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Diseases of the eye and vision damage - 225 entries found

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  • Diseases of the eye and vision damage


CIS 12-0177 Guest M., D'Este C., Attia J., Boggess M., Brown A., Tavener M., Gibson R., Gardner I., Harrex W., Ross J.
Impairment of color vision in aircraft maintenance workers
The purpose of this study was to examine possible persisting effects to colour vision in a group from the Royal Australian Air Force who had exposure to formulations containing neurotoxins during fighter aircraft fuel tank maintenance, relative to two contemporaneous comparison groups. Colour vision was tested in 512 exposed personnel, 458 technical-trade comparisons, and 330 non-technical comparisons. Regression models were used to examine whether there was an association between colour vision deficiencies and fuel tank maintenance, adjusting for possible confounders. Logistic regression demonstrated statistically significant differences in the colour confusion index in the exposed group versus the technical group (odds ratio 1.7) and a blue-yellow confusion in the exposed group versus the technical group (odds ratio 1.4). No differences were observed between the exposed group and the non-technical group. Possible implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2011, Vol.84, No.7, p.723-733. Illus. 50 ref.
Impairment_of_color_vision_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0273 Richez J.P., Lemarié J.
Artificial optical radiation - First advances in uncharted territory
Rayonnements optiques artificiels - Premiers pas en terre méconnue [in French]
In France, more than 210,000 workers are exposed to artificial optical radiation, among whom 25% for more than 20h per week, despite the fact that its health effects remain largely unknown. This collection of articles on artificial optical radiation addresses the issues of exposure evaluation, health hazards, preventive measures, and French and European regulations.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2011, No.722, p18-35. Illus.
Rayonnements_optiques_artificiels_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]


CIS 10-0360 Dang B., Chen L., Mueller C., Dunn K.H., Almaguer D., Roberts J.L., Otto C.S.
Ocular and respiratory symptoms among lifeguards at a hotel indoor waterpark resort
The objective of this study was to determine the cause of eye and respiratory irritation symptoms among lifeguards at an indoor waterpark. The investigation involved environmental sampling for chloramine, endotoxin and microorganisms, administering symptom questionnaires, reviewing ventilation system designs and reviewing water chemistry. Airborne trichloramine concentrations were found at levels reported to cause irritation symptoms in other studies. Some endotoxin concentrations were found at levels associated with cough and fever in previous studies. Exposed lifeguards were significantly more likely to report work-related irritation symptoms than unexposed individuals. The ventilation system may not have provided sufficient air movement and distribution to adequately capture and remove air contaminants. No water microbes were detected and water chemistry met state standards.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.52, No.2, p.207-213. 26 ref.

CIS 10-0426 Niskanen T., Lehtelä J., Ketola R., Nykyri E.
Results of Finnish national survey on EU legislation concerning computer work
The European Directive on computer work (VDU 90/270/EEC, see CIS 90-1069) is implemented in the Finnish Government Decree. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the legislation and its applications in practice. Data were collected by means of online questionnaires from 934 employers, 1872 employees and 289 occupational health care (OHC) units. Findings are discussed. The practical conclusion is that employees' visual acuity examinations and compensation for eyeglasses should be better promoted and adopted for employees engaged in computer work. Moreover, ergonomic improvements are best carried out in co-operation with OHC personnel.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.542-548. 29 ref.


CIS 11-0484 Salgueiro Barboni M.T., Feitosa-Santana C., Zachi E.C., Lago M., Antunes Teixeira R.A., Taub A., da Costa M.F., de Lima Silveira L.C., Fix Ventura D.
Preliminary findings on the effects of occupational exposure to mercury vapor below safety levels on visual and neuropsychological functions
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether there are visual and neuropsychological decrements in workers with low exposure to mercury (Hg) vapour. Visual fields, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and neuropsychological functions were measured in 10 workers chronically-exposed to Hg vapour (duration 4.3±2.8y; urinary Hg concentration 22.3±9.3μg/g creatinine). For the worst eyes, altered visual field thresholds, lower contrast sensitivity and color discrimination were found compared with controls. There were no significant differences between Hg-exposed subjects and controls on neuropsychological tests. Nevertheless, duration of exposure was statistically correlated to verbal memory and depression scores. Chronic exposure to Hg vapour at currently-accepted safety levels was found to be associated with visual losses but not with neuropsychological dysfunctions in the sample of workers studied.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2009, Vol.51, No.12, p.1403-1412. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 09-1296 Seeber A., Bruckner T., Triebig G.
Occupational styrene exposure, colour vision and contrast sensitivity: A cohort study with repeated measurements
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between occupational styrene exposures and colour vision deficiency and contrast sensitivity. Workers from a German boat building plant were classified in groups of low, medium and high levels exposure to styrene, and subjected to visual function tests. There was no evidence of significant associations between exposure parameters and colour confusion or contrast sensitivity. The largest portions of the variances in both tests were explained by age.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2009, Vol.82, No.6, p.757-770. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 09-46 Kagami S., Bradshaw S.E., Fukumoto M., Tsukui I.
Cataracts in airline pilots: Prevalence and aeromedical considerations in Japan
A retrospective cohort study of 3780 Japanese airline pilots revealed 105 (2.8%) cases of actual or past cataracts. In no case was visual acuity sufficiently impaired for the pilot's licence to be suspended. It is recommended that more attention be paid to potential cataracts in pilots in the future.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.80, No.9, p.811-814. Illus. 23 ref.


