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Zoonoses - 231 entries found

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CIS 12-0317 Choi K.M., Johnson E.S.
Industrial hygiene assessment of reticuloendotheliosis viruses exposure in the poultry industry
Reticuloendotheliosis viruses (REV) are a group of retroviruses similar to avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses (ALSV) that naturally infect and cause cancers in chickens. It was recently found that ALSV antibody levels were associated with job tasks in the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were to examine whether a similar association can be found with REV antibody levels and to examine the correlation between REV and ALSV antibody levels. Relative risk was estimated comparing REV antibody levels of 45 poultry workers with those of 44 controls. The expected mean antibody level was predicted for the association with employment by a generalized linear model. REV antibody levels were significantly higher in poultry workers than in control subjects and were associated with gender and employment conditions, especially employment duration. The relative risk was significantly higher for some job categories. A significant correlation was observed between REV and ALSV antibody levels, which was strong among poultry workers, but weak among the control subjects. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2011, Vol.84, No.4, p.375-382. Illus. 11 ref.
Industrial_hygiene_assessment_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]


CIS 10-0413 Caron V., Cosset Y.
Q fever in occupational settings: Where do we stand?
Fičvre Q et milieu professionnel - Oů en est-on? [in French]
While Q fever may be serious for certain populations and may concern many workers in contact with animals (mainly bovines, goats and sheep) and their environment, it remains largely unknown and is rarely mentioned by physicians. Animal farmers, veterinarians, inseminators, and slaughterhouse and meat quartering workers are among the most exposed. An epidemic having occurred in a slaughterhouse in the French Department of Maine-et-Loire in February 2009 provides an opportunity for a brief overview of the situation of Q fever in France from the standpoints of epidemiology, risks in occupational settings and preventive measures.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2010, No.123, p.349-353. Illus. 9 ref.
TP_10.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0377 ASHCA/NIOSH Conference - Be safe, be profitable: Protecting workers in agriculture
This full issue includes the papers presented at a conference on protecting workers in agriculture, held on January 27-28 2010 in Dallas-Fort Worth, USA. Contents: global view of issues affecting United States production agriculture; perspectives of hired workers; overview of safety and health in the United States; preventing heat-related illness; respiratory issues; minimizing worker injuries in livestock handling; overcoming language barriers; safe tractor operations; aging agricultural workers; safety performance metrics; minimizing exposures to pesticides; pre-harvest food safety; musculoskeletal disorders; preventing injuries to reduce cost; zoonotic influenza and its implications for agricultural workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.15, No.3, p.17-329 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 10-0098 Alonso Espadalé R.M., Solans Lampurlanés X., Constans Aubert A.
Veterinary centres: Occupational exposure to biological agents
Centros veterinarios: exposición laboral a agentes biológicos [in Spanish]
This information note describes the main risk factors of exposure of the staff of veterinary centres (practices or clinics) to biological agents as well as preventive measures. It mainly concerns services in urban regions which treat pets. A table lists the main zoonoses related to these pets.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 11 ref. [in Spanish]


CIS 11-0364 Towey A., Petitti C.
OSHA compliance issues - A case of Q fever
This article describes an investigation by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the United Stated Department of Agriculture (USDA) following several cases of Q fever at a slaughterhouse and meat packaging enterprise. The investigation involved inspecting the facilities and interviewing workers and management. Several violations were noted, and the enterprise was ordered to implement corrective measures with regard to work processes, hygiene, information and training of personnel, and supply of suitable personal protective equipment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2009, Vol.6, p. D63-D65. 2 ref.

CIS 10-0875 Botella S., Ferrús M.A.
This practical information sheet on leptospirosis addresses the characteristics of the responsible biological agent, Leptospira sp., the risk group in which it is classified, its effects on health, its sensitivity to antibiotics and inactivation measures, first aid to be provided in cases of infection and prophylactic measures, workers at risk and type of danger, protective measures and confinement level, measures to be taken in cases of spills, modes of elimination. It also presents epidemiological data.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2009, No.55, p.60-61. 18 ref.

CIS 10-0784 Lagoma Lorén L.
Occupational zoonoses: Risks of exposure to biological agents in cattle rearing
Zoonosis laborales: riesgos de exposición a agentes biológicos en ganadería [in Spanish]
This article on occupational zoonoses defines these diseases and lists the hazardous occupations. It then discusses more specifically the livestock rearing sector and the preventive actions to be implemented against diseases caused by biological agents of animal origin. Contents: risks and examples of zoonoses; identification of the infectious agent; hazard evaluation; risk control; other preventive measures.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2009, No.55, p.42-47. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 10-0409 Kawakami T., Ratananakorn L.
Protecting your health and business from animal influenza: Action manual for farmers and workers
Protéger votre santé et votre entreprise de la grippe animale: manuel d'actions pour éleveurs et travailleurs [in French]
Cómo proteger su salud y su negocio de la gripe animal: manual de acción para granjeros y trabajadores [in Spanish]
Outbreaks of avian influenza in the recent past, and the current spread of Influenza A (H1N1) stemming from swine, have prompted worldwide concern. This training manual has been developed to promote safe practices in farms raising animals, particularly poultry and pigs. The manual is user-friendly and practical, providing an action checklist of various prevention measures, including explanations and descriptions. Also published in Thai.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2009. 24p. Illus.
Protecting_your_health.pdf [in English]
Protéger_votre_santé.pdf [in French]
Cómo_proteger_su_salud.pdf [in Spanish]
Protecting_your_health.pdf [in Thai]

