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Ethical issues - 131 entries found

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CIS 11-0031 London L.
Human rights and health: Opportunities to advance rural occupational health
Human rights discourse is rarely used to shape professional standards for health and safety. Yet there is much potential for synergy by applying human rights approaches to workplace safety and health, and professional ethics. A review of international treaties confirms an extensive articulation of the right to workplace health and safety. A case study of pesticide exposure risks to small farmers in developing countries illustrates the links between human rights, occupational health practice and professional ethics. Occupational health professionals have a responsibility to assist in the realization of workers' occupational health rights, particularly by promoting meaningful participation of those affected by hazardous exposures. Human rights approaches may assist the prevention of work-related morbidity.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.80-92. 96 ref.


CIS 11-0015 de Sousa Uva A., Leite E., Serranheira F.
Occupational health and safety policies: Legal obligation or option of enterprises (or other organizations) for valuing their human resources?
Políticas de saúde e segurança do trabalho: obrigação legal ou opção das empresas (e outras organizações) na valorização dos seus recursos humanos? [in Portuguese]
Following a discussion of ethical and human resource management issues related to occupational safety and health (OSH) including hazard evaluation and acceptable or unacceptable levels of risk, this article reviews the national OSH strategy of Portugal, with reference to current OSH legislation.
Segurança, May-June 2010, Vol.XLV, No.196, p.12-15. Illus. 12 ref.


CIS 09-946 Anikeeva O., Braunack-Mayer A., Rogers W.
Requiring influenza vaccination for health care workers
Annual influenza vaccination for health care workers has the potential to benefit health care professionals, their patients and their families by reducing the transmission of influenza in health care settings. Furthermore, staff vaccination programmes are cost-effective for health care institutions because of reduced staff illness and absenteeism. However, rates of vaccination remain low. This study analysed the ethical implications of a variety of efforts to increase vaccination rates, including mandatory influenza vaccination. It is concluded that a programme of incentives and sanctions may increase health care worker compliance with fewer ethical impediments than mandatory vaccination.
American Journal of Public Health, Jan. 2009, Vol. 99, No.1, p.24-29. 32 ref.


CIS 11-0061 Verger P., Viau A., Arnaud S., Cabut S., Saliba M.L., Iarmarcovai G., Souville M.
Barriers to physician reporting of workers' compensation cases in France
Various studies suggest strong underreporting of occupational diseases in industrialized countries. In this study, data on physician-related barriers to reporting of occupational sciatica (with herniated disk) were collected by means of a telephone survey of 391 general practitioners (GPs) and 96 rheumatologists in southeastern France with a standardized questionnaire and case-vignette of a patient with occupational sciatica. Results show that 71% of GPs and 78% of rheumatologists would not recommend that the patient file a workers' compensation claim, for the following reasons: possible role of non-work-related activities (77%, 74%), should be reported as an occupational accident (67%, 42%), recommendation should be made by occupational physicians (60%, 60%) and risk of patient's losing his job (47%, 38%). These findings suggest that physicians' lack of knowledge of reporting principles and procedures, together with their ethical dilemma regarding job loss, may be barriers to reporting.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.3, p.198-205. 26 ref.

CIS 10-0662 Greenberg M.
The defence of chrysotile, 1912-2007
This article presents a historical review of the defence of asbestos by the asbestos mining industry in Canada until the present time.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.1, p.57-66. 43 ref.

CIS 09-830 Gable L., Gostin L.O., Hodge J.G.
HIV/AIDS, reproductive and sexual health, and the law
This literature survey on the HIV/AIDS pandemic argues that the law is a frequently overlooked tool for addressing the complex practical and ethical issues. The law intersects with reproductive and sexual health issues and HIV/AIDS in many ways. Well-written and rigorously applied laws could benefit persons living with (or at risk of contracting) HIV/AIDS. Access to reproductive health services should be a legal right, and discrimination based on HIV status should be prohibited. Laws against sexual violence and exploitation, which perpetuate the spread of HIV and its negative effects, should be enforced. Finally, a human rights framework should inform the drafting of laws to more effectively protect health.
American Journal of Public Health, Oct. 2008, Vol. 98, No.10, p.1779-1786. Illus. 86 ref.

