OSH in developing countries - 399 entries found
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The promotional framework for occupational safety and health - Convention No.187 and Recommendation No.197 of the International Labour Organization
Le cadre promotionnel pour la sécurité et la santé au travail - Convention n° 187 et Recommandation n° 197 de l'Organisation internationale du travail [in French]
Designed to be used by professionals in the field of occupational safety and health, workers' representatives and managers of public occupational safety and health institutions in countries of the Sahel and West Africa, this booklet explains and comments Convention No.187 and Recommendation No.197 of the International Labour Organization. The full texts of these documents are also included.
Sub-regional office for for the Sahel Region and West Africa, ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, no date. 69p. Illus.
Who foots the bill? Decent work for homeworkers in the leather footwear industry
Homeworkers in the leather footwear industry experience extremely poor working conditions. As companies engage in a "race to the bottom" to reduce costs, homeworkers face health problems, have no access to social security and not enough money to support their families. This booklet highlights the situation and problems of homeworkers in this industry and gives information for people who want to work in solidarity with them to defend their rights.
Homeworkers Worldwide (hww), 30-38 Dock Street, Leeds LS10 1JF, United Kingdom, no date. 23p. Illus. 11 ref.
Ergonomic checkpoints in agriculture
Based on good practices, this manual presents practical and concrete guidance on easy-to-implement ergonomic improvements in the agricultural sector, particularly in developing countries. The checkpoints each describe an action, indicate why it is necessary and how to carry it out, and provide further hints and points to remember. They focus on ergonomically designed tools and on best techniques for handling materials and arranging workstations, physical environments, welfare facilities, teamwork methods and community cooperation.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2012. xxvi, 234p. Illus. Price: CHF 40.00; USD 45.00; GBP 35.00; EUR 40.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
Ergonomic_checkpoints_in_agriculture_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Tomicic C., Vernez D., Belem T., Berode M.
Human mercury exposure associated with small-scale gold mining in Burkina Faso
In Burkina Faso, gold ore is one of the main sources of income for an important part of the active population. Artisan gold miners use mercury in the extraction, a toxic metal whose human health risks are well known. The aim of this study was to assess mercury exposure as well as to understand the exposure determinants of gold miners in small-scale mines. The study population was composed of 93 persons who were directly and indirectly related to gold mining activities on eight sites. Work-related exposures were evaluated based on the specific tasks carried out. Urinary samples were collected and participants were examined by a local medical team for possible symptoms related to the toxic effects of mercury. Mercury levels were high, with 69% of the measurements exceeding the ACGIH biological exposure index of 35 ¿g per g of creatinine (¿g/g-Cr) (prior to shift) while 16% even exceeded 350 ¿g/g-Cr. Various symptoms related to mercury toxicity were observed. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2011, Vol.84, No.5, p.539-546. Illus. 23 ref.
Human_mercury_exposure_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Asbestos time bomb in Bangladesh - A field assessment report
This report is a field assessment study on asbestos use and workers' exposure in Bangladesh. Topics addressed: imports of asbestos into the country, main uses; enterprises involved in manufacturing asbestos-based products; role of social advocacy groups and workers' organizations.
Bangladesh Occupational Safety, Health And Environment Foundation (OSHE), 44 F/6 West Panthapath (4th Floor), 1215 Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2011. 25p. Illus.
Asbestos_time_bomb_in_Bangladesh_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Pachauri R.K., Sareen S., Nagata A., Kjellstrom T., Lemke B., Hyatt O., Langkulsen U., Kabir I., Nag P.K., Nag A., Sekhar P., Shah P., Odland J.O., Nilsson M., Tylor A., Mcguiness C., Kawakami T.
Collection of articles on climate change of relevance to countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Contents: effect of climate change on the food safety and health of agricultural workers; potential threat to occupational health, worker productivity and local economic development by increased workplace heat exposure due to climate change; climate change and occupational health in Thailand; climate change and risks to health in Bangladesh; perceived heat stress and strain of workers; new tools to estimate climate change impacts on occupational health in Asia and the Pacific region; progress in the Hothaps programme assessing impacts and prevention of heat effects on working people in relation to local climate change; trade union policies on climate change; participatory approaches to improving occupational safety and health and preventing influenza of migrant workers in Thailand.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, May 2011, Vol.18, No.1, p.3-27 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Hahn M.G., Pule T., Sutherland D.K.B., Schutte S., Rees D., Murray J., Grainger L., Herrera-Montero V., Cárdenas P.
Collection of articles on occupational safety and health in mines of relevance to African countries. Topics covered: mining activities and occupational safety and health at work; occupational injuries in a gold mining company in Ghana; ergonomics as a practice for safe and healthy mining in South African mines; considerations when designing monitoring of silica-exposed miners in southern Africa; mine safety in Chile.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2011, Vol.21, No.1, p.1-19 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Mining.pdf [in English]
Elenge M.M., De Brouwer C.