CIS 10-0005 Kawakami T.
Protecting your employees and business from Pandemic Human Influenza - Action manual for small and medium-sized enterprises
Protéger vos employés et votre entreprise de la pandémie de grippe humaine: Manuel d'actions pour les petites et moyennes entreprises [in French]
Cómo proteger a sus empleados y a sus negocios contra la Pandemia de Gripe Humana: Manual de acción para pequeńas y medianas empresas [in Spanish]
The outbreak of avian influenza and the ongoing incidences of infected cases have prompted worldwide concern. This training manual was developed to promote safe practices in small and medium-sized enterprises. The manual is user-friendly and practical, providing an action checklist on various prevention measures including explanations and descriptions. The unique participatory training methods of the ILO, Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE) and Work Improvements in Neighbourhood Development (WIND), were used to promote understanding and encourage improvement in the actions of employers and workers in small and medium-sized enterprises. Also available in Malay, Lao, Thai, Khmer, Vietnamese and Japanese.
ILO Subregional Office for East Asia, United Nations Building, 10th Floor, Radjamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand, 2009. 24p. Illus. [in English]
/ [in French] [in Spanish]

CIS 09-1163 Langley R., Morris T.
That horse bit me: Zoonotic infections of equines to consider after exposure through the bite or the oral/nasal secretions
Injuries from horses are responsible for over 100,000 emergency room visits each year in the United States. Although various types of traumatic injuries related to direct contact with horses are generally well described, roughly 3% to 4.5% of all reported injuries are due to bites. Besides injuries, the bite may also cause the transmission of a microbial agent that can lead to a zoonotic infection. This review focuses on those zoonoses that have been reported in the literature, including those that may in theory be transmitted from equine to human by direct inoculation or exposure to oral or nasal secretions from horses and other equine species.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.370-381. 68 ref.

CIS 09-1162 Kersting A.L., Medeiros L.C., LeJeune J.T.
Zoonoses and the physicians' role in educating farming patients
The purpose of this study was to characterize physicians' knowledge of zoonoses and their perceived role in zoonoses education among their farming patients in Northeast Ohio. In 2006, 92 practicing physicians participated in a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The survey demonstrated that over 50% of physicians were either mostly uncomfortable or strongly uncomfortable with their knowledge of zoonoses and in their ability to diagnose zoonoses and make recommendations on how to prevent zoonotic infections. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.306-311. 12 ref.

CIS 09-1161 Kayali G., Ortiz E.J., Chorazy M.L., Gray G.C.
Lack of evidence of avian adenovirus infection among turkey workers
Although there are many animal-specific adenoviruses and occasionally they have been noted to infect man, rarely have they been studied as potential zoonotic pathogens. In this study, it was hypothesized that the hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), an avian adenovirus that causes illness among turkeys, might infect humans. Using an enzyme immunosorbent assay, the authors compared sera from 95 turkey-exposed individuals with sera from 82 nonexposed controls. Multivariate modeling revealed no statistical difference in anti-HEV antibodies between the two groups.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.299-305. 24 ref.

CIS 09-263 Kawakami T., Ratananakorn L.
Protecting your health and business from avian influenza: Action manual for farmers and poultry workers
The outbreak of avian influenza and the ongoing incidences of infected cases have prompted worldwide concern. This training manual is developed to promote safe practices. The manual is user-friendly and practical, providing an action checklist on various prevention measures including explanations and descriptions. The participatory training methods of the ILO, Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development (WIND) and Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE), were used to promote understanding and encourage improvements in the actions of farmers and poultry workers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2009. 24p. Illus. 7ref. [in Thai] [in English]