CIS 09-269 Hokstad P., Vatn J.
Ethical dilemmas in traffic safety work
This article explores various ethical questions regarding priority setting in safety. Some traffic examples are applied to illustrate the dilemmas. Basic ethical principles are considered, including approaches based on utility, fairness and discourse. It also discusses the various dimensions of utility and risk that could be relevant. Ethical challenges related to the willingness to pay are considered. A small-scale survey was carried out regarding the priority setting of traffic safety measures by individuals. The main results of this survey are summarized to provide a background for a discussion of the ethical dilemmas.
Safety Science, Dec. 2008, Vol.46, No.10, p.1435-1449. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 09-498 Needham I., Kingma M., O'Brian-Pallas L., McKenna K., Tucker R., Oud N.
Workplace violence in the health sector
Proceedings of a conference on workplace violence in the health care sector held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 22-24 October 2008. Papers are grouped into chapters addressing the following issues: keynotes; economic aspects and implications of workplace violence; gender aspects; legal and ethical aspects; epidemiology, patterns and trends; policies and operational strategies; scientific aspects; social and psychological aspects; staff training and education.
Kavanah, Eemster 2, 7991 PP Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, 2008. 384p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 08-1459 FitzSimons D., François G., De Carli G., Shouval D., Prüss-Üstün A., Puro V., Williams I., Lavanchy D., De Schryver A,, Kopka A., Ncube F., Ippolito G., Van Damme P.
Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and other blood-borne pathogens in healthcare workers: Guidelines for prevention and management in industrialized countries
The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board (VHPB) convened a meeting of international experts from the public and private sectors in order to review and evaluate the epidemiology of blood-borne infections in healthcare workers, to evaluate the transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses as an occupational risk, to discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and to review recommendations for infected healthcare workers. This meeting outlined a number of recommendations for the prevention and control of viral hepatitis, including the training of personnel, application of standard precautions and hepatitis B vaccination. Other topics addressed included ethical and legal issues, the assessment of risk and costs, and the role of the VHPB. Participants also identified a number of terms that need harmonisation or standardisation in order to facilitate communication between experts.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.65, No.7, p.446-451. 29 ref.


CIS 12-0088 Ahonen E.Q., Benavides F.G., Benach J.
Immigrant populations, work and health - A systematic review
This literature survey reviewed information on immigrant occupational health available from recent studies, incorporating varied study designs. Findings are discussed. It is concluded from the 48 articles analyzed that more reliable data, targeted appropriate interventions and enforcement of existing regulations are necessary to improve the health of immigrant workers. Furthermore, studies in originating countries should be encouraged to form a more complete understanding of a complex situation.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2007, Vol.33, No.2, p.96-104. 63 ref.
Immigrant_populations_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 09-294 Schulte P.A., Kelsey K.T., Vainio H.
The contributions of genetics and genomics to occupational safety and health - Genetics and occupational safety and health - Genetics and occupational health and safety
This editorial and the two comments it elicited discuss the contributions of genetics and genomics to occupational health. Genetic factors contribute to the variable responses of workers to occupational hazards - particularly chemical hazards, together with some biological and physical agents. Workers with susceptible genetic profiles may still be at unacceptably high risk even if exposed to low concentrations. There is a broad range of published evidence showing that genetic polymorphisms can lead to differential occupational disease risks in exposed workers. However collecting information on workers' genetic susceptibility raises ethical and legal questions about the way this information should be used.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.717-718; p.720-722. 32 ref.

CIS 08-731 Durand E.
Psychotropic drugs and work (II) - Antidepressants
Médicaments psychotropes et travail (II) - Médicaments antidépresseurs [in French]
This literature survey addresses the use of antidepressants at work. The most recent publications on the topic cite a prevalence of depression of around 10% in the general population and a similar level in the working population. The consequences of antidepressants on work are little known. This article sheds light on current understanding with respect to vigilance, driving and co-exposure to toxic substances, and proposes several decision support tools aimed at occupational physicians. The ethical and practical aspects of medical treatment of employees are discussed, together with the issues of staying at work and returning to work.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.112, p.487-508. Illus. 96 ref.$File/TC116.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-48 Brangold M., Nieto H.
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Research and development of a code of good practices for occupational safety and health services
Investigación y desarrollo de un código de buenas prácticas para los servicios de prevención [in Spanish]
This report presents the findings of a project aimed at developing a code of good practices for occupational safety and health services. It explains the methodology used, based on four elements: the legislative framework, scientific evidence-based prevention, ethical aspects and quality-related factors. Based on the defined structure, it then proposes the text of the code of good practices. The appendix includes a translation into Spanish of the 1992 International code of ethics for OSH professionals (see CIS 93-114).
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007. 98p. Illus. 43 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 07-1363 Birraux C., Revol H.
Minutes of the public hearing of 7 November 2006 on nanotechnology: Potential hazards, ethical issues
Compte rendu de l'audition publique du 7 novembre 2006 sur les nanotechnologies: risques potentiels, enjeux éthiques [in French]
The French parliamentary office for the evaluation of science and technology policy organized a public hearing on 7 November 2007 on the potential hazards end ethical issues related to nanotechnology. The hearing opened the way for some deeper thinking on the specific aspects of nanotechnology, the issues involved and the progress nanotechnology may make possible in the fields of health care, environmental protection, transport and safety.
La Documentation française, 29 quai Voltaire 75007 Paris, France, 2007. Internet document (pdf format), 137p. Free of charge. Cost of print version: EUR 5.00. [in French]