Identification of hazards in the workplaces of artisanal mining in Katanga
While artisanal mining takes place in casual framework and with total ignorance of good practices, few studies have focused on the origin of hazards specific to each workplace constitutive of this exploitation facility. Nevertheless, this study is a condition of an efficient occupational safety and health control in this sector. This study of the Ruashi artisanal mine in Congo identifies different workplaces and the hazards specific to each of them, through the observation and analysis of the various tasks, tools and processes used. The investigated exploitation facility consists of five categories of workers: diggers; crushers; washers; hand-made furnace workers; loaders. Beside the risks common to these various workplaces and ensuing notably from the lack of hygiene and working in bad positions, operating in underground galleries exposes diggers to the risks connected with collapsing parts of the mine, suffocation, dehydration or fine particles in the breathed air. Crushers are especially exposed to traumatism risks, notably ocular, and loaders are exposed to risks related to handling heavy loads. Several simple risk prevention measures are proposed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol.24, No.1, p.57-66. Illus. 24 ref.
Untimanon O., Geater A., Chongsuvivatwong V., Saetia W., Utapan S.
Skin lead contamination of family members of boat-caulkers in Southern Thailand
Powdered lead oxide (Pb3O4) is used in the wooden-boat repair industry as a constituent of the caulking material. This study compared skin lead of household members of caulkers' and control homes, and examined the relationship of household member's skin lead with household floor lead loading (FLL) and dust lead content (DLC). FLL and DLC were measured in 67 caulkers' houses and 46 nearby houses with no known lead exposure. In each household, wipe specimens of skin lead were obtained from one selected family member. Hand lead loading (HdLL) and foot lead loading (FtLL) were significantly higher in family members of caulkers than controls (geometric mean 64.4 vs. 36.2 μg/m2 and 77.8 vs 43.8 μg/m2, respectively). This pattern mirrored FLL and DLC, which were also higher in caulkers' than in control houses (geometric mean 109.9 vs. 40.1 μg/m2 and 434.8 vs 80.8 μg/g, respectively). Multiple linear regression modelling revealed FLL to be a better predictor than DLC for HdLL in all age groups and for FtLL in adult family members. In conclusion, skin lead levels are elevated in family members living in a lead-exposed worker's house and are related to the levels of household lead contamination.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.39, No.1, p.37-46. 33 ref.
Skin_lead_contamination.pdf [in English]
Courtice M.N., Demers P.A., Takaro T.K., Vedal S., Ahmad S.K., Siddique Z., Davies H.W.
Asbestos-related disease in Bangladeshi ship breakers: A pilot study
This study examined the prevalence of asbestos-related diseases including asbestosis, work-related respiratory symptoms, and attitudes to occupational safety and health among a group of internal migrant ship breakers in Bangladesh. Data was collected on clinical and work history, respiratory symptoms, and occupational safety and health practices. Chest radiographs were rated using ILO scores by a certified reader. In the 104 male ship breakers studied, prevalence of asbestos-related disease was 12%, of which asbestosis accounted for 6%. Knowledge of asbestos and occupational safety and health measures were almost non-existent. The prevalence of asbestos-related diseases is low compared to studies in shipbuilders and repairers, but a risk underestimate could have resulted from various issued identified during study design and implementation, which are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol.17, p.144-153. 40 ref.
Human rights and health: Opportunities to advance rural occupational health
Human rights discourse is rarely used to shape professional standards for health and safety. Yet there is much potential for synergy by applying human rights approaches to workplace safety and health, and professional ethics. A review of international treaties confirms an extensive articulation of the right to workplace health and safety. A case study of pesticide exposure risks to small farmers in developing countries illustrates the links between human rights, occupational health practice and professional ethics. Occupational health professionals have a responsibility to assist in the realization of workers' occupational health rights, particularly by promoting meaningful participation of those affected by hazardous exposures. Human rights approaches may assist the prevention of work-related morbidity.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.80-92. 96 ref.
Guide for the establishment of the programme on occupational safety and health for working women in French speaking West Africa
Guide d'orientation pour la mise en place du programme de formation en sécurité et santé au travail des femmes travailleuses [in French]
This guide for the establishment of a programme on on occupational safety and health for working women in French speaking West Africa, aimed at trainers, includes a description of the available courses, methods for their implementation, practice exercises for the training of trainers and a self-assessment guide for the training sessions.
ILO Subregional Office for the Sahel Region, Immeuble EPI, B.P.404, Dakar, Senegal, Dec. 2010. 27p.
Annual report of activities 2010
Annual report of activities of the Centre for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment of the Industrial Relations Institute of the Province of Punjab, Pakistan, for the year 2010. Topics addressed include: awards received; case studies of accidents; certifications received; construction of new facilities; information dissemination for the prevention of child labour and bonded labour; installation of new testing facilities and equipment; organization and functions of the centre; overview of 2010 accident statistics; publications; risk assessment surveys in industry; seminars and exhibitions; training courses; training materials.
