Alcohol and drug abuse - 495 entries found
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Wang L., Wheeler K., Bai L., Stallones L., Dong Y., Ge J., Xiang H.
Alcohol consumption and work-related injuries among farmers in Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China
This population-based survey aimed to study the association between alcohol use and work-related agricultural injury. Farmers in a north-eastern province of China were questioned about work-related injury in the past year, alcohol use, farming practices and sociodemographic factors. The Chi-square test and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the role of alcohol drinking in agricultural injuries. Among 2,050 farmers who completed the survey, the 12-month prevalence of work-related injury was 12.2%. The leading external cause of injury was exposure to mechanical force. The odds of injury among farmers with past month drinking, who drank distilled spirits and reported intoxication were respectively 1.77, 1.89 and 2.12. The odds of injury also significantly increased with greater average amounts of pure alcohol per day, with increased frequency of drinking per week and with greater reported years of drinking. Each alcohol use variable was associated with injury in logistic regression models while controlling for sex, age, years of farm work, months of farm work in the past 12 months, driving a motor vehicle and agricultural machinery use.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.825-835. 35 ref.
Gjerde H., Christophersen A.S., Moan I.S., Yttredal B., Walsh J.M., Normann P.T., Mørland J.
Use of alcohol and drugs by Norwegian employees: A pilot study using questionnaires and analysis of oral fluid
The use of alcohol and drugs may affect workplace safety and productivity. Little is known about the magnitude of this problem in Norway. The employees of four participating companies in Norway filled in a questionnaire and provided a sample of oral fluid. Samples were analyzed for alcohol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG; a biological marker of recent large alcohol intake), psychoactive medicinal drugs and illegal drugs. Alcohol was negative in all samples, but 21.0% reported the intake of alcohol during the last 24 h. EtG was positive in 2.1% of the samples. Inefficiency or hangover at work during the past year was reported by 24.3%, while 6.2% had been absent from work during the past year due to the use of alcohol. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, No.5:13, 8p. 42 ref.
Use_of_alcohol_and_drugs.pdf [in English]
Bushnell P.T., Colombi A., Caruso C.C., Tak S.
Work schedules and health behavior outcomes at a large manufacturer
Health Risk Assessment (HRA) survey responses were collected during 2000-2008 in a multinational chemical and coatings manufacturer. Responses of 26,442 employees were sufficiently complete for analysis. Rates of smoking, lack of exercise, moderate to high alcohol use, obesity and short sleep duration were compared by work schedule type (day, night, or rotating shift) and daily work hours (8, 10, or 12 h). Prevalence rate ratios (RRs) were calculated, adjusting for age group, sex, marital status, job tenure, and occupational group. The reference group was 8-h day shift employees. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2010, Vol.48, No.4, p.395-405. 50 ref.
Work_schedules.pdf [in English]
Summary of the report on economic incentives to improve occupational safety and health: A review from the European perspective
Résumé du rapport sur les incitations économiques visant à améliorer la sécurité et la santé au travail: un compte rendu du point de vue européen [in French]
Resumen del informe sobre incentivos económicos para mejorar la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo: análisis desde la perspectiva europea [in Spanish]
Economic incentives in occupational safety and health (OSH) refer to processes that reward organizations which develop and maintain safe and healthy working environments. These processes may include, for example, linking the OSH performance of an organization to fiscal incentives such as lower insurance premiums or tax rates. These aspects are summarized in this fact sheet, also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2010. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
Facts_95/EN.pdf [in English]
Facts_95/FR.pdf [in French]
Facts_95/ES.pdf [in Spanish]
Kaewboonchoo O., Morioka I., Saleekul S., Miyai N., Chaikittiporn C., Kawai T.
Blood lead level and cardiovascular risk factors among bus drivers in Bangkok, Thailand
This study aimed to clarify the role of blood lead level (Pb-B) as a cardiovascular risk factor. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk, the second derivative finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG) was used. The subjects comprised of 420 male bus drivers in Thailand. The SDPTG-AI increases with age, Pb-B, smoking and alcohol consumption. There was significant correlation between Pb-B and SDPTG-AI after controlling for age, body mass index and lifestyle factors. These results suggest that Pb-B is possibly an independent cardiovascular risk factor for bus drivers exposed to lower level of lead.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.61-65. Illus. 18 ref.
Blood_lead_level.pdf [in English]
Chamoux A., Malaville P.Y.
