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CIS 11-0045 Jaakkola M.S., Sripaiboonkij P., Jaakkola J.J.K.
Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers
The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between occupational exposures in tile industry and lung function, and to evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica. A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted in 2006-2007. Participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to dust in tile industry is related to lung function reduction. There was a suggestion of synergistic effect between dust exposure and smoking. Tile factories should consider measures to reduce dust exposure and arrange spirometry surveillance for workers with such exposure. Smoking cessation should be promoted to prevent harmful effects of occupational tile dust exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol. 84, p.151-158. Illus. 36 ref.


CIS 12-0344 Sapp A.L., Kawachi I., Sorensen G., LaMontagne A.D., Subramanian S.V.
Does workplace social capital buffer the effects of job stress? A cross-sectional, multilevel analysis of cigarette smoking among U.S. manufacturing workers
The objective of this study was to investigate whether workplace social capital buffers the association between job stress and smoking status. As part of a broader study on cancer prevention in small enterprises, interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by 1740 workers and 288 managers in 26 manufacturing firms. Social capital was assessed by multiple items measured at the individual level among workers and contextual level among managers. Job stress was operationalized by the demand-control model. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations between job stressors and smoking and test for effect modification by social capital measures. Workplace social capital (both summary measures) buffered associations between high job demands and smoking. One compositional item, worker trust in managers, buffered associations between job strain and smoking. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.52, No.7, p.740-750. 94 ref.
Does_workplace_social_capital_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 11-0508 Claessen H., Arndt V., Drath C., Brenner H.
Smoking habits and occupational disability: A cohort study of 14 483 construction workers
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of smoking habits on occupational disability among construction workers, an occupational group with particularly high smoking prevalence. The association between smoking and occupational disability was examined during a follow-up of over 10 years in a cohort of 14,483 male construction workers in Württemberg, Germany. The cohort was linked to the regional pension register of the German pension fund to identify workers who were granted a disability pension during the follow-up. HRs (hazard ratios) were calculated with non-smokers as reference by the Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for potential confounding factors such as age, nationality, type of occupation, alcohol consumption and body mass index. Overall, 2643 cases of occupational disability were observed, with dorsopathy (21%) being the most common cause. Clear dose-response relationships were seen between smoking and occupational disability due to all causes, as well as occupational disability due to respiratory, cardiovascular and mental diseases, cancer and dorsopathy. Particularly strong associations were seen between heavy smoking and occupational disability due to mental and respiratory diseases (HR 3.25 and 3.26 respectively). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.67, No.2, p.84-90. 38 ref.

