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Physical fitness programmes - 205 entries found

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CIS 12-0143 Tsai H.H., Peng S.M., Yeh C.Y., Chen C.J., Chen R.Y.
An effective physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises
The aim of this study was to develop a practicable worksite physical fitness programme for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Community-based intervention consisting of a three-month exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. A self-administrated structured questionnaire and physical fitness examination were designed to compare the difference between pre and post intervention. After the intervention, health indicators such as weight, blood pressure, resting heart rate, waistline, BMI, front and back trunk flexibility, abdominal muscle durability and back muscle strength were significantly improved, and improvements in musculoskeletal disorders were seen in reduced neck, wrist and upper/lower back pain. Cardiovascular risk factors showed a significant improvement related to frequent participation in the programme and the exercise group reported a significant difference in overall health.
Industrial Health, May 2011, Vol.49, No.3, p.311-320. Illus. 40 ref.
An_effective_physical_fitness_program_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]


CIS 11-0275 Imbeau D., Dubé P.A., Dubeau D., LeBel L.
Feasibility study on an approach for measuring the effects of pre-season physical training on brush cutters' work and safety
Les effets d'un entraînement physique pré-saison sur le travail et la sécurité des débroussailleurs - Etude de faisabilité d'une approche de mesure [in French]
A previous study demonstrated that brush cutters handle a heavy physical workload and that they must have good cardiorespiratory capacity to do it safely. Some of them are inactive during the off-season and begin the work season in reduced physical condition that could lead to excessive fatigue. A direct link between excessive fatigue and reduced productivity, deterioration in health and increased work accidents has already been established. The objective of this case-control study was to verify the feasibility of an approach consisting of measuring the effects of pre-season physical training on physical condition and strain, productivity, and accidents. It was found that the cardiorespiratory capacity of the intervention group was much improved compared to that of the control group. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. x, 61p. Illus. 36 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
R-664.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0129 Sato T., Kubo T., Ebara T., Takeyama H., Inoue T., Iwanishi M., Tachi N., Itani T., Kamijima M.
Brief hourly exercise during night work can help maintain workers' performance
This study examined the effects of brief hourly exercise as a countermeasure against the adverse effects of night work, especially for workers requiring sustained attention while working in a prolonged sitting posture. During simulated night work (22:00-08:00), participants were required to follow an hourly schedule comprising a 30-min task, a 15-min test and a 15-min break. The study included two experimental conditions: hourly exercise for 3 min during breaks, and a control condition, without exercise during the breaks. Throughout the test period, work performance in the last 10 min of each 30-min task was better under the exercise condition than under the control condition. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2010, Vol.48, No.4, p.470-477. Illus. 41 ref.
Brief_hourly_exercise.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0635 Summary of the report on economic incentives to improve occupational safety and health: A review from the European perspective
Résumé du rapport sur les incitations économiques visant à améliorer la sécurité et la santé au travail: un compte rendu du point de vue européen [in French]
Resumen del informe sobre incentivos económicos para mejorar la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo: análisis desde la perspectiva europea [in Spanish]
Economic incentives in occupational safety and health (OSH) refer to processes that reward organizations which develop and maintain safe and healthy working environments. These processes may include, for example, linking the OSH performance of an organization to fiscal incentives such as lower insurance premiums or tax rates. These aspects are summarized in this fact sheet, also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2010. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
Facts_95/EN.pdf [in English]
Facts_95/FR.pdf [in French]
Facts_95/ES.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 10-0516 Leffer M., Grizzell T.
Implementation of a physician-organized wellness regime (POWR) enforcing the 2007 NFPA standard 1582: Injury rate reduction and associated cost savings
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a physician-organized wellness regime (POWR) on a cohort of firefighters, while applying the 2007 National Fire Protection Association Standard 1582. A prospective evaluation of the POWR was carried out by comparing baseline with postintervention injury rate data among 252 Maryland firefighters, with an analysis of return on investment. After implementation of POWR, the fire department showed a 40% reduction in recordable injuries during year 1, which increased to 60% during year 2. Return on investment was shown to be 4.6:1 by the second year. Moreover, the subpopulation of overweight firefighters showed statistically significant weight loss during the intervention period. It is concluded that a specific type of wellness initiative as POWR can lead to substantial cost savings from an injury-sparing perspective alone and has potential to decrease cardiac risk factors among a high-risk population of firefighters.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.52, No.3, p.336-339. 28 ref.

CIS 10-0355 Meenan R.T., Vogt T.M., Williams A.E., Stevens V.J., Albright C.L., Nigg C.R.
Economic evaluation of a worksite obesity prevention and intervention trial among hotel workers in Hawaii
The objective of this study was to evaluate a work, weight and wellness (3W) programme, a two-year randomized trial of a weight loss program delivered through Hawaii hotel worksites. Data on medical costs, absenteeism and productivity were obtained from the participating hotels. Findings are discussed. 3W's positive clinical outcomes did not translate into immediate economic benefit for participating hotels, although modest cost savings were observed in the trial's second year.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2010, Vol.52, No.1S, p.S8-S13. 24 ref.

