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First aid and emergency organization - 326 entries found

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CIS 12-0110
Health and Safety Executive
First aid at work - Your questions answered
This leaflet answers some basic questions about first-aid provision at work. It is aimed at employers in small and medium-sized workplaces, but may be useful to all employers, managers and others involved in first aid at work. It includes a check list for the assessment of workplace first aid needs
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2011. 6p. 1 ref.
First_aid_at_work_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0454 Truninger K.
Emergency exists and escape ways - Proper signalling and maintenance are musts
Notausgänge: Gute Kennzeichnung und Wartung sind ein Muss [in German]
Sorties de secours: une signalisation et une maintenance exemplaires sont une nécessité [in French]
Emergency exits and escape ways are subject to specific requirements: they should always be clear; they should be rapidly openable at all times towards the outside; they should be immediately found in cases of emergency by means of appropriate signaling and lighting. These requirements are summarized in this article, with reference to Swiss labour legislation and fire protection regulations.
IZA - Sicherheit und Gesundheit, 2011, No.2, p.12-15 Illus.


CIS 11-0551 Fernández de Castro Díaz Á.
Evaluation of the conditions for the evacuation of workplaces
Evaluación de las condiciones de evacuación en centros de trabajo [in Spanish]
The conditions of evacuation in a workplace, building or industrial premises are a means of ensuring the safety of employees, and therefore, their assessment is part of the overall task of hazard evaluation. This technical note explains how to conduct an evaluation of evacuation conditions.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 4 ref.
NTP_884.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0182 Beaune J., eds.
Public access to defibrillation - Practical guide aimed at enterprises
Accès public à la défibrillation - Guide pratique à destination des entreprises [in French]
Contents of this practical guide on the installation of defibrillators in the enterprise: understanding cardiac arrest; first aid organization within the enterprise; training; equipping the enterprise; cooperation with other parties (cardiologists, emergency service physicians, first-aid workers); additional information (main suppliers of equipment, supporting materials for communication, regulations).
Fédération française de cardiologie, 5 rue des Colonnes du Trône, 75012 Paris, 2010, 51p. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 10-0398 Calixto E., Lébre Larouvere E.
The regional emergency plan requirement: Application of the best practices to the Brazilian case
Currently in Brazil, resources are not optimized in offshore emergency plans. It is up to individual companies to implement their own plans, without any coordination. Despite the existence of certain procedures, there are no national or regional frameworks to coordinate such emergency plans. The objective of this study was to define new requirements for a Brazilian regional emergency plan based on the best practices used in countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Japan and Australia. The risk analysis methodologies and emergency frameworks used in these countries were taken into account and a critical analysis was carried out in order to customize and apply their best practices to the Brazilian context. In addition, other issues were examined, such as the number of accidents and environmental impact in some areas, related to environmental sensitivity in order to define the environmental reliability of the whole system within a specific area.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.991-999. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 10-0430 Malakis S., Kontogiannis T., Kirwan B.
Managing emergencies and abnormal situations in air traffic control: Taskwork strategies (Part I); Teamwork strategies (Part II)
A large body of research in air traffic control has focused on human errors in decision making while little attention has been paid to the cognitive strategies employed by controllers in managing abnormal situations. This study examines the cognitive strategies in taskwork and teamwork that enable controllers to become resilient decision-makers. Two field studies were carried out where novice and experienced controllers were observed in simulator training in emergency and unusual scenarios. A prototype model of taskwork and teamwork strategies in air traffic management was developed and its construct validity was tested in the context of the field studies, leading to the development of a generic model of Taskwork and Teamwork strategies in Emergencies in Air traffic Management (T(2)EAM). Difficulties experienced by novice controllers are discussed, together with strategies employed by experts to manage uncertainty and balance workload during emergencies.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.620-627. Illus 34 ref. (part I); 628-635. Illus. 36 ref. (part II).

