occupational injury surveillance study involved 307 permanent and 419 temporary workers in a chemical company in India to understand the contribution of different possible factors on injury causation. Risks were calculated using univariate and multivariate analysis techniques. Workers of lower age were found to be more susceptible to accidents, though non-significantly. Lower job duration had a significant impact on injury causation. Alcohol consumption did not show any significant effect on accident occurrence, but the effect of smoking and chewing tobacco was significant (odds ratio OR 7.29). Finally job nature had no significant impact on injuries, but that of the nature of employment was considerable, with temporary workers being at far greater risk (OR 2.51) in comparison to permanent workers.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2008, Vol.46, No.2, p.152-157. 38 ref.

CIS 08-1295 Kim I.H., Khang Y.H., Muntaner C., Chun H., Cho S.I.
Gender, precarious work, and chronic diseases in South Korea
Non-standard employment includes part-time work, temporary work and day labour. This study examined whether non-standard workers in South Korea reported poorer health compared to regular workers. Data were taken from a representative sample of 1563 men and 1045 women, aged 20 to 64 years, from the 2001 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-rated health and self-reported chronic disease conditions were used as health measures. Non-standard employment was significantly associated with poorer health, after adjusting for socio-economic, lifestyle and personal factors. Among men, non-standard work arrangements were significantly associated with musculoskeletal disorders (OR 1.97) and liver disease (OR 2.83) while among women, non-standard employment was related to mental disorders (OR 3.25).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.748-757. 51 ref.

CIS 08-909 Drolet D.
Guide for the adjustment of permissible exposure values (PEVs) for unusual work schedules
Guide d'ajustement des valeurs d'exposition admissibles (VEA) pour les horaires de travail non conventionnels [in French]
Because of recent changes to the Regulations concerning occupational safety and health in Quebec (Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail - RSST, see CIS 02-1506), the IRSST had to update the guide for the adjustment of permissible exposure values for unusual work schedules, as well as the computer-based tool allowing its application. This technical guide includes recent toxicological knowledge on the substances concerned by the regulatory changes and allows determining the pathology codes and adjustment categories for the new substances included in the RSST.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 3rd ed., 2008. v, 17p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: CAD 6.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French] [in English]

CIS 08-914 Drolet D.
Guide to the adjustment of permissible exposure values (PEVs) for nonusual work schedules
Guide d'ajustement des valeurs d'exposition admissibles (VEA) pour les horaires de travail non conventionnels [in French]
Because of recent changes to the Regulations concerning occupational safety and health in Quebec (Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail - RSST, see 02-1506), the IRSST had to update the Guide for the adjustment of permissible exposure values for unusual work schedules, as well as the computer-based tool allowing its application. This technical guide includes recent toxicological knowledge on the substances concerned by the regulatory changes and allows to determine the pathology codes and adjustment categories for the new substances included in the RSST. Replaces 04-658.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 3rd ed., 2008. v, 17p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: CAD 6.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 08-871 Labbé F.
Reducing the risks related to the work of temporary workers
La réduction des risques liés au travail des intérimaires [in French]
Temporary workers are twice more exposed than regular workers to the risk of occupational accidents. This article summarizes the legal responsibilities of enterprises using temporary workers and of temporary work agencies with respect to the prevention of occupational hazards facing these workers. Topics addressed: preparing the mission; hazard evaluation; training and information; supervision.
Santé et Sécurité au Travail Actualités, Mar. 2008, No.108. p.5-6.


CIS 12-0088 Ahonen E.Q., Benavides F.G., Benach J.
Immigrant populations, work and health - A systematic review
This literature survey reviewed information on immigrant occupational health available from recent studies, incorporating varied study designs. Findings are discussed. It is concluded from the 48 articles analyzed that more reliable data, targeted appropriate interventions and enforcement of existing regulations are necessary to improve the health of immigrant workers. Furthermore, studies in originating countries should be encouraged to form a more complete understanding of a complex situation.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2007, Vol.33, No.2, p.96-104. 63 ref.
Immigrant_populations_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 09-1277 Waehrer G.M., Dong X.S., Miller T., Men Y., Haile E.
Occupational injury costs and alternative employment in construction trades
To evaluate the costs of fatal and non-fatal injuries in construction occupations, data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics on average annual incidence from 2000 to 2002 were combined with data from an existing cost model for occupational injuries. Construction laborers and carpenters were the two costliest occupations, with 40% of the industry's injury costs. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1218-1227. 35 ref.