CIS 08-1354 Farmwise: Your essential guide to health and safety in agriculture
Ffermio Diogel: Eich canllaw hanfodol i iechyd a diogelwch mewn amaethyddiaeth [in Welsh]
This major guidance document describes in straightforward terms the principles of health and safety in agriculture. Contents: benefits of preventing accidents (injuries and ill health, their costs and causes); organizing for health and safety; risk assessment; consulting employees; contractors and family workers; training and skills; first aid, emergencies and reporting; preventing falls; building work; workplace transport; selecting and using equipment; maintenance work; workplace safety and welfare; electricity; child and public safety; handling livestock; chainsaws and tree work; COSHH (CIS 00-620) and health; health problems in agriculture (chest problems, zoonoses, skin problems, stress); pesticides and veterinary medicines; manual handling; noise and vibration; personal protective equipment. Previous edition: CIS 99-1465.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2009. 50p. (Web edition: 68p.) Illus. Bibl.ref. [in Welsh] [in English]


CIS 09-1157 Hudson T.W., Fortuna J.
Overview of selected infectious disease risks for the corporate traveler
International business travel to developing countries has increased considerably over the past two decades. Many of these destinations are endemic to a variety of infectious diseases, some of which are associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, or both. Non-immune travellers are at risk. Comprehensive pre-travel consultation is essential to prevent travel-related illness. This review addresses some of the infectious diseases that can be acquired during international travel, including endemic regions, assessment of risk and available means of prevention.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.924-934. Illus. 77 ref.

CIS 09-596 Lee K., Lim H.S.
Work-related injuries and diseases of farmers in Korea
Korean farmers are the victims of various work-related injuries and diseases, including injuries from farming machinery and tools, pesticide poisoning, peasant syndrome, vinyl house disease, respiratory diseases, infectious and skin diseases. Zoonoses including brucellosis and tsutsugamushi disease are on the increase, as well as musculoskeletal problems due to awkward postures, repetitive work and long working hours. Moreover Korean farmers themselves do not pay much attention to these problems and farmers are not considered a priority by health care facilities since the number of people involved in farming has strongly declined during the last few decades and the average age of this population has dramatically increased. This article reviews the current status of work-related injuries and diseases among Korean farmers and provides basic data for future studies.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.424-434. 95 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-458 Lagoma Loren L.
Occupational hazards due to exposure to prions
Riesgos laborales derivados de la exposición a priones [in Spanish]
Prions are considered to be live biological agents according to the technical guide for biological agents. They may cause diseases among exposed workers that are particularly serious and for which, at the present time, there is no known efficient treatment. Following an introduction on the general aspects of prion properties and their mode of transmission, this article discusses the appropriate preventive and protective measures based on the occupational activity and the type of infectious material being handled.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2008, No.50, p.14-19. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 09-460 Breton-Kueny L., Segovia-Kueny S.
When faced with the risk of a pandemic - Vital relevance of a plan for ensuring the continuity of operations
Face ŕ une crise de type pandémie - L'intéręt vital d'un plan de continuité des activités [in French]
This article explains plans for ensuring the continuity of operations (PCOs) in the event of a pandemic, together with their usefulness and implementation. Topics: influenza pandemic; Decree on the safety of vital activities in France; what needs to be included in a PCO in the event of avian influenza. The proposed approach could also be relevant in other situations, for example in the case of bioterrorism.
Préventique-Sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.101, p.57-61. Illus.

CIS 09-197 Brasseur G., Vaudoux D.
Zoonoses - From animal to man, multiple hazards
Zoonoses - De l'animal ŕ l'homme, un risque pluriel [in French]
Zoonoses are diseases that are transmissible from animals to men. In occupational settings, risks of zoonoses exist for activities that involve contact with animals in nature or in captivity. This special feature on occupational zoonoses addresses the following topics: problems faced in proving the occupational nature of zoonoses; risks from rats and ticks in natural environments; personal protective equipment; occupational safety and health approach adopted by a French veterinary school; risks related to imported animals; risks in pet shops; protection measures for pregnant women; occupational safety and health in a Parisian zoo.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2008, No.686, p.22-35. Illus.$File/TS686page22.pdf?OpenElement [in French]

CIS 08-1333 Nouaigui H., Hamzaoui H., Bassalah K., Aschi S., Dupupet J.L., Le Bâcle C., Moreau B., Martinez F., Benzarti M.
National conference on: The promotion of occupational safety and health in agriculture and fishing: Common challenges
Colloque national sur: la promotion de la santé et de la sécurité au travail dans le secteur de l'agriculture et de la pęche - Défi commun [in French]
Collection of papers presented at a national conference on the promotion of occupational safety and health in agriculture and fishing (13-14 May 2008, Tunis, Tunisia). Topics include: situation in Tunisia; regulations; occupational accident and disease statistics; vocational training; monitoring of exposure in the agricultural sector; management of biological hazards; safety of farm equipment; presentation of the European handbook for the prevention of accidents at sea and the safety of fishermen; risks of zoonoses and their prevention.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, July 2008, No.46, p.1-40 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 08-1462 Jolly H.
Biological hazards: Real nature of the problem in the construction sector
Risque biologique: quelle réalité dans le BTP? [in French]
Through many of the diverse activities of the construction sector, workers may be faced with biological hazards. This article reviews the biological agents that can be encountered in the sector (hepatitis A, influenza and poliomyelitis viruses, legionella, leptospira and tetanus bacilli, Candida alibicans and Entamoeba hystolica), diseases they cause, modes of contamination and preventive measures (disinfection of premises, ventilation, personal protective equipment, vaccination).
Prévention BTP, June 2008, No.108, p.48-50. Illus.