CIS 11-0146 Bushnell P.T., Colombi A., Caruso C.C., Tak S.
Work schedules and health behavior outcomes at a large manufacturer
Health Risk Assessment (HRA) survey responses were collected during 2000-2008 in a multinational chemical and coatings manufacturer. Responses of 26,442 employees were sufficiently complete for analysis. Rates of smoking, lack of exercise, moderate to high alcohol use, obesity and short sleep duration were compared by work schedule type (day, night, or rotating shift) and daily work hours (8, 10, or 12 h). Prevalence rate ratios (RRs) were calculated, adjusting for age group, sex, marital status, job tenure, and occupational group. The reference group was 8-h day shift employees. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2010, Vol.48, No.4, p.395-405. 50 ref.
Work_schedules.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0635 Summary of the report on economic incentives to improve occupational safety and health: A review from the European perspective
Résumé du rapport sur les incitations économiques visant à améliorer la sécurité et la santé au travail: un compte rendu du point de vue européen [in French]
Resumen del informe sobre incentivos económicos para mejorar la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo: análisis desde la perspectiva europea [in Spanish]
Economic incentives in occupational safety and health (OSH) refer to processes that reward organizations which develop and maintain safe and healthy working environments. These processes may include, for example, linking the OSH performance of an organization to fiscal incentives such as lower insurance premiums or tax rates. These aspects are summarized in this fact sheet, also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2010. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
Facts_95/EN.pdf [in English]
Facts_95/FR.pdf [in French]
Facts_95/ES.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 10-0431 Puttonen S., Härmä M., Hublin C.
Shift work and cardiovascular disease - Pathways from circadian stress to morbidity
In order to establish a causal relation between shift work and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the pathways from the former to the latter need to be verified. This article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms between shift work and CVD. Shift work can increase the risk of CVD by several interrelated psychosocial, behavioural, and physiological mechanisms. The psychosocial mechanisms relate to difficulties in controlling working hours, decreased work-life balance and poor recovery following work. The most probable behavioural changes are weight gain and smoking. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changed lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. The data provide evidence for possible disease mechanisms between shift work and CVD, but compelling evidence on any specific mechanism is missing.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.96-108. Illus. 129 ref.
Shift_work_and_cardiovascular_disease.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0350 Kaewboonchoo O., Morioka I., Saleekul S., Miyai N., Chaikittiporn C., Kawai T.
Blood lead level and cardiovascular risk factors among bus drivers in Bangkok, Thailand
This study aimed to clarify the role of blood lead level (Pb-B) as a cardiovascular risk factor. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk, the second derivative finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG) was used. The subjects comprised of 420 male bus drivers in Thailand. The SDPTG-AI increases with age, Pb-B, smoking and alcohol consumption. There was significant correlation between Pb-B and SDPTG-AI after controlling for age, body mass index and lifestyle factors. These results suggest that Pb-B is possibly an independent cardiovascular risk factor for bus drivers exposed to lower level of lead.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.61-65. Illus. 18 ref.
Blood_lead_level.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0228 Chamoux A., Malaville P.Y.
Occupational cardiovascular diseases
Pathologies cardiovasculaires professionnelles [in French]
With about two million deaths each year, cardiovascular diseases are highest cause of mortality in the European Union, accounting 42% of all deaths. The nine main cardiovascular risk factors (abnormal blood lipids, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, abdominal obesity, stress, alcohol consumption, insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables, and insufficient physical activity) allow to predict 90% of the cardiovascular risk. Occupational risk factors include in particular the stress that results from psychological constraints and shift work. This article addresses the risk factors, diagnosis, work capacity, prevention and compensation of occupational cardiovascular diseases. Replaces CIS 99-1173.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 13p. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 10-0251 Some non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some related exposures
This volume reviews the potential carcinogenicity of 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and several occupational exposures involving coal-derived PAHs. These are formed during the incomplete combustion of organic material. Environmental sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons include industrial air pollution, urban air pollution, tobacco smoke and diet (which is commonly the main source of exposure in non-smokers who are not exposed to such hydrocarbons through their occupations). High occupational exposure can arise during the conversion of coal to coke and coal tar, and during the processing and use of products derived from coal tar. In this volume, benzo[a]pyrene, other PAHs and related occupational exposures were evaluated by an IARC Monographs Working Group, reviewing epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to their carcinogenic hazard to humans.
World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2010. viii, 853p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00; USD 55.00; CHF 38.50 in developing countries; downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 10-0234 Houston S., Mitchell S., Evans S.
Application of a cardiovascular disease risk prediction model among commercial pilots
In this cross-sectional study, a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction model was applied to United Kingdom commercial pilots. Variables included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, current smoking and diabetes status. Individual 10-year absolute CVD risk scores (also referred to as 10-yr global CVD risk) were calculated using a model developed by the Framingham Heart Study, a long-term ongoing cardiovascular cohort study on residents of a locality of the United States. None of the female pilots and 9.7% of male pilots were found to be at high risk. High-risk pilots are concentrated around 60 years of age. These pilots may require more comprehensive risk assessment. Other findings are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2010, Vol.81, No.8, p.768-773. Illus. 17 ref.


CIS 11-0486 Karunanayake C.P., Singh G.V., Spinelli J.J., McLaughlin J.R., Dosman J.A., McDuffie H.H., Pahwa P.
Occupational exposures and Hodgkin lymphoma: Canadian case-control study
The objective was to study the association between Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and occupational exposures related to long-held occupation among male workers in Canada. A population-based case-control study of HL was conducted among male workers stratified by province of residence and age group. Conditional logistic regression was used to fit statistical models. Several factors independently increased the risk of HL. Ever exposure to ionizing radiation from uranium showed a significant association with HL. Men who had smoked cigarettes for 25 years or more were the most likely to develop HL. Exposure to ultraviolet light and diagnosis with measles were negatively associated with HL, whereas diagnosis with shingles increased the risk of HL. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2009, Vol.51, No.12, p.1447-1454. 57 ref.

CIS 10-0834 Etter J.F.
Secondhand smoke in Geneva, 1996-2006 - Changes in exposure, opinions, and workplace smoking bans in the absence of national legislation
Postal surveys were conducted in 1996 and 2006 to assess change in duration of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), frequency of smoking bans at the workplace, and opinions on smokefree measures in Geneva, Switzerland, in the absence of national smoke-free legislation. A random sample of 742 participants in 1996 and 1487 in 2006 showed length of exposure to SHS decreased from 7h/week to 4h/week, with the largest decrease among 26-45 year olds. Workplace smoking bans increased from 33.4% to 66.3%. Agreement that SHS is dangerous to health increased from 77.5% to 86.0%. Agreement that all restaurant tables should be reserved to nonsmokers also increased, from 14.8% to 41.4%. Opinions were more favourable to all smoke-free measures in 2006 than in 1996, except, "More information should be given on the health dangers of SHS," suggesting a level of saturation was reached for information on SHS.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2009, Vol. 15, No.2, p.159-165. 57 ref.