CIS 10-0192 Global code of integrity for labour inspection
Code global d'intégrité pour l'inspection du travail [in French]
Labour inspectorates are in a position to influence the development of safe, healthy, fair and productive workplaces. IALI recognizes that ethical practices and high professional standards are central to the ability of any labour inspectorate to provide the best possible services to the social partners and the wider community. The code of integrity represents a commitment to ensure that persons who work in labour inspectorates will at all times act with professionalism, respect, neutrality and integrity when performing their duties. The code is designed to assist persons employed in labour inspectorates to understand their obligations as public officials and to ensure that the standards of conduct expected of them by their organization and the community are met. The code also establishes the commitment of the labour inspectorate organization to facilitate a work environment that allows individuals to work to the values described in the code. Also published in Portuguese, Chinese, Russian and Polish.
International Association of Labour Inspection, Secretariat, Inspection du Travail et des Mines, P. O. Box 27, 2006 Luxembourg, 2006. 16p. Illus. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish] [in Polish] [in Portuguese] [in Russian] [in Chinese]

CIS 07-1038 Guide to the methodology of inspection visits
Guide méthodologique des visites d'inspection [in French]
The new Moroccan labour act came into force in June 2004. Its provisions include a reinforcement of labour inspection. Aimed at labour inspectors, this guide covers good practices, procedural rules and intervention methodologies before, during and after inspection visits. It addresses a number of legal, procedural and ethical issues.
International Labour Office, Reinforcement of Occupational Relations in Morocco, 14 Oued Ziz Street, Agdal, Rabat, Morocco, 2006. 106p.

CIS 07-995 Durand E.
Psychotropic drugs and work - Opiate substitution therapies
Médicaments psychotropes et travail - Traitement de substitution aux opiacés [in French]
Third in importance after alcohol and tobacco, the consumption of psychotropic drugs in France is a problem that concerns occupational physicians faced with ethical and social issues related to the reintegration of drug addicts through employment. This literature survey focuses on opiate substitute therapies and their implications for the workplace.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2006, No.108, p.441-460. Illus. 75 ref.$File/TC111.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-542 Francis S., Paddon F.
Best behaviour
This article provides guidance for safety and health professionals in the United Kingdom on ethical issues related to workplace accident investigations. Topics addressed: professional conduct; professional obligations; conflicts of interest; role of safety inspectors; dealing with accusations of obstruction; balancing conflicting obligations; dealing with a personal conflict of interest.
Safety and Health Practitioner, July 2006, Vol.24, No.7, p.32-34. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 07-438 Eggermont G., de Saint-Georges L., Vanmarcke H.
The health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation - New epidemiological results and perspectives
This article examines the relative risk of low-level exposure to ionizing radiation. Contents: biological effects of ionizing radiation; regulation of low-dose risks and the social debate; recent epidemiological results; multi-factorial exposure and ethical concerns.
HESA Newsletter, Mar. 2006, No.29, p.21-25. 9 ref. [in French] [in English]

CIS 07-493 Durcy M.
Alcohol, cannabis ... at the place of work: What's at stake in their prevention
Alcool, cannabis... au travail: les enjeux de la prévention [in French]
This article reviews the problem of psychoactive substance abuse, in particular cannabis and alcohol, among construction industry workers. Topics addressed: ethical and legal aspects of workplace screening; prevention, information and social support; case study of a construction enterprise and information campaign implemented to fight against alcohol and cannabis abuse.
Prévention BTP, June 2006, No.86, p.52-55. Illus.