Centre for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment (CIWCE), Civic Centre Township (near Chandni Chowk), Lahore, Pakistan, 2010. 82p. Illus.
Annual_report_of_activities_2010.pdf [in English]
Gyekye S.A., Salminen S.
Organizational safety climate and work experience
The study examined the relationships between work experience and several organizational safety climate factors: safety perceptions; job satisfaction; compliance with safety management policies; accident frequency. Participants were 320 Ghanaian industrial workers divided into two cohorts: experienced and inexperienced workers. Workplace safety perceptions were assessed with Hayes' 50-item work safety scale. MANOVA was used to test for differences of statistical significance. Significant differences were found between experienced cohorts and their inexperienced counterparts. Experienced workers indicated the best perceptions on safety, expressed the highest level of job satisfaction, were the most compliant with safety procedures and recorded the lowest accident frequency.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.16, No.4, p.431-443. 64 ref.
de la Torre S., Gasimbi I., Bhat D., Posner J., Noel M., Masembe V., Songa J., Hossain I.
Protecting at risk cadres of health workers from medical transmission of HIV and hepatitis B and C through injection safety interventions
This study on work practices and awareness of HIV and hepatitis B and C among medical waste disposal workers in several developing countries was presented in a poster session at an international symposium on HIV and emerging infectious diseases held on 24-26 March 2010 in Marseille, France. The study was part of a broader programme aimed to improve injection safety and healthcare waste management practices in eleven developing countries. Cross-sectional studies were carried out to evaluate progress in these areas. Observations of waste management practices and interviews were carried out with waste handlers at several sited. Surveys across countries showed that majority are aware of HIV, but not of hepatitis B or C. In Kenya, 91% of waste handlers mentioned HIV, but only 33% mentioned hepatitis B, and 5% hepatitis C. Only three waste handlers reported receiving all three doses of the hepatitis B vaccination in Kenya while in Uganda, only one waste handler interviewed was fully vaccinated at follow-up. The percent of waste handlers who reported having personal protective equipment varied widely between countries, with 55% in Kenya reporting having heavy duty gloves and boots, while only 7% of waste handlers reporting the same in Haiti. Implications of these findings are discussed.
2010, Vol.7, Suppl.1, p.152.
Protecting_at_risk.pdf [in English]
Kortum E., Leka S., Cox T.
Psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries: Health impact, priorities, barriers and solutions
This study explores experts' perceptions of psychosocial risks and work-related stress in emerging economies and developing countries. It focuses on knowledge of potential health impact of psychosocial risks and preliminary priorities for action, and discusses potential barriers and solutions to addressing psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries. It was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews, two rounds of an online Delphi survey and four focus groups. Twenty nine experts with expertise in occupational health were interviewed. Seventy four experts responded to the first round of an online Delphi survey and 53 responded to the second round. Four groups of experts with a total of 37 active participants with specific or broader knowledge about developing country contexts participated in focus group discussions. High concern was expressed for the need to address psychosocial risks and work-related stress and their health impact. Developing country experts' knowledge about these issues was comparable to knowledge from industrialized countries; however, application of expert knowledge was reported to be weak in developing countries. Socio-economic conditions were regarded as important considerations. Priorities to be addressed were identified, and barriers to implementing possible solutions were proposed. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.225-238. Illus. 56 ref.
Psychosocial_risks.pdf [in English]
Marucci-Wellman H., Leamon T.B., Binh T.T., Diep N.B., Willetts J.L., Wegman D.H., Kriebel D.
The work-related burden of injury in a rapidly industrialising commune in Viet Nam
In this community-based injury surveillance study, workplaces in a Vietnamese region were identified and ranked by the magnitude of injuries (or highest injury count), the risk (highest incidence rates) and the burden (the effect of injuries on the livelihoods of workers). A total of 591 injuries occurring in the month prior to survey administration were analyzed. 482 were attributed to work activities (82%), yielding an annualised incidence rate of 1001/1000 full time employee equivalents (FTE). The highest number of injuries (299) occurred in the manufacturing sector, followed by agriculture (70). The highest rate of injury was in the transport, storage and communications sector (annualised IR 1583/1000 FTE), followed by manufacturing (1235/1000 FTE) and agriculture (844/1000 FTE). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2010, Vol.67, No.4. p.244-250. 14 ref.
Kortum E., Leka S., Cox T.
Psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries: Health impact, priorities, barriers and solutions
This paper focuses on knowledge of potential health impact of psychosocial risks and preliminary priorities for action, and discusses potential barriers and solutions to addressing psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries. This research applied a mixed methodology including semi-structured interviews, two rounds of an online Delphi survey and four focus groups. High concern was expressed for the need to address psychosocial risks and work-related stress and their health impact. Developing country experts' knowledge about these issues was comparable to knowledge from industrialized countries; however, application of expert knowledge was reported to be weak in developing countries. Socio-economic conditions were regarded as important considerations. Priorities to be addressed were identified, and barriers to implementing possible solutions were proposed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.225-238. Illus. 56 ref.