CIS 10-0432 Pallesen S., Bjorvatn B., Magerøy N., Saksvik I.B., Waage S., Moen B.E.
Measures to counteract the negative effects of night work
Night work is associated with various negative health outcomes as well as accidents and reduced productivity. The aim of this literature survey was to identify factors that may counteract the negative effects of night work. Studies were identified describing countermeasures such as proper personnel selection, bright light therapy, melatonin administration, naps, exercise, sleepiness detection devices, and the use of stimulants to improve wakefulness and hypnotics to improve daytime sleep. Some studies support countermeasures such as bright light, melatonin, naps, use of stimulants and proper work scheduling as a means to improve adaptation to night work. However, there is little evidence that such countermeasures reduce the long-term health consequences of night work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.109-120. Illus. 165 ref.
Measures_to_counteract.pdf [in English]


CIS 09-1019 Howard K.J., Mayer T.G., Gatchel R.J.
Effects of presenteeism in chronic occupational musculoskeletal disorders: Stay at work is validated
This study takes a new approach to understanding how presenteeism relates to subsequent chronic pain or disability. It involved 2191 chronic musculoskeletal disorder patients, classified as either presentees (n = 704), or absentees (n = 1487), who were admitted to a functional restoration programme based on exercises. Socioeconomic outcomes were assessed after one year during an interview administered by a physician. The findings revealed that patients classified as presentees were significantly more likely to complete the prescribed functional restoration treatment programme, to return to work, to retain work and not to have a decrease in job demand.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.51, No.6, p.724-731 28 ref.


CIS 12-0332 Office stretching exercises
This leaflet on office stretching exercises includes exercises for the eyes, shoulders, neck, forearms, back and legs. It also includes a section on measures to relieve work stress.
Occupational Safety and Health Council, 19/F China United Centre, 28 Marble Road, North Point, Hong Kong, 2008. 2p. Illus.
Office_stretching_exercises_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 09-1070 Lu C., Schultz A.B., Sill S., Petersen R., Young J.M., Edington D.W.
Effects of an incentive-based online physical activity intervention on health care costs
The objective of this study was to test whether participation in an incentive-based online physical activity programme was associated with a moderation in employee health care costs. Health care claims trends from 2003 to 2005 were analyzed among a matched sample of participants and non-participants. The average annual health care costs for participants increased by USD 291 per year compared with an increase of USD 360 for non-participants. Participants had a significantly smaller increase in inpatient hospital costs, heart disease costs and diabetic costs compared with non-participants.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1209-1215. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 09-720 Boyce R.W., Boone E.L., Cioci B.W., Lee A.H.
Physical activity, weight gain and occupational health among call centre employees
The objective of this study was to analyse the relationships between body mass index (BMI), weight gain, ergonomics and physical exercise in sedentary workers. An anonymous questionnaire was administered regarding body weight, height, weight gained since employment, body part discomfort, shift fatigue, time to achieve job adaptation, physical activity, fitness centre membership, previous employment type and previous musculoskeletal injury. Subjects were 393 call centre employees. Participants reported substantial weight gain over a period of eight months. In contrast to walking and moderate exercise, only vigorous exercise was significantly associated with non-weight gain. Three risk factors were identified for weight gain: obese when hired, history of previous injury and lack of vigorous exercise.
Occupational Medicine, 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.238-244. 28 ref.

CIS 09-701 Hübscher G.
White death
Die weisse Gewalt [in German]
Il pirocolo bianco [in Italian]
La mort blanche [in French]
The survival rate of persons covered by an avalanche is around 93%. However, after more than 15 minutes under snow, chances of survival diminish rapidly due to the risk of asphyxia. In Switzerland, avalanches cause an average of 25 deaths each year. Contents of this feature on the risks related to avalanches: account of a mountain guide having survived an avalanche which occurred while accompanying two backcountry skiers; "White Risk", an interactive CD on the prevention of avalanche risks published by SUVA (Swiss national accident insurance organization); online testing of the risk profile of skiers and snowboarders (
Benefit, Nov. 2008, No.4, p.4-9. Illus. [in Italian] [in German] [in French]