CIS 10-0400 12th Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA 12): Strengthening radiation protection worldwide - Highlights, global perspective and future trends
Highlights of the 12th congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA 12) held 19-24 October 2008 in Buenos-Aires, Argentina, on strengthening radiation protection worldwide. Main topics covered: epistemiologic basis of radiation protection; harmonization of radiation protection recommendations; future trends and recommendations for strengthening radiation protection worldwide. A CD-ROM containing the full set of keynote addresses, contributed papers, presentations and refresher courses, which are also available on the IRPA 12 website (, is included.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2010. 329p. Illus. Bibl.ref. + CD-ROM.
12th_congress_of_the_IRPA.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0396 Deacon T., Amyotte P.R., Khan F.I.
Human error risk analysis in offshore emergencies
Human factors play an important role in the completion of emergency procedures. Human factors analysis is rooted in the concept that humans make errors, and the frequency and consequences of these errors are related to work environment, work culture and procedures. This can be accounted for in the design of equipment, structures, processes, and procedures. As stress increases, the likelihood of human error also increases. Offshore installations are among the harshest and most stressful work environments. The consequences of human error in an offshore emergency can be severe. A method has been developed to evaluate the risk of human error during offshore emergency musters. Based on consequences from past incidents in the offshore industry and probabilities of human error, the level of risk and its tolerability are determined. Using the ARAMIS (accidental risk assessment methodology for industries) approach to safety barrier analysis, a protocol for choosing and evaluating safety measures to reduce and re-assess the risk was developed. The method is assessed using a case study, the Ocean Odyssey incident, to determine its effectiveness. The results of the methodology agree with the analysis of survivor experiences of the Ocean Odyssey incident.
Safety Science, July 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.803-818. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 10-0392 Georgiadou P.S.;, Papazoglou I.A.;, Kiranoudis C.T, Markatos N.C.
Multi-objective evolutionary emergency response optimization for major accidents
Emergency response planning in case of a major accident (hazardous material event, nuclear accident) is very important for the protection of the public and workers' safety and health. In this context, several protective actions can be performed, such as evacuation of an area; protection of the population in buildings and use of personal protective equipment. The best solution is not unique when multiple criteria such as health consequences, social disruption and economic cost are taken into consideration. This article presents a methodology for multi-objective optimization of emergency response planning in case of a major accident. The emergency policy with regards to protective actions to be implemented is optimized. An evolutionary algorithm is used as the optimization tool. Case studies are presented demonstrating the application in hazardous materials installations, but the methodology is suitable for other situations such as nuclear facilities, transport of hazardous materials and land-use planning.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 2010, Vol.178, No.1-3, p.792-803. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 10-0049 First aid kit - Knowing how to choose its contents
Trousse de chantier: sachez la remplir! [in French]
The first aid kit on construction sites should be as simple as possible, because overfilling it with products risks causing confusion among inexperienced users. This article lists the main products which are nonetheless essential for stopping a haemorrhage, disinfect a wound or a burn, apply a bandage or eliminate a foreign object.
Prévention BTP, June 2010, No.130, p.45. Illus.


CIS 12-0140 Adisesh A., Robinson L., Codling A., Harris-Roberts J., Lee C., Porter K.
Health and Safety Executive
Evidence-based review of the current guidance on first aid measures for suspension trauma
In 2002, HSE published a review entitled "Harness Suspension: Review and Evaluation of Existing Information" (see CIS 07-1471). It was noted in this report that the rescue plan was an essential part of fall protection arrangements. The report quoted and summarized advice extracted from various papers concerning harness suspension. Although it was not intended to be a review of the medical advice for rescue from suspension, it was frequently cited in such a context and in support of measures that differ from standard first aid practice. This project was undertaken to develop authoritative guidance on the matter. It involved reviewing the advice and guidance available on suspension trauma. This review was used to address the questions of whether the current information and advice available for treating suspension trauma casualties was adequate and in line with current practice and recommendations, and whether there was a need for HSE to produce guidance. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. 35p. Illus. 9 ref.
Evidence-based_review_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 10-0464 Dingsdag D.
Reliability, sustainability and effectiveness of automated external defibrillators deployed in workplaces and public areas
As automated external defibrillators (AEDs) become more widely available at workplaces and public areas in Australia, this article argues that it is important that government policymakers and employers ensure that AEDs be routinely maintained, monitored and correctly deployed at properly-identified locations, with duly trained rescuers. Furthermore, public education programmes aimed at increasing the awareness on how to use an AED in an emergency situation would enable bystanders to function as first responders.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2009. Vol.25, No.5, p.351-361. 34 ref.