CIS 08-572 Michiels F.
Occupational diseases of the sensory organs
Affections d'origine professionnelles des organes des sens [in French]
Review of a conference on occupational diseases in the armed forces and in the ordinance industries held in Marseille, France, on 31 May and 1 June 2007. The conference included three sessions on occupational diseases of the sensory organs: hearing disorders; vision disorders; olfactory disorders. Each session included the findings of both research and field studies.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.112, p.543-552. Illus.$File/TD159.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-164 Laukkanen A., Ruoppi P., Remes S., Koistinen T., Mäkinen-Kiljunen S.
Lactase-induced occupational protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
This article reports a case of protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis from occupational exposure to lactase in a female pharmaceutical worker in Finland. The patient exhibited strong positive responses to lactase in prick tests. In an open application test, lactase elicited whealing, and in patch testing, lactase elicited an eczematous reaction. Serum lactase-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies were demonstrated in immunospot and radioallergosorbent test assays, and lactase-IgE-binding fractions were examined in immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition assays. The chamber challenge test was performed to detect the association between lactase sensitization and rhinoconjunctival symptoms. The results confirm previous observations that lactase can induce occupational IgE- mediated respiratory and conjunctival sensitizations, but in addition show that contact skin reactions caused by lactase may also occur.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2007, Vol.57, No.2, p.89-93. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 08-165 Lensen G., Jungbauer F., Gonçalo M., Coenraads P.J.
Airborne irritant contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis after occupational exposure to chlorothalonil in textiles
Chlorothalonil (= 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture and floriculture, as a wood preservative, as well as in paint. This article describes an epidemic of airborne irritant contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis and upper airway complaints among seamstresses in a Portuguese trailer tent factory, which was attributed to chlorothalonil. All exposed workers had work-related skin symptoms. After patch testing, it was shown that none of these were of allergic origin. Instead of allergic reactions, a delayed type of irritation was noticed after 72hr to chlorothalonil and to the textile extracts containing high concentrations of chlorothalonil. Although allergic and irritant contact dermatitis from chlorothalonil has been described before, this is the first report of a delayed type of dermatitis, conjunctivitis and upper airway irritation after exposure to chlorothalonil.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2007, Vol.57, No.3, p.181-186. 24 ref.

CIS 07-1063 Korporowicz D.
Occupational diseases of the visual organs
Choroby zawodowe narządu wzroku [in Polish]
This article lists disorders of the visual organs classed as occupational diseases according to Polish legislation. The causes of these diseases (physical, chemical and biological factors) and their characteristic symptoms are described along with methods of prevention and treatment.
Lekarz Medycyny Pracy , 2007, No.1, p.8-10.


CIS 07-388 Jaga K., Dharmani C.
Ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure: A recent review
This literature survey reviews studies of ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure. Cholinesterase enzymes have been detected in animal ocular tissue, with evidence of organophosphate-induced inhibition. Pathological effects of pesticides have been observed in conjunctiva, cornea, lens, retina and the optic nerve. Pesticide exposure has been associated with retinopathy in agricultural workers and wives of farmers who used pesticides. Saku disease has been described in Japan among persons living in an area where organophosphates were used. Pesticide exposure is also associated with abnormal ocular movements. Progressive toxic ocular effects leading to defective vision are a serious health concern. Agricultural workers are at high risk of exposure to pesticides and associated ocular toxicity. Primary prevention should include improved eye safety and care in the workplace and effective pesticide regulation.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, May 2006, Vol.11, No.3, p.102-107. Illus. 33 ref.