Psychosocial_risks.pdf [in English]
Carothers R., Breslin F.C., Denomy J., Foad M.
Promoting occupational safety and health for working children through microfinance programming
Microfinance programmes are recognized as a way of improving incomes and creating employment for large numbers of low-income families, but there are concerns that working conditions within these informal microenterprises are far from ideal. For example, when families receive loans to expand a microenterprise, children may make up the labour shortfall until the family can afford to hire adult workers. Through the Promoting and Protecting the Interests of Children who Work (PPIC-Work) project being carried out in Egypt, a set of interventions that can not only improve working conditions, but can also be integrated into standard microfinance programs has been developed. By working with and through self-financing microfinance programs, the PPIC-Work approach provides a way of improving occupational safety and health not only for children working in microenterprises but also for large numbers of children and adults working in the informal sector more generally.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.16, p.180-190. Illus. 28 ref.
Promoting.pdf [in English]
Feola G., Binder C.R.
Why don't pesticide applicators protect themselves? Exploring the use of personal protective equipment among Colombian smallholders
The misuse of personal protective equipment (PPE) during pesticide application was investigated among smallholders in Colombia. Findings suggest that the descriptive social norm was significantly influencing PPE use. The following were also important: having experienced pesticide-related health problems; age; the share of pesticide application carried out; the perception of PPE hindering work. Interestingly, the influence of these factors differed for different pieces of PPE. Since conformity to the social norm is a source of rigidity in the system, behavioural change may take the form of a discontinuous transition. Suggestions for triggering a transition towards more sustainable PPE use are formulated.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.16, p.11-23. Illus. 57 ref.
Vaz K., McGrowder D., Crawford T., Alexander-Lindo R.L., Irving R.
Prevalence of injuries and reporting of accidents among health care workers at the University Hospital of the West Indies
This cross sectional study was conducted in September and October 2007 at the University Hospital of the West Indies. A 28-item self-administered questionnaire was provided to 200 health care workers including medical doctors, medical technologists, nurses and assistants to assess knowledge and practices regarding universal precautions, prevalence of injuries and incidence of accidents and compliance with post-exposure prophylaxis. Splashes from body fluids, needle stick injuries and cuts from other objects were quite prevalent among health care workers. At the same time, the study found that the majority of health care workers was aware of policies and procedures for reporting accidents. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.23, No.2, p.133-143. 41 ref.
Prevalence_of_injuries.pdf [in English]
Rees D., Murray J., Nelson G., Sonnenberg P.
Oscillating migration and the epidemics of silicosis, tuberculosis, and HIV infection in South African gold miners
Hundreds of thousands of men from rural areas of South Africa and neighbouring countries have come to seek work in the gold mines. They are not immigrants in the usual sense as they work for periods in the mines, go home, and then return. This is termed oscillating or circular migration. Today, there exist serious interrelated epidemics of silicosis, tuberculosis, and HIV infection in the gold mining industry. This article discusses the role of oscillating migration in fuelling these epidemics, by examining the historical, political, social and economic contexts of these diseases.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.398-404. Illus. 46 ref.
Chami A.R., Nejjar A.
The French-speaking world - Morocco
Monde francophone - Maroc [in French]
Collection of two articles on occupational safety and health in Morocco. The first is signed by the Minister for Industry and presents the current situation and the strategic objectives of the country; the second article addresses trends in the legal aspects of standardization.
Préventique-Sécurité, Jan.-Feb. 2010, No.109, p.53-56. Illus.
International Labour Organization (ILO), International Union of Food, Farm and Hotel Workers
Guidance document for the implementation of an occupational safety and health training programme for working women
Guide d'orientation pour la mise en place d'un programme de formation en sécurité et santé au travail des femmes travailleuses [in French]
This guidance document for the implementation of an occupational safety and health training programme for women working in the agricultural sector in Sahel and West-African countries is aimed at trainers. Contents: focal themes; implementation; programme and educational exercises; self-appraisal guide.
Bureau Sous-régional de l'OIT pour le Sahel, rue Amadou Assan Ndoye, Dakar, Sénégal, Dec. 2010, 26p.
Nouaigui H., Azzoni L., Huré P., Maison A., Garcia C., Naouar M.
Implementation of REACH-GHS/CLP in Tunisia: Safety and health support and socioeconomic implications
La mise en place de REACH-SGH/CLP en Tunisie: apports préventifs et enjeux socio-économiques [in French]
Special issue on a conference on the implementation of REACH-GHS/LCP in Tunisia, held in Tunis, Tunisia, 18 and 19 May 2010. Contents: implementation of the new GHS-CLP regulations in Tunisia; decent work should also be safe work; REACH - provisions and expectations in occupational health; implementation of GHS in Europe; actions undertaken by INRS with respect to the CLP regulations; SEPPIC and REACH regulations; introduction to the Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals; role played by national structures and departments in the management of chemicals; approach adopted by CTS for responding to REACH; experiences of Tunisian enterprises with respect to compliance with REACH and CLP. A six-page summary in Arabic is included.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, July 2010, No.54, p.2-40. Illus.