CIS 09-575 Hewitt J.A., Whyte G.P., Moreton M., van Someren K.A., Levine T.S.
The effects of a graduated aerobic exercise programme on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the NHS workplace: A randomised controlled trial
This study examined the effect of an aerobic exercise programme implemented during working hours on the cardiovascular profile of a sedentary workforce of a United Kingdom hospital. Twenty staff members of a unit of a London hospital were randomly assigned to an exercise (12 subjects) or control (8 subjects) group. The exercise group was prescribed a progressive aerobic exercise-training programme to be performed four times a week for eight weeks. The control was instructed to maintain their current physical activity level. Oxygen consumption at two and four minutes, peak oxygen consumption, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose and total cholesterol were determined in both groups pre-intervention and at four-week intervals. Findings confirm that a moderate exercise programme can be successfully incorporated into working hours and can significantly improve physical capacity and cardiovascular health.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Feb. 2008, Vol.3, No.7, 10p. Illus. 42 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-203 von Thiele Schwarz U., Lindfors P., Lundberg U.
Health-related effects of worksite interventions involving physical exercise and reduced workhours
This study examined the health-related effects of two worksite interventions, namely physical exercise and reduced workhours, on women employed in dentistry. It involved 177 women from six dental care centres in Sweden, who were divided into three groups: a group subjected to 2.5 hours of weekly, mandatory physical exercise performed during workhours, a group with a reduction of weekly workhours from 40h to 37.5h and a control group. Biomarkers and self-ratings in questionnaires were obtained before the intervention, as well as six and twelve months after the intervention. It was found that the two interventions had differing effects on biomarkers and self-reports of health. There was a decrease in blood glucose and in upper-extremity disorders in the exercise group, and increased blood high-density lipoprotein and waist-to-hip ratio among those working reduced hours. It is concluded that interventions involving a reduction in workhours are more effective if these hours are used for physical exercise.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2008, Vol.34, No.3, p.179-188. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 08-1344 Kenny G.P., Yardley J.E., Martineau L., Jay O.
Physical work capacity in older adults: Implications for the aging worker
The purpose of this literature survey was to examine the physiological adaptations to aging, the impact of aging on performance and the benefits of physical fitness in improving functional work capacity in aging individuals. An average decline of 20% in physical work capacity has been reported between the ages of 40 and 60 years, due to decreases in aerobic and musculoskeletal capacity. These declines can contribute to decreased work capacity, and consequential increases in work-related injuries and illness. However, differences in habitual physical activity greatly influence the variability seen in individual physical work capacity. Well-organized, management-supported, work-site health interventions encouraging physical activity during work hours could potentially decrease the incidence of age-related injury and illness.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2008, Vol.51 No.8, p.610-625. Approx 150 ref.

CIS 08-841 Walter L.
Worthington puts wellness to work
This article describes the wellness promotion efforts of a steel processing enterprise employing around 8000 workers at 68 sites within the United States and in 10 other countries. At their headquarters, the company operates a gym, a medical centre and a pharmacy. It offers a choice of health care plan options and the chance to participate in a voluntary wellness programme. Employees who voluntarily participate in the programme first undergo a health screening. Participation involves monetary benefits in health insurance costs. Moderate and high-risk employees must acquire two points per quarter to maintain their presence in the programme. To earn points, participants can choose from a variety of options, such as completing an online healthy living programme, participating in the company wellness challenge or joining a weight management or smoking cessation programme. The company employs a dietician, who is on hand to help employees evaluate their food choices, convert recipes into healthier versions and promote smoking cessation. Two full-time personal trainers at the company's fitness facilities help employees develop exercise plans. Other features of the programme are discussed.
Occupational Hazards, Apr. 2008, p.22-28. Illus.

CIS 08-586 Vieira E.R., Kumar S., Narayan Y.
Smoking, no exercise, overweight and low back disorder in welders and nurses
This study assessed the association between smoking, lack of exercise, being overweight and low back disorder among welders and nurses. A total of 111 workers (64 welders and 47 nurses working in a steel company and a hospital respectively) completed a questionnaire on their personal and occupational factors. The annual and lifetime rates of work-related low back disorder were respectively 3.4% and 58%. Forty percent of the workers smoked and 49% did not exercise regularly. The lifetime rate of low back disorder was 86% for the workers that smoked and did not exercise, and 66% for the overweight workers. This study shows that low back disorder is common among welders and nurses. Low back disorder preventive programs in industry should include smoking cessation, regular physical activity campaigns and the promotion of healthy eating habits.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2008, Vol.38, No.2, p.143-149. Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 08-1471 Peate W.F., Bates G., Lunda K., Francis S., Bellamy K.
Core strength: A new model for injury prediction and prevention
Many workers work in injury-prone awkward positions that require adequate flexibility and strength in trunk stabilizer muscle groups. Performance on a functional movement screen (FMS) that assessed those factors was conducted and an intervention was designed. A battery of FMS tests were performed on 433 firefighters. The correlations between FMS performance and injuries were analyzed. Further, an intervention to improve flexibility and strength in trunk stabilizer muscle groups through a training programme was evaluated. The intervention reduced lost time due to injuries by 62% and the number of injuries by 42% over a twelve month period as compared to earlier levels. These findings suggest that strength and functional movement enhancement programs to prevent injuries among workers whose work involves awkward positions is warranted.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Apr. 2007, Vol.2, No.3, 9p. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 08-96 Preventing fire fighter fatalities due to heart attacks and other sudden cardiovascular events
To reduce on-duty deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD) among firefighters in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that fire departments and fire fighters follow established medical screening guidelines, adopt risk reduction measures during fire fighting operations and develop and participate in comprehensive wellness and fitness programmes. This booklet provides background on firefighting and CVD, presents case reports to highlight important findings, summarizes data from NIOSH CVD fatality investigations and provides recommendations to minimize the risk of deaths from CVD among firefighters.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, June 2007. 26p. Illus. 90 ref. [in English]