CIS 09-1084 Heick R., Young T., Peek-Asa C.
Occupational injuries among emergency medical service providers in the United States
A national survey was conducted to describe the problem of occupational injury among emergency medical services providers. The most common types of nonfatal injuries and the activities and environments where injury most frequently occurred, were examined. Occupational injury in the past 12 months was reported by 29% of 659 survey respondents, with multiple injuries reported by 64% of those reporting an injury. Paid providers had approximately twice the prevalence of overall injury than volunteer providers, controlling for age and gender. Paid providers were more likely than volunteer providers to experience back injury and physical assault. This study clearly identifies the need to examine paid and volunteer providers as separate occupational groups.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.51, No.8, p.963-968. 15 ref.

CIS 09-967 Phelps A., Lloyd D., Creamer M., Forbes D.
Caring for carers in the aftermath of trauma
The potential impact on psychological well-being of working in the caring professions in the aftermath of trauma and disaster has been recognized for many years. These stress-related conditions include burnout, compassion fatigue and vicarious traumatization. Although prevalent, these conditions do not affect all workers in the field. Various studies have investigated potential risk and protective factors. It is argued that the outcomes of this research should be used to guide practical interventions in the workplace designed to minimize stress-related problems. A framework that incorporates interventions at the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention levels is outlined, and research investigating the efficacy of interventions at each of these levels is recommended.
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, Apr.-May 2009, Vol.18, No.3, p.313-330. 72 ref.

CIS 09-509 Durand E., Cassan P., Goddet N.S., Meyran D., Bielec P., Vuillerminaz C., Descatha A.
Emergency organization within the enterprise - Changes wrought by the new emergency worker training programmes
Organisation des secours dans l'entreprise - Modifications apportées par les nouveaux programmes de formation au secourisme [in French]
In France, heads of enterprises are responsible for emergency organization. The training programme for first aid and emergency personnel having been recently revised, this article presents the changes made, particularly concerning the use of external automatic defibrillators, and describes current requirements with respect to emergency organization and the first aid chain of survival.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2009, No.117, p.19-37. Illus. 63 ref. [in French]


CIS 09-801 de la Hoz R.E., Christie J., Teamer J.A., Bienenfeld L.A., Afilaka A.A., Crane M., Levin S.M., Herbert R.
Reflux symptoms and disorders and pulmonary disease in former World Trade Center rescue and recovery workers and volunteers
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is one of the most prevalent conditions among former World Trade Center (WTC) rescue and recovery workers. In this study, 42 former WTC workers underwent medical examinations and were classified into two groups based on clinical evaluation: reflux patients and no-reflux patients. The two groups had significantly different Johnson-DeMeester scores and oesophageal acid exposure times. Patients with reflux disorders were more likely to have reduced forced vital capacity and to have been diagnosed with a lower airway disease. No significant association was found between reflux and psychiatric disorders, levels of exposure at the WTC site, or incidence of dry cough, or other upper airway disorders. Findings suggest that the presence of reflux disease is related to that of pulmonary function abnormality, suggestive of air trapping.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1351-1354. 23 ref.

CIS 09-860 de la Hoz R.E., Hill S., Chasan R., Bienenfeld L.A., Afilaka A.A., Wilk-Rivard E., Herbert R.
Health care and social issues of immigrant rescue and recovery workers at the World Trade Center site
This article reviews the experience of immigrant workers involved in rescue and recovery work at the World Trade Center (WTC). This group was comprised largely of male immigrants from Latin America (predominantly from Ecuador and Colombia) or from Eastern Europe (predominantly from Poland). Recent reports have begun to document the disproportionate burden of occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses experienced by immigrant workers in the United States. The WTC experience of immigrants exemplified this burden but, additionally, highlighted that this burden is exacerbated by limitations in access to appropriate health care, disability and compensation benefits, and vocational rehabilitation services. A clinical programme, designed to address the complex medical and psychosocial needs of these workers, is described and was successfully established.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1329-1334. 9 ref.

CIS 09-716 Stewart I.B., McDonald M.D., Hunt A.P., Parker T.W.
Physical capacity of rescue personnel in the mining industry
The mining industry has one of the highest occupational rates of serious injury and fatality. Staff involved with rescue operations are often required to respond to physically challenging situations. In this study, 91 Australian mine rescue personnel completed a series of health-related and rescue-related fitness tests, including measurements of aerobic capacity, abdominal endurance, abdominal strength, flexibility, lower back strength, leg strength, elbow flexion strength, shoulder strength, lower back endurance, and leg endurance. Rescue-related tasks comprised carrying a load, shoveling coal and dragging hose. Findings are discussed. Overall, physical fitness was judged insufficient. It is recommended that standards of required physical fitness be developed and that rescue personnel undergo regular training and testing to maintain these standards.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Oct. 2008, Vol.3, No.22, 6p. Illus. 31 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1358 The ambulance driver
Ambulancier [in French]
Ambulance drivers carry out the transport of sick or injured persons in specially designed vehicles. Aimed at occupational physicians, this information note summarizes the main characteristics of this job (description, workplaces, work organization, tasks), together with the main hazards involved (physical workload, emotional stress, vibration, work posture, exposure to infectious agents). Other topics addressed: tools and equipment, work clothing.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.48, No.2, 2p. Insert.