CIS 09-1340 Ayres J.G., Semple S., MacCalman L., Dempsey S., Hilton S., Hurley J.F., Miller B.G., Naji A., Petticrew M.
Bar workers' health and environmental tobacco smoke (BHETSE): Symptomatic improvement in bar staff following smoke-free legislation in Scotland
The objective of this study was to examine changes in the health of bar workers after smoke-free legislation was introduced in Scotland. Bar workers were followed from before legislation introduction and at two months and one year after the introduction. Participants included 371 bar workers recruited from 72 bars. Of the 191 (51%) workers seen at the one-year follow-up, the percentage reporting respiratory symptoms fell from 69% to 57% and for sensory symptoms from 75% to 64%. As these improvements were seen in both non-smokers and smokers, smoke-free working environments may have potentially important benefits even for workers who smoke.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.66, No.5, p.339-346. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 09-1138 Bondy S.J., Zhang B., Kreiger N., Selby P., Benowitz N., Travis H., Florescu A., Greenspan N.R., Ferrence R.
Impact of an indoor smoking ban on bar workers' exposure to secondhand smoke
To evaluate the impact of an indoor smoke-free law in Toronto, Canada, implemented June 2004, this study used a pre-post comparison design to assess secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among 79 bar workers in Toronto and 49 bar workers in a control community, Windsor (no law change), at four times: pre-ban, and 1, 2, and 9 months post-ban. SHS exposure time and urinary cotinine level were substantially reduced in Toronto bar workers immediately after the ban by 94% (from 7.8 to 0.5 hours) and 68% (from 24.2 to 7.8 ng/mL), respectively. The reduction was sustained throughout follow-up. There was no change among Windsor bar workers. Compliance with the ban was high, and the ban led to a substantial reduction in SHS exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.51, No.5, p.612-619. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 09-1043 Arjomandi M., Haight T., Redberg R., Gold W.M.
Pulmonary function abnormalities in never-smoking flight attendants exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke in the aircraft cabin
To determine whether the flight attendants who were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke in the aircraft cabin have abnormal pulmonary function, 61 never-smoking female flight attendants who worked in active air crews before the smoking ban on commercial aircraft were administered questionnaires and pulmonary function testing. Although the flight attendants had normal FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio, other pulmonary function abnormalities were suggestive of airway obstruction and impaired diffusion, likely to be related to their exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke in the cabin.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.51, No.6, p.639-646. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 09-1190 Peretti-Watel P., Constance J., Seror V., Beck F.
Working conditions, job dissatisfaction and smoking behaviours among French clerks and manual workers
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between working conditions, job dissatisfaction and smoking behaviours among clerks and manual workers in France. Data were collected by means of a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted among a random sample of 4825 full-time workers. Manual workers and clerks who reported strong dissatisfaction toward unhealthy working conditions also reported more frequent current smoking, tobacco addiction, potential alcohol dependence and perceived stress. After adjusting for socio-demographic confounders, perceived working conditions and job dissatisfaction remained correlated with smoking and tobacco dependence.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.343-350. 47 ref.

CIS 09-732 Harling M., Strehmel P., Schablon A., Nienhaus A.
Psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and medical drugs by veterinarians
In this cross-sectional study, the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects having responded to a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption and regular medical drug intake. Practicing veterinarians are more frequently affected by psychosocial stress and have a greater risk of alcohol or drug consumption than veterinarians working in a non-clinical area (government services, industry). The findings support the hypothesis of complex interrelationships between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in the veterinary profession.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.4, No.4, 11p. 35 ref. [in English]


CIS 12-0262 A breath of fresh air - Managing a smoke-free environment
Smoking is banned in workplaces and enclosed public spaces across the United Kingdom. Employers, managers or persons in control of premises must display no-smoking notices and take reasonable steps to ensure that staff, customers and visitors are aware of the ban. Aimed at occupational safety and health professionals, this leaflet offers guidance on creating, managing and maintaining a smoke-free workplace.
Institution of Occupational Safety and Health, The Grange, Highfield Drive, Wigston, Leicestershire, LE18 1NN, United Kingdom, Oct. 2008. 4p. 7 ref.
A_breath_of_fresh_air_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0103 Ostrea E.M., Villanueva-Uy E., Ngerncham S., Punnakanta L., Batilando M.J., Agarwal P., Pensler E., Corrion M., Ramos E.F., Romero J., Thomas R.L.
An epidemiologic study comparing fetal exposure to tobacco smoke in three Southeast Asian countries
The high prevalence of smoking in Southeast Asia means pregnant women face exposure to tobacco smoke that may affect the health of their fetus. This study determined fetal exposure to tobacco smoke by meconium analysis for cotinine in three regions of Southeast Asia, located in the Philippines, Thailand and Singapore. Maternal exposure to tobacco smoke (active and passive ranged from 54.1% to 71.1%, while foetal exposure to tobacco smoke (by meconium analysis) ranged from 1.3% to 13.1%; however, a large proportion of infants who tested positive for cotinine (65%) were born to mothers who gave no history of either active or passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.4, p.257-262. 34 ref.

CIS 09-1110 Ebbehøj N.E., Hein H.O., Suadicani P., Gyntelberg F.
Occupational organic solvent exposure, smoking, and prevalence of chronic bronchitis - An epidemiological study of 3387 men
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the interaction between smoking and long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents on the prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB). Data on 3387 men aged 63 ±10 years were collected by means of a questionnaire on health, lifestyle, working conditions and exposure to solvents, together with a clinical examination including measurements of height, weight, and peak-flow. CB was observed in 461 subjects (14.4%). Current smoking and the interaction of smoking and occupational exposure to organic solvents for five years or more were the factors most strongly associated with prevalence of CB. In the solvent-exposed group, odds ratio for CB was 7.0 for current smokers compared to non-smokers, while it was only 3.7 in the unexposed group. Possible reasons for this increased risk are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.730-735. 16 ref.