Occupational cardiovascular diseases
Pathologies cardiovasculaires professionnelles [in French]
With about two million deaths each year, cardiovascular diseases are highest cause of mortality in the European Union, accounting 42% of all deaths. The nine main cardiovascular risk factors (abnormal blood lipids, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, abdominal obesity, stress, alcohol consumption, insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables, and insufficient physical activity) allow to predict 90% of the cardiovascular risk. Occupational risk factors include in particular the stress that results from psychological constraints and shift work. This article addresses the risk factors, diagnosis, work capacity, prevention and compensation of occupational cardiovascular diseases. Replaces CIS 99-1173.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 13p. Illus. 48 ref.
Mäkinen T.M., Jokelainen J., Näyhä S., Laatikainen T., Jousilahti P., Hassi J.
Occurrence of frostbite in the general population - Work-related and individual factors
Based on data from several regional surveys in Finland, this study analyzed the incidence of frostbite in the general population and the related risk factors. The annual frequencies of mild and severe frostbite were 12.9% and 1.1%, respectively. Frostbite was found to occur more frequently among men than women. Work-related risk factors included employment in certain industries, high physical strain and weekly cold exposure at work. Individual factors that increase frostbite risk are diabetes, white fingers in the cold, cardiac insufficiency, angina pectoris, stroke, depressive feelings and heavy alcohol consumption.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.35, No.5, p.384-393. Illus. 35 ref.
Gimeno D., Amick B.C., Barrientos-Gutiérrez T., Mangione T.W.
Work organization and drinking: An epidemiological comparison of two psychosocial work exposure models
To examine the relationship between psychosocial work exposure and drinking behaviours, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 3,099 workers in the United States. Factors assessed included job stress and alienating job conditions. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. High strain work showed no associations, while workers in passive jobs had an increased likelihood of heavy drinking (odds ratio (OR) 1.29) and a lower likelihood of frequent drinking (OR 0.71). Jobs with low complexity and low constraint related to more frequent drinking (OR 1.60). No associations with drinking at work were observed. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.305-317. 75 ref.
Sinokki M., Hinkka K., Ahola K,, Koskinen S., Klaukka T., Kivimäki M., Puukka P., Lönnqvist J., Virtanen M.
The association between team climate at work and mental health in the Finnish Health 2000 study
This study investigated whether team climate at work was associated with DSM-IV depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders and subsequent antidepressant medication in a random sample of 3347 Finnish employees aged 30-64 years. Data on team climate and depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were collected during interviews. Data on the use of antidepressant medication in a three-year follow-up period were collected from the national social insurance register. Poor team climate at work was significantly associated with depressive disorders (odds ratio (OR) 1.61) but not with alcohol use. Poor team climate also predicted antidepressant medication (OR 1.53), but not anxiety after adjustment for job demands and control.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.66, No.8, p.523-528. 51 ref.
Leggat P.A., Smith D.R.
Alcohol-related absenteeism: The need to analyse consumption patterns in order to target screening and interventions in the workplace
The impact of alcohol, tobacco and drugs in the workplace is reflected in two to three times higher rates of absenteeism, three times higher compensation claims and a quarter of all occupational accidents. This editorial argues in favour of screening employees for their alcohol consumption during their regular annual medical examinations, and providing suitable preventive interventions and treatment.
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.345-347. 20 ref.
Peretti-Watel P., Constance J., Seror V., Beck F.
Working conditions, job dissatisfaction and smoking behaviours among French clerks and manual workers
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between working conditions, job dissatisfaction and smoking behaviours among clerks and manual workers in France. Data were collected by means of a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted among a random sample of 4825 full-time workers. Manual workers and clerks who reported strong dissatisfaction toward unhealthy working conditions also reported more frequent current smoking, tobacco addiction, potential alcohol dependence and perceived stress. After adjusting for socio-demographic confounders, perceived working conditions and job dissatisfaction remained correlated with smoking and tobacco dependence.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.343-350. 47 ref.
Goetzel R.Z., Baker K.M., Short M.E., Pei X., Ozminkowski R.J., Wang S., Bowen J.D., Roemer E.C., Craun B.A., Tully K.J., Baase C.M., DeJoy D.M., Wilson M.G.