CIS 08-1314 Labbé F.
Organization of first aid within the enterprise
L'organisation des secours dans l'entreprise [in French]
This article summarizes the legal responsibilities of employers in France with respect to the organization of first aid within the enterprise. Labour laws stipulate that employers are required to organize enterprise first aid services as a function of existing hazards. Based on advice from occupational physicians, employers need to define the practical details of first aid interventions in the event of accidents or emergencies, and in cases where specialized personnel are not available on site, of the training of staff in first aid methods. Topics addressed: training of personnel; first aid equipment; writing of first aid instructions.
Santé et Sécurité au Travail Actualités, Mai 2008, No.110, p.5-6. Illus.


CIS 08-1412 Robson J.K.
Health and Safety Executive
Analysis of ERRV trials data from ERRVA and Seacroft
This study involved the analysis of data collected over a number of years concerning the frequency, circumstances and prevailing conditions when emergency response rescue vessels (ERRVs) on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf carried out trials with their rescue craft. Wind and wave conditions, trial conditions and seasons were taken into account. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 125p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-819 Dołęgowski B., Janczała S.
What each employee should know about OSH: Basic information on occupational safety, occupational hazards, first aid and fire protection
Co pracownik powinien wiedzieć o bhp: Podstawowe wiadomości o bezpieczeństwie pracy, zagrożeniach zawodowych, pierwszej pomocy i ochronie przeciwpożarowej [in Polish]
Contents of this booklet concerning basic information on occupational safety and health aimed at employees: occupational hazards; providing first aid; fire protection; basic rights and responsibilities of employees and employers; practical explanations and instructions.
Ośrodek Doradztwa i Doskonalenia Kadr Sp. z o.o., ul. Obrońców Westerplatte 32a, 80-317 Gdańsk Oliwa, Poland, 2007. 44p.

CIS 07-1493 Müller-Arnecke H.W., Bleyer T., Hold U., Macheleidt M., Rademacher U., Windel A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Lifting and carrying aids in rescue work
Hebe- und Tragehilfen im Rettungsdienst [in German]
The lifting and carrying equipment used by personnel working in rescue services was evaluated mainly in simulation tests by examining specific aspects. In collaboration with local rescue services, motion sequences, physical postures, joint angle positions of the hand-arm system during transport on two different courses were examined and various assessment schemes were used and developed further. These evaluations allowed collecting detailed information on motion sequences in both theory and practice. Findings show that there are gaps in information concerning carrying equipment design, focal load points and assessment specifications. Recommendations are made on the design and selection of carrying aids and on assessment methods for their ergonomic evaluation.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2007. 139p. Illus. 63 ref. Price: EUR 15.00.

CIS 07-1352 Saarni H., Niemi L.
Medical handbook for seafarers
This handbook provides instructions on the medical first aid and treatment required on board ships until the patient has either recovered or is transported to land for more suitable treatment. It helps persons responsible for medical treatment on board decide on the best course of action, including when to consult a doctor by radio or when to urgently have the patient transported to land for medical treatment.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2007. 213p. Illus. Index. Price: EUR 39.00.