CIS 08-7 2007 campaign - Collection of resources supporting the planning of an occupational safety and health campaign
Campagnepakket 2007 - Het campagnepakket bevat hulpmiddelen voor het opzetten van een preventiecampagne [in Dutch]
This information pack contains a number of resources (information leaflets, CD-ROM containing various MS Office Word and Powerpoint documents, and a diary) concerning the safety and health issues primarily related to integration of new employees and young workers. A seven-step approach is described, involving: preparing the groundwork; defining the structures and communication points; defining the points that need attention; developing the plan; implementing the plan; evaluation; setting the policy. Other topics covered in leaflets include the benefits of moving at the place of work and machine locking. The diary for the year 2007 includes useful tips and reproductions of the posters of the safety campaign for the year.
Prevent, 88 rue Gachard, Boîte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2006. Information pack containing leaflets, a diary and a CD-ROM.

CIS 07-1329 Rogers M.
Fit for life
This article discusses the benefits of employer-managed health promotion programmes. Such programmes create competitive advantage by encouraging employees to remain fit and in good health. They include, for example, improving the physical and psychosocial work environments, anti-smoking campaigns, on-site gyms and flu vaccination, as well as information on healthy diets and lifestyles. Programmes implemented by several Canadian enterprises are cited as examples.
Accident Prevention, Sep.-Oct. 2006, Vol.54, No.4, p.20-24. Illus.

CIS 07-485 Barruyer C.
The knee: A joint not to be treated roughly!
Genou: une articulation à ne pas malmener! [in French]
Knee arthritis is more prevalent among older workers than young workers. However, working in certain sectors such as the construction industry involves a high risk of knee arthritis due to the repeated demands placed on this joint. This article reviews the precautions to be taken to prevent this disease or to delay its incidence (adopting appropriate work postures, wearing knee guards, practicing muscle-building exercises), as well as to reduce pain (injections, cold therapy, surgery, prostheses).
Prévention BTP, June 2006, No.86, p.56-57. Illus.


CIS 06-802 Butterfill C.
Nursing the invisible wounds
Musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) represent the most important cause of self-reported illness in the United Kingdom. In 2003-2004, approximately 1.1 million persons believed that they suffered from MSDs caused or exacerbated by their present or past work, while in the European Union, as many as 40 million workers are believed to be affected by MSDs. Topics addressed by this article on MSDs caused by occupational factors: number of persons affected and resulting costs; why MSDs occur; developing an enterprise MSD policy; risk factors; controlling the risks (job rotation, warm-up exercises for workers involved in manual handling tasks, training and instruction, role of management).
Safety and Health Practitioner, Sep. 2005, Vol.23, No.9, p.56-58. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 06-724 Holmström E., Ahlborg B.
Morning warming-up exercise - Effects on musculoskeletal fitness in construction workers
This study investigated the effects of a three-month programme of 10-min warming-up exercises performed every morning by building site workers. Thirty workers participated in the programme and 17 construction workers at other building sites served as controls. Muscle stretchability, joint flexibility, muscle strength and endurance were measured before and after the programme. The results indicate that a short dose of morning warming-up exercise could be beneficial for increasing or maintaining joint and muscle flexibility and muscle endurance for workers exposed to manual material handling and strenuous working positions.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2005, Vol.36, No.4, p.513-519. 30 ref.

