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Diseases of the ear and hearing damage - 547 entries found

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  • Diseases of the ear and hearing damage


CIS 11-0695 Depczynski J., Challinor K., Fragar L.
Changes in the hearing status and noise injury prevention practices of Australian farmers from 1994 to 2008
This study compares the hearing status and behaviours in 1994-2001 and in 2002-2008 among a population of Australian 8309 farmers having participated in a noise injury prevention programme. Each participant was subjected to an audiometry and responded to a questionnaire. Over this period, there was a 12.5% overall improvement in the proportion of farmers with normal hearing in left ears and significant improvements in the mean hearing threshold of both ears from 1 to 6 kHz. The mean hearing thresholds for 35- to 44-year-old farmers exposed to firearms, chainsaws, workshop tools, heavy machinery and tractors were significantly higher compared to non-exposed groups. The non-use of hearing protection devices by young farmers (15 to 24 years old) was associated with hearing loss for those using un-cabined tractors. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd quarter 2011, Vol.16, No.2, p.127-142. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 11-0556 Barruyer C.
Noise nuisance - Spare your ears
Nuisances sonores - Epargnez vos oreilles! [in French]
In France, occupational hearing loss is ranked fourth in terms of occupational disease frequency in the construction sector, after MSDs. The construction sector is the most affected, after metalworking industries. This article summarizes the main hazards due to exposure to noise at the place of work (hearing loss, irritability, cardiovascular disorders, sleep disorders), together with the appropriate prevention measures (selection of low-noise equipment, limitation of exposure, supply of personal protective equipment, information and training of employees).
Prévention BTP, Apr. 2011, No.140, p.46-48. Illus.

CIS 11-0415 Adelman C., Weinberger J.M., Kriksunov L., Sohmer H.
Effects of furosemide on the hearing loss induced by impulse noise
The permanent hearing loss following exposure to intense noise can be due either to mechanical structural damage (tearing) caused directly by the noise or to metabolic (biochemical) damage resulting from the elevated levels of free radicals released during transduction of the sound overstimulation. Drugs which depress active cochlear mechanics (for example furosemide and salicylic acid) or anti-oxidants (which counteract the free radicals) are effective in reducing the threshold shift (TS) following broadband continuous noise. This study was designed to determine whether furosemide can reduce the TS following exposure to impulse noise, similar to its action with continuous broadband noise. Shortly after furosemide injection, mice were exposed to simulated M16 rifle impulse noise produced by loudspeakers and amplifiers in different exposure settings and, in other experiments, also to actual M16 rifle shots. The drug was partially effective in reducing the TS to simulated noise, but not to actual impulse noise. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, No.6:14. 19p. 24 ref.
Effects_of_furosemide.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0334 Money A., Carder M., Turner S., Hussey L., Agius R.
Surveillance for work-related audiological disease in the UK: 1998-2006
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) from prolonged occupational exposure to noise continues to rank among the top worldwide work-related ill-health problems. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of incident cases based on work-related audiological ill-health data collected over a 9-year period from occupational physicians (OPs), audiological physicians (APs), general practitioners and otorhinolaryngologists. A total of 2582 estimated cases were received from OPs and 2192 estimated cases of work-related audiological ill-health were received from consultant APs. In more than 95% of the cases, the causal agent was noise. Workers with the highest incidence were older males employed in public administration, defence and the manufacture of metals. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.226-233. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 11-0057 Oyunbileg S., Sumberzul N., Oyuntogos L., Javzmaa J., Wang J.D.
Analysis of incidence rates of occupational diseases in Mongolia, 1986-2006
The purpose of this study was to determine incidence rates and time trends of major occupational diseases in Mongolia. Information about all 4598 patients from 1986 to 2006 who were diagnosed and registered with occupational diseases by the National Center of Workplace Conditions and Occupational Diseases was retrieved. There was an increasing trend in the incidence rates of reported occupational respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular diseases, skin diseases, toxic hepatitis and noise-induced hearing loss. Such a trend may result from both rapid industrialization in Mongolia and increased recognition of occupational disease. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.31-37. 26 ref.