First-year results of an obesity prevention program at the Dow Chemical Company
This article presents the first-year results from a workplace obesity prevention programme at a large chemical company in the United States. A study was conducted among 8013 employees at nine treatment worksites who received weight management interventions and 8013 controls based at three other worksites who did not receive the interventions. Data concerning changes in employees' weight, body mass index (BMI), and other health risks were subjected to statistical analyses. After one year, a modest treatment effect was observed for weight and BMI largely because the control group subjects gained weight; however, no effect was observed for overweight and obesity prevalence. With the exception of blood glucose, other risk factors (tobacco use, high blood pressure, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure values) decreased significantly.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.125-138. Illus. 72 ref.
Harling M., Strehmel P., Schablon A., Nienhaus A.
Psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and medical drugs by veterinarians
In this cross-sectional study, the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects having responded to a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption and regular medical drug intake. Practicing veterinarians are more frequently affected by psychosocial stress and have a greater risk of alcohol or drug consumption than veterinarians working in a non-clinical area (government services, industry). The findings support the hypothesis of complex interrelationships between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in the veterinary profession.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.4, No.4, 11p. 35 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-4-4.pdf [in English]
Billings D.W., Cook R.F., Hendrickson A., Dove D.C.
A web-based approach to managing stress and mood disorders in the workforce
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based multimedia health promotion programme for the workplace, designed to help reduce stress and the risk of depression, anxiety and substance abuse. Using a randomized controlled trial design, 309 working adults were randomly assigned to the web-based intervention group or to a control group. All participants were assessed on multiple self-reported outcomes before and after the intervention. Relative to controls, the web-based group reduced their stress, increased their knowledge of depression and anxiety, developed more positive attitudes toward stress treatment and adopted a more controlled approach to alcohol consumption.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.960-968. 44 ref.
Training of future engineers and managers
Former les futurs ingénieurs et managers [in French]
This issue is largely devoted to the proposals of an expert retained by the French Ministries of employment and of higher education on occupational safety and health training in universities and advanced learning institutions. It also presents several INRS publications and initiatives in various fields (emerging hazards, alcohol and drugs at work, wood dust, glycol ethers, standardization).
Réalité Prévention, Nov.-Dec. 2008, No.18, 4p. (whole issue). Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/Pdf%20ActuRealitePrevention18/$File/ActuRealitePrevention18.pdf [in French]
Lee T.K., LaBrie R.A., Rhee H.S., Shaffer H.J.
A study of South Korean casino employees and gambling problems
The objective of this study was to identify differences in the mental health status and social attitudes among casino employees in South Korea depending upon whether or not they reported any gambling problems. Data were collected by means of questionnaires from 388 employees on the prevalence of gambling problems, alcohol and tobacco use and depression. Employees were grouped according to their scores on the Korean version of South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The employees who gambled without experiencing any gambling problems were compared to those who reported any gambling problems. Exploratory factor analyses identified the domains of casino employee social attitudes towards gambling. Employees who reported gambling problems reported more smoking, alcohol consumption and depression compared to employees who did not report gambling problems. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.3, p.191-197. 23 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/3/191 [in English]
Binge drinking - Is Australia's drinking culture affecting your workplace?
This article discusses the workplace safety implications of binge drinking in Australia, together with prevention efforts targeted at young workers. Contents: workers who binge; alcohol and accidents; cultural implications; day-to-day practice; the hangover effect; alcohol testing; legal aspects.
National Safety - The Magazine of the National Safety Council of Australia, May 2008, Vol.3, No.4, p.16-23. Illus.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
The work of monitors of Febem
O trabalho dos monitores na Febem [in Portuguese]
Study of working conditions and health problems among monitors working in a Brazilian detention centre for minors called FEBEM.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2008. 84p. Illus. 15 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/ARQUIVOS/PUBLICACAO/l/Monitores%20Febem.pdf [in Portuguese]
Ochoa Mangado E., Madoz Gúrpide A.
Consumption of alcohol and drugs in occupational settings
Consumo de alcohol y otras drogas en el medio laboral [in Spanish]
The consumption of alcohol and drugs is widespread in society in general, including among workers. The implications of the consumption of these substances in the working environment are very important, giving rise to diseases, occupational accidents, absenteeism, occupational disabilities and reduced productivity. Various measures are necessary in occupational settings to prevent and to minimize the risks resulting from the consumption of these substances. These should include prevention and support programmes offering basic information and medical assistance to affected workers.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.25-32. 28 ref.