CIS 06-650 Gwin K.K., Wallingford K.M., Morata T.C., Van Campen L.E., Dallaire J., Alvarez F.J.
Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: II. Chemical surveys
NIOSH conducted a series of surveys to evaluate occupational exposure to noise and potentially ototoxic chemical agents among members of a professional car racing team. Area samples were collected during visits to the team's shop. Exposures to these chemicals were all below their corresponding OSHA, NIOSH and ACGIH recommended exposure levels. Area and personal samples were also collected for organic compounds, lead and carbon monoxide (CO) in and around the racetrack pit area where the cars undergo race preparation and are refuelled before and during the race. Exposures to organic compounds and lead were either non-detectable or too low to quantify. Although some CO concentrations exceeded the recommended levels, exposures to potentially ototoxic chemicals are probably not high enough to cause hearing loss greater than that produced by the high sound pressure levels alone.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2005, Vol.2, No.8, p.406-413. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 06-694 Van Campen L.E., Morata T., Kardous C.A., Gwin K., Wallingford K.M., Dallaire J., Alvarez F.J.
Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: I. Noise surveys
Noise exposure was evaluated for a professional stock car team at their race shop and during two races at one racetrack. At the team's shop, area noise levels ranged from 58 to 104dBA for various work tasks. Personal noise dosimetry was conducted for at least one employee for each job description in car assembly. The OSHA permissible exposure limit of 90dBA for an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) was never exceeded, but in two instances values exceeded OSHA's action level of 85dBA for hearing conservation implementation. During the races, noise levels averaged above 100dBA in the pit area where cars undergo adjustments and refuelling, both before and during the race. Peak levels reached 140dBA. NIOSH-recommended exposure limits were exceeded for every personal noise dosimetry measurement. Recommendations include vocal communication by radio and the use of headsets, allowing hearing protectors to be worn at all times.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2005, Vol.2, No.8, p.383-390. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 06-737 Burton W.N., McCalister K.T., Chen C.Y., Edington D.W.
The association of health status, worksite fitness center participation, and two measures of productivity
This study examined the associations between participation in a worksite fitness centre and worker productivity. A modified Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) and employees' short-term disability claims were used as productivity measures with multivariate logistic regression models to control for health risk age, gender and work location. Non-participants in a worksite fitness centre were more likely to report health-related work productivity limitations for time management (odds ratio (OR)=1.62), physical work (OR=1.58), output limitations (OR=2.24) and overall work impairment (OR=1.41) than fitness centre participants. Fitness centre participation was also associated with 1.3 days fewer short-term disability days per year per employee and fewer health risks. These results support the association of worksite fitness centre participants with improved worker productivity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2005, Vol.47, No.4, p.343-351. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 06-496 Van Rhenen W., Blonk R.W.B., van der Klink J.J.L., van Dijk F.J.H., Schaufeli W.B.
The effect of a cognitive and a physical stress-reducing programme on psychological complaints
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two work stress management programmes. One programme was a cognition-focused programme, while the other was a newly developed intervention combining physical exercise and relaxation. It was hypothesised that the new intervention would be more effective in reducing psychological complaints than the cognitive intervention. Both programmes consisted of four sessions over a period of 10 weeks. Employees of a Dutch telecommunications company were given a questionnaire on their perceived level of stress. Among those declaring high stress, 130 were selected to participate in the present study. It was found that both interventions revealed a positive impact on psychological complaints, burnout and fatigue, both at short-term and at 6-month follow-up. The interventions were equally effective on psychological complaints, burnout and fatigue.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2005, Vol.78, No.2, p.139-148. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 05-736 Lock D., Colford N.
Health and Safety Executive
International review of the literature relating to the benefits of limbering up exercises at work
This study investigated the benefits of limbering-up exercises as a means of reducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It involved a review of English and Japanese literature, an assessment of the extent of the problem of work-related MSDs in UK industry through a data analysis, a workshop and visits to various organizations in Japan. Results indicate that there is not enough quantitative and reliable scientific evidence to make recommendations to employers concerning the implementation of limbering-up exercises in the workplace as a means of reducing work-related MSDs. However, the benefits of general physical (cardiovascular) exercise as a means of reducing sickness absenteeism are better documented and could be recommended.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. viii, 55p. Illus. 78 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 04-239 Office ergonomics
Many persons spend a significant amount of time in front of computers in offices. Computer workstations should be ergonomically designed taking into consideration the physical size, capabilities and limitations of workers. This information sheet provides guidance on work posture to be adopted when working with computers and on ergonomics of computer workstations.
Occupational Health Department, Ministry of Manpower, 18 Havelock Road, #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2004]. 3p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 03-1262 Gymnasiums
Gimnasios [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in gymnasiums and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: machines and equipment; falls on the level; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; psychosocial and organizational factors; other risk factors; legislation; method for risk assessment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 41p. Illus. Price: EUR 3.40. [in Spanish]