CIS 09-881 Arheart K.L., Lee D.J., Fleming L.E., LeBlanc W.G., Dietz N.A., McCollister K.E., Wilkinson J.D., Lewis J.E., Clark J.D., Davila E.P., Bandiera F.C., Erard M.J.
Accuracy of self-reported smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in the US workforce: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
Occupational health studies often rely on self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. This study examines the accuracy of self-reported tobacco use and SHS exposure. Data on serum cotinine, self-reported tobacco use and SHS exposure for 17,011 workers were extracted from three United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Serum cotinine levels were used to classify workers into SHS exposure categories. The percent agreement between self-reported tobacco use and SHS exposure with the cotinine categories was calculated. Workers generally reported their smoking status and SHS exposures accurately. However, substantial numbers of workers reporting no exposures had detectable levels of serum cotinine, indicating exposure to SHS. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1414-1420. 36 ref.

CIS 09-543 Seidler A., Schumann B., Handschuh C., Kronen A., Bergmann A., Ditchen D., Ellegast R., Elsner G., Grifka J., Haerting J., Hofmann F., Jäger M., Linhardt O., Luttmann A., Michaelis M., Petereit-Haack G., Bolm-Audorff U.
Importance of body mass and smoking in the aetiology of lumbar disk injuries - Findings of a German study of the spinal column
Die Bedeutung von Körpergewicht und Rauchverhalten für die Entstehung bandscheibenbedingter Erkrankungen der Lendenwirbelsäule - Ergebnisse der Deutschen Wirbelsäulenstudie [in German]
This study of the effects of body mass and smoking, coupled with lumbar loads, on lumbar disk injuries involved 564 cases of lumbar disc prolapse and 352 cases of lumbar chondrosis, together with a control group of 901 subjects randomly selected among the general population. Findings indicate a positive relationship between body mass and diagnoses of prolapse or chondrosis. It is estimated that the combined effect of body mass and lumbar load is at the most additive. With respect to smoking, no clear dose-related result was found; a slightly increased risk of lumbar disc injury was observable among moderate smokers, but not among heavy smokers.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Dec. 2008, Vol.58, No.12, p.354-359. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 09-423 Vicente-Herrero M.T., López-González A.A., Pont-Martínez P., Santamaría-Navarro C., De Paz Merchan S., Rodríguez-Fernández R.
Current situation with respect to smoking among workers of the Spanish postal service after the coming into force of Law 28/2005
Situación actual des tabaquismo entre los trabajadores de Correos-España tras la Ley 28/2005 [in Spanish]
This article presents the findings of a survey on smoking among employees of the Spanish postal service. It was carried out in the form of a questionnaire survey in a sample of 1432 volunteers among employees in five Spanish provinces. The overall prevalence was found to be slightly higher than in the general population of Spain (35% compared to national survey findings of 31% in 2003 and 30% in 2006). Other findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.87-95. Illus. 19 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 09-54 Boggia B., Farinaro E., Grieco L., Lucariello A., Carbone U.
Burden of smoking and occupational exposure on etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in workers of Southern Italy
This study evaluates the burden of smoking and occupational exposure on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A diagnostic protocol was applied to a sample of 2019 workers of Southern Italy at baseline and after five and ten years. Exposures were evaluated by means of questionnaires and regulatory documents supplied by employers. Taking into account individual and occupational exposure levels, the sample was divided in four groups. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Higher COPD prevalence and incidence were observed in the most exposed group. Smoking habits and occupational exposure were confirmed as risk factors for COPD and an interaction between smoking and certain occupational exposures was observed. Smoking cessation programs could play an important role reducing the risk of COPD, in view of the synergism with occupational exposures observed in certain activities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.366-370. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 09-130 Gan Q., Hammond S.K., Jiang Y., Yang Y., Hu T.W.
Effectiveness of a smoke-free policy in lowering secondhand smoke concentrations in offices in China
To examine the second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure level in Chinese office buildings and to evaluate the effectiveness of a smoke-free policy in reducing SHS exposure, a survey was carried out in 14 office buildings from 10 provinces in China. Smoking in the building significantly elevated the SHS concentrations both in offices with at least one smoker and in offices with no smokers. In one building that recently adopted a smoke-free policy, the nicotine concentrations decreased significantly. It is concluded that the enactment of no-smoking policies would be effective in reducing SHS exposure in office buildings.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2008, Vol.50, No.5, p.570-575. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 09-68 Larsson M., Boëthius G., Axelsson S., Montgomery S.M.
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden - before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law
This study attempted to identify changes in exposure to tobacco smoke, as well as symptoms and attitudes among hospitality workers after the introduction of extended smoke-free workplace legislation in Sweden. A total of 91 volunteers working in casinos, bars and restaurants in Sweden participated in the study, among whom 71 out of 91 (14 smokers and 57 nonsmokers) also participated in the follow-up survey 12 months after the introduction of the smoking ban. Data concerning exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, smoking habits, respiratory symptoms and attitudes towards the ban were obtained by means of questionnaires. Participants were also subjected to a spirometry. Findings are discussed. The introduction of the smoke-free legislation was associated with a substantial reduction in respiratory symptoms, as well as reduced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2008, Vol.34, No.4, p.267-277. 45 ref.