CIS 08-1366 Young workers - Facts and figures. Youth employment
Jeunes travailleurs - Faits et chiffres. Emploi des jeunes [in French]
Trabajadores jóvenes. Datos y cifras. Empleo juvenil [in Spanish]
This information note summarizes the first section of a risk observatory report on young workers. The proportion of young workers is decreasing in almost all of the Member States. Nevertheless, the European Union youth unemployment rate was more than twice as high as the total unemployment rate. The information note gives an overview of the employment situation of young workers and the jobs they are employed in, mainly in services and low-skilled manual jobs. This distribution has important implications for the occupational safety and health of young people because of the specific set of potentially harmful conditions (including low pay, temporary seasonal work, poor employment conditions, atypical working time, shift, night and weekend work, and physically demanding work). Gender issues also play an important role. The information note is also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2007. 2p. Illus. 4 ref. [in English] [in Spanish] [in French]

CIS 08-775 Interim mission 3D - More dialogue, less accidents
Intérim Mission 3D - Plus de dialogue, moins d'accidents [in French]
Interim Mission 3D is a video game that allows players to move in three dimensions in computer-generated settings describing four sectors of activity: warehouses, garbage collection, cleaning in the food industry and construction industry. The scenarios highlight the importance of dialogue. Players can successively adopt the role of a temporary worker, a temporary work agency employee and a temporary worker employer. The aim of the game is to avoid accidents.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2007. Video game for PC-Windows. Requires installation. Price: EUR 50.00.

CIS 08-791
Deutscher Bundestag
Report of the Federal Government on occupational safety and health and on occupational accident and disease occurrences in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2006
Bericht der Bundesregierung über den Stand von Sicherheit und Gesundheit bei der Arbeit und das Unfall- und Berufskrankheitengeschehen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahr 2006 [in German]
Status report of the German government on occupational safety and health in Germany during 2006. Topics addressed: overview of the state of occupational safety and health (data, legal aspects, accidents, industrial accidents and commuting accidents, occupational diseases, prevention and economic aspects, insurance costs, work aptitude, invalidity pensions); safety and health in the temporary work sector (data, legal aspects, accidents, work aptitude, invalidity); overview of accidents among students. Appendices include a list of German industrial safety regulations, together with examples of regulations of occupational accident insurance providers.
Bundesanzeiger Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Amsterdamer Str. 192, 50735 Köln, Germany, Dec. 2007. 172p. Illus. [in German]

CIS 08-322 Evaluate safety and health management in your enterprise
Evaluez la gestion de la santé et de la sécurité dans votre entreprise [in French]
The purpose of this downloadable tool is to evaluate the current degree of safety and health management within the enterprise, to identify its strengths and weaknesses and to assess how it is perceived by employees. The evaluation system involves 20 occupational safety and health topics. Beyond the rating itself, the usefulness of the approach lies in its ability to highlight the interactions between the various categories of users.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2007. Microsoft Excel file. Can be downloaded from

CIS 08-298 Thébaud-Mony A.
Work can cause serious harm to your health
Travailler peut nuire gravement à votre santé [in French]
Based on numerous accounts from workers employed in various industrial sectors (nuclear, steel, chemicals, food) but also in services, and using the illustrative case of asbestos, this publication highlights the risks to workers' life and health, particularly among precariously-employed persons as well as among workers exposed to asbestos, workers of subcontractors and temporary workers.
Editions La Découverte, 9 bis rue Abel-Hovelacque, 75013 Paris, France, 2007. 291p. Price: EUR 19.00.