CIS 07-976 Back talk - An owner's manual for backs
The low back is subject to greater mechanical stress than any other part of the body and is commonly injured. This booklet provides information and advice to help understand how the back works, how to avoid injury and how to take care of the back during recovery. Contents: understanding your back; pain caused by muscle, ligament or facet-joint strains; disc injuries; posture and a healthy back; safe bending, lifting and carrying; stretching exercises; strengthening exercises; tips for a healthy back; exercise chart.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2nd ed., 2003. 30p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 04-747 Benvenides Pereira A.M.T., das Neves Alves R.
Persons providing care are also in need of care: Understanding and preventing burnout
Quem cuida também merece cuidados: Conhecendo et prevenindo o burnout [in Portuguese]
This booklet on burnout and its prevention is aimed at persons caring for seropositive patients. It describes burnout symptoms, defines stress and burnout and provides guidance for avoiding burnout or mitigating its symptoms. It also includes relaxation and stretching exercises for relieving tension and emphasizes the importance of getting help from professionals when the person providing care can no longer cope with the symptoms alone.
Universidade Estadual de Máringá, Departamento de Psicologia, Av. Colombo, 5790, Bloco118, CEP 8702-900 Máringá, Brazil, 2003. 19p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 04-120 Starischka S., Kauert C., Konrad P., Weigelt S.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Further development of the Fit-Karten®-concept for hairdressers
Weiterentwicklung des Fit-Karten®-Konzeptes für das Friseurhandwerk [in German]
The purpose of this study was to adapt the Fit-Karten® concept to hairdressers. The concept consists of developing cards that present the specific movements to be carried out during work in order to avoid problems related to standing postures. 97 hairdressers were questioned on their state of health, while eight among them were subjected to posture recordings during a full day's work. The analysis of the specific workloads encountered in this occupation revealed a risk of backache. A laboratory simulation of the haircutting and drying tasks also enabled the highlighting of muscular loads during these activities. Based on the results of the study, a set of 20 cards was prepared showing exercises to be carried out during the work day. Each card describes an exercise, explaining its purpose, when it should be done and how many times it should be repeated during the day.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 74p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: EUR 9.50.

CIS 03-1263
Health and Safety Executive
Adventure activities centres: Five steps to risk assessment
Adventure activities are aimed at teaching young persons to face challenges and to experience a sense of achievement in overcoming them. However, while they should create a sense of adventure and excitement, they should not cause harm. This guidance on risk management is aimed at owners, operators and managers of adventure activities centres. Contents: definitions of "hazard" and "risk"; five steps of risk assessment (identify hazards, identify persons at risk, evaluate risks and decide whether existing precautions are adequate, record findings, review assessment and revise if necessary); case study of risk assessment in an adventure activities centre offering canoeing and climbing activities, mainly to under-18-year olds.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2003. iv, 16p. 30 ref. Price: GBP 9.00.

CIS 03-1142
Health and Safety Commission
Health and safety activity bulletin 2003 - Inspection and enforcement in local authority enforced sectors
This bulletin presents estimates of local authority work in safety and health inspection and enforcement in the local authority enforced sectors for 2001/02 and the five previous years in England, Wales and Scotland. Statistics show the trends in enforcement activities by industry sector (retail, wholesale, offices, catering services, residential accommodation and consumer/leisure services), in local authority staff resources, in visits, in notices issued and in convictions by act of regulation.
HSE Information Services, Caerphilly Business Park, Caerphilly CF83 3GG, United Kingdom, July 2003. 12p. lllus. [in English]

CIS 03-542 Wüthrich P., Odermatt R.
Safety and health during work and leisure activities - Current situation and future prospects
Sécurité et santé au travail et durant les loisirs - aujourd'hui et demain [in French]
Sicherheit und Gesundheit am Arbeitsplatz und in der Freizeit - heute und morgen [in German]
Sicurezza e salute sul lavoro e nel tempo libero: oggi e domani [in Italian]
Contents of the booklet on safety and health during work and leisure activities: current situation with respect to safety at work and during leisure activities; occupational safety and hygiene at the enterprise level; new legal provisions concerning occupational physicians and other occupational safety specialists; legal basis for surveillance and organization of surveillance; role of SUVA (Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund); prevention of occupational safety and health problems and the health promotion at the enterprise level; safety during leisure activities; future prospects. Replaces CIS 99-1155.
Suva, protection de la santé, Case postale, 1001 Lausanne, Switzerland, 5th ed., 2003. 59p. Illus. 16 ref. [in French] [in Italian] [in German]

CIS 03-265
Health and Safety Executive
Managing health and safety at recreational dive sites
This booklet provides guidance for persons involved with the management of safety and health at recreational dive sites, and is aimed primarily at site owners and operators. It describes the main risks at dive sites and recommends a series of steps that can safeguard the health and safety of employees, divers and other visitors to the site. The guidance applies to any expanse of water such as lakes, private beaches or harbours where access to divers is controlled as part of a business. Appendices include relevant legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2003. iii, 48p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: GBP 10.50.


CIS 07-953
Health and Safety Executive
Combined water and rock activities: Guidance for providers
Leisure activities such as canyoning and adventure swimming may be hazardous. This information sheet spells out good safety practices for activity providers. Contents: risk assessment (impacts with solid objects, drowning, hypothermia); controlling the hazards (instructor competence, information of participants, picking the venue, selecting clothing and equipment, forecast of conditions, emergency actions plans, first aid); relevant qualifications.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2002. 3p. [in English]