CIS 06-818 Marini F., Boissin J.P., Peyresblanques J., Rollin J.P., Beaufils D.
Vision of welders in France
La vision des soudeurs en France [in French]
This case-control study on the vision of welders involved the pooling of data gathered by the medical services of 12 enterprises employing welders. The medical services also supplied data for controls other than welders, matched by age group. Altogether, the study population comprised 850 welders and 281 controls. There were no indications of more frequent visual function impairment among welders than among controls, nor any grounds to suspect any differences, despite more frequent eye injuries among welders than among controls.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2005, Vol.45, No.4, p.485-488. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 06-576 Maier R., Heilig P., Winker R., Neudorfer B., Hoeranter R., Ruediger H.
Welder's maculopathy?
This study investigated whether welders' maculopathy is due to occupational exposures and can be justifiably annexed to the list of occupational diseases. Multifocal electroretinography (MERG) and ophthalmologic examinations were performed in 89 welders and 81 controls that had never been exposed to welding. Results of the tests did not reveal any significant morphological or functional differences between the welders and the control group. On average, the welders' visual acuity appeared to be better than that of the control group. This phenomenon could be attributed to the healthy worker effect. Welders' maculopathy seems to be rather a sequel of occupational accidents and negligence of safety regulations. The results of this study indicate that the usual protective measures in professional welding appear to be sufficient in order to prevent an occupational risk of welders' maculopathy.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2005, Vol.78, No.8, p.681-685. Illus. 15 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-312 Wolkoff P., Nøjgaard J.K., Troiano P., Piccoli B.
Eye complaints in the office environment: Precorneal tear film integrity influenced by eye blinking efficiency
Based on a literature review, it is concluded that eye complaints due to precorneal tear film (PTF) alteration may be caused by thermal factors (low relative humidity, high room temperature), demanding task content (attention decreases blinking and widens the exposed ocular surface area) and individual characteristics (blinking anomalies, gland dysfunctions, use of contact lenses). These factors and conditions are able to progressively increase water evaporation and faster thinning of the PTF, which causes dryness and dry spot formation on the cornea, possibly followed by corneal and conjunctiva epithelial alterations and eye complaints. Another possible cause of eye complaints is the presence of certain irritating chemical compounds.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.62, No.1, p.4-12. Illus. 152 ref.


CIS 05-66 Verberk M.M., Brons J.T., Sallé H.J.A.
Visual evoked potentials in workers with chronic solvent encephalopathy
The effectiveness of contrast stimulus to reveal damage to specific visual cortical areas was studied among solvent-exposed workers. 30 male patients aged 48±9 years with solvent-induced chronic encephalopathy participated in the study, together with 41 controls aged 46±8 years without solvent exposure. Pattern-reversal checkerboards with low and high contrast were used. At low contrast, the peak-to-peak amplitude in the controls was 57% of the amplitude at high contrast, while among patients, the response at low contrast was only 48% of that at high contrast. Results confirm earlier findings of a physiological basis for the solvent-induced decrease of visual contrast sensitivity. The results also suggest that the neurophysiological examination of the visual system in persons who have undergone exposure to toxic substances might be benefited by the addition of low-contrast stimuli.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2004, Vol.77, No.5, p.328-334. Illus. 26 ref.


CIS 06-111 Boeckelmann I., Pfister E.A.
Influence of occupational exposure to organic solvent mixtures on contrast sensitivity in printers
This study of visual contrast sensitivity using the Vistech VCTS 6500 chart was carried out among 42 printers with low, medium or high exposure to organic solvents and among 28 control subjects. Abnormal contrast sensitivity results were recorded for the right eye in 38% of the printers and 11% of the controls and for the left eye in 38% of the printers and 7% of the controls. Reduced contrast sensitivity was observed for both eyes in all three groups exposed to solvents. It is concluded that contrast sensitivity is abnormal in workers exposed to organic solvents. The reduced contrast sensitivity in printers seems to be an indicator of visual defects induced in response to exposures to organic solvents.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.25-33. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 03-1181 Milea D., Vignal-Clermont C.
Optical neuropathies caused by nutritional deficiencies or by toxic or medicinal agents
Neuropathies optiques carentielles, toxiques et médicamenteuses [in French]
Early diagnoses of nutritional or toxic optical neuropathies are of utmost importance, because visual impairment is still reversible at the early stages once the causal agent is identified. This diagnosis needs to be made with care, after other possible causes of progressive bilateral optical neuropathies have been eliminated, in particular those due to compressive mechanisms. The current proliferation of available drugs for use in general medical treatment increases the number described as being toxic to the optic nerve. Contents: clinical symptoms; positive diagnosis; medical examinations; causes of nutritional or toxic optical neuropathies.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2003, No.140, 7p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 03-754 Page E.H., Cook C.K., Hater M.A., Mueller C.A., Grote A.A., Mortimer V.D.
Visual and ocular changes associated with exposure to two tertiary amines
To determine if exposure to dimethylisopropanolamine (DMIPA) and dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) in a label-printing plant was associated with visual disturbances or ocular changes, questionnaire surveys, eye examinations (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, slit lamp biomicroscopy and pachymetry) and measurements of workplace airborne concentrations of DMIPA and DMAE were performed over a two-week period. 89% of line (high-speed printing) workers reported having experienced blurry vision while at work in the past 12 months, compared to 12.5% of prime (lower-speed printing) workers. The mean time weighted average concentrations of DMIPA, DMAE and total amines were significantly higher in the line division than in the prime division. Higher levels of total amines were associated with increased risk of reporting blurry vision, halo vision, and blue-gray vision. The prevalence of corneal opacity increased with increasing duration of exposure to total amines and with increasing concentration of total amines. There was a statistically significant relation between total amine concentration and increased risk of reduced bilateral visual acuity and 2.5% contrast sensitivity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.60, No.1, p.69-75. Illus. 11 ref.