CIS 08-52 Work capacity expected of workers after accidents or diseases
Capacité de travail exigible en cas d'accident et de maladie [in French]
Zumutbare Arbeitstätigkeit nach Unfall und bei Krankheit [in German]
Attività lavorativa esigibile dopo un infortunio o una malattia [in Italian]
Physicians are frequently given the responsibility by insurance institutions to assess the functional capacity of patients and their aptitude to carry out certain tasks. Their decisions and recommendations can have serious repercussions on the recovery process and return to work. This booklet offers guidance for assessing the functional capacity and aptitude of persons impaired in their health. Contents: definition of the required work capacity; role of physicians; evaluation models; taking specific circumstances into account; effects of somatic functional restrictions; effects of psychic disorders.
Swiss Insurance Medicine, Im Park, St. Georgenstrasse 70, Postfach 958, 8401 Winterthur, Switzerland, 2007. 24p. [in German] [in French] [in Italian]

CIS 08-211 Pérez Bermúdez B., Nieto Sánchez A.B.
Biological exposure to blood-borne pathogens and temporary work
Exposición biológica a patógenos hemáticos y temporalidad laboral [in Spanish]
Incidents involving the risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens, particularly through needle-stick injuries, are common in the health care sector. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of these incidents among regular and temporary health care workers at a Spanish university hospital. All reported incidents occurring within a period of twelve months were analysed. Logistic regressions were performed using the dependant variables of age, sex, level of seniority, place where the incident occurred, injured body part, causal agent, work shift, way in which the incident was caused, and the month and day of the injury. The odds ratio of such incidents was found to be 1.96 among temporary workers. No other variables were found to have a significant effect.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, June 2007, Vol.LIII, No.207, p.13-19. Illus. 11 ref.


CIS 10-0187 Host employers/clients - Labour hire
Host employers are organizations that employ workers supplied by an agency. This bulletin is designed to assist employers prepare for and manage such workers. It clarifies employers' responsibilities with respect to occupational safety and health, as well as for hazard evaluation, supervision and ensuring workers' are adequately qualified for the tasks they are given. See also ISN 110677.
Department of Commerce, Worksafe Division, Westcentre, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2006. PDF document, 6p. [in English]

CIS 08-1247 Hecker D., Galais N., Moser K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Unusual career paths and false perceptions of stress
Atypische Erwerbsverläufe und wahrgenommene Fehlbelastungen [in German]
The aim of this project was to develop a tool for the evaluation of stress factors among workers with unusual career paths (discontinuities, frequent changes of employers, occupations or locations). A questionnaire comprising six scales was developed for evaluating stress in these atypical employees. The tool was evaluated in a preliminary qualitative study involving 45 workers and was pre-tested on 167 subjects. The validation of the questionnaire was next carried out during a survey of 384 subjects. The reliability was found to be high. Overall, high stress levels were found among groups of short-term and temporary workers, while it was low among fixed employees. Among workers where there was a discrepancy between their effective and desired employment status, stress levels were higher. Other findings are discussed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 85p. Illus. 32 ref. Price: EUR 12.00.

CIS 08-56 Key to... part-time work
Clés pour... le travail à temps partiel [in French]
Wegwijs in... de deeltijdse arbeid [in Dutch]
This booklet explains the regulations that apply to part-time work and their implications with respect to social security. It addresses each of the issues of the employment contract, working hours, absenteeism, minimum work time and overtime. It also explains the conditions under which part-time workers can benefit from unemployment compensation.
Service public fédéral Emploi, travail et concertation sociale, rue Ernest- Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, May 2006. 56p. Illus. [in French] [in Dutch]

CIS 08-93 Vogel L., Grégoire D., Gauthy R., Paone G.
Young workers: Health at risk
Jeunes travailleurs: danger santé [in French]
Collection of articles on the health hazards faced by young workers, covering the following aspects: high levels of temporary work and casual labour among young workers, and its occupational health implications; conditions of work of young persons in the fast food sector; occupational safety and health training initiatives aimed at young persons in a French automobile production region; work-related risks and ergonomics; child labour in industrialized countries.
Oct. 2006, No.30-31, p.13-38. Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English] [in French]

CIS 07-1286 Keys to student work
Clés pour le travail des étudiants [in French]
Wegwijs in de studentenarbeid [in Dutch]
This booklet summarizes the main Belgian legal provisions and regulations that apply to students who work and their employers. It describes the terms of the student employment contract together with the various measures aimed at protecting young workers. It also explains the implications of student work with respect to social security and their taxation or that of their parents. Working students face a number of safety and health hazards which are discussed in the booklet, which also contains a list of useful addresses and an example of a student employment contract.
Service public fédéral Emploi, travail et concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blériot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, May 2006. 75p. Illus. [in French] [in Dutch]