CIS 07-61 Rice A.
A tool kit for labour inspectors
This manual comprises three basic tools for the development of an efficient and effective labour inspection practice: a model enforcement policy (aimed at revitalizing labour inspection); a training and operations manual (setting out the principles and practice of labour inspection); and a code of ethical behaviour for labour inspectors. It is hoped that the manual will become a standard reference tool for labour inspectors and managers at all levels in the labour inspection service in many countries. It will also be invaluable for employers' and workers' organisations and their members who will know what to expect from labour inspectors.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. ix, 85p. [in English]

CIS 06-1025 Rice A.
A tool kit for labour inspectors: A model enforcement policy, a training and operations manual, a code of ethical behaviour
This tool kit comprises three basic tools for a modern labour inspection practice that is both efficient and effective: Revitalizing labour inspection - A model labour inspection enforcement policy; Principles and practice of labour inspection - A training and operations manual (provides information on planning and preparing for the inspection visit, conducting the inspection, follow-up and reporting and a note on the training of inspectors); and a Code of ethical behaviour for labour inspectors (covers corruption and its potential to impact on labour inspection).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. ix, 85p. [in English]

CIS 06-1092 Bestratén Belloví M., Pujol Senovilla L.
Working conditions and codes of conduct
Condiciones de trabajo y códigos de conducta [in Spanish]
This information note addresses the promotion of corporate social responsibility within an enterprise. Ethical principles in relation to globalization and multinational enterprises are discussed and three elements for the development of the human and social dimensions of an enterprise are outlined: codes of ethics, ethical audits and ethical committees.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 7p. Illus. 25 ref. [in Spanish]


CIS 12-0075 London L.
Dual loyalties and the ethical and human rights obligations of occupational health professionals
Underlying most ethical dilemmas in occupational health practice is the problem of dual loyalties where health professionals have simultaneous obligations, explicit or implicit, to a third party, usually a private employer. A literature review of case studies of workplace occupational health conflicts, international human rights and ethical codes and strategies for managing dual loyalties was untertaken, and complemented by iterative discussions in an international working group convened to address the problem of dual loyalties. The practitioners' contractual relationship with the third party is often the underlying problem, being far more explicit than their moral obligation to patients, and encouraging a social identification at the expense of a practitioner's professional identity. Because existing ethical guidelines lack specificity on managing dual loyalties in occupational health, guidelines that draw on human rights standards have been developed by the working group. These guidelines propose standards for individual professional conduct and complementary institutional mechanisms to address the problem.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2005, Vol.47, p.322-332. 79 ref.
Dual_loyalties_and_the_ethical_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0074 Guthrie R., Quinlan M.
The occupational safety and health rights and workers' compensation entitlements of illegal immigrants: An emerging challenge
The past two decades have witnessed a growing level of illegal immigration, particularly into Western Europe, North America and Australia. This article examines the occupational safety and health and workers' compensation obligations of employers who engage illegal entrants, or persons working contrary to visa requirements, and the rights of those workers. While the primary focus of the paper is on the Australian experience, comparison is made to the situation in the United States Europe. Available evidence indicates that foreigners working illegally are more likely to be subjected to exploitative (in terms of wages and conditions) and unsafe employment practices. Although occupational safety and health statutes in Australia impose an obligation on employers to safeguard all people on their premises even if they are not employees, ensuring that illegal immigrants are protected effectively requires dedicated measures, something government agencies are only beginning to consider. Furthermore, in Australia and the United States, employers may be liable to make workers' compensation payments to illegal workers, although court decisions with regard to such claims are inconsistent and ambiguous. The article concludes by identifying policy interventions that may remedy these problems.
Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, 2005, p.41-61. 78 ref.
The_occupational_safety_and_health_rights_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 08-60
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Second Argentine Occupational Safety and Health Week
(SITIL): II semana Argentina de la salud y seguridad en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Collection of occupational safety and health documents on CD-ROM published on the occasion of the second Argentine Week on occupational safety and health held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 25-28 April 2005, covering the following topics: guide for safety representatives; prevention of chemical hazards at the place of work; trade union guide to occupational safety; surveillance of workers' health; occupational health and collective bargaining in Spain; main technical and ethical aspects of workers' health surveillance; workers' participation in occupational safety and health in Argentina; 2003 statistical report on occupational accidents and diseases; proceedings of several conferences on occupational safety and health; importance of psychosocial aspects of work organization for workers' health; general principles of workers' health monitoring and the ILO standard; registration and notification of occupational accidents and diseases and ILO list of occupational diseases; evaluation of occupational hazards; technical guide for the evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards related to chemical agents; ISTAS21 method for the prevention of occupational hazards; ILO posters for the World Day for Safety and Health at Work; texts of ILO Recommendations 171 (CIS 91-1433) and 194, and Conventions 121 (CIS 89-1752), 155 (CIS 92-890) and 161 (CIS 86-859). A collection of the presentations is published in print in a separate volume.
International Social Security Association, ISSA Publications, Case postale 1, CH-1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. CD-ROM, 1393p. Printed collection of papers presented, 2006 (449p.; illus.)