CIS 02-1971 Pagnoux J.M., Abdelmoumene R., Fremont C., Arif J.
Integrating vision-impaired workers in normal working environments
Intégration des déficients visuels en milieu ordinaire de travail [in French]
This article was written by vision-impaired employees who are integrated in normal working environments. They give their personal accounts of their experiences and hopes, as well as their expectations from occupational physicians. Contents: medical definition of impaired vision; vision impairment at birth and later in life; other persons' opinions of visually-impaired workers; visually-impaired workers within the enterprise; interactions of multiple factors caused by experiencing the impairment within the enterprise; what the impaired workers expect from occupational physicians.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.513-516.


CIS 02-1344 Castillo L., Baldwin M., Sassine M.P., Mergler D.
Cumulative exposure to styrene and visual functions
A 1990-1992 longitudinal study of several reinforced plastics plants had showed that for those workers whose styrene exposure had decreased, colour vision (CV) improved while near-visual contrast sensitivity (CS) was poorer. In 1999, these visual functions were re-tested in 18 workers with good visual acuity. A cumulative exposure index (CEI), corrected for respirator use, was calculated for each worker. For CV, no significant difference was observed between 1992 and 1999. The CS profile decreased over time, with significant differences at frequencies of 3 cycles per degree. CS did not vary with urinary mandelic acid levels, but was significantly depressed at the intermediate frequencies among those in the upper CEI category. These findings suggest that CS loss increases with long-term cumulative exposure, reflecting chronic damage to the neuro-optic pathways.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.351-360. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1279 Fenga C., Aragona P., Cacciola A., Ferreri F., Spatari G., Stilo A., Spinella R., Germanò D.
Ocular discomfort and conjunctival alterations in operating room workers: A single-institution pilot study
A questionnaire study was carried in an Italian hospital among 213 subjects working in operating theatres and 40 other hospital workers, aimed at investigating the prevalence of ocular discomfort symptoms. A randomized comparative study of the ocular surface and conjunctival cytology was also carried out, comparing two groups of age- and sex-matched subjects among operating-theatre workers reporting ocular discomfort symptoms and randomly-enrolled subjects among other hospital staff. Ophthalmological examination of the ocular surface was performed on each subject. A high prevalence (72.3%) of ocular discomfort symptoms was reported by operating- theatre workers, while in other personnel the prevalence was 55%. The ocular tests showed that the conjunctival features and break-up time were statistically significantly altered in operating-theatre workers reporting ocular discomfort symptoms. Also, the conjunctival impression cytology study showed statistically significant alterations of all the investigated parameters. This seems to indicate that the operating-theatre environment could play a role in the onset of eye disturbances.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2001, Vol.74, No.2, p.123-128. Illus. 24 ref.


CIS 02-1323 Semple S., Dick F., Osborne A., Cherrie J.W., Soutar A., Seaton A., Haites N.
Impairment of colour vision in workers exposed to organic solvents
Since exposure to mixed solvents is associated with impairment of colour vision, a study was conducted on 68 male dockyard workers and 42 controls. Indices of exposure to solvents were calculated for all subjects. Colour vision was tested and, in order to assess the possibility of genetic effects, genotypes of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 and N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms were determined. Increasing annual exposure to solvents was associated with reduced colour vision, but no significant association was found between such acquired impairment and genetic polymorphisms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.582-587. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 01-503 Kamel F., Boyes W.K., Gladen B.C., Rowland A.S., Alavanja M.C.R., Blair A., Sandler D.P.
Retinal degeneration in licensed pesticide applicators
Retinal degeneration is the leading cause of visual impairment in older adults. In a cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in the US, cross-sectional data from self administered questionnaires given at enrollment in 1994-1996 were used to compare pesticide use in 154 applicators who reported retinal degeneration and 17,804 controls. Retinal degeneration was associated with fungicide use (odds ratio = 1.8). This relationship was seen in subgroups defined by state of residence, demographic characteristics and medical history, as well as in the entire group. Risk increased with cumulative days of fungicide use and was greater when application methods involving greater personal exposure were used. Less significant retinal degeneration was also related to use of organochlorine or carbamate insecticides. These results suggest that exposure to some fungicides and insecticides may increase the risk of retinal degeneration.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2000, Vol.37, No.6, p.618-628. 20 ref.