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v54n213/original1.pdf [in Spanish]
Chau N., Bourgkard E., Bhattacherjee A., Ravaud J.F., Choquet M., Mur J.M.
Associations of job, living conditions and lifestyle with occupational injury in working population: A population-based study
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between job demands and occupational injury, taking into account living conditions and lifestyle. A questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 2888 workers, aged ≥15 years, randomly selected from north-eastern France. Data were analyzed with adjusted odds ratios (ORas) computed with the logistic model. In total, 9.2% of workers had an injury during the previous two years. Odds ratios of the high job demands (tasks at height, handling objects, pneumatic tools, other vibrating hand tools, work in adverse climate, physical workload, vibrating platform, machine tools, cold, heat, awkward posture, noise, etc.) for injury were between 1.81 and 5.25. A strong exposure-response relationship was found between the cumulated job demands and injury. These ORas decreased when adjusted for sex, age, living conditions/lifestyle confounders and job category. The study identified a wide range of job demands and living conditions/lifestyle which predicted injury.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2008, Vol.81, No.4, p.379-389. 52 ref.
Phan Chan Thé E.
Addictive behaviour and safety-critical jobs
Conduites addictives et postes de sécurité [in French]
This article discusses the management of addictive behaviour in occupational settings, with an emphasis on screening for the abuse of drugs and alcohol among persons assigned to safety-critical jobs. Two examples of safety-critical jobs are presented: truck drivers and dock handlers. The article also presents various statistics that help understand the importance and the severity of the problem of substance addiction in France.
Préventique-Sécurité, Jan.-Feb. 2008, No.97, p.76-81. Illus.
Caution: Office parties and alcohol
Attention! Alcool et party au bureau [in French]
No enterprise wishes to see their employees die in an accident after returning from a company-organized party or "farewell drinks" event. This article comments the legal responsibilities of employers with respect to this issue and presents simple means to ensure that employees return home safety: supply of breath analysers; supply of taxi vouchers or other means of conveyance; controlling the amount of alcohol served; ensuring that the catering staff is trained with respect to serving alcohol and aware of their responsibilities.
Travail et santé, June 2008, Vol. 24, No.2, p.9-11. Illus.
Questel F., Dally S.
Legislation on alcoholism and its prevention
Législation se rapportant à l'alcoolisme et à sa prévention [in French]
French legislation concerning alcoholism and its prevention consists of laws adopted over a series of years, whose objectives range from treating patients to protecting society and ensuring law and order. This article comments current public health and forensic legislation. Following a brief review of the classification of alcoholic beverages and the provisions regarding their licensing and permission, this article goes on to discuss the protection of individuals, drunkenness in public areas, the organization of the care of alcoholic patients, and forensic aspects of alcoholism in various fields (work, road safety, family and crime).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3nd Quarter 2008, No.160, 8p. 13 ref.
Durcy M, Garnier A.
Alcohol, cannabis, drugs - The construction sector speaks up
Alcool, cannabis, médicaments... Le BTP brise le silence [in French]
Topics addressed in this article on alcohol and psychotropic substance prevention in the construction sector: emerging awareness of the problem within the sector; interview of an occupational physician; screening systems and French regulatory framework; prevention approaches; awareness campaigns.
Prévention BTP, June 2008, No.108, p.38-47. Illus.
Protecting workers in hotels, restaurants and catering
The growing hotel, restaurant and catering sector (HORECA) employs more than 7.8 million, mostly young and low-skilled, people in the European Union. Typically, employees work long, irregular hours doing physically demanding work. The risks to workers' safety and health are many and varied, resulting from prolonged standing, carrying and lifting, exposure to high noise levels and working in too hot or cold environments. Workers also suffer cuts and burns, trips, slips and falls, and come into contact with dangerous substances. The work can be monotonous, stressful and draining. Nevertheless, employers and employees can work together to improve workplace safety and health. This prevention report on the HORECA sector highlights key risk prevention measures.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2008. 163p. Illus. 71 ref. Price: EUR 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/TE7007132ENC_horeca [in English]
Alcohol in the enterprise
L'alcool dans l'entreprise [in French]
French labour laws restrict the consumption of alcohol at work and prohibit the presence of intoxicated workers at the place of work. When these rules are not followed, employers may be fined. However, employers do have the means of controlling and punishing employees under the influence of alcohol at work, which are discussed in this article.
Cahier Pratique Tissot - Guide de la santé, sécurité au travail, Feb. 2008, No.107, p.5-6. Illus.