CIS 07-1287 Best practices guide - Fundamentals of a workplace first-aid program
This OSHA guide identifies the four essential elements for first-aid programs to be effective: management leadership and employee involvement, worksite analysis, hazard prevention and control, and safety and health training. The guide details the primary components of a first-aid program at the workplace, which include: identifying and assessing workplace risks; designing a program that is specific to the worksite and complies with OSHA first-aid requirements; instructing all workers about the program, including what to do if a co-worker is injured or ill; evaluating and modifying program to keep it current, including regular assessment of the first-aid training course. The guide also includes best practices for planning and conducting safe and effective first-aid training.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2006. 23p. Illus. 12 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-476 Kluth K., Strasser H.
Ergonomics in the rescue service - Ergonomic evaluation of ambulance cots
In this comparative ergonomic study, three combinations of ambulance stretchers were tested with respect to their ergonomic quality. In addition to work analyses during the use of ambulance cots, the strain on the circulatory system of 12 ambulance workers was measured in four standardized carrying tests. Static and dynamic components of the muscle strain were determined by electromyography. Findings are discussed. One of the systems widely used in several countries was found to have marked weaknesses. Several specific recommendations are made for improving the design of ambulance cots with respect to their weight, shape, positioning of handles and mechanism of the height adjustment of the gurney. Changes in the design are also recommended in order to reduce the high strain on the ambulance workers that was measured via peripheral-physiological methods.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 2006, Vol.36, No.3, p.247-256. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 07-18
Health and Safety Executive
Basic advice on first aid at work
This leaflet provides advice on basic first aid procedures for use in an emergency. Topics covered: what to do in an emergency; first aid treatment for unconsciousness, wounds and bleeding, suspected broken bones, burns and eye injuries; record keeping.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. 4p. Illus. [in English]


CIS 09-662 The material safety data sheet - A practical guide to first aid
La fiche signalétique: un guide pratique en matière de premiers soins [in French]
This booklet consists of a practical guide to help prepare and evaluate first aid recommendations for chemical exposures. The first aid section of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) provides recommendations that describe measures that trained providers can take at the scene of a chemical exposure, to minimize injury and disability, before obtaining medical assistance. It identifies key questions on the health, fire and reactivity hazards of a chemical and provides the user with a decision tree for arriving at accurate, consistent first aid recommendations for each route of occupational exposure (skin, eye, inhalation and ingestion). It is intended for persons who have a basic understanding of chemicals and their hazards and who write or evaluate first aid recommendations for MSDSs.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 135 Hunter Street East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 1M5, 2005. 38p. Illus. Price: CAN 15.00. Downloadable version free. [in French] [in English]

CIS 06-477 Jones A.Y.M., Lee R.Y.W.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and back injury in ambulance officers
A questionnaire on back pain was addressed to Hong Kong ambulance workers who performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Analysis of the 318 completed questionnaires showed that almost 60% of the respondents complained of always experiencing back pain during CPR, while 36% experienced it sometimes. Only 4.5% had no experience of back discomfort during CPR. 24% respondents suffered back injury, of whom 62% considered the cause of their back injury to be related to CPR delivery. Nearly 50% of respondents reported that it was difficult to maintain balance and concurrently deliver CPR while travelling in the ambulance or when the patient was being transported. Results suggest that there is a need to review the support given to ambulance workers to ensure safe administration of CPR, particularly during ambulance transport.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2005, Vol.78, No.4, p.332-336. 10 ref.