Henwood N., Niu S., Michell K., Mwakini N.K., Kaoneka B.K., Lekei E., Rwako A.J., Matee J.J., Jemneh T.A., Pääkkönen T.
Health care workers
Collection of articles on the safety and health of health care workers of relevance to African countries. Contents: ILO list of occupational diseases and health care workers; protection of health care workers with a focus on respiratory health; hepatitis in the context of Botswana. Other topics: safety implications of pesticide use in vegetable cultivation among small-scale farmers in Tanzania; Ethiopian migrant workers' perceptions of the United Kingdom health and safety regulations; review of a conference on well-being held in February 2010 in Helsinki, Finland.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2010, Vol.20, No.4, p.1-23 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Health_care_workers.pdf [in English]
Machida S., Baichoo P., Muchiri F., Brown R., Katula Y., Kadiri S.A., Kiwekete H.M., Kogi K.
Risk assessment at workplaces
Collection of articles on risk assessment at workplaces of relevance to African countries. Contents: risk assessment training in Mauritius; role of the International Chemical Safety Cards in occupational safety and health; risk assessment in Uganda; risk assessment and control in workplaces; basic occupational health services and risk assessment; psychosocial risk assessment - ensuring the well-being of employees; psychosocial risk management - European framework (PRIMA-EF). Other topics: review of new publications on ergonomics in developing countries, healthy workplaces and risks in modern society; conference announcements.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 2010, Vol.20, No.2, p.27-43 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref
Risk_assessment_at_workplaces.pdf [in English]
Kawakami T., Siang L.H., Tan A., Kim E.A., Kang S.K., Niu S., Leman A.M., Omar A.R., Rahman K.A., Yusof M.Z.M., Kogi K.
Injury and disease reporting systems
Collection of articles on occupational injury and disease reporting systems of relevance to countries in the Asian-Pacific region. Contents: Singapore framework for reporting occupational accidents, injuries and diseases; reporting system for occupational injuries and illness in Korea; ILO list of occupational diseases for which health care workers are at risk; reporting of occupational injury and diseases in Malaysia. Other topics: presentation of a WHO online library on occupational and environmental health; presentation of a new IEA/ICOH publication on ergonomics in developing countries.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Sep. 2010, Vol.17, No.2, p.27-43 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/en/publications/electronic_journals/asian_pacific_newsletter/archives/Documents/Asian_Pacific_Newsletter2_2010.pdf [in English]
Nag A., Vyas H., Nag P.K.
Gender differences, work stressors and musculoskeletal disorders in weaving industries
This study was undertaken to identify the work stressors among male and female weavers in the powerloom and handloom sectors and to examine the association of work stressors with the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It involved 516 workers. There was a high overall prevalence of MSDs, with women more prone to developing MSDs in upper back and lower back, while men were more prone to developing pain in the knee and hand. Multivariate analysis indicated that a job duration of over ten years, manual material handling and poor machinery safety were significant risk factors of MSDs in the powerloom sector. Among handloom weavers, significant risk factors of pain included being aged over 25 years, poor machinery design, mental overload and skill requirements.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.339-348. Illus. 32 ref.
Arphorn S., Chaonasuan P., Pruktharathikul V., Singhakajen V., Chaikittiporn C.
A program for Thai rubber tappers to improve the cost of occupational health and safety
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an occupational safety and health programme among rubber tappers involving training on self-care in order to reduce and prevent work-related accidents, injuries and illnesses. Data on costs for healthcare, prevention and treatment of work-related accidents, injuries and illnesses were collected among 49 rubber tappers by means of interviewer-administered questionnaires. It was found that after the implementation of the programme, there were significant reductions in the proportion of the injured subjects, the level of pain and treatment costs. The programme significantly raised health awareness among the tappers and in the community.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.275-282. 9 ref.
Work Improvements in Small Enterprises (WISE) Action Manual; Trainers' Guide
Work Improvements in Small Enterprises (WISE), also known as "Higher Productivity and a Better Place to Work", is a programme developed by the ILO to assist small and medium-sized enterprises in improving working conditions and productivity using simple, effective and affordable techniques that provide direct benefits to owners and workers. Aimed more specifically at African countries, these binders contain the revised editions of the WISE action manual, training guide and trainers' guide, replacing earlier versions (see CIS 03-1545 ).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2009. 165p. Illus: 141p. Illus. (2 binders)
Work_Improvements_(WISE)_Trainers'_guide_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Work_Improvements_(WISE)_Action_manual_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Safety, health and welfare on construction sites - A training manual
Keselamatan, kesihatan dan kebajikan di tapak-tapak pembinaan - Manual latihan [in Malay]
This training manual is the bilingual Malay-English version of the manual published in 1995 and analysed as CIS 95-473. It is aimed essentially at readers in developing countries. Contents: safety organization and management; site planning and layout; excavations; scaffolding; ladders; hazardous processes (roof work, steel erection, work over water, demolition, confined spaces, piling); vehicles; movement of materials; working positions, tools and equipment, the working environment (hazardous substances, noise and vibration, exposure to heat and cold); personal protective equipment; welfare facilities.