CIS 02-178 Saw S.M., Chia S.E., Chew S.J
Relation between work and myopia in Singapore women
The relationship between occupational activities and the onset as well as worsening of myopia among women was investigated. Information on working status, the number of hours of close-up work activity and the existence and degree of myopia was obtained by face-to-face interviews with 374 women. In addition, a sub-sample of 84 women was interviewed over the telephone. The adjusted odds ratio for myopia in working women was 1.9 and the adjusted odds ratio for high myopia (> -6.0 D) was 1.6. Women who were working also had higher rates of adult-onset myopia, odds ratio 4.4, and a later age of cessation of myopia than nonworking women. The study shows that work was related to myopia in Singapore women. However, work may be a surrogate for other risk factors, close-up work activities such as reading, writing, and computer use.
Optometry and Vision Science, 1999, Vol.76, No.6, p.393-396. 17 ref.

CIS 01-263 Birch J.
Performance of red-green color deficient subjects on the Holmes-Wright lantern (type A) in photopic viewing
The Holmes-Wright lantern is an approved occupational colour vision test for airline pilots within the European Union and for specific occupations in the British Armed Forces. The colours shown are red, green and white signal lights. The Holmes-Wright lantern is a sensitive screening test for red-green colour deficiency in photopic viewing and the pass/fail level is similar to that of the Farnsworth Lantern (Falant) if the same scoring method is applied. 138 colour deficient subjects identified with the lshihara plates and diagnosed with the Nagel anomaloscope completed a colour vision test battery which included three runs of the nine colour pairs of the Holmes-Wright lantern at high brightness in normal room illumination. The Holmes-Wright lantern was found to be a sensitive screening test for red-green colour deficiency. Although a similar percentage of anomalous trichromats fail the Holmes-Wright lantern as fail the Falant, the superior correlation between the Holmes-Wright result and other colour vision tests designed to grade the severity of colour deficiency suggests that the two lantern results are not equivalent.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.70, No.9, p.897-901. 17 ref.

CIS 00-1156 Lin S.H., Lin C.P., Tsai H.Z., Ho C.K.
Fungal corneal ulcers of onion harvesters in southern Taiwan
Fungal corneal ulcers related to agriculture have been reported throughout the world, especially in tropical areas. Most of them are sporadic and have histories of ocular trauma or use of topical corticosteroids and topical antibiotics. Five onion harvesters had fungal corneal ulcers during the same harvest period in Southern Taiwan. The authors think that this is the first report of a group occurrence relating to agricultural workers. Although all of the patients improved after medical and surgical management, their vision was greatly reduced. It is suggested that the tropical climate, the harvest procedure, the monsoon and the lack of eye protection all had a role. Therefore, the importance of the eye protection, hygiene education and improving medical care to reduce the occurrence of fungal corneal ulcer in agriculture workers must be emphasized.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.56, No.6, p.423-425. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 00-1125 Voke J.
Infra-red radiation and occupational cataracts
Topics: cataract; exposure evaluation; fuel burning equipment; glass industry; heat reflective glass; infrared radiation cataract; infrared radiation; iron and steel industry; limitation of exposure; retinal damage; risk factors; safety spectacles; tank furnaces.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 1999, Vol.17, No.8, p.28-32. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 99-1250 Järvinen P., Engström K., Riihimäki V., Ruusuvaara P., Setälä K.
Effects of experimental exposure to triethylamine on vision and the eye
Four people were exposed to triethylamine (TEA) for four hours at three concentration levels. After exposure to 40.6 mg/m3 TEA there was a marked oedema in the corneal epithelium and subepithelial microcysts. However, corneal thickness increased only minimally because of the epithelial oedema. The lachrymal concentrations of TEA were, on average, 41 times higher than the serum TEA concentrations. The vision was blurred in all subjects and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity had decreased in three of the four subjects. After exposure to TEA at 6.5 mg/m3 two subjects experienced symptoms, and contrast sensitivity had decreased in three of the four subjects. TEA caused a marked oedema and microcysts in corneal epithelium but only minor increases in corneal thickness. The effects may be mediated by the lachrymal fluid owing to its high TEA concentration. Four hour exposure to a TEA concentration of 3.0 mg/m3 seemed to cause no effects, whereas exposure to 6.5 mg/m3 for the same period caused blurred vision and a decrease in contrast sensitivity. Topics: amblyopia; biological threshold limits; trimethylamine; chemical industry; corneal damage; exposure evaluation; eyes; lacrimating agents; visual acuity; visual function disorders.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.56, No.1, p.1-5. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 99-882 Yokota K., Johyama Y., Yamaguchi K., Takeshita T., Morimoto K.
Exposure-response relationships in rhinitis and conjunctivitis caused by methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride
Workers from 2 condenser plants using epoxy resin with methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA) underwent a questionnaire survey and serology investigations. In all, 65% of workers studied in plant A and 66% in plant B had positive MTHPA-specific IgE. IgE-sensitized workers in each plant had significantly more eye and nasal complaints than did unsensitized workers, suggesting that there is an IgE-mediated mechanism in most of these symptoms. 15% of symptomatic workers in plant B often displayed work-related symptoms, as compared with 73% of the symptomatic workers in plant A. These results can be explained by the difference in MTHPA levels measured in the two plants. In plant B the minimum level of MTHPA that was associated with work-related symptoms was 15-22µg/m3, which was lower than the geometric mean levels detected in assembly and inspection lines in plant A. These levels suggest that MTHPA exposure at levels above 15µg/m3 should be avoided to prevent occupational allergic diseases. Topics: capacitors; methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride; conjunctivitis; dose-response relationship; immunoglobulin changes; immunoglobulins; limitation of exposure; rhinitis; threshold limit values.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 1999, Vol.72, No.1, p.14-18. 17 ref.