Barrientos-Gutierrez T., Gimeno D., Mangione T.W., Harrist R.B., Amick B.C.
Drinking social norms and drinking behaviours: A multilevel analysis of 137 workgroups in 16 worksites
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between drinking social norms and heavy drinking, frequent drinking and drinking at work. The sample included 5338 workers with complete data, spread between 137 workgroups from 16 American worksites. Multivariate adjusted models showed participants working in workgroups in the most discouraging drinking norms quartile were 45% less likely to be heavy drinkers, 54% less likely to be frequent drinkers and 69% less likely to drink at work than their counterparts in the least discouraging quartile. These findings suggest that public health efforts at reducing drinking and alcohol-related injuries and diseases should target interventions at worksites.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.64, No.9, p.602-608. 33 ref.
Ideas for a prevention and standardization programme concerning drugs and alcohol at work
Ideas para un programa de prevención y de normativas en alcohol y drogas en el trabajo [in Spanish]
This article presents various elements for the implementation of a programme for the prevention of alcohol and drug consumption at work. It also comments the ILO recommendations relating to this area, together with a United Nations publication which in particular discusses certain myths related to the consumption and supply of drugs that are not necessarily true.
Protección y seguridad, Nov.-Dec. 2007, Vol.53, No.316, p.23-30. Illus.
Rowland B., Wishart D., Davey J., Freeman J.
The influence of occupational driver stress on work-related road safety: An exploratory review
Prior research has identified a number of stressors that impact on drivers by increasing stress levels, causing adverse behaviour and leading to effects such as aggressive behaviour, fatigue, inattention and substance abuse. For safety professionals and employers, one way to reduce the effects of occupational driver stress is to change perceptions so that work-related driving is recognized as being as important as other work-related tasks. This article explores relevant literature in relation to driver stress and suggests improvements to risk management and safety procedures, including assigning sufficient resources to target occupational stress and in particular driver stress.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2007, Vol.23, No.5, p.459-468. Illus. 54 ref.
Addictions and work
Addictions et travail [in French]
Occasional or regular consumption of alcohol, cannabis or pharmaceutical drugs can endanger the safety and health of workers and cause occupational accidents. The prevention and care of addictions at the enterprise level is therefore necessary. This Internet document reviews the current situation with respect to addictions in France and the resulting occupational hazards, together with the corresponding regulatory framework. It explains in detail the strategy to be implemented within the enterprise, involving both collective and individual prevention measures.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2007. Internet document (HTML format). Illus. 19 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/dossiers/addictions.html [in French]
Occupational burnout and health
In a study carried out in 1997, the prevalence of severe burnout cases in Finland was found to be 7%. Burnout is often accompanied by other health problems. The aims of this study were to investigate the current prevalence of burnout, the socio-demographic and occupational risk factors of burnout, relationships between burnout and psychiatric symptoms (mood and anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and somatic illnesses), work ability, sickness absenteeism and the use of health care services and medical treatment. It was carried out in the form of a population-based cross-sectional study, in which data on a representative sample 8028 persons was collected through interviews, questionnaires and health examinations. Findings are discussed.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2007. 116p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
https://oa.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/28153/occupati.pdf?sequence=1 [in English]
Psychotropic drugs and work (II) - Antidepressants
Médicaments psychotropes et travail (II) - Médicaments antidépresseurs [in French]
This literature survey addresses the use of antidepressants at work. The most recent publications on the topic cite a prevalence of depression of around 10% in the general population and a similar level in the working population. The consequences of antidepressants on work are little known. This article sheds light on current understanding with respect to vigilance, driving and co-exposure to toxic substances, and proposes several decision support tools aimed at occupational physicians. The ethical and practical aspects of medical treatment of employees are discussed, together with the issues of staying at work and returning to work.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.112, p.487-508. Illus. 96 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20116/$File/TC116.pdf [in French]
Lucas D.L., Lincoln J.M.
Fatal falls overboard on commercial fishing vessels in Alaska
Falls overboard are a major contributor to commercial fishing fatalities in Alaska. This article describes the problem of falls overboard and discusses possible ways to reduce the risk factors. Data from the Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System on fatal falls overboard in the commercial fishing sector in Alaska between 1990 and 2005 were used; 71 such accidents were identified. An in-depth descriptive analysis of these fatalities was then performed to identify areas for intervention. Falls overboard did not decline significantly during those years. The most common circumstances associated with falling overboard were working with fishing gear, being alone on deck, losing balance or slipping, heavy weather, gear entanglement and alcohol.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007, Vol.50, p.962-968. Illus. 17 ref.