MDC Publishers, 2717-2718 Jalan Permata Empat, Taman Permata, Ulu Kelang, 53300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009, 232p.Illus.
Enterprise social responsibility - The key to the 21st century
La responsabilidad social empresarial. Clave del siglo XXI [in Spanish]
Full text of a conference held on 10 July 2008 in Santa Fe, Argentina on the topic of enterprise social responsibility, and more specifically on its importance in developing countries, particularly in Latin America.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de la Provincia de Santa Fe,
Rivadavia 3049/51 Ciudad de Santa Fe, S3000FWI, Argentina, 2009. 47p.
Zubieta I.X., Brown G., Cohen R., Medina E.
Cananea copper mine - An international effort to improve hazardous working conditions in Mexico
A team of international occupational safety and health professionals evaluated the working conditions and health status of miners at a giant open-pit copper mine in Cananea, Mexico. Workers in the ore processing plants were exposed to levels of crystalline silica 10 times the Mexican regulatory limit, high levels of acid mist and noise, and numerous safety hazards, including unguarded machinery and malfunctioning 10- and 15-ton cranes. Lung function testing and interviews with physicians showed a substantial percentage of miners with adverse respiratory symptoms including shortness of breath (46%), wheezing (12%), coughing (12%) and elevated sputum production (10%). The mine owner, Grupo Mexico, violated Mexican law by failing to conduct an industrial hygiene survey sufficient to identify, evaluate and control health hazards including exposure to mineral dust (including silica), acid mists, airborne solvents, high noise levels, high vibration levels and extreme temperatures.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2009, Vol.15, No.1, p.14-20. Illus. 16 ref.
Cananea_copper_mine.pdf [in English]
Marucci-Wellman H., Leamon T.B., Binh T.T.T., Diep N.B., Wegman D.H., Kriebel D.
A survey of work-related injury in a rapidly-industrializing commune in Vietnam
This cross-sectional survey was administered by health volunteers to all households in a rapidly-industrializing commune in Vietnam to collect information on the characteristics of work and injuries during the previous month. Of all households, 2615 (99%) completed the survey, comprising 10,416 residents and 5485 workers with 8478 jobs. Respondents reported 591 injuries (an annualized incidence rate [IR] of 681 per 1000 residents), 482 (82%) of which occurred during work activities (annualized IR of 1011 per 1000 full-time equivalents). Non-agricultural work was more hazardous than agricultural work (1033 vs. 844 injuries per 1000 full-time equivalents, respectively). Working at home was prevalent, with 28% of households having a family-owned business. The injury IRs in this study were approximately 10 times higher than those reported in prior studies from Vietnam. High injury rates represent a substantial economic and social burden on a rapidly industrializing country and underscore the importance of injury prevention guided by surveillance data.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2009, Vol.15, No.1, p.1-8. 19 ref.
Manothum A., Rukijkanpanich J., Thawesaengskulthai D., Thampitakkul B., Chaikittiporn C., Arphorn S.
A participatory model for improving occupational health and safety: improving informal sector working conditions in Thailand
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of an occupational safety and health management model for informal sector workers in Thailand. The model was characterized by participatory approaches to preliminary assessment, observation of informal business practices, group discussion and participation, and the use of environmental measurements and samples. This model consisted of four processes: capacity building, risk analysis, problem solving, and monitoring and control. The participants consisted of four local labor groups from different regions, including wood carving, hand-weaving, artificial flower making, and batik processing workers. The results demonstrated that, as a result of applying the model, the working conditions of the informal sector workers had improved to meet necessary standards. This model encouraged the use of local networks, which led to cooperation within the groups to create appropriate technologies to solve their problems. The authors suggest that this model could effectively be applied elsewhere to improve informal sector working conditions on a broader scale.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.15, No.3, p.305-314. Illus. 20 ref.
Couto M.T., Lawoko S., Svanström L.
Exposure to workplace violence and quality of life among drivers and conductors in Maputo City, Mozambique
This cross-sectional study examined exposure to workplace violence and its consequences on quality of life (QOL) among workers in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo city, Mozambique. A random sample of 504 drivers and conductors was interviewed using structured questionnaires. Many participants reported experiencing psychological or physical violence at work. Sequelae of violence included sick leave following abuse (20%), physical injuries (32%), financial loss (28%), and various emotional reactions (28-56%). Exposure to workplace violence was a significant predictor of QOL even after adjusting for confounders. Mechanisms to detect and deal with both immediate and long term consequences of work-related violence on QOL are recommended.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.15, No.3, p.299-304. 42 ref.