CIS 02-164 Khoo J., Saw S.M., Banerjee K., Chia S.E., Tan D.
Outdoor work and the risk of pterygia: A case-control study
To investigate the relationship between outdoor work and pterygium formation in Singapore, cases 61 with pterygium (49 males, mean age 54.2 years) and 125 controls (41 males, mean age 50.2 years), presenting at outpatient clinics of the Singapore National Eye Centre, underwent a face-to-face interview with a standard questionnaire. Demographic data and information on outdoor work and eye protection were collected. 38 subjects (20.4%) were outdoor workers and 148 (79.6%) were indoor workers. Outdoor workers were more likely to be smokers and alcohol drinkers with lower family income and higher sunlight and dust exposure than indoor workers. The crude odds ratio for pterygium in outdoor workers was 7.0. The adjusted odds ratio was 4.2. Efforts should be undertaken to educate outdoor workers to wear proper equipment to protect their eyes against excessive sunlight.
International Ophthalmology, 1998, No.22, p.293-298. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 99-571 Onofrj M., Thomas A., Paci C., Rotilio D.
Optic neuritis with residual tunnel vision in perchloroethylene toxicity
Case report of a dry cleaning worker with severe bilateral optic neuritis and high concentrations of perchloroethylene and metabolites in the blood and of chloroform in urine. Although environmental concentrations of perchloroethylene were within normal limits, there was a five-fold increase in vapours emitted when ironing dry-cleaned fabrics. Results suggest that inhalation of perchloroethylene vapours was the cause of this ocular nerve toxicity. Topics: blindness; tetrachloroethylene; case study; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in urine; dry cleaning; hemianopia; optic neuritis; short-term exposure; visual function disorders.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, Oct. 1998, Vol.36, No.6, p.603-607. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 99-197 Gonzalez M., Velten M., Cantineau A.
Increased acquired dyschromatopsia among solvent-exposed workers: An epidemiology study on 249 employees of an aluminum-foil printing factory
Topics: alcoholism; case-control study; colour vision deficiency; determination in air; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; food industry; job-exposure relation; length of exposure; long-term exposure; organic solvents; packaging materials; pharmaceutical industry; photogravure printing; printing industry; smoking; vision tests.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 1998, Vol.71, No.5, p.317-324. 29 ref.

CIS 99-163 Di Giacomo G.R., Boschetto P., Maestrelli P., Moro G.
Asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis from exposure to rape-seed flour: A clinical case report
Asma e rinocongiuntivite da farina di colza: descrizione di un caso clinico [in Italian]
Topics: allergic asthma; allergic rhinitis; allergy tests; case study; conjunctivitis; flour; grain and seed processing; maximal expiratory flow.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1998, Vol.89, No.3, p.226-231. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 98-1502 Voke J.
Colour vision: Dangers at work
Topics: colour vision deficiency; handicapped workers; occupational safety; vision tests.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Jan. 1998, Vol.16, No.1, p.28-30. Illus.