CIS 06-226 Ferreira J., Hignett S.
Reviewing ambulance design for clinical efficiency and paramedic safety
This study aimed to review the layout of the patient compartment in a United Kingdom ambulance with respect to paramedic efficiency and safety. Link analysis and postural analysis were used. Paramedics were observed over 16 shifts (130h). The most frequently-occurring clinical tasks were checking blood oxygen saturation, oxygen administration, monitoring the heart and checking blood pressure. Access to the equipment and consumables to support these tasks had been designed for the attendant seat (head end of the stretcher), however, a link analysis found that paramedics preferred to sit alongside the stretcher which resulted in increased reach distances. The higher-frequency tasks were found to include over 40% of working postures that required corrective measures. It was concluded that future ambulance design should be based on an ergonomics analysis of clinical activities.
Applied Ergonomics, Jan. 2005, Vol.36, No.1, p.97-105. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 05-482 Ferreira J., Stanley L.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of manual handling tasks involving the use of carry chairs by UK ambulance personnel
The emergency carry chair is an important manual handling aid, used by ambulance services as the primary method for transporting patients up and down stairs and into the ambulance. In this ergonomic study, eight ambulance personnel performed four simulated handling tasks that commonly involved the use of the carry chairs: transporting a patient up and down stairs, lifting a patient into the back of an ambulance, wheeling a patient up a 10° ramp, and negotiating a kerb. Force, posture and anthropometric data were combined into a biomechanical model to predict the risk of injury to the low back and the physical demands imposed on operators. The risk of musculoskeletal injury related to each of the tasks is discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. viii, 73p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 10-0185 Guidance note - Preparing for emergency evacuations at the workplace
Contents of this guidance note on preparing emergency evacuations at the workplace: introduction; preparing for emergency evacuations (objectives, key points, development of procedures, assessment and review); responsibilities; workplaces with tenants, subcontractors or visitors on site; workplaces with persons sleeping on site; sources of additional information.
Commission for occupational safety and health, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2004. PDF document, 16p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 06-1270 Occupational first-aid workers
Le sauveteur secouriste du travail [in French]
This brochure in the form of a comic strip presents examples illustrating the four main actions that occupational first aid workers need to take in the event of an accident: protect, examine, declare, assist. It does not constitute a first-aid training course. Training given by instructors specialized in occupational first-aid or by training organizations remains the prime means of acquiring the necessary skills for being a first-aid assistant at the place of work.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Aug. 2004. 16p. Illus. Price: EUR 2.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed4128.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-827 Guidelines on first-aid in the workplace (2nd edition)
Guidelines to first aid requirements in the workplace. In appendix: course contents for first aid training; recommended contents of a first-aid box; check list for components of first-aid requirements; check list for first-aid box; layout and recommended facilities of first-aid rooms.
Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Human Resources, Aras 2, 3 dan 4, Blok D3, Parcel D, Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62502 Putrajaya, Malaysia, 2nd ed., 2004. [4], 18p. Illus. 8 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-679 Płóciennik M., Madera F.
Hell inside a copper plant
Piekło w hucie [in Polish]
The organization and procedures involved in the rescue and fire extinguishing action during a fire in the copper plant "Legnica" are described. Proper procedures to be applied in similar disasters in the future are defined.
Przegląd Pożarniczy, 2004, No.11, p.12-14.


CIS 05-112 Castelo Tarrío I., De la Flor Magdaleno B., Gil Martín F.J., Peláez Corres N., Castaños Urkullu A., García Bercedo R.
Performance of emergency teams in maritime incidents: Special characteristics
Actuación de los equipos de emergencia en incidentes marítimos: características especiales [in Spanish]
The aim of this study was to examine factors influencing the medical care given to victims of incidents at sea, highlighting the difficulties of access and rescue. The 38 incidents that occurred at sea during 2002 in the Basque region of Spain requiring the intervention of rescue services were analysed. Incidents at sea have specific characteristics which can affect medical services: the scene of the incident is often dangerous and the access to the victims is difficult, requiring the intervention of rescue services which considerably delays medical assistance and transport. For these reasons, it is particularly important to provide rescue personnel with basic training in emergency medical care and in the handling of victims with traumatic injuries.
Medicina Marítima, Dec. 2003, Vol.3, No.2, p.143-148. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 04-34 Professional risks: First aid guide
Risques professionnels: guide du sauveteur [in French]
Contents of this booklet on first aid: general first aid plan; essential gestures of the first aid worker; signalling of accidents and raising the alarm; attending to the victim; actions to be undertaken in the event of bleeding, unconsciousness, apnoea, cardiac arrest, traumatic injuries (lower limb, upper limb, head, spinal column).
National Social Insurance Fund, Republic of Cameroon, [c2003]. 16p. Illus.