CIS 07-253 Miguel A.S.S.R.
Manual of occupational health and safety
Manual de higiene e segurança do trabalho [in Portuguese]
Advanced-level textbook on OSH. Contents: ethical, social, legal and economic aspects of occupational safety; detailed discussion of the legal situation in Portugal; risk analysis; administration and organization of risk prevention in Portugal; personal protective equipment; fire prevention and protection; electric hazards; handling and storage; chemical substances (including a discussion of exposure limits); noise; vibration; the thermal environment; ionizing and non-ionizing radiation; lighting; organization and layout of workplaces. In annex: safety symbols; list of principal national legislation and standards; classification of dangerous substances; model of a material safety data sheet. Replaces CIS 95-2002.
Porto Editora, Rua da Restauração 365, 4099-023 Porto, Portugal, 8th ed. 2005. 534p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 06-953 Cara Arenas Ó., Robles Martínez Y.
Moving patients in hospitals
Traslado de pacientes en recintos hospitalarios [in Spanish]
This article describes methods for the safe movement of hospital patients. Topics covered include the job of stretcher-bearer and safe methods of patient transfer within hospital premises; relations between patient and stretcher-bearer; legal, moral and ethical responsibilities; various types of displacement (on foot, in wheelchairs, on stretchers or on beds) and advice for improving patient comfort and easing stretcher-bearer manoeuvres.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2005, No.174, p.38-49. Illus.

CIS 06-581 Partanen T.J., Loría-Bolaños R., Wesseling C., Castillo C., Johansson K.M.
Perspectives for workplace health promotion in Latin America and the Caribbean
This article discusses the emergence of workplace health promotion (WHP) in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Topics addressed include the concept of health promotion, the role of international agencies (ILO, WHO), ethical issues, assessment of priorities and feasibility and obstacles to programme implementation.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.313-321. Illus. 84 ref. [in English]

CIS 05-532 Ciccotelli J., Marsot J.
Virtual reality and occupational safety and health - Contributions and trends
Réalité virtuelle et prévention - Apports et tendances [in French]
Virtual reality (VR) has potential practical applications in various sectors such as medicine, industry, architecture and engineering. This article provides a definition of VR and examines several examples of industrial applications that illustrate the links between VR and the prevention of occupational hazards. In this field, INRS has launched a research project focusing on the design of safe equipment and on occupational safety and health training. The current status of this project is described, together with the practical benefits it is expected to deliver. Ethical issues relating to the use of VR systems are also addressed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.199, p.99-111. Illus. 42 ref.$FILE/pr17.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-658 Caux C., Viau C., Guilbert L., Roy D.J.
Ethical aspects of the use of biomarkers in occupational health
Les aspects éthiques de l'utilisation des bioindicateurs en santé au travail [in French]
Some workers are exposed to products that are potentially harmful to their health. For a better understanding of the relationship between exposure and potential health hazards, three types of biomarker are available: biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility. The use of biomarkers raises ethical questions. The purpose of this study was to better understand the context of this practice, as perceived by various groups engaged in occupational health. It explores aspects that should receive particular attention during the evaluation of ethical issues inherent in the use of occupational health biomarkers.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. iv, 79p. Illus. 76 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]


CIS 07-851 Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: Opportunities and uncertainties
This report on nanoscience and nanotechnologies highlights the fact that nanotechnologies offer many benefits both now and in the future but that public debate is needed about their development. It also highlights the immediate need for research to address uncertainties about the health and environmental effects of nanoparticles and makes recommendations on regulations to control exposure. Topics addressed: definition of nanoscience and nanotechnologies; science and applications; nanomanufacturing and industrial applications of nanotechnologies; possible adverse health and environmental impact; social and ethical issues; stakeholder and public dialogue; regulatory issues; conclusions; recommendations.
The Royal Society, 6-9 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AG, United Kingdom, 2004. Internet document. 113p. 147 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-346 Leino T., Olsson K.
Workplace health promotion - Practice and evaluation
Well-being at work is a crucial issue for productivity and good quality. This publication brings together the points of view and experiences of researchers and practitioners on heath promotion at the workplace. It describes the aims, target groups, methods and evaluation of workplace health promotion and discusses ethical issues. Practical examples of workplace health promotion projects are also presented.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2004. 128p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 25.00.