CIS 98-1316 Zavalic M., Mandic Z., Turk R., Bogadi-Šare A., Plavec D., Gomzi M., Skender L.J.
Assessment of colour vision impairment in male workers exposed to toluene generally above occupational exposure limits
Topics: toluene; case-control study; colour vision deficiency; colour vision; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; lighting and colour; male workers; organic solvents; smoking; vision tests.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.48, No.3, p.175-180. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 98-1440 Muzi G., Dell'Omo M., Abbritti G., Accattoli P., Fiore M.C., Gabrielli A.R.
Objective assessment of ocular and respiratory alterations in employees in a sick building
Topics: air-conditioned premises; allergens; epidemiologic study; eye irritation; inflammatory diseases of the eye; irritants; Italy; offices; respiratory function tests; respiratory impairment; sick building syndrome; skin tests.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1998, Vol.34, No.1, p.79-88. Illus. 57 ref.

CIS 98-1330 Estlander T., Kari O., Jolanki R., Kanerva L.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and blepharoconjunctivitis caused by gold
Topics: airborne dust; allergens; allergy tests; case study; change of employment; conjunctivitis; dermatitis; eczema; electroplating; Finland; gold and compounds; hypersensitivity; sensitization dermatitis; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1998, Vol.38, No.1, p.40-41. 25 ref.

CIS 98-1315 Zavalić M., Mandić Z., Turk R., Bogadi-Šare A., Plavec D.
Quantitative assessment of color vision impairment in workers exposed to toluene
Topics: toluene; case-control study; colour vision deficiency; colour vision; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; lighting and colour; neurotoxic effects; organic solvents; vision tests.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1998, Vol.33, No.3, p.297-304. Illus. 37 ref.


CIS 99-1679 Maag U., Vanasse C., Dionne G., Laberge-Nadeau C.
Taxi drivers' accidents: How binocular vision problems are related to their rate and severity in terms of the number of victims
The effect of binocular vision problems on the frequency of taxi driver crashes was investigated and the distribution of the number of victims per crash (dead or injured) estimated. Data and models allowed the simultaneous consideration of many variables: age, medical condition, exposure factors measured by distance driven and time behind the wheel, qualitative risk factors, other characteristics of the driver, and crash circumstances. Results show that taxi drivers have a large average number of crashes per year, and those with binocular vision problems have even more but not more severe in terms of the number of victims. The driver's past record (number of crashes and demerit points in the previous year) is a significant predictor of the number of crashes. Age is associated significantly with the number and the severity of crashes, with older drivers having a better record than the youngest group (30 years old or less). Topics: age-linked differences; analysis of accident causes; drivers; mathematical models; night work; occupational accidents; risk factors; road transport; severity rates; taxis; visual function disorders; work time schedules.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Mar. 1997, Vol.29, No.2, p.217-224. 19 ref.

CIS 97-1972 Nakaishi H., et al.
Pingueculae and pterygia in motorcycle policemen
A study of 783 motor cycle policemen and 207 control indoor workers in Japan involved periodic eye examinations and recording of pingueculae and pterygia, thought to be associated with corneal and conjunctival microtrauma from exposure to sunlight and/or dust. The overall prevalence of pingueculae was 37.7% among the policemen and 30.6% among the controls. The prevalence of pterygia was too small to be analyzed. It is recommended that motorcycle policemen wear eye protection (goggles, face shields) to prevent the development of these lesions.
Industrial Health, July 1997, Vol.35, No.3, p.325-329. 18 ref.

CIS 97-1724 Voke J.
The ageing eye at work
Problems associated with declining vision and visual performance in older workers are discussed. Topics covered include: the need for adequate illumination and reduction of glare in the workplace; age changes in colour vision; optimum working distance when using a visual display unit; use of eye protection; and visual side-effects of medication.
Safety and Health Practitioner, June 1997, Vol.15, No.6, p.38-39.


CIS 99-1732 Watten R.G., Batt B.
Negative affectivity influences report of work-related symptoms
A number of studies have documented that negative affectivity (NA) exerts a considerable influence upon perceptual style and reporting of symptoms. The influence of NA upon reporting of work-related symptoms was investigated in three studies (N=24, N=30, N=43). For all three studies, there was a firm association between NA and visual and musculoskeletal symptoms. Results are discussed according to pain sensitivity, general activation and symptom perception. It is concluded that NA might be a methodological nuisance factor leading to over-reporting of work-related complaints. Topics: musculoskeletal diseases; neurosis; psychosomatic disorders; questionnaire survey; subjective assessment; symptoms; visual function disorders.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 1996, Vol.25, No.2, p.131-144. 35 ref.