CIS 08-1376 Clark J.D., Wilkinson J.D., LeBlanc W.G., Dietz N.A., Arheart K.L., Fleming L.E., Lee D.J.
Inflammatory markers and secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among U.S. workers
The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) indicated by serum cotinine, and markers of inflammation in adult workers. Using the subpopulation of employed participants (20 years and older) who were non-smokers and denied home SHS exposure from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002, the association between serum cotinine and inflammatory markers was analyzed. Serum cotinine levels were significantly higher among participants reporting SHS exposure in the workplace. Exposure to SHS as measured by serum cotinine also resulted in increased homocysteine levels. These results provide further evidence in support of universal workplace smoking restrictions in order to protect worker health.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2008, Vol.51 No.8, p.626-632. 22 ref.

CIS 08-1240 Smith D.R.
Tobacco smoking by occupation in Australia and the United States: A review of national surveys conducted between 1970 and 2005
This article reviews national smoking surveys conducted in Australia and the United States between 1970 and 2005, with emphasis on the impact of occupational tobacco control. When the first research was published over 35 years ago, tobacco smoking was a regular feature in the general population of both countries, albeit with higher rates often documented among blue collar workers. Recent national investigations indicate that certain historical differences in smoking prevalence rates by occupation are persisting. Detailed examination also indicates that employee sub-groups such as cleaners and construction workers are now bearing much of the occupational smoking burden in Australia and the United States. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.46, No.1, p.77-89. 92 ref.

CIS 08-586 Vieira E.R., Kumar S., Narayan Y.
Smoking, no exercise, overweight and low back disorder in welders and nurses
This study assessed the association between smoking, lack of exercise, being overweight and low back disorder among welders and nurses. A total of 111 workers (64 welders and 47 nurses working in a steel company and a hospital respectively) completed a questionnaire on their personal and occupational factors. The annual and lifetime rates of work-related low back disorder were respectively 3.4% and 58%. Forty percent of the workers smoked and 49% did not exercise regularly. The lifetime rate of low back disorder was 86% for the workers that smoked and did not exercise, and 66% for the overweight workers. This study shows that low back disorder is common among welders and nurses. Low back disorder preventive programs in industry should include smoking cessation, regular physical activity campaigns and the promotion of healthy eating habits.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2008, Vol.38, No.2, p.143-149. Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 08-400 Stayner L., Bena J., Sasco A.J., Smith R., Steenland K., Kreuzer M., Staif K.
Lung cancer risk and workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke
This literature survey sought to quantitatively evaluate the association between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer. A meta-analysis of data from 22 studies on workplace exposure to tobacco smoke and lung cancer risk was carried out. Estimates of relative risk from these studies were analyzed by fitting the data to fixed and mixed effects models. Analyses of highly exposed workers and of the relationship between duration of exposure and lung cancer were also performed. The analysis indicated a 24% increase in lung cancer risk (relative risk (RR)=1.24) among workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. A two-fold increased risk (RR=2.01) was observed for workers classified as being highly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. A strong relationship was observed between lung cancer and duration of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.
American Journal of Public Health, Mar. 2007, Vol.97, No.3, p.545-551. Illus. 53 ref.


CIS 08-997 Addictive behaviour in occupational settings - Report prepared in the context of the governmental plan on measures against illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol 2004-2008
Conduites addictives et milieu professionnel - Rapport établi dans le cadre du Plan gouvernemental de lutte contre les drogues illicites, le tabac et l'alcool 2004- 2008 [in French]
In order to propose a framework for updating the regulations concerning addictions, the French inter-ministry working group having published this report interviewed representatives of employers and employees, occupational physicians, government agencies and research institutions. The report proposes 27 recommendations involving ethics, knowledge acquisition, the safety of the enterprise, its employees and its users, the redefinition of the mission of occupational physicians, the development of an occupational safety and health policy within the enterprise, access to health care and changes to labour and health legislation.
Mission interministérielle de lutte contre la drogue et la toxicomanie, 7 rue Saint-Georges, 75009 Paris, France, Dec. 2006. 32p. [in French]