CIS 08-712 Bennett B.
The lingering threat of avian flu
Although headlines warning of a pandemic of avian flu have started to wane, the threat is far from over. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a global outbreak of easily transmissible influenza such as the H5N1 virus avian flu is likely within a few years. Workers at risk include poultry farmers, health care and laboratory workers, veterinarians, waste disposal workers, persons in contact with animals and food, and persons working outdoors. Individuals can protect themselves in a number of ways, such as frequently washing their hands with soap and water. OSHA recommends that employers provide at-risk workers with the appropriate PPE, including gloves, apparel (aprons and sleeves), goggles and boots or protective shoe covers that can be disposed of or disinfected.
Occupational Hazards, Jan. 2008, p.50-54. Illus.


CIS 08-1468 Expert forecast on emerging biological risks related to occupational safety and health
Ekspertna prognoza za văznikvaštite biologični riskove, svărzani s bezopasnostta i zdraveto pri rabota (BZP) [in Bulgarian]
Expertprognos om nya mikrobiologiska arbetsmiljörisker [in Swedish]
Ekspertvarsling om biologiske risici i fremvćkst i tilknytning til arbejdsmiljř [in Danish]
Expertenbefragung zu neu auftretenden biologischen Risiken für Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit (OSH) [in German]
Ékthesē próblepsēs empeirognōmónōn shetiká me tous anaduómenous biologikoús kindúnous pou shetízontai me tēn epaggelmatikḗ asfáleia kai ugeía (EAU) [in Greek]
Previsiones de los expertos sobre riesgos biológicos emergentes relacionados con la salud y la seguridad en el trabajo (SST) [in Spanish]
Ekspertprognoos tekkivate tööohutuse ja töötervishoiu bioloogiliste riskide kohta [in Estonian]
Asiantuntijat ennakoivat työterveyteen ja työturvallisuuteen liittyviä uusia biologisia riskejä [in Finnish]
Prévisions des experts sur les risques biologiques émergents liés ŕ la sécurité et ŕ la santé au travail [in French]
Szakértői előrejelzés a munkahelyi biztonság és egészségvédelem vonatkozásában kialakuló biológiai kockázatokról [in Hungarian]
Le previsioni degli esperti sui rischi biologici emergenti per la salute e la sicurezza sul lavoro [in Italian]
Ekspertų prognozė dėl naujos biologinės rizikos, kylančios darbuotojų saugai ir sveikatai (DSS) [in Lithuanian]
Ekspertu prognozes par potenciāliem bioloģiskiem riska faktoriem saistībā ar darba drošību un veselības aizsardzību (DDVA) [in Latvian]
Tbassir espert dwar riskji bijoloġiċi emerġenti relatati massaħħa u s-sigurta fuq il-post tax-xogħol (OHS) [in Maltese]
Prognose van deskundigen over in opkomst zijnde biologische risico's in het kader van veiligheid en gezondheid op het werk [in Dutch]
Prognoza ekspercka dotycząca nowo powstających biologicznych czynników ryzyka zawodowego (BHP) [in Polish]
Previsőes de peritos sobre os riscos biológicos emergentes relacionados com a segurança e a saúde no trabalho (SST) [in Portuguese]
Previziunea experţilor privind riscurile biologice emergente legate de securitatea şi sănătatea în muncă (SSM) [in Romanian]
Prognóza expertov o vznikajúcich biologických rizikách súvisiacich s bezpečnost'ou a ochranou zdravia na pracovisku (BOZP) [in Slovak]
Predvidevanje strokovnjakov o nastajajočih bioloških tveganjih, ki so povezana z varnostjo in zdravjem pri delu [in Slovenian]
Odborná prognóza vznikajících biologických rizik souvisejících s bezpečností a ochranou zdraví při práci (BOZP) [in Czech]
About 320,000 workers worldwide die every year of communicable diseases, some 5,000 in the European Union. In the last decade, media coverage has raised public awareness of biological hazards, such as anthrax at work due to bioterrorist activities, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the threat of avian flu. But biological agents are ubiquitous and, in many workplaces, workers face considerably harmful biological risks. The Community strategy 2002-06 called on the European Agency for Occupational Safety and Health to set up a risk observatory to anticipate new and emerging occupational safety and health risks. The expert forecast on emerging occupational safety and health biological risks was formulated from the results of three consecutive questionnaire-based surveys using the Delphi method. The full report has been analysed under CIS 08-214. This information note summarizes the contents and the findings of this forecast. It is also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2007. 2p. Illus. 5 ref. [in Multilingual]