CIS 04-520
Comunidad de Madrid
Health surveillance: WHO technical guides
Vigilancia de la salud: Guías técnicas de la OMS [in Spanish]
This publication reproduces the Spanish translations of three WHO directives on health surveillance aimed at facilitating the implementation of quality management within occupational safety and health services: Guidelines on quality management in multidisciplinary occupational health services (CIS 01-439); Guidelines on improving the physical fitness of employees (CIS 00-404); Occupational medicine in Europe: Scope and competencies.
Instituto Europeo de Salud y Bienestar Social (IE), Joaquín Costa, 16, El Viso, 28002 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 339p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-1679 Nurminen E., Malmivaara A., Ilmarinen J., Ylöstalo P., Mutanen P., Ahonen G., Aro T.
Effectiveness of a worksite exercise program with respect to perceived work ability and sick leaves among women with physical work
260 women (average age: 40 years) engaged in physically demanding laundry work were individually randomized into an intervention (N=133) and a control (N=127) group. The intervention group participated in weekly group exercise sessions at the workplace during eight months. Work ability was assessed by means of questionnaires at 3, 8, 12 and 15 months. Both the intervention and the control subjects were rated on their physical capacity from a physiotherapist. At 12 months, the proportion of workers with good or excellent work ability index increased more in the intervention group than in the control group. However, this difference was not statistically significant. There were furthermore no statistically significant differences between the two groups as regards job satisfaction or sickness absenteeism. It appears that a weekly physical activity programme at the worksite improves only slightly the work ability of women with physically demanding work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2002, vol.28, No.2, p.85-93.Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 03-1639 Proper K.I., Staal B.J., Hildebrandt V.H., van der Beek A.J., van Mechelen W.
Effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related outcomes
For this literature review on the effectiveness of physical activity programmes at worksites with respect to certain work-related outcomes, data were selected by means of a computerized literature search, a reference search and a manual search of the personal databases of the project team members. The outcomes studied were absenteeism, job satisfaction, job stress, productivity and employee turnover. The evidence of an effect was limited for absenteeism, inconclusive for job satisfaction, job stress and employee turnover, and nil for productivity. It is concluded that scientific evidence on the effectiveness of physical activity programmes at worksites is still limited.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2002, vol.28, No.2, p.75-84. 65 ref.

CIS 03-98 Computerized workplaces - 10 proposals for your health and well-being
Postes de travail informatisés - 10 conseils pour votre santé et votre bien-être [in French]
Arbeiten am Bildschirm - 10 Tipps für Ihre Gesundheit und Ihr Wohlbefinden [in German]
Lavoro al videoterminale - 10 consigli utili per tutelare la salute e il benessere dei lavoratori [in Italian]
This leaflet contains ten ergonomic proposals for the health and well-being persons working at screens: avoid reflections and glare; place the screen directly facing the user; ensure that there is enough space for the legs under the table; take advantage of the various layout possibilities; ensure that the forearms are in a horizontal position; select a chair allowing dynamic seating; observe a proper distance between the eyes and the screen; adjust the screen so that the upper limit is 5-10cm below eye level; make use of auxiliary equipment foot rests, arm rests, document holders); move around regularly.
Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 2002. 12p. Illus. 3 ref. [in French] [in German] [in Italian]

CIS 02-1666 Novak C.B., Mackinnon S.E.
Multilevel nerve compression and muscle imbalance in work-related neuromuscular disorders
This article discusses work-related upper limb disorders and proposes a unifying hypothesis to explain the multiplicity of symptoms with work-related neuromuscular disorders. It takes into account physical, individual and psychosocial factors. Abnormal postures and positions may compress nerves or alter muscle length resulting in secondary compressive forces on nerves or in muscle imbalances. Evaluation should identify all nerve compression levels and muscle imbalance in the arm and cervicoscapular region. Patient management must address all contributing factors and include patient education, postural correction and an exercise programme that takes into account the multiple nerve compression levels and the muscle imbalance. Surgery should be reserved for those few patients with evidence of a specific diagnosis who have failed conservative management.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2002, Vol.41, No.5, p.343-352. Illus. 64 ref.

CIS 02-1661 Linz D.H., Shepherd C.D., Ford L.F., Ringley L.L., Klekamp J., Duncan J.M.
Effectiveness of occupational medicine center-based physical therapy
A one-year study was performed to evaluate discharge from therapy and return-to-work outcomes from rehabilitation services offered at four occupational medicine centres for work-related musculoskeletal injuries. The mean number of visits before discharge from therapy for 699 patients was 45% less than a national benchmark (mean visit number, 5.7±4.2 versus 10.5±9.1). Return-to-work outcomes at discharge from therapy showed that 94% had returned-to-work. A telephonic satisfaction survey failed to identify complaints associated with therapy. Assuming that reduced visit numbers would be reflected in a proportionate decrease in lost workdays, the programme saved employers approximately USD 1.4 million, or USD 2000 per patient. The authors attribute the improved outcomes to early therapy using active rather than passive techniques and an emphasis on patient education and home exercise programmes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.48-53. 6 ref.