Contractor safety: Building trust and communication
The effective management of contractor safety is not only necessary for the protection of their employees, but also for the protection of regular employees and facility property and equipment. This article discusses how to choose a contractor with the experience and ability to complete the job safely and to manage the contractual relationship with an eye to occupational safety and health. Topics addressed: setting expectations; contractor selection; chemical safety; contractor orientation; contractor auditing.
Occupational Hazards, Oct. 2007, p.64-74. Illus.
Bianchi P., Vialla F.
Alcohol, a risk within the enterprise
L'alcool, un risque dans l'entreprise [in French]
Topics addressed in these two articles on the risks to the enterprise caused by alcoholism and psychotropic substance abuse among employees: examples of prevention policies and measures adopted for managing the problems related to alcohol and psychotropic substance abuse among employees in several European countries; accounts given by safety and health officers of several enterprises; French legal framework concerning the responsibilities of employers and the disciplinary measures that can be taken towards employees.
Face au risque, June-July 2007, No.434, p.35-39. Illus.
Møller L., Stöver H., Jürgens R., Gatherer A., Nikogosian H.
Health in prisons - A WHO guide to the essentials in prison health
Based on the experience of many European countries, this guide describes the steps prison systems should take to protect the health of prisoners and prison staff. This requires that all persons working in prisons understand how imprisonment affects health, what prisoners' health needs are and how to provide health services. Other essential elements include awareness of internationally-recommended standards for prison health; providing professional care with the same professional ethics as in other health services and promoting a whole-prison approach to care, health and well-being of people in custody.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. xvi, 179p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: CHF 40.00, USD 36.00 (CHF 28.00, USD 25.20 in developing countries)
http://www.euro.who.int/document/e90174.pdf [in English]
Zaloshnja E., Miller T.R., Hendrie D., Galvin D.
Employer costs of alcohol-involved injuries
This study estimates the annual cost of alcohol-related injuries to employers in the United States. Incidence was estimated with occupational injury data, motor vehicle crash data and health care data for 1998-2000. Employer costs were estimated from Federal estimates of injury costs by source of compensation payment using data on the percentage paid by employers. Thus the annual employer costs of alcohol-related injuries to employees and their dependents were found to exceed USD 28.6 billion. Out of this, USD 13.2 billion comes from job-related, alcohol-involved injuries. The annual employer cost of motor vehicle crashes in which at least one driver was alcohol-impaired is over USD 9.2 billion. Out of this, only USD 3.4 billion comes from job-related alcohol involvement.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.50, No.2, p.136-142. 44 ref.
Kouvonen A., Kivimäki M., Väänänen A., Heponiemi T., Elovainio M., Ala-Mursula L., Virtanen M., Pentti J., Linna A., Vahtera J.
Job strain and adverse health behaviors: The Finnish public sector study
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between job strain and smoking, heavy drinking, obesity and physical inactivity. Subjects included 34,058 female and 8154 male public sector employees in Finland. Data were collected by means of postal questionnaires. Regression models showed that high job strain and passive jobs were associated with 1.3 to 1.4 times higher odds of having three or more adverse health behaviours. Among men, low job control was associated with a 1.3-fold likelihood of having three or more adverse health behaviours, while among women active jobs were associated with a 1.2-fold likelihood of having three or more adverse behaviours. High demands were associated with a higher likelihood of co-occurrence of one to two adverse behaviours among women. It is concluded that adverse job conditions may increase the likelihood of co-occurring health risk behaviours. Reducing work stress by increasing job control and decreasing psychological demands might help efforts to promote healthy lifestyles.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2007, Vol.49, No.1, p.68-74. 31 ref.