CIS 08-399 Domínguez Gracia A.I., Rubio Aranda E., Martínez Terrer T., Conte Solano J.C., Rubio Calvo E.
Hearing trauma induced from a combined exposure to smoking and occupational noise in the metalworking industry
Adquisición de un trauma acústico por multiexposición a tabaco y ruido laboral en la industria del metal [in Spanish]
This study evaluated the combined effect of smoking and exposure to noise in the metalworking industry on hearing loss. It involved 257 workers, including 112 in good health, 66 with massive hearing trauma and 79 showing initial signs of hearing trauma. The study shows that the probability of hearing loss increases among workers exposed to noise in occupational settings and who are smokers. The worst results were found among workers smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day and exposed to occupational noise for 20 years or more.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Dec. 2006, Vol.LII, No.205, p.33-40. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 08-397 Hahn E.J., Rayens M.K., York N., Okoli C.T.C., Zhang M., Dignan M., Al-Delaimy W.K.
Effects of a smoke-free law on hair nicotine and respiratory symptoms of restaurant and bar workers
In this study, bar and restaurant workers' exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) was compared before and three and six months after implementation of a smoke free ordinance in the county of Lexington, Kentucky, United States. Subjects consisted of 105 smoking and nonsmoking workers from randomly-selected establishments. Nicotine was determined in hair, while data on smoking, self-reported exposure to SHS and respiratory symptoms were collected during interviews. Thirty-eight percent were current smokers. When controlling for cigarettes per day, there was a significant decline in hair nicotine after three months, which was maintained after six months. Bar workers showed a significantly larger decline in hair nicotine compared with restaurant workers. Regardless of smoking status, respiratory symptoms declined significantly.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.48, No.9, p.906-913. Illus. 57 ref.

CIS 07-1139 Skogstad M., Kjærheim K., Fladseth G., Gjølstad M., Daae H.L., Olsen R., Molander P., Ellingsen D.G.
Cross shift changes in lung function among bar and restaurant workers before and after implementation of a smoking ban
To study the effects of a smoking ban on the pulmonary function of bar and restaurant employees, 93 subjects employed in 13 different establishments in Oslo, Norway were examined at the beginning and end of a workshift, before and after the smoking ban. The mean levels of nicotine and total dust before the ban were 28g/m3 and 275µg/m3, respectively, while the corresponding levels after the ban were 0.6µg/m3 and 77µg/m3. Assessment of lung function included dynamic lung volumes and flows. The cross shift reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) changed from 81ml before to 52ml after the smoking ban. The reductions in forced expired volume in one second (FEV1) during a workshift before and after the ban were 89ml and 46ml, respectively. The reduction in forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF25-75%) changed significantly from 199ml/s to 64ml/s. Among 26 non-smokers and 11 asthmatics, the reduction in FEV1 and FEF25-75% was significantly larger before compared to after the smoking ban. There was an association between the dust concentration and decrease in FEF 25-75% before the ban among non-smokers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2006, Vol.63, No.7, p.482-487. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 07-985 Bondéelle A., Fellmann A., Favier A.L.
Alcohol and tobacco at the place of work: Very poor habits
Alcool, tabac... au travail - De bien mauvaises habitudes [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on alcoholism and smoking at the place of work: creating awareness of the problem; preventive measures within the enterprise; passive smoking; French legislation; initiative taken by a mechanical engineering enterprise aimed at completely eliminating alcohol and tobacco at the place of work.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2006, No.667, p.28-36. Illus. 7 ref.$file/TS667page29.pdf?openelement [in French]

CIS 07-576 Reid A., de Klerk N.H., Ambrosini G.L., Berry G., Musk A.W.
The risk of lung cancer with increasing time since ceasing exposure to asbestos and quitting smoking
The objective of this study was to examine whether the risk of lung cancer declines with increasing time since ceasing exposure to asbestos and quitting smoking, and to determine the relative asbestos effect between non-smokers and current smokers. It was conducted in the form of a cohort study of 2935 former workers of an Australian asbestos mine and mill who responded to a questionnaire on smoking first issued in 1979 and for whom quantitative estimates of asbestos exposure were known. Conditional logistic regression was used to relate asbestos exposure, smoking category and risk of lung cancer. Findings are discussed. Persons exposed to asbestos and tobacco but who subsequently quit remain at an increased risk for lung cancer up to 20 years later. This study emphasizes the importance of smoking prevention programmes among these workers at high risk of lung cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.63, No.8, p.509-512. 23 ref.

CIS 07-627 Sánchez Barba J.C.
Smoking in the enterprise
El tabaco en los centros de trabajo [in Spanish]
In Spain, smoking causes more than 46,000 deaths per year and generates heath costs estimated at more than EUR 1.5 billion. This article examines Spanish legislation on smoking at the place of work and highlights problems in implementing the regulations in cases where workers refuse to comply with the imposed measures.
Prevención, Apr.-June 2006, No.176, p.52-64. Illus.