CIS 02-1699 Janer G., Sala M., Kogevinas M.
Health promotion trials at worksites and risk factors for cancer
45 worksite health promotion programmes following specific quality criteria were selected and estimated for behavioural changes in cancer risk factors and the effectiveness of different intervention components. Tobacco control programmes found quit rates of about 5% with relapse rates of 40% to 80% at 6 months after the intervention. Effectiveness increased with the duration of the intervention for at least 6 months, repeated contacts with the participants, continuous support and tailored messages. There was less evidence for the long-term effectiveness of incentives. Programmes on diet, alcohol, physical activity, overweight and solar radiation showed the same positive trends. The overall evidence indicates a modest but positive effect of health promotion programmes at worksites.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2002, Vol.28, No.3, p.141-157. Illus. 76 ref.

CIS 02-1698 Goetzel R.Z., Ozminkowski R.J., Bruno J.A., Rutter K.R., Isaac F., Wang S.
The long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson's health and wellness program on employee health risks
This study reports the effectiveness of Johnson & Johnson's "Health & Wellness" programme in reducing the health risks of 4586 employees who participated in two serial health screening programmes, with a minimum of one year between screenings. The study also examines the impact of participation in a high-risk intervention programme called "Pathways to Change®" on health risk factors. Results indicate significant risk reduction in 8 of 13 risk categories examined for all employees who participated in two health risk assessments. When comparing "Pathways to Change" participants with non-participants, participants outperformed their non-participant counterparts in six categories but performed worse in five other categories that were not specifically targeted by the high-risk programme. The study underscores the ability of large-scale and well-attended corporate health and productivity management programmes to have a positive effect on the health and well-being of workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.44, No.5, p.417-424. 14 ref.

CIS 02-1720 Eriksen W., Bruusgaard D.
Physical leisure-time activities and long-term sick leave: A 15-month prospective study of nurses' aides
The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between physical leisure-time activities and the occurrence of long-term sick leave among nurses' aides. Of 5563 Norwegian nurses' aides who were not on sick leave when they completed a questionnaire in 1999, 4744 (85.3%) completed a second questionnaire 15 months later. Brisk walks (odds ratio (OR), 0.78), aerobics or gymnastics (OR, 0.71), and other physical leisure activities (OR, 0.81) for 20 minutes or more at least once a week predicted fewer cases of long-term sick leave (>14 days), after adjustments for baseline health complaints, demographic and family characteristics, former and current smoking status and work factors. In conclusion, regular physical leisure-time activity may be associated with a reduced risk of long-term sickness absence in nurses' aides.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.530-538. 33 ref.

CIS 02-1436 Drawer S., Fuller C.W.
An economic framework for assessing the impact of injuries in professional football
Injury rates in professional football are several orders of magnitude higher than those reported in other occupations. A major risk for clubs arises from players being unavailable for selection through injury, with the possible effect that this may have on the clubs' playing and financial performances. A statistically-based risk management model was developed, using four relationships involving the parameters of team-quality, team-performance, club-turnover and club-salary. The model was based on data from 91 league clubs in English professional football over the seasons 1993/1994 - 1997/1998. The model was shown to describe and assess the impact of injuries on the club's playing and financial performances. It is proposed that the model be used as a basis for cost-benefit analyses of injury prevention strategies in professional football. It may also be applicable within other organizational settings for assessing the costs of accidents and for use in cost benefit analyses.
Safety Science, Aug. 2002, Vol.40, No.6, p.537-556. Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 03-181 Tinnerberg H., Björk J., Welinder H.
Evaluation of occupational and leisure time exposure assessment in a population-based case control study on leukaemia
To evaluate the procedures used in a case-control study on leukaemia, 1,087 cases and matched controls by sex, age and region of residence were interviewed. Exposure assessments were performed for 13 occupational agents and ten leisure activities. The exposure assessments were performed by one of three occupational hygienists who were unaware of the case or control status. 10% of the interviews were reassessed by the other two occupational hygienists. Leisure activities contributed to a large extent to the overall prevalence of exposure. For organic solvents, approximately 25% of the controls classified as exposed would be misclassified if leisure-time exposure were not considered. It is concluded that is important to take leisure activities into account, and that for cancers with poor prognoses, prospective studies are preferable to minimize possible information bias.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.74, No.8, p.533-540. 30 ref.

CIS 02-1703 Alessio L., Farina G.
Job fitness assessment: The final step in health surveillance
Il giudizio di idoneità lavorativa specifica: atto conclusivo della sorveglianza sanitaria [in Italian]
Several aspects of job fitness evaluation must be considered by industrial physicians. Possible patterns of assessment of working capacity are: no job limitations, some specific temporary or permanent limitations, temporary or permanent unfitness. Similar evaluations are required when transferring the worker to a more suitable job and in selecting adequate personal protective equipment. The industrial physician should not show bias towards either the employer or the worker.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.92, No.4, p.227-238. 25 ref.

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