CIS 08-717 Ornithosis-psittacosis (Chlamydophila psittaci)
Ornithose-psittacose (Chlamydophila psittaci) [in French]
Ornithosis or psittacosis is an infection caused by a bacterium transmitted by infected birds or their contaminated environment. The disease often remains unnoticed but its effect on humans can be serious. Contents of this leaflet: information on the bacterium (Chlamydophila psittaci); description of the disease; occupations and populations at risk; safety, health and protective measures to be implemented.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2007. 6p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$file/ed6010.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-469 Guidance on preparing workplaces for an influenza pandemic
A worldwide influenza pandemic could have a major effect on the global economy, including travel, trade, tourism, food, consumption, investment and financial markets. Planning for pandemic influenza by business and industry is essential to minimize a pandemic's impact. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) therefore developed this pandemic influenza planning guidance based upon traditional infection control and industrial hygiene practices. Topics addressed: how a severe pandemic influenza could affect workplaces; how influenza can spread between people, classifying employee exposure to pandemic influenza at work, how to maintain operations during a pandemic, how organizations can protect their employees; steps every employer can take to reduce the risk of exposure to pandemic influenza in their workplace; what employees living abroad or who travel internationally for work should know.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2007. 43p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-218 Vaccination in occupational settings
Vacunación en el ámbito laboral [in Spanish]
Vaccination is the most effective means of primary prevention for persons exposed to the risk of certain infectious diseases related to their work. The work environment also presents suitable settings for detecting diseases, even when they are not directly related to occupational activities. This article discusses general considerations concerning vaccination at the place of work, the groups of workers that are exposed and that should be subject to preventive vaccination, the steps involved in immunization plans, the diseases for which vaccination at the place of work is recommended, contraindications to vaccination and Spanish legislation on the subject.
ERGA Noticias, 2007, No.98, p.4. Illus. 3 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 08-209 Vaxelaire S., Houssin D., Le Bâcle C., Abadia G., Bacarisse J.P., Kiniger-Passigli D.
Influenza pandemic and the activities of enterprises
Pandémie grippale et vie des entreprises [in French]
This full issue is devoted to the potential impact of an influenza pandemic on enterprises in France and the means for preparing to respond. It includes interviews, opinions and advice of various specialists and responsible persons including a senior public health official, an expert on biological hazards at the INRS, an occupational health physician, the safety and health officer of a multinational enterprise and the head of the ILO task force, who explains the role of the organization with respect to the risk of a bird pandemic (protecting the means of subsistence, ensure the compliance with international health agreements, reinforce synergies between national and international bodies, supply relevant information).
Réalité Prévention, Mar. 2007, No.14, p.1-12 (whole issue). Illus.

CIS 08-210 Price L.B., Roess A., Graham J.P., Baqar S., Vailes R., Sheikh K.A., Silbergeld E.
Neurologic symptoms and neuropathologic antibodies in poultry workers exposed to Campylobacter jejuni
The objective of this case-control study was to examine associations between occupational exposure to live poultry with exposure to Campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter-associated neurological symptoms and neuropathological antibodies. Subjects included 20 poultry workers and 40 community referents. Campylobacter exposure was evaluated by stool culture and serum antibodies, neurological symptoms were assessed by questionnaire and neuropathological antibodies were measured by serum anti-glycolipid antibody concentrations. It was found that poultry workers had significantly higher anti-campylobacter compared with that of referents, and they were significantly more likely to report multiple campylobacter-associated neurological symptoms.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2007, Vol.49, No.7, p.748-755. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 07-1482
Health and Safety Executive
BSE - Occupational guidance
The first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was diagnosed in the United Kingdom in 1986. In the years following this first case the application of a number of control measures led to a sustained decline in cases of this disease in cattle. While the rates have fallen significantly, a small number of positive animals are still detected. Aimed at persons responsible for occupational safety and health, this guidance provides information about BSE and persons whose job could expose to potentially BSE-infected material. It emphasizes the importance of using precautionary protective measures to control the risk from BSE infection. Contents: introduction (description of BSE, its causes, controls in the United Kingdom); occupational risk (routes of transmission, occupations at risk); risk assessment; precautions at work. Appendices include additional guidance for specific occupations and an example of a risk assessment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. 31p. Illus. 9 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1212 Durcy M.
Ornithosis-psittacosis: Beware of infections caused by birds
Ornithose-psittacose: gare aux infections dues aux oiseaux [in French]
Construction industry workers are at risk of exposure to ornithosis-psittacosis, an infectious disease transmitted by bird droppings. The bacterium which causes the infection is very stable and can survive several months in dried droppings without losing its potency. The most frequent signs are fever, shivering, headache, cough and flu-like symptoms. It can also cause moderate or severe bronchopneumonia. It is recognized as an occupational disease in France. Preventive measures include the usual hygiene precautions, working in a manner to avoid the formation of aerosols and use of personal protective equipment.
Prévention BTP, Jan. 2007, No.92, p.58-59. Illus.