Orozco F.A., Cole D.C., Forbes G., Kroschel J., Wanigaratne S., Arica D.
Monitoring adherence to the international code of conduct - Highly hazardous pesticides in central Andean agriculture and farmers' rights to health
The WHO has advocated monitoring adherence to the Food and Agriculture Organization's Code of Conduct to reduce use of highly hazardous pesticides in lower and middle income countries. This study draws on survey data, farmer focus groups and direct observations of agrochemical stores in Ecuador and Peru to construct indicators reflecting respect for such rights. Use of highly- and moderately-hazardous pesticides was common. Worse indicators were observed in places with lower education, greater poverty, and more use of indigenous languages. Limited government enforcement capacity, social irresponsibility of the pesticide industry, and lack of farmers' knowledge of the Code were all factors impeding respect for farmers' rights.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.15, No.3, p.255-268. Illus. 60 ref.
Romeo L., Dalle Molle K., Zanoni G., Peretti A., Marangi G., Conrado L.G.L., Aragón A., Perbellini L.
Respiratory health effects and immunological response to thermoactinomyces among sugar cane workers in Nicaragua
Specific sensitization and respiratory effects associated with the inhalation of sugar cane dust were evaluated in a group of 51 Nicaraguan workers exposed to bagasse. A questionnaire interview, lung function test, serum precipitin tests for Thermoactinomyces sacchari and T. vulgaris, and IgE tests for specific environmental allergens were performed for each worker. Twenty-one workers reported at least one respiratory symptom and 16 reported possible symptoms of bagassosis. Six workers demonstrated acute symptoms, one had chronic symptoms, and nine had the reacutized form of the disease. A higher proportion of precipitin response to T. sacchari and T. vulgaris was found in workers reporting symptoms suggestive of acute bagassosis. A possible restrictive ventilatory pattern was observed in eight subjects and a mild airway obstruction in one subject. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.15, No.3, p.249-254. 29 ref.
Qun T.F., Kawakami T., eds.
ASEAN-OSHNET - Good occupational safety and health practices 2008/2009
This publication is a compilation of the many good OSH practices in terms of national OSH frameworks, enforcement, outreach, training and research developed in recent years in ASEAN (the Association of Southeast Asian Nations) member countries. These examples were first presented during the ASEAN-OSHNET Workshop on Good OSH Practices in Singapore in February 2009. The ASEAN-OSHNET functions to help member countries achieve better OSH performance. Under the ASEAN-OSHNET Plan of Action, adopted in 2007, all member countries aim to develop a national OSH profile and implement national OSH strategies or programmes by 2012.
ASEAN Occupational Safety and Health Network (ASEAN-OSHNET), Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, P.O.Box 347, Pangkham Road, Vientiane Capital, Lao PRD, 2009. 78p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---sro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_120410.pdf [in English]
Kawakami T., Khai T.T., Kogi K.
Developing the WIND training programme in Asia
This report documents and analyses the course of the development of the WIND training programme in Vietnam and also the efforts of other countries in Asia. It pays particular attention to the usefulness of participatory training methodologies and how much the WIND programme has respected and supported the self-help initiative of local farmers. It will give an insight into participatory approaches for those who plan to apply the WIND programme and also for those who are interested in achieving local developments in a participatory manner. Contents: what is the WIND training programme; learning from the real working lives of local farmers and sugarcane processing workers in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam; birth of the WIND programme; developing the WIND farmer volunteer system; national policy support for the WIND training programme; WIND training programme in Cambodia, Mongolia and Thailand; factors in the success of the WIND training in Vietnam; recommendations for future developments of the WIND programme.
ILO Subregional Office for East Asia, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, P.O. Box 2-349, Bangkok 10200, Thailand, 2009. 117p. Illus. 32 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---sro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_120488.pdf [in English]
Annual report of activities 2009
Annual report of activities of the Centre for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment of the Industrial Relations Institute of the Province of Punjab, Pakistan, for the year 2009. Topics addressed include: awards received; case studies of accidents; certifications received; construction of new facilities; information dissemination for the prevention of child labour and bonded labour; installation of new analytical equipment; organization and functions of the centre; overview of 2009 accident statistics; publications; risk assessment surveys in industry; seminars and exhibitions; training courses; training materials.
Centre for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment (CIWCE), Civic Centre Township (near Chandni Chowk), Lahore, Pakistan, 2009. 52p. Illus.
Takala J., Urrutia M., Hämäläinen P., Saarela K.L
The global and European work environment - Numbers, trends and strategies
This article reviews the present indicators, trends, and recent strategies to tackle major global and European problems in safety and health at work. It is estimated that there are 2.3 million work-related fatalities each year worldwide. In developed countries, work-related illnesses that have a long latency period and are linked to ageing are clearly on the increase, while the number of occupational accidents has gone down thanks to improvements in safety and to structural changes.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2009, No.7, Suppl.1, p.15-23. Illus. 21 ref.