CIS 07-657 Labbé F.
The fight against smoking in the enterprise
La lutte contre le tabagisme en entreprise [in French]
Contents of this comment on French legislation on smoking at the place of work: enforcement of the law on smoking prohibition at the place of work with the exception of premises that may be provided for this purpose; responsibilities of employers for enforcing the law, providing premises for smokers and ensuring penalties in order to protect employees against the effects of passive smoking; integrating the anti-smoking campaign into the overall effort to promote occupational safety and health.
Santé et Sécurité au Travail Actualités, Sep. 2006, No.93, p.5-6, 12. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 07-584 Menzies D., et al.
Respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and markers of inflammation among bar workers before and after a legislative ban on smoking in public places
Scotland prohibited smoking in confined public places on March 26, 2006. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of smoke-free legislation with symptoms, pulmonary function and markers of inflammation of bar workers. It was conducted in Tayside, Scotland from February-June 2006. 195 non-asthmatic and asthmatic non-smoking bar workers were initially enrolled, of whom 77 completed the study. Respiratory and sensory symptoms, spirometry measurements, serum cotinine levels, peripheral inflammatory cell count, asthma quality-of-life scores and exhaled nitric oxide levels were evaluated before and after introduction of the smoking ban. Findings are discussed. Smoke-free legislation was associated with significant early improvements in symptoms, spirometry measurements, and systemic inflammation of bar workers. Asthmatic bar workers also had reduced airway inflammation and improved quality of life.
Journal of the American Medical Association, Oct. 2006, Vol. 296, No.14, p.1742-1748. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 07-581 McDuffie H.H., et al.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha and pulmonary function in Saskatchewan grain handlers
This study investigated the potential relationship to pulmonary function of factors related to lifestyle (smoking) and inherited susceptibility/resistance (TNF-308 alpha genotype) among grain handlers in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. 157 male grain handlers provided occupational and respiratory symptom information, pulmonary function measurements and DNA for genotyping. Findings highlight the complexity of determining which workers will develop acute and chronic adverse pulmonary conditions in response to exposure to grain dust and toxins in cigarette smoke.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.48, No.5, p.505-511. 50 ref.

CIS 07-494 Barruyer C.
Fight against smoking: Developing an effective plan within the enterprise
Tabagisme: bâtir un plan de lutte efficace en entreprise [in French]
The hazards associated with smoking on building sites are identified, highlighting the possible presence of solvents, asbestos, wood dust or welding fumes. This article discusses how to implement a smoke-free plan within the enterprise and includes an account of a small enterprise that implemented such a plan.
Prévention BTP, Sep. 2006, No.88, p.54-57. Illus.

CIS 07-170 Lundström N.G., Englyst V., Gerhardsson L., Jin T., Nordberg G.
Lung cancer development in primary smelter workers: A nested case-referent study
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of work-related exposure to arsenic and lead versus smoking among lead smelter workers who had developed lung cancer. In a cohort of 3979 lead smelter workers, 46 male subjects had contracted respiratory malignancies. They were compared with 141 age-matched male referents by conditional logistic regression analysis. Cases showed a fourfold higher smoking rate compared with referents. When restricted to smokers, the cumulative air arsenic exposure index, but not the lead exposure indices, was also significantly higher among the cases. It is concluded that cumulative arsenic exposure and smoking were the main risk factors for the development of lung cancer, but not lead exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.48, No.4, p.376-380. 30 ref.


CIS 12-0247 Pan J., Barbeau E.M., Levenstein C., Balbach E.D.
Smoke-free airlines and the role of organized labor: A case study
Labour unions play an important role in debates about smoke-free worksites. This study investigated the role of flight attendants and their unions in creating smoke-free air travel. Case study methodology was used to search tobacco industry documents and labour union periodicals and to interview key informants (people identified as having first-hand information and experience in the campaign to make airlines smoke free). Tobacco industry strategies against the establishment of smoke-free worksites failed in the case of airlines, largely because of the efforts of flight attendants and their unions. Other factors contributed to the failure but likely would have been insufficient to derail industry efforts without strong stands by the flight attendants. This case illustrates the potential for successful partnerships between unions and tobacco control policy advocates when developing smoke-free worksite policies.
American Journal of Public Health, Mar. 2005, Vol.95, No.3, p.398-403. 40 ref.
Smoke-free_airlines_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 08-14 Stop smoking - Collection of booklets for helping smokers or ex-smokers to quit or to stay off cigarettes
Stop tabac - Série de brochures pour motiver et aider les fumeurs ou anciens fumeurs à arrêter de fumer ou à rester ex-fumeur [in French]
Collection of eight booklets, of which seven are aimed specifically at the following categories of persons: persons who are not seriously considering to quit cigarette smoking; persons who are seriously considering to quit cigarette smoking, but are not yet ready to make an attempt; cigarette smokers who are ready to make an attempt to quit; persons who quit cigarette smoking less than six months earlier; persons who quit cigarette smoking more than six months earlier; persons who have taken up cigarette smoking again after having made an attempt to quit; women who smoke. Finally, a booklet explains the additives found in cigarette tobacco.
Programme, IMSP-CMU, rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland, [ca. 2005]. Series of 8 booklets. [in French] [in French] [in French] [in French] [in French] [in French] [in French] [in French]