CIS 98-1739 Bauer D.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Development of a procedure for the quality control of computer screens in a field test
Entwicklung eines Verfahrens für eine Güteprüfung von Bildschirmen im Feld [in German]
Topics: comment on directive; contrast; CRT display terminals; description of technique; ergonomics; evaluation of equipment; Germany; lighting and colour; visual comfort; visual fatigue; visual function disorders; workplace design.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. iii, 69p. Illus. 16 ref.


CIS 98-1338 Donoghue A.M., Dryson E.W., Wynn-Williams G.
Contrast sensitivity in organic-solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy
Topics: diagnosis; encephalopathy; nervous function tests; organic solvents; toxic encephalosis; vision tests; visual function disorders.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1995, Vol.37, No.12, p.1357-1363. 40 ref.

CIS 98-769 Campagna D., Mergler D., Huel G., Bélanger S., Truchon G., Ostiguy C., Drolet D.
Visual dysfunction among styrene-exposed workers
Topics: Canada; colour vision deficiency; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; epidemiologic study; eye irritation; personal sampling; plastics industry; styrene; vision tests; visual function disorders.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1995, Vol.21, No.5, p.382-390. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 97-204 Vanhoorne M., de Rouck A., de Bacquer D.
Epidemiological study of eye irritation by hydrogen sulphide and/or carbon disulphide exposure in viscose rayon workers
In the framework of an extensive health survey, 123 male viscose rayon workers exposed to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and/or carbon disulfide (CS2) and 67 controls not exposed to either of these chemicals answered questions on eye irritation complaints in a self-administered questionnaire. The exposed subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of eye pain, burning and photophobia. Adjustment for age and smoking in logistic regression revealed significantly more eye complaints for all workers that were highly exposed. In a postal survey one-third of the ex-workers of the same viscose rayon factory reported having left the factory because of eye complaints, indicating that their occurrence may be underestimated in the cross-sectional study.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 1995, Vol.39, No.3, p.307-315. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 97-198 Reilly M.J., Rosenman K.D., Abrams J.H., Zhu Z., Tseng C., Hertzberg V., Rice C.
Ocular effects of exposure to triethylamine in the sand core cold box of a foundry
The acute and chronic ophthalmological effects of triethylamine exposure among foundry workers in the sand core cold box were assessed. A corneal examination, a visual acuity test and a questionnaire to assess vision symptoms in exposed workers were performed. Personal air measurements for triethylamine were also obtained. Despite low concentrations of triethylamine and no corneal oedema, exposed workers reported vision symptoms. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism for the reported vision symptoms, which occurred below the current United States standard. The current recommended ACGIH threshold of 4.1mg/m3 seems more appropriate.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.337-343. 10 ref.

CIS 96-1006 Barlier A., Salsi S.
Infrared radiation and cataract - Risk evaluation in the vicinity of an induction furnace
Rayonnement infrarouge et cataractes - Evaluation des risques à proximité d'un four à induction [in French]
A study was carried out in a steel recycling plant using an induction furnace to assess infrared exposure levels (a potential source of cataracts), the risks to workers and the efficacy of risk prevention measures. The parameters measured were: spectral irradiance between 200 and 3,000nm, and spectral radiance between 400 and 700nm in the vicinity of the furnace door. The spectral transmittance of both means of protection was measured between 200 and 3,000nm. A risk of cataract was shown to exist for staff working in the immediate and less immediate vicinity of the furnace. The face shield with reflective metal coating proved effective, but goggles with green filter lenses were found to provide insufficient protection.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1995, No.161, Note No.2003-161-95, p.469-475. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 96-203 Sanderson W.T., Weber A., Echt A.
Case reports: Epidemic eye and upper respiratory irritation in poultry processing plants
Case studies conducted at 6 US poultry processing plants revealed that processors and inspectors experienced acute eye and upper respiratory irritation associated with their work. More than 90% of the workers reported having symptoms in the hanging, evisceration, and inspection areas at one plant. These outbreaks were all associated with problems or changes in the plants' water chlorination and super-chlorination processes. The inception of complaints at three of the plants was closely associated with the switch to chloramination as a method of disinfection by the local water companies. Chloramination has been reported to produce and release the gas trichloramine, a mucous membrane irritant. Chlorine levels were also measured in water and at times were found to range well above the 20ppm concentration required by the US Department of Agriculture for sanitizing the evisceration machines. Methods used by the companies to control or eliminate the complaints are described.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.43-49. Illus. 23 ref.


CIS 99-1379 Pérez Bilbao J., Nogareda Cuixart C., Salvador Peracaula E.
Ageing and work: Visual function
Envejecimiento y trabajo: la visión [in Spanish]
Topics: age-linked differences; ageing; data sheet; physiology of vision; Spain; visual function disorders.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/ Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 5p. 12 ref.

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