CIS 03-1933 SARS - Practical and administrative responses to an infectious disease in the workplace
This working paper consists of a set of informal guidelines developed by the ILO on responses to the threat of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) at the workplace. Contents: history of SARS; overview of current knowledge on SARS; practical workplace strategies; administrative actions to ensure preparedness in the event of a SARS outbreak (at national and workplace levels); ethical and psychological considerations concerning SARS.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. vi, 46p. 42 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1439 SARS - Practical and administrative responses to an infectious disease in the workplace
Working paper on practical preventive measures against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), prepared in collaboration by the SafeWork Programme at ILO Headquarters and the ILO Sub-Regional Office for East Asia in Bangkok. Contents: introduction (the threat of SARS, SARS as an occupational health hazard, action at the national and workplace level); overview of current knowledge about SARS (cause, transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention); practical workplace strategies for the prevention of SARS; administrative action in case of an outbreak of SARS (at the national and workplace level); ethical and psychological considerations concerning SARS.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. vi, 46p. 42 ref. + Internet links. [in English]


CIS 09-499 Gilioli R., Fingerhut M.A., Kortum-Margot E.
Raising awareness of psychological harassment at work
Violenza psicologica sul lavoro - Accrescere la consapevolezza [in Italian]
Qu'est-ce que le harcèlement moral sur le lieu de travail? [in French]
Sensibilizando sobre el acoso psicológico en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Psychological harassment is a form of employee abuse arising from unethical behaviour and leading to victimization of the worker. It is an increasing worldwide problem which is still largely unknown and underestimated. It can produce serious negative consequences on the quality of life and on individuals' health, mainly in the emotional, psychosomatic and behavioural areas. In addition, society as a whole becomes a victim because of increased pressure on social services and welfare. This booklet aims at raising awareness of this growing issue of concern by providing information on its characteristics, such as the definition, differences between normal conflicts and psychological harassment at work, the ways it is practised, the consequences it can produce on health and society. Special attention is devoted to the causes that favour its development and the measures to be adopted in order to combat it and react to it. Since psychological harassment is widespread in all occupational sectors, this publication has the intent to promote safety and health at work among health professionals, decision makers, managers, human resources directors, legal community, unions and workers worldwide. The only way to combat psychological harassment at work is to unite the efforts of all these players, while viewing the issue from different angles. (English and French versions, please see also CIS 07-1248). A Japanese version may be ordered from WHO (see here for details:
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2003. 38p. Illus. 18 ref. [in French] [in Italian] [in Spanish] [in English]

CIS 07-1248 Gilioli R., Fingerhut M.A., Kortum-Margot E.
Raising awareness of psychological harassment at work
Psychological harassment is a form of employee abuse arising from unethical behaviour and leading to victimization of the worker. It is an increasing worldwide problem, which can produce serious negative consequences on the quality of life and on individuals' health. This booklet aims to raise awareness of this issue among health professionals, decision makers, managers, human resources directors, legal community, unions and workers worldwide. It provides information on the characteristics of psychological harassment, such as the definition, differences between normal conflicts and psychological harassment at work, the ways it is practised and the potential consequences for health and society. Special attention is devoted to the causes that favour its development and the measures to be adopted in order to combat it and react to it.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, [ca 2003]. 38p. Illus. 19 ref. [in English] [in French]

CIS 03-1925 Husgafvel-Pursiainen K., Vainio H.
From molecular targets to public health
Proceedings of a symposium on disease prevention and health promotion held in Helsinki, Finland on 15 November 2002. The aim of the symposium was to link the advances in knowledge of human genome and carcinogenesis processes with cancer research, disease prevention and health promotion, an important theme considering that cancer causes approximately 750,000 deaths annually in the European Union. Contents: biological and genetic research in occupational health; exposure through molecular mechanisms and occupational risk assessment; trends in cancer in Finland; genetic factors in carcinogenesis; mesothelioma incidence in Sweden; health and ethical issues of smokeless tobacco in Sweden; biomarker research; pharmacogenomics of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and cancer susceptibility; science and ethics; collaborative European research.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2003. ii, 93p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-1807 Faux S.P., Tran C.L., Miller B.G., Jones A.D., Monteiller C., Donaldson K.
Health and Safety Executive
In vitro determinants of particulate toxicity: The dose-metric for poorly soluble dusts
Rats exposed to high airborne mass concentrations of low toxicity poorly soluble particles (LTPSP) have developed lung disease such as fibrosis and lung cancer. Permissible levels of these particles are regulated on a mass basis in occupational settings. However, animal studies have shown ultrafine particles producing stronger inflammatory effect than fine particles per unit mass. This study investigates whether the surface area of an LTPSP is a better dose metric than mass (or volume) for describing the particles' ability to induce inflammatory effects in vitro. Additionally it is hoped that the developed in vitro approach would become a reliable means of screening the toxicity of particles with the advantages of being less expensive and more ethical than animal testing.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. x, 51p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1125 Meyer J.P., Moulin J.J., Leprince A.
27th International Congress on Occupational Health: "The Challenge of Equity in Health and Safety at Work"
27e congrès international de la santé au travail: "L'enjeu de l'équité en santé et en sécurité au travail" [in French]
Summary of papers presented at a conference on equity with respect to occupational safety and health, which was held in Iguaçu, Brazil, 23-28 February 2003. The papers are grouped under the following headings: inequality factors in occupational health; political and ethical approaches to the work-health relationship; health services for workers; improvements in working conditions; approaches oriented towards field work; proposals concerning priorities; biological monitoring; risks to reproductive health; musculoskeletal diseases; organic dusts; health care personnel; office workers.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2003, No.95, p.351-360.