CIS 08-1058 Driscoll T.
Work-related infectious disease in Australia: Causes and affected workers
This article consists of a literature-based review of epidemiological studies on work-related infectious disease in Australia. It reviews the magnitude, severity, causes and affected occupational groups. A wide range of Australian workers are at considerable risk of developing some kind of work-related infection. Most of these cases are relatively minor, but some result in significant morbidity. The main infections include both zoonotic and non-zoonotic organisms. The main occupational groups at risk include healthcare workers, childcare workers, agricultural workers, and meat and livestock workers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2006, Vol.22, No.4, p.303-314. 104 ref.

CIS 08-467 OSHA Fact Sheet - Avian flu
Fact sheet on avian flu, covering: symptoms in humans; ways of infection; employees at potential risk of exposure; treatment; general precautions and specific control measures; training.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2006. 2p. [in English] [in Spanish]

CIS 07-1480 OSHA guidance update on protecting employees from avian flu (avian influenza) viruses
Orientación actualizada de OSHA acerca de cómo proteger a los empleados contra los virus de la gripe aviar (influenza aviar) [in Spanish]
This health protection guide is aimed at employers whose employees may be exposed to avian influenza (AI) viruses. It contains guidance for poultry employees, animal handlers other than poultry employees, laboratory employees, healthcare workers who treat patients with known or suspected AI, food handlers, airport personnel exposed to passengers suspected of being AI-infected, travelers on temporary work assignment abroad, United States employees stationed abroad and other employee groups that may be at risk. It discusses modes of infection, infection control measures, use of personal protective equipment, vaccination, antiviral drugs and medical supervision of exposed personnel. Appendices provide technical information about AI viruses and, in particular, about H5N1, an AI virus currently circulating in Asia, Europe and Africa that rarely causes disease in humans but when it does, the case fatality rate is high.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2006. 71p. 55 ref. [in Spanish] [in English]

CIS 07-957 Ferreira M.
Vaccination in the workplace
Les vaccinations en milieu de travail [in French]
The prevention of biological hazards in the workplace is required by French labour laws. Depending on the hazards identified, preventive measures may include personal and collective protection (hygiene measures, technical measures, personal protective equipment), as well as vaccination. This article summarizes French regulations concerning vaccination in the workplace. Vaccination against hepatitis B, tetanus, influenza and polio are mandatory for persons working in health care, while immunization against typhoid is required for persons working in medical laboratories.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 2006, No.668, p.47-49. Illus. 2 ref.$file/TS668page47.pdf?openelement [in French]

CIS 07-960 A hantavirus exposure control program for employers and workers
Hantavirus infection is caused by a virus found in some field rodents in Canada and the United States. It is rarely transmitted to humans, but when it is, it can cause severe illness, even death. This booklet is intended for employers and workers who may come into contact with rodents or rodent droppings while at work, primarily in rural areas. Contents: definition of hantavirus, the diseases it causes, how it is transmitted and where it is most likely to be encountered; responsibilities of employers; exposure control plan; respiratory protection; good work practices.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2nd ed., 2006. iii, 17p. [in English]

CIS 07-315 Le Bâcle C., Ducovel-Pame N., Durand E.
Avian influenza, avian flu and threat of pandemic: A new occupational health challenge
Influenza aviaire, grippe aviaire et menace de pandémie: un nouvel enjeu en santé du travail [in French]
This medical and technical review article presents the current situation with respect to influenza viruses, avian influenza, seasonal influenza, avian flu in humans and the risk of a flu pandemic. It also discusses the issue of the risk of avian flu among exposed health care professionals. Preventive measures to be implemented in specific situations are presented. An appendix summarizes the main recommendations for hospitals issued by the French ministry of health.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.106, p.139-168. Illus. 56 ref.$File/TC107.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-1472 Brasseur G.
Flu - Preparing for a pandemic
Grippe - Préparer l'épreuve d'une pandémie [in French]
Since the emergence of the highly-infectious H5N1 bird flu virus at the end of 2003, 150 million poultry and other birds died or were intentionally eliminated in Asia. Hundreds of thousands or possibly millions of humans were infected, among whom approximately a hundred died. Fortunately, the transmission to humans is rare, but a pandemic remains possible. Contents of this special feature on the precautions to be taken against a possible pandemic: description of the bird flu pandemic threat; types of flu viruses; collective and personal protective measures following suspected contamination on a farm; medical prevention; setting-up an emergency plan; precautions to be taken when handling dead birds.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2006, No.661, p.23-32. Illus. 4 ref.$file/ts661page23.pdf?openelement [in French]