CIS 03-1975 Sluiter J.K., van der Beek A.J., Frings-Dresen M.H.W.
Medical staff in emergency situations: Severity of patient status predicts stress hormone reactivity and recovery
Although repetitive exposure to stressful situations is thought to habituate the physical stress responses, work stress is experienced by medical personnel in emergency and intensive care units. The purpose of this study was to investigate neuroendocrine reactions (reactivity during and recovery after work) among experienced emergency caregivers during emergency situations. Participants included 20 male ambulance paramedics. A stress protocol was developed in which cortisol was measured in saliva at baseline, during the emergency period and during recovery. Four scenarios were tested between subjects in which the severity of the emergency situation and the time of day were taken into account. It was found that the endocrine reactions were higher during and after the handling of patients in direct life-threatening situations and during morning hours.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2003, Vol.60, No.5, p.373-375. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 03-1188 Blasco Mayor A.
Regulations and organization of first aid at the workplace
Regulación y organización de los primeros auxilios en los lugares de trabajo [in Spanish]
This article analyses first-aid regulations and its organization at the workplace, as well as the manner in which coordination with external services takes place. Contents: definition of first-aid services functions and consequences of non compliance; disorders which require first-aid treatment; required materials and premises; personnel in charge of first aid; required training for persons providing first aid; organization and planning of first aid, and coordination with external services; information of personnel; first aid for special tasks and activities; construction sites; ships; mining; use of dangerous chemicals; installations involving exposure to ionizing radiation; other tasks and activities. Appendices include the main legal texts containing provisions relative to first aid.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.25, p.25-40. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 03-661 Winton C.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of the Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 and the approved code of practice and guidance
This report presents the findings of an evaluation into the current first aid regulations and associated guidance, commissioned by the Health and Safety Executive in order to establish the relevance of first aid in industry today and to recommend the scope of future regulations. A questionnaire survey was addressed to representative employers on the awareness and level of application of first aid regulations. Interviews were subsequently conducted with selected employers in order to obtain further details. It was found that first aid awareness and penetration in workplaces was good, with the principal objectives of the regulations having very wide appeal. Compliance, however, was found to be more in the spirit rather than to the letter of the regulations and this exposed some important deficiencies in the format and content of guidance. Recommendations are made regarding the development of future regulations and associated guidance and on the frequency and duration of first aid training.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. ix, 85p. Illus. Price: GBP 25.00. [in English]

CIS 03-937 Actions to be undertaken in the event of accidental blood exposures
Conduite à tenir en cas d'accident avec exposition au sang [in French]
This leaflet summarizes the main actions to be undertaken in the event of accidental blood exposures, namely: cleaning (rinsing copiously with clean water in cases of eye or mouth exposure, cleaning and disinfecting in cases of needle-stick or other skin injuries); reporting the accident and informing the occupational physician; setting up the biological monitoring system.
Association interprofessionnelle des centres médicaux et sociaux de la région Ile-de-France, 55 rue Rouget-de-l'Isle, 92158 Suresnes Cedex, France, 2003. 4p. 2 ref.


CIS 07-1349
Health and Safety Executive
Mines rescue arrangements: Future options
The objective of the work described in this report was to examine alternative structures for the provision of mine rescue arrangements in the United Kingdom and to assess their relative merits against credible scenarios for the future of the coal mining sector. It involved face-to-face interviews with various government bodies and with all the coal mining enterprises currently operating in the country. Findings are discussed. Topics addressed: current rescue provisions in the United Kingdom; financial income of the Mines Rescue Service Limited (MRSL); views of mine owners and of MRSL staff; potential effects of future changes in United Kingdom coal production; summary position of mines rescue in the United Kingdom; mines rescue organizations in other countries; other rescue organizations in the United Kingdom; potential future options; conclusions and recommendations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vii, 66p. Illus. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 03-660 Gacek W.
First aid compendium
Kompendium pierwszej pomocy [in Polish]
This compendium on first aid describes typical symptoms and procedures applicable to the following emergency situations: body injuries; breathing disorders; loss of consciousness; poisoning. It also contains basic guidance on first-aid organization within enterprises.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2002. 288p. Illus.

CIS 02-1862 Hodous T.K., Washenitz F., Newton B.
Occupational burns from oxygen resuscitator fires: The hazard of aluminum regulators
There were more than 30 incidents of oxygen resuscitator fires in the United States during the period 1996-2002, causing severe burns to fire fighters, ambulance workers, emergency medical service personnel, health care workers and patients. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was requested to investigate three such incidents. NIOSH conducted site investigations of the incidents, and the oxygen resuscitators were sent to a testing laboratory for analysis of the fire causes. The three investigated fires were associated with aluminium regulators from the same manufacturer, mounted on oxygen cylinders. It was found that the cause of the fires was an initial small ignition in the high-pressure area of the aluminum regulator, which then resulted in a massive burnout. Aluminium regulators used with compressed oxygen cylinders are subject to potentially catastrophic combustion during normal use. Replacement of such regulators as well as education and improved safety practices are needed to reduce this hazard.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.63-69. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1860 Dosne R.
Fire in the tunnel of the A 86 motorway under construction
Incendie dans le tunnel en chantier de l'autoroute A 86 [in French]
This article describes the fire that occurred on 5 March 2002 during drilling work in a tunnel of the future Paris bypass motorway. 19 construction workers at the site were trapped for more than five hours, but were able to escape unharmed thanks to their discipline, training, familiarity with the site (which enabled an efficient rescue effort) and the high level of coordination between the persons responsible for the site and rescue workers. Four fire scenarios had been prepared. Even if none corresponded exactly to this incident, they no doubt helped manage the intervention efforts.
Face au risque, June-July 2002, No.384, p.38-41. Illus.