Globalization and workplace hazards in developing nations
Multinational corporations are rapidly introducing technological activities into less-developed nations. This poses potential risks to the safety and health of workers involved and the neighboring populations, as well as to the environment. This article presents an evaluation of approaches taken by international and industrial organizations to address these hazards by means of codes of conduct and voluntary self-regulation. Arguing that these approaches have repeatedly failed, it presents a new approach for assuring that the transfer of technology is accompanied by the transfer of good practices for using it safely. The key features of this approach include defining a standard of care which provides equivalent treatment of worker safety and health across all nations, and establishing contractual relationships between multinational companies and host countries as a means of implementing the standard.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.756-766. 40 ref.
Olsen O.E., Lindøe P.H.
Risk on the ramble: The international transfer of risk and vulnerability
With reference to data from the Norwegian petroleum industry, this article discusses how the transfer of technology implies the risk of new failures, misuse, accidents and unhealthy workplaces. Production technologies are often transformed through a steady stream of incremental changes appropriate to their social context. In a transfer process, technological risks may arise due to incomplete transfer of mastering capacity, mismatch between transferred technology and the environment, transfer of latent conditions for failure and the transformation of latent conditions or known risks when the technology is installed in a new environment.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.743-755. Illus. 61 ref.
Impact of globalization on human work
This article addresses the phenomenon of globalization in its impact on the nature of work. The factors of the globalization processes which affect most strongly the work of different employment categories, namely management, production workers and knowledge workers, are identified. The organizational consequences of globalization are analyzed with reference to significant changes to workplaces and psychological demands. The concluding section considers the political aspects of globalization.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.727-732. 29 ref.
Self-assessment (SA) trainer's manual
This manual is a guide aimed at regional implementers and trainers in South-East Asian and Pacific countries responsible for delivering the core messages of the Labour Standards Enforcement Framework (LSEF). It is organized around six modules: LSEF overview; conduct and procedures; required checklist; general labour standards; occupational safety and health; other related labour laws.
International Labour Organization, Sub-Regional Office for South-East Asia and the Pacific, 19th Floor, Yuchengco Tower, RCBC Plaza, 6819 Ayala Avenue, Makati City, Philippines, no date. 66p. Illus.
Bhuiyan A.J., Haq M.N.
Improving occupational safety and health in Bangladesh
The majority of the population in Bangladesh is employed in manual handling tasks, but adequate protections for these workers do not exist. Conditions at a boulder handling site, saw mill, rice packaging plant and construction site show the need for comprehensive reforms in occupational safety and health legislation and practice in Bangladesh. New policies on training, industrial hygiene, safety equipment and risk assessment are necessary to protect workers in a rapidly developing economy.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.3, p.231-233. 14 ref.
Naidoo S., London L., Burdorf A., Naidoo R.N., Kromhout H.
Agricultural activities, pesticide use and occupational hazards among women working in small scale farming in Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
South Africa's land policies have increased women's participation in agriculture, but limited information exists about their agricultural activities. In this study, 911 women working in a region of South Africa were surveyed in 2006, gathering data on demographics, agricultural activities, crop production and pesticide. Findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.3, p.218-224. Illus. 31 ref.
Occupational safety and health master plan for Malaysia 2015
Contents of this booklet outlining the programme of the Malaysian Department of Occupational Safety and Health until 2015: objectives; current situation; long-term vision for OSH in Malaysia; roles of key stakeholders; building a preventive safety culture; strategies and expected outcomes. For each activity of the programme, a table lists the deliverables, the responsible coordinators and the timeline.
Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Human Resources, Level 2, 3 & 4, Block D3, Complex D, Federal Government Administrative Centre, 62530 W. P. Putrajaya, Malaysia, ca 2008. 40p. Illus.
OSH_master_plan.pdf [in English]
Phung D.T., Nguyen H.T., Mock C., Keifer M.
Occupational injuries reported in a population-based injury survey in Vietnam
This analysis of data from a survey conducted in Vietnam in 2004-2005 sought to characterize the patterns of work-related injuries and to determine whether self-employed and informal workers had higher rates of injuries than formally employed workers. The annual incidence rate of work-related injuries in Viet Nam was 7.06 per 1,000 person-years. Daily alcohol consumption was strongly associated with work-related injuries. The highest burden of injuries was among farmers. Mechanical forces were the most common mechanism of injury. Self-employed workers had a rate of work-related injuries 26% higher than that of formally employed workers. Self-employed workers were younger, less educated, and more likely to be male. This population-based survey showed substantial underreporting of occupational injuries by existing surveillance mechanisms, which focus on formally employed workers. Implications of these finings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.1, p.35-44. Illus. 41 ref.
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