CIS 06-320 Abadia G., Picu C.
Work-related zoonoses
Zoonoses d'origine professionnelle [in French]
Zoonoses are diseases transmitted to man by animals. Common ways of becoming infected include working in occupations involving contact with animals. An understanding of the means of transmission of these diseases enables the selection of appropriate protective measures. These should be based on limiting risks at the source by adopting strict hygiene measures within the premises and at the individual level and by wearing personal protective equipment suited to the mode of entry of the responsible microorganism. Workers should also be informed of the potential hazards. This article describes the main zoonoses encountered in occupational settings and the corresponding means of prevention.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2005, No.149, 10p. 56 ref.

CIS 05-728 Advice on working with influenza viruses
Information sheet on safe working practices in laboratories where exposure to influenza viruses is a realistic possibility. Contents: current classification; recommendations for laboratories knowingly handling influenza viruses; diagnostic work; use of microbiological safety cabinets; planning for pandemics. In annex: guidance on the application of the Specified Animal Pathogens Order 1998.
Health and Safety Executive (, United Kingdom, 2005. Internet document (6p.) [in English]

CIS 05-727 Working with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
Information sheet on avian influenza (also known as bird flu), aimed at people who may be exposed to infected animals. There are two associated data sheets with more specific information: Avoiding The Risk Of Infection When Working With Poultry That Is Suspected Of Having Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) and Avoiding The Risk Of Zoonotic Infections When Working With Poultry That Is Not Suspected Of Having Avian Influenza.
Health and Safety Executive (, United Kingdom, 2005. Internet document (2+2+1p.) [in English]

CIS 05-726 Avian influenza: Frequently asked questions
Grippe aviaire: questions fréquemment posées [in French]
Data sheet on the dangers of this new infectious disease, also known as bird flu. Implications for human health, including the possibilities of infection in an occupational setting (by workers in contact with infected birds), are discussed.
World Health Organization (WHO), ave. Appia 20, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 2005. Internet publication (6 pages) [in English] [in French]

CIS 05-725 Avian influenza: Hazards in the workplace and preparations for a possible pandemic
Grippe aviaire: risques en milieu professsionnel et perspectives en cas de pandémie [in French]
Information sheet on avian influenza. Contents: overview (viral disease, modification of type-A influenza, spread by birds, origin in the Far East); potential of very high mortality; incubation period (1-2 days in birds, a bit longer in humans); transmission; means of protection; groups at particular risk of being infected; recommendations to people who may have to visit infected areas for professional reasons; advice to people returning from infected areas (if they develop suspicious symptoms); relationship between avian and human influenza; preparations for a possible pandemic.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier Noyer, 75680 Paris, Cedex 14, France, updated edition, 2005. Internet document (7p.) Illus. 10 ref.$FILE/visu.html?OpenElement [in French]


CIS 06-716 Mirón Hernández M.A.
Diseases caused by biological agents in the fishing sector
Enfermedades por agentes biológicos en el sector de la pesca [in Spanish]
Presented in the form of a table, this article summarizes the main infectious diseases that can affect fishermen, namely yellow fever, plague, tetanus, leptospirosis, skin infections, schistomiasis, amoebiasis, dermatomycosis, dermatitis and asthma. For each infectious agent, the table also mentions the mode of entry, characteristic symptoms, preventive measures and medical treatment.
Medicina Marítima, Dec. 2004, Vol.4, No.2, p.147-150. 8 ref.

CIS 05-729 Avian influenza - Protecting poultry workers at risk
Contents of this information sheet: general information on avian influenza; measures for protecting poultry workers (follow biosecurity practices, recognize infection in poultry, take antiviral medication and get vaccination, know the signs and symptoms of human infection, wear personal protective equipment); respiratory protection; eye protection; protective clothing and hand-hygiene practices. In annex: table showing the advantages, disadvantages and price of different kinds of air-purifying respirators for protecting poultry workers.
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA), 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2004. 8p. [in English]

CIS 04-226 Shvartsblat S., Kochie M., Harber P., Howard J.
Fatal rat bite fever in a pet shop employee
Rat bite fever is a zoonotic disease that has been described in laboratory personnel as well as the general population. A 24-year-old male pet shop employee contracted the disease through a minor superficial finger wound during a contact with a contaminated rat cage. The disease progressed from a flu-like illness to endocarditis involving first the aortic valve and then the mitral valve and septum. Despite aggressive therapy including two surgical procedures, the patient died from sepsis and multi-organ system failure 59 days after initial injury. This is the first reported case of rat-bite fever in a pet shop work setting. Zoonotic infections may present a significant hazard to workers handling animals. Education on hazards of animal contact and other preventive measures are needed in small business such as pet shops.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.45, No.4, p.357-360. 5 ref.