CIS 02-1181 Leprince A., Guillemy N., Ferreira M., Biélec P., Vuillerminaz C., Jannière D., Julien H.
Emergency organization within the enterprise - Emergency and first-aid services at the place of work
Organisation des urgences dans l'entreprise - Sauvetage-secourisme du travail [in French]
This article describes the current situation with respect to the organization of emergency services in France and their practical implications for the organization of enterprise-level emergency services. Contents: organization of emergency services in France; organization of emergency services within the enterprise; practical aspects (human resources needed, ways of raising the alarm and their practical details, first-aid equipment); rescue and first-aid services at the workplace; answers to frequently-asked questions on responsibilities with respect to rescue and first-aid at the workplace.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.89, p.5-21. Illus. 16 ref.


CIS 04-574 Moliné Marco J.L.
First aid: Primary evaluation and basic life support
Primeros auxilios: evaluación primaria y soporte vital básico [in Spanish]
This information note explains the attitude to be adopted in emergency situations as well as the basic survival procedures that can be carried out by persons without any medical knowledge, such as in the event of a cardio-respiratory arrest. Contents: sequence of actions in the event of an accident (protect the victim, alert the health services, assist the victim); recognize the signs of life (consciousness, breathing, pulse); basic life-saving gestures for unconscious patients with apnoea (mouth-to-mouth); external cardiac massage; basic life-saving gestures for infants and children; reasons why basic life-saving actions often fail despite efforts.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 5p. Illus. 5 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 03-1721
Health and Safety Executive
Diving in benign conditions, and in pools, tanks, aquariums and helicopter underwater escape training
Diving at work is subject to the provisions of the Diving at Work Regulations 1997 (see CIS 97-1785). This information sheet deals with the application of these regulations where diving work is carried out in closed artificial environments. Contents: diving in benign conditions; diving in swimming pools; diving in tanks; diving in aquariums; diving in helicopter underwater escape training; equivalence of recreational diving qualifications.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2001. 2p. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1808 Ngowi A.V.F., Maeda D.N., Partanen T.J.
Assessment of the ability of health care providers to treat and prevent adverse health effects of pesticides in agricultural areas of Tanzania
A survey of Tanzanian health care providers in agricultural areas was undertaken in 1991-1994 to assess their knowledge of toxic effects of pesticides in order to develop effective strategies for reducing pesticide poisoning. Interviews were conducted with 104 physicians, clinical officers and nurses at health care facilities in the coffee and cotton growing areas. 80% of respondents reported to have seen one and 9% two or more cases of pesticide poisoning in the preceding three months. The respiratory tract was the major route for pesticide to enter the human body; this was followed by gastrointestinal tract, skin, and eyes. Only one of the respondents could identify the groups of pesticides mostly used in the study areas. The survey indicated that training of hospital staff in toxicity of pesticide exposure is an important task and a prerequisite for efficient recognition, diagnosis and treatment of pesticide poisoning cases in Tanzania.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2001, Vol.14, No.4, p.349-356. 21 ref.

CIS 02-1464 Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Balty I., Le Bâcle C.
Anthrax: A "forgotten" disease that is now a bioterrorist risk
Le charbon: une maladie professionnelle "oubliée" devenue menace bioterroriste [in French]
Anthrax is an animal disease transmissible to humans. It has been listed in the French schedule of occupational diseases since 1938. It is not well understood and is often overlooked, because just a few general practitioners or occupational physicians have ever been confronted with cases. Since September 2001, this disease has emerged at the forefront of the news in a context of international terrorist risk. The French National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Research (INRS) has received numerous requests for information, both on the disease itself and on preventive measures to be adopted in the mailrooms of enterprises. Since it involves a terrorist threat, the recommendations presented in this article are in line with those adopted by public agencies and are aimed at minimizing the consequences both for exposed persons and for the enterprise as a whole.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.88, p.375-387. 25 ref.

CIS 02-1319 Borak J., Diller W.F.
Phosgene exposure: Mechanisms of injury and treatment strategies
The study summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms of phosgene-induced pulmonary oedema and provides an approach to the treatment of phosgene exposure victims.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.110-119. Illus. 82 ref.

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