CIS 07-1144 Toubeau E., Everaet K., Franquinet A.
Smoking policy
Politique en matière de tabac [in French]
Het rookbeleid in de pratijk [in Dutch]
According to the provisions of the Belgian Royal Decree of 19 January 2005 on protection against tobacco smoke, employees have a right to work in smoke-free premises. The Decree sets the legal framework for employers to define a policy in this respect. This document provides guidance for developing, implementing and improving the smoking policy. The first part covers the issue of smoking and underscores the need for a smoking policy, with reference to the new legislation. The second part helps employers define a consistent and effective smoking policy with the help of a step-by-step plan. Appendices include an example of the commitment made by an enterprise, an example of the implementation of a smoking policy, statistics on the consequences of smoking and the full text of the Royal Decree. An information leaflet for workers is included.
Prevent, rue Gachard 88/4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, [ca 2005]. 26p. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 07-651 Ferrite S., Santana V.
Joint effects of smoking, noise exposure and age on hearing loss
This cross-sectional study was carried out to examine whether smoking, noise and age jointly affect hearing acuity. It involved 535 male workers of a metal processing factory. Pure-tone audiometric tests were used to assess hearing loss. and noise exposure assessment was based on a job-exposure matrix. Data on socio-demographic, life-style, occupational and health-related factors were collected by questionnaire. Results indicated that age and occupational noise exposures were separately and positively associated with hearing loss. For all the factors combined, the estimated effect on hearing loss was higher than the sum of the effects from each isolated variable. It is concluded that the synergistic effect of smoking, noise exposure and age on hearing loss is consistent with the biological interaction.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.55, No.1, p.48-53. 32 ref.

CIS 06-1497 Update: The SOLVE approach to addressing psychosocial problems at work
SOLVE is an interactive educational programme designed to assist in the development of policies and actions to address psychosocial issues at the workplace. Stress, alcohol and drugs, violence (both physical and psychological), HIV/AIDS and tobacco, all lead to health-related problems for the worker and lower productivity for the enterprise or organization. Taken together, they represent a major cause of accidents, fatal injuries, diseases and absenteeism at work in both industrialized and developing countries. SOLVE focuses on prevention in translating concepts into policies and policies into action at the national and enterprise levels. This document summarizes the SOLVE concept, its methodology and its implementation at the place of work. Includes a list of SOLVE training courses for managers, workers and counsellors.
Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Feb. 2005. 9p. Illus.

CIS 06-413 Nomura K., Nakao M., Yano E.
Hearing loss associated with smoking and occupational noise exposure in a Japanese metal working company
A cross-sectional study of the effects of smoking on hearing loss was conducted among 397 Japanese male workers at a metal factory during their periodical health checkup. Hearing acuity was measured at 4kHz using a pure-tone audiometer in a quiet room. Among the total subjects, 55 (13.9%) were identified as having hearing loss at 4kHz, and 151 (38.0%) were currently exposed to occupational noise. When adjusted for age and occupational noise exposure, odds ratios of hearing loss were 3.16 for past smokers and 3.39 for heavy smokers compared with never-smokers. The association between smoking and hearing loss seems to be masked by atherosclerotic factors. Results suggest that the concurrent impact of smoking and occupational noise exposure on hearing loss require further attention.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2005, Vol.78, No.3, p.178-184. 30 ref.

CIS 05-656 Blanpain R.
Smoking and the workplace
This publication examines the attempts being made worldwide to control the level of tobacco smoke in the workplace environment. Among the many aspects discussed are legislation, company policies, litigation, occupational safety and health, the world tobacco industry, ILO policies on workplace smoking, European Union policies on tobacco and health and the question of the right to smoke. It includes chapters summarizing the situation in 13 countries (Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, USA).
Kluwer Law International, P.O.Box 85889, 2508 CN The Hague, Netherlands, 2005. xii, 254p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 80.00.

CIS 05-292 Piirilä P., Lindqvist M., Huuskonen O., Kaleva S., Koskinen H., Lehtola H., Vehmas T., Kivissari L., Sovijärvi A.R.A.
Impairment of lung function in asbestos-exposed workers in relation to high-resolution computed tomography
The aim of the study was to determine the causes of impairment of ventilatory function and diffusing capacity in 590 smoking asbestos-exposed workers showing radiological pleural thickenings or pulmonary fibrosis. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and spirometry were performed, and diffusing capacity was measured. The workers were divided into five groups based on the HRCT scoring: pleural disease (190), pulmonary fibrosis (68), emphysema (148), combined fibrosis and emphysema (74), and marked adhesions (110). Graded lung function impairment was compared among the groups. Moderate impairment of forced expiratory volume in one second (odds ratio (OR) 2.72) and forced vital capacity (OR 2.81) was associated with persons with combined fibrosis and emphysema. Marked impairment of diffusing capacity was associated with combined fibrosis and emphysema (OR 4.94) but not with pleural disease (OR 0.21) or pulmonary fibrosis (OR 0.36). For persons with combined fibrosis and emphysema, the mean fibrosis score did not differ between normal, slightly reduced, or markedly reduced diffusing capacity, but the emphysema score was significantly higher for patients with marked impairment than for those with normal diffusing capacity. The results indicate that the most important factor determining the degree of functional impairment in smoking asbestos-exposed workers is the presence of pulmonary emphysema
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.31, No.1, p.44-51. 33 ref.


CIS 09-896 Håkansta C.
Workplace smoking
This working paper has been prepared to create a knowledge base for further activities in the area of promoting and implementing smoke-free workplaces. It seeks to emcourage discussion among policy-makers, campaigners, trade unionists, employers and other interested in promoting smoke-free workplaces. Contents: the problem; legislative aspects; good practices carried out by governments, workers and employers; elements for achieving smoke-free workplaces.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. v, 71p. Illus. 84 ref. [in English]

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