CIS 03-1709 Beaucousin M., Borel P., Goudifa P., Goujon E., Hubert O., Klarsy D., Mageau E., Mignot G., Redor F.
Mobile phone antennae maintenance and repair technicians
Le technicien d'exploitation d'antenne de radiotéléphonie mobile [in French]
Contents of this occupational medicine data sheet on the job of mobile phone antenna maintenance and repair technicians: general characteristics of the job; technical and organizational characteristics; constraints and working conditions (related to the working environment, climatic and geographic conditions, work organization, tasks and equipment); hazard evaluation methods (metrology); health hazards and occupational diseases; prevention; medical supervision; regulations; work aptitude.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.1, 2p. Insert. 4 ref.

CIS 03-1918 Biardeau B.
Advice to expatriates - Sub-Saharan Africa
Conseils aux expatriés - Afrique subsaharienne [in French]
A growing number of enterprises assign their personnel to postings abroad for varying durations. Occupational physicians need to ensure the safety and health of staff against the hazards related to these foreign postings. This article describes the protective measures that apply to Sub-Saharan African locations, and addresses the following topics: measures to be taken before travelling (vaccinations, prevention of sinusitis, first aid kits, traveller's medical kit); disorders that may arise during the trip (disorders related to air travel, in particular the "economy class syndrome"); precautions to be taken on arrival (measures against heat and sunlight); possible risks during the stay (road accidents, diarrhoea, malaria, dengue, sexually-transmitted diseases, rabies); what to do on return in the event of disorders; advice for pregnant women.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.1, p.17-25. 7 ref.

CIS 03-1927 Constans Aubert A., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Solans Lampurlanés X.
Safety data sheet for biological agents
Ficha de datos de seguridad para agentes biológicos [in Spanish]
This information note proposes a model of safety data sheet for biological agents based on the model of safety data sheet for chemical substances. Contents: applicable legislation; characteristics of the biological agent; effects on heath (pathogenicity, epidemiology, type of host, toxin production, allergic effects, routes of exposure, incubation period); propagation (reservoirs, zoonoses, vectors); viability (sensitivity to antibiotics and to disinfectants, inactivation by physical means, viability independently of host); first aid and prophylaxis measures (first aid in cases of accidental exposure, immunisation or vaccination, prophylaxis); hazards to which the persons handling biological agents are exposed; limitation of exposure (confinement level, PPEs); spills; waste disposal; storage; transport; other important information.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 5p. 9 ref. [in Spanish]


CIS 04-231 Guide on systems to facilitate contact tracing and prevention of SARS in the workplace
This information sheet summarizes the preventive measures that need to be taken by employers to limit the risks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) at the place of work, and to facilitate the tracing persons having been in contact with workers diagnosed with SARS. These include daily temperature recording of employees, keeping records of absentees and of visitors who enter the workplace, handling of suspected workers (establishing an isolation room or area, supplying surgical masks, calling the ambulance) and contact tracing. A contact tracing form is included. See also CIS 04-230.
Occupational Health Department, Ministry of Manpower, 18 Havelock Road, #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 4p. Illus.

CIS 04-230 Guide on systems to facilitate contact tracing and the prevention of SARS in the workplace
The Singapore Ministry of Manpower (MOM) has introduced a series of precautionary measures aimed at protecting workplaces from the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). With effect from 15 June 2003, daily temperature-taking will be required for all construction worksites, shipyards, factories employing more than 25 workers and for foreign worker dormitories. Furthermore, it is essential that workplaces implement systems to facilitate contact tracing when any employee or visitors is suspected of being infected with SARS. This guide aims to help employers establish pro-active measures to facilitate contact tracing in the workplace. It consists of a series of recommendations together with forms for logging workers' temperature, reporting suspected SARS cases and recording their contacts. See also CIS 04-231.
Occupational Health Department, Ministry of Manpower, 18 Havelock Road, #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 27p. [in English]

CIS 03-1911 Le Bâcle C.
Current situation with respect to zoonoses: 30th National Symposium of Agricultural Medicine
L'actualité des zoonoses - XXXe symposium national de médecine agricole [in French]
The objective of this symposium on zoonoses held on 25 April 2003 in Tours, France, was to discuss the current situation of known zoonoses and to shed light on emerging pathologies. The wide range of participants included medical practitioners from the farmers' cooperative insurance company, occupational physicians, infectologists, veterinarians and biologists. Topics presented and reviewed in this article include: main zoonoses transmitted by farm animals; main zoonoses transmitted by domestic animals; zoonoses from wild animals; current advances in human medicine; Q fever in France and recent epidemics; psittacosis and poultry farming; toxocariasis among humans.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2003, No.96, p.459-473.

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