CIS 06-25 A handbook: Trade unions and HIV/AIDS
This handbook explains how trade unions, together with government and employers, can help in responding to the challenges posed by HIV/AIDS. It reviews the HIV/AIDS situation in India, provides basic information about the disease and examines gender issues and legal and ethical aspects. Components of an HIV/AIDS programme in both the organized and the unorganized sector are described, based on the ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work (see CIS 03-444), and an example of a policy by the Trade Union Congress of the Philippines is included.
International Labour Organization, Subregional Office for South Asia, India Habitat Centre, 3rd Floor, Core 4B, Lodi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India, 2002. PDF document, 80p. Illus.10 ref. [in Hindi] [in English]

CIS 02-1996 Harris O.J., Hartman S.J.
Organizational behaviour
This manual uses case examples, self-tests, tables and figures to illustrate the principles of human workplace behaviour. Topics addressed include: ethical aspects; diversity and inequalities at the workplace; effects of globalization; planned and structured aspects of organizational culture; informal aspects of organizational structure; groups and teams; physical surroundings of the workplace; individual perception; psychological needs at the workplace; leadership in the organization; motivation; reinforcement of motivation; communicating concepts and information; planned and unplanned changes and organizational development; managing conflict; stress factors; impact of technology at the workplace.
Best Business Books, The Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580, USA, 2002. xvii, 478p. Illus. 359 ref. Index. Price: USD 119.95 (hard); USD 49.95 (soft); GBP 82.80 and 34.50.

CIS 02-1599 Toffel M.W., Birkner L.R.
Estimating and controlling workplace risk: An approach for occupational hygiene and safety professionals
Meeting safety and health objectives requires financial resources. This article proposes that risk decisions should be made with probabilistic processes used in financial decision-making, which are familiar and recognizable to business managers. It develops the processes and demonstrates the use of incident probabilities, past outcome information and incremental impact analysis to estimate risk of multiple alternatives in the chemical industry. It also analyses how the ethical aspects of decision-making can be addressed in formulating safety and health risk management plans. It is concluded that easily understood applied probabilistic risk assessment methods used by business to assess financial and outcome risk have applicability to improving workplace safety and health.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2002, Vol.17, No.7, p.477-485. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 02-875 Kirsch-Volders M., De Boeck M., Lison D.
Genotoxicity and occupational activity - Genotoxicity tests
Génotoxicité et activité professionnelle - Tests de génotoxicité [in French]
This article presents recent advances in the understanding of genotoxicity as well as their practical implications in occupational medicine. It includes definitions of terms used in the field of geonotoxicity, a description of mechanisms of genetic damage, mutations and their effects on health, as well as a comparison of genotoxic substance detection and evaluation methods. Proposals for medical supervision and hazard evaluation programmes to be implemented by occupational physicians are included, which take practical and ethical aspects into account. A second part of the article presents and compares five genotoxicity tests widely used for bio-monitoring: comet test, sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus test, gene mutations on the HGPRT locus and study of chromosome aberrations.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2002, No.134, 9p. Illus. 29 ref.+ 4p. 18 ref.

CIS 02-756 Forastieri V.
Children at work - Health and safety risks
This book addresses the issue of the protection of children by proposing an occupational safety and health programme specifically adapted to working children. It illustrates how this can be achieved within the framework of national policies aimed at the elimination of child labour. It replaces an earlier edition published in 1997 (see CIS 99-511) and takes account of the provisions of the ILO's Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) and the Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation, 1999 (No. 190). Contents: current legislation and child labour; sources of information on the health of working children; effects of work on children's health; occupational hazards for working children in specific occupations and industries; policy framework at the national level; evaluation of children's working conditions; occupational safety and health programme; education and training; ethical aspects; mobilization and public awareness; legislation and enforcement; ILO actions in this field.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 2002. xiii, 169p. Illus. Index. Price: CHF 27.50.