CDC injury fact book
This report presents a comprehensive review at the injury problem in the United States and efforts underway to reduce it. It offers a wealth of injury data and descriptions of research and prevention programmes for a full spectrum of injuries - from those related to acute injury care or alcohol use to those resulting from youth violence. Topics addressed: public health approach to injury prevention; timeline of the significant achievements in preventing injury and its consequences; descriptions of data sources; sampling of partners; injury risk of various populations in each stage of life; comment on frequent injury issues.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2006. v, 111p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/NCIPC/fact_book/InjuryBook2006.pdf [in English]
Addictive behaviour in occupational settings - Report prepared in the context of the governmental plan on measures against illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol 2004-2008
Conduites addictives et milieu professionnel - Rapport établi dans le cadre du Plan gouvernemental de lutte contre les drogues illicites, le tabac et l'alcool 2004- 2008 [in French]
In order to propose a framework for updating the regulations concerning addictions, the French inter-ministry working group having published this report interviewed representatives of employers and employees, occupational physicians, government agencies and research institutions. The report proposes 27 recommendations involving ethics, knowledge acquisition, the safety of the enterprise, its employees and its users, the redefinition of the mission of occupational physicians, the development of an occupational safety and health policy within the enterprise, access to health care and changes to labour and health legislation.
Mission interministérielle de lutte contre la drogue et la toxicomanie, 7 rue Saint-Georges, 75009 Paris, France, Dec. 2006. 32p.
http://www.alcoosite.fr/gr-travail/doc-te/CONDUITES_ADDICTIVES.pdf [in French]
Ali K.M., Sathiyasekaran B.W.C.
Computer professionals and carpal tunnel syndrome (CST)
In this cross-sectional study of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 648 subjects were selected among 4276 computer professionals from 21 companies, using a simple random sampling method. CTS was diagnosed based on clinical features. The prevalence of CTS was found to be 13.1%. The highest risks of CTS were found among subjects with over eight years of computer work, those working over 12 hrs per day and system administrators (odds ratios of 3.3, 4.9 and 2.5 respectively). Ergonomic considerations are important for ensuring the proper positioning of the hands while working with a computer. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.319-325. 27 ref.
Roesler U., Jacobi F., Rau R.
Work and mental disorders in a German national representative sample
This study on occupational risk factors of mental disorders involved 2329 German employees (aged 18-65 years) who took part in a structured, computer-assisted clinical interview. Further, they specified whether their job was characterized by physical workload, overtime or stress, and evaluated whether they felt impaired by each job characteristic. Results show that substance abuse/dependence (including nicotine dependence) was the highest prevalent mental disorder (12 month prevalence: 14.4%) followed by anxiety (12.0%) somatoform (9.7%), and affective (9.3%) disorders. Sequential logistic regression analyses showed significant associations between the presence of stress at work and affective and somatoform disorders. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.20, No.3, p.234-244. 38 ref.
O'Connor P.J., O'Connor N.
Work-related maritime fatalities
During the period 1992-1998 there were 74 fatalities among seafarers in Australia, including 46 commercial fishermen, 12 seamen involved in the transport of cargo and 16 miscellaneous workers. The main contributing factors were hazardous weather conditions, errors of judgment, unsafe practices and failure to wear personal flotation devices (PFDs) in circumstances where they would have saved life. Attention should be focused on reducing alcohol use and increasing PFD availability and usage.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 2006, Vol.38, No.4, p.737-741. Illus. 19 ref.
Psychotropic drugs and work - Opiate substitution therapies
Médicaments psychotropes et travail - Traitement de substitution aux opiacés [in French]
Third in importance after alcohol and tobacco, the consumption of psychotropic drugs in France is a problem that concerns occupational physicians faced with ethical and social issues related to the reintegration of drug addicts through employment. This literature survey focuses on opiate substitute therapies and their implications for the workplace.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2006, No.108, p.441-460. Illus. 75 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20111/$File/TC111.pdf [in French]
Bondéelle A., Fellmann A., Favier A.L.
Alcohol and tobacco at the place of work: Very poor habits
Alcool, tabac... au travail - De bien mauvaises habitudes [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on alcoholism and smoking at the place of work: creating awareness of the problem; preventive measures within the enterprise; passive smoking; French legislation; initiative taken by a mechanical engineering enterprise aimed at completely eliminating alcohol and tobacco at the place of work.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2006, No.667, p.28-36. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/archivests/archivests.nsf/(alldocparref)/TS667page29_1/$file/TS667page29.pdf?openelement [in French]
Mester B., Nieters A., Deeg E., Elsner G., Becker N., Seidler A.