CIS 07-1047 Welfare of workers during the performance of their work
Le bien-être des travailleurs lors de l'exécution de leur travail [in French]
Het welzijn van de werknemers bij de uitvoering van hun werk [in Dutch]
Aimed at employers, this guide comments the Belgian Act of 4 August 1996 concerning the welfare of workers during the performance of their work (see CIS 97-1) and explains how to ensure its compliance within the enterprise. Contents: scope; definitions; general principles; risk prevention and occupational safety and health services; senior committee for risk prevention and protection at the place of work; provisions applicable to special work situations (subcontracting, temporary work); serious accident prevention measures; inspections; administrative and criminal sanctions.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot I, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2006. 71p. Illus. [in Dutch] [in French]

CIS 07-1070 Health surveillance of workers
La surveillance de santé des travailleurs [in French]
Het gezondheidstoezicht op de werknemers [in Dutch]
Aimed at employers, this guide comments on the Belgian Royal Order of 28 May 2003 on the health monitoring of workers (see CIS 02-1511) and explains how to ensure its compliance within the enterprise. Topics addressed: objectives; responsibilities of employers, workers and safety committees; organization of health evaluation in practice; details of health evaluation; prohibition of work without a medical examination; cooperation and appeals; role of occupational physicians; special provisions for young workers, interns and pregnant women.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot I, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2006. 48p. Illus. [in French] [in Dutch]

CIS 07-842 Cloutier E., Bourdouxhe M., Ledoux E., David H., Gagnon I., Ouellet F.
Descriptive study of private agency nurses' employment, working and health and safety conditions in the context of a labour shortage
Etude descriptive des conditions d'emploi, de travail et de santé et de sécurité du travail des infirmières d'agence privée dans un contexte de pénurie de main-d'œuvre [in French]
This study as well as a previous study (R-346, see CIS 03-1256) show that local community service centres (LCSCs) in Quebec have to deal with an increasing demand for services with insufficient manpower. They therefore make more use of the services of private homecare agencies. This study analyzed the working and safety and health conditions of nurses from agencies collaborating with one of the previously studied LCSCs. The report describes the main characteristics of two agencies and the nurses who are employed in them, together with the constraints that they face, their occupational safety and health conditions and their career and health paths. There are also comparisons between the occupational safety and health conditions of agency nurses and of nurses from the LCSCs studied. Finally, leads for further research are provided.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. xii, 258p. Illus. 69 ref. Price: CAD 20.00 (main report); 2006. vi, 41p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: CAD 7.42 (summary). Downloadable versions (PDF format) free of charge. [in French] [in French]

CIS 07-519 Napo in: Safe start!
This DVD uses animation and the universal language of Napo in a training programme suitable for a young audience and for all new entrants to the labour market, including migrant and temporary workers. The role of Napo and his friends is to provide an introduction to occupational safety and health through engaging characters, amusing story lines, humour and a light-hearted approach.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2006, DVD. [in English]

CIS 07-746 Ritvanen T., Louhevaara V., Helin P., Väisänen S., Hänninen O.
Responses of the autonomic nervous system during periods of perceived high and low work stress in younger and older female teachers
The aim of this study was to examine the response of the autonomic nervous system in younger and older healthy female teachers during work periods of perceived high and low stress. There were 14 participants in each group. In the younger group (average age 31 years), heart rate, cortisol excretion rate and psychosomatic symptoms were significantly higher during the high work stress period. The older participants (average age 54) experienced no decrease in their heart rate and cortisol excretion during the low stress period and they exhibited no significant decrease in blood pressure after the work in the evening during both periods. Recovery from stress among the older teachers was insufficient particularly in view of their elevated diastolic blood pressure during the low work stress period. Ergonomic and individually tailored measures in terms of work time control, specific relaxation techniques and a part-time retirement may improve the stress management of older teachers.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2006, Vol.37, No.3, p.311-318. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 07-266 Labbé F.
Limits to the safety training of employees
Les limites de la formation à la sécurité des salariés [in French]
Safety training of employees is an integral part of the occupational safety and health policies of all French enterprises. This article summarizes the main legal obligations with respect to safety training. Contents: purpose and content of safety training; increased training for non-regular employees; table summarizing the training programmes to be implemented (movement of vehicles and persons, hazards related to work tasks. measures to be taken in the event of an accident at the place of work, safety signalling).
Santé et Sécurité au Travail Actualités, Feb. 2006, No.87, p.6-7. Illus.

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