CIS 03-582
Instituto Nacional de Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo
Medical confidentiality and the protection of data used for the evaluating the damages resulting from injury
Secreto médico y protección de datos en valoración del daño corporal [in Spanish]
Papers presented at a conference on medical confidentiality and the protection of data used for the evaluating the damages resulting from injury (held in Madrid, Spain, 26 Oct. 2001), and report of discussions. Topics addressed: definitions of medical confidentiality and damages resulting from injury; penal consequences of non-compliance with medical confidentiality; situations where medical confidentiality has to be honoured and where it must be waived; role of the physician evaluating the damages resulting from injury; medical assessment; sensitive data; ethical and aspects of medical confidentiality.
Escuela Nacional de Medicina del Trabajo, Madrid, Spain, 2001. 108p. 26 ref.

CIS 02-128 Insurance and occupational safety and health - An appeal, an incentive
Assurance et prévention - Un appel, un encouragement [in French]
This booklet describes the initiatives taken by insurance companies in Belgium in the field of occupational safety and health. Contents include: historical review; complementary nature of insurance and occupational safety and health; ethical, social and human aspects; economic aspects; campaigns in the area of road accident prevention, fires and trespassing, occupational safety and health (smoking, depression); example of the prevention campaign of an insurance company.
Union professionnelle des entreprises d'assurances, Maison de l'Assurance, Square de Meeûs 29, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2001. 80p. Illus.

CIS 01-1704 Soutar C.A.
Health and Safety Executive
Frequencies of diseases presenting to general practitioners according to patients' occupation
General practitioner morbidity recording schemes offer an opportunity to describe the frequencies of a wide range of conditions. The aim of the study was to examine the feasibility of assembling information nationally, on the frequency and distribution of ill-health seen by general practitioners, in relation to occupation. The study showed that none of the schemes routinely record occupation, but additional procedures to obtain this information are feasible. Together, the four main ongoing schemes can provide a population of sufficient size to detect differences in frequency of ill-health between most occupations. The procedures and data collection are sufficiently comparable to allow the results to be aggregated in some way. Possible study designs are discussed. The main ethical concern is that there should be no possibility of identification of individual subjects, and methods of satisfying this requirement are suggested.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 41p. 17 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 01-1438 Technical and ethical guidelines for workers' health surveillance
Gong ren jian kang jian hu ji shu he lun li dao de zhi dao yuan zhe [in Chinese]
Chinese translation of the ILO publication analysed under CIS 00-1624.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. ix, 41p.


CIS 01-1131 Hanke J., Dutkiewicz T., Piotrowski J., Baranowska-Dutkiewicz B., Kończalik J.
The absorption of benzene through human skin; Percutaneous absorption studies after forty years
This article is an English translation of a Polish study of percutaneous absorption published in 1961. Portions of the original Polish-language article have appeared in many publications, and the article is one of the most commonly cited studies of benzene ever conducted. This research, despite its careful design and the precision of its method, could not be conducted today in most countries of the world. The use of human subjects, including the authors, in a study of skin absorption of a known carcinogen would not be allowed. Some might even object to the publication and citation of the study on ethical grounds. But the importance of this seminal study of the percutaneous absorption of benzene, the interest of the further studies it induced, and its influence over the eventual regulation of benzene exposure in the workplace, is undisputed. The article is followed by a review of percutaneous absorption studies during the last 40 years.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2000, Vol.6, No.2, p.104-113. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 01-728 Krieger G.R.
Accident prevention manual for business and industry: Environmental management
Fourth part of a series of textbooks on safety management in enterprises (for parts 1, 2 and 3, see CIS 01-692, CIS 01-693 and CIS 00-396). It covers environmental management from the business point of view. Contents: general framework (history and development, economic and ethical issues, legal and legislative framework in the US and internationally, basic principles of environmental science, managing environmental resources, environmental audits and site assessments); waste management (hazardous wastes, health and safety training for hazardous waste activities, pollution prevention approaches and technologies); special concerns (public health issues, risk assessment, indoor air quality, global issues, using the systems approach to avoid risks). In appendices: case studies; sources of help; glossaries.
National Safety Council, 1121 Spring Lake Drive, Itasca IL 60143-3201, USA, 2nd ed., 2000. xiv, 539p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 79.95 (members), USD 99.95 (non-members).

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