Occupation and malignant lymphoma: A population based case control study in Germany
The aim of this study was to identify occupations suspected to be associated with malignant lymphoma. A total of 710 patients with malignant lymphoma aged 18-80 years were recruited in six study regions in Germany. For each case, a sex, region, and age matched control was drawn from the population registers. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for major occupations and industries were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption. Patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Findings are discussed and industries positively associated with lymphoma are identified. The following economic and industrial sectors were positively associated with lymphoma: food products, beverages, tobacco; paper products, publishing and printing; and metals.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.63, No.1, p.17-26. 94 ref.
Bergeret A., Choasson P.
29th National Congress on Occupational Medicine and Health - Lyon 30 May - 2 June 2006
29e Congrès national de médecine et santé au travail - Lyon 30 mai - 2 juin 2006 [in French]
Proceedings of a conference on occupational medicine and health held in Lyon, France, from 30 May to 2 June 2006. Topics addressed: occupational medicine clinics; monitoring chemical hazards in the context of occupational mobility; management and prevention of crises; addictive behaviour at the workplace; transportation and work; role of occupational health nurses; noise and hearing; hazard evaluation in health care institutions; violence at work; genotoxicity and carcinogenicity; occupational health surveys; occupational health indicators; pluridisciplinarity; electromagnetic fields; asbestos; solvents.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, May 2006, Vol.67, No.2, p.117-462 (whole issue). Bibl.ref.
Alcohol, cannabis ... at the place of work: What's at stake in their prevention
Alcool, cannabis... au travail: les enjeux de la prévention [in French]
This article reviews the problem of psychoactive substance abuse, in particular cannabis and alcohol, among construction industry workers. Topics addressed: ethical and legal aspects of workplace screening; prevention, information and social support; case study of a construction enterprise and information campaign implemented to fight against alcohol and cannabis abuse.
Prévention BTP, June 2006, No.86, p.52-55. Illus.
Smith D.R., Mihashi M., Adachi Y., Koga H., Ishitake T.
A detailed analysis of musculoskeletal disorder risk factors among Japanese nurses
A Japanese language version of the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire was administered to 1,162 nurses from a large teaching hospital. The response rate was 73%. The 12-month period prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) was 85.5%. Alcohol consumption, smoking, and having children were shown to be significant risk factors, with adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 1.87, 2.45 and 2.53, respectively. Workplace risk factors included manually handling patients (OR 2.07 to 11.97) and undertaking physically laborious work (OR 2.09 to 2.76). Nurses reporting pre menstrual tension were 1.66 and 1.94 times more likely to suffer from lower and upper back MSDs, respectively. High mental pressure was also identified as a significant risk factor for MSD of the neck (OR 1.53) and shoulder (OR 2.07). It is concluded that remediation strategies that focus only on manual handling are not sufficient. More emphasis needs to be placed on job satisfaction, work organization, and occupational stress.
Journal of Safety Research, 2006, Vol.37, No.2, p.195-200. 16 ref.
Creating a healthy workplace: A guide for occupational safety and health professionals and employers
This guide provides practical ideas to support occupational safety and health professionals and employers in the improvement of health and well-being in the workplace. For each of the following eight key areas it suggests five simple steps that can make a real difference to the organization and the people working in it: creating a safe and healthy workplace; recruitment, retention and rehabilitation; mental well-being and minimizing stress; musculoskeletal disorders; tobacco smoke and smoking cessation; alcohol and other substance misuse; physical activity; healthy eating.
Faculty of Public Health and Faculty of Occupational Medicine, 4 and 6 St Andrews Place, London NW1 4LB, United Kingdom, 2006. 38p. Bibl.ref.
http://www.fph.org.uk/resources/AtoZ/r%20_healthy_workplaces.pdf [in English]
Craig B.N., Congleton J.J., Kerk C.J., Amendola A.A., Gaines W.G.
Personal and non-occupational risk factors and occupational injury/illness
In this study of workers involved in materials handling, 48 personal and non-occupational risk factors were measured and evaluated for relationships with occupational injury in 442 volunteers who worked for three different employers at nine locations in the United States. Data on occupational injury within this population were collected for one year after measuring muscular strength and various anthropometric factors. Higher occurrences of occupational injury were significantly associated with aerobic power, smoking status, perceived fitness level, fishing/hunting as a hobby, speed limit compliance, percent body fat, witnessing or being involved in a violent fight and a measure of flexibility. Effective injury reduction programmes should go beyond traditional methods of job-related ergonomic risk factors and include personal factors such as smoking, weight control, and alcohol abuse.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.49, No.4, p.249-260. 86 ref.
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