CIS 11-0500 Fernandez A.R., Crawford J.M., Studnek J.R., Wilkins J.R.
Hearing problems among a cohort of nationally certified EMS professionals
The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of hearing problems among a national cohort of emergency medical service (EMS) professionals, determine factors associated with hearing problems, and estimate the percentage of EMS professionals who utilize hearing protection. Utilizing results from a questionnaire, individuals who reported hearing problems were compared to individuals who had not. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with hearing problems. Finally, items regarding use of hearing protection were assessed to estimate the percentage of usage among EMS professionals. In total, 1,024 participants completed the questionnaire. There were 153 (14.9%) cases of self-reported hearing problems. Findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.264-275. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 11-0462 Vega Giménez C.
Noise in the music and entertainment sector (II)
Ruido en los sectores de la música y el ocio (II) [in Spanish]
This technical note describes the various measures aimed at minimizing noise exposure of workers in the music and entertainment sectors, and compares different types of hearing protection. Hearing damage and exposure assessment of workers in these sectors are described in a separate note (see ISN 111 864).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 12 ref.
NTP_865.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0559 Vega Giménez C.
Noise in the music and entertainment sector (I)
Ruido en los sectores de la música y el ocio (I) [in Spanish]
Exposure to live or recorded music, or to special effects such as pyrotechnics, may cause hearing damage among workers in the field of music and entertainment. This technical note examines these damages and the evaluation of noise exposure of the various groups of workers in these sectors. It also compares the noise levels in these sectors with those found in other sectors. The preventive measures to limit exposure are presented in a second note (see ISN 111865).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus.
NTP_864.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0365 Euzenat D.
Exposure of workers to occupational diseases in 2007
L'exposition des salariés aux maladies professionnelles en 2007 [in French]
In 2007 in France, there were 44,000 cases of compensated occupational disease. Four out of five of these cases were musculoskeletal diseases. These pathologies are particularly frequent in the meat, clothing, home appliance, laundry and construction industries. Blue-collar workers are the most affected, and this is particularly true of women. Occupational diseases caused by asbestos represent 15% of occupational diseases but constitute the vast majority of occupational cancers; they affect almost exclusively men. Hearing loss affects mainly blue-collar male workers, while young female hairdressers are the most affected by skin diseases.
Ministère du travail, de l'emploi et de la santé, Délégation à l'information et à la communication - DICOM, 14 Avenue Duquesne, 75350 Paris 07 SP, France, Sep. 2010. 11p. Illus. 13 ref.
DARES_Analyses_No.56.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0040 Tamir S., Adelman C., Weinberger J.M., Sohmer H.
Uniform comparison of several drugs which provide protection from noise induced hearing loss
The ability of drugs to reduce noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been evaluated in diverse experimental conditions (animal species, noise intensities, durations, assessment techniques, etc.), making it difficult to assess their relative efficacy. The present study was designed to provide more uniform comparisons and to allow a better understanding of the mechanism of the NIHL. The drugs studied included furosemide and the antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine, vitamins A, C, E with the vasodilator magnesium. Mice were exposed to a continuous broadband noise (113 dB SPL for 3.5 hours) and the NIHL was assessed in all animals before noise exposure and 1 week after with auditory nerve brainstem evoked responses (ABR) to broadband clicks and to 8 kHz tone bursts. Each of the drugs alone and in combination led to similar reductions in NIHL.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, 5:26, 7p. Illus. 20 ref.
Uniform_comparison_of_several_drugs.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0341 Engdahl B., Tambs K.
Occupation and the risk of hearing impairment - Results from the Nord-Trøndelag study on hearing loss
Audiometry and a questionnaire concerning exposure were administered to a population sample of 49,948 adults in Norway. Information on occupation, education and income was obtained from population census registers. Occupation had marked effects on hearing loss. Occupation explained 2-3% of the variance in hearing loss among men aged 45 years or more in addition to the hearing loss due to age (10-19%). Occupation explained one percent or less of hearing loss among women of all ages and young men. Controlling for self-reported occupational noise exposure reduced the occupational effect by 20-40% in men aged 45 years or more. Controlling for leisure-time noise, ear infections and head injuries did not change the effect of occupation, which was slightly reduced after controlling for education and income. The most elevated hearing thresholds in men were observed among wood workers, miners, linemen and cable jointers, construction carpenters and workers, seafarers and workshop mechanics.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, May 2010, Vol.36, No.3, p.250-257. 25 ref.

CIS 10-0271 Brasseur G., Ganem Y., Larcher C., Lemarié J., Ravellec C.
Workplace noise - An issue which is often met by silence
Bruit au travail - Une nuisance souvent passée sous silence [in French]
Contents of this collection of articles on workplace noise: sound exposure; diseases caused by noise; focus areas of INRS research in 2010; modelling for optimizing noise attenuation in the design of a new facility for the maintenance of trucks; acoustic treatment of the walls in an enterprise producing wooden roof beams.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2010, No.704, p.20-28. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 10-0683 Vyskocil A., Leroux T., Truchon G., Lemay F., Gendron M., Lim S., El Majidi N., Botez S., Emond C., Viau C.
Chemical substances and effect on hearing - Literature review
Substances chimiques et effet sur l'audition - Revue de la littérature [in French]
In the context of a systematic literature analysis on chemical substances and their effects on hearing, this study evaluated the robustness of the methodologies used for measuring these effects and examined the consistency and differences that existed between studies on a given substance. It then developed a "decision grid" for evaluating the strength of proof of a causal relationship between exposure to the substances studied and the impact on hearing. The studied substances were classified according to four types of conclusions: the substance is ototoxic; it is possibly ototoxic; its ototoxicity has not been conclusively proven; there is no proof of ototoxicity. According to this method, ototoxic substances are: lead, styrene, toluene and trichloroethylene. Substances that are possibly ototoxic are: ethylbenzene, n-hexane and xylene.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. v, 31p. 162 ref. Price: CAD 9.45. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-604.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-1242 Wagstaff A.S., Årva P.
Hearing loss in civilian airline and helicopter pilots compared to air traffic control personnel
In order to investigate possible hearing loss as a consequence of aviation noise, audiometric data from Air Traffic Control (ATC) personnel, airline pilots and helicopter pilots was compared. Male subjects randomly-selected from the Norwegian civil aviation staff included 50 ATC, 81 helicopter pilots and 51 airline pilots, who were subjected to audiometric testing at two intervals 2-3yrs apart. For all three groups, mean hearing threshold levels were above ISO 7129 values for most frequencies. The fact that helicopter pilots had similar hearing loss to their other aviation colleagues indicates that current hearing protection for these pilots is effective in counteracting the increased noise levels in helicopters. Other findings are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.80, No.10, p.857-861. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-1308 Triebig G., Bruckner T., Seeber A.
Occupational styrene exposure and hearing loss: A cohort study with repeated measurements
This study investigated the associations between styrene exposure and hearing loss among workers of a boat factory in Germany, classified into groups of low, medium and high levels of exposure to styrene. At levels of 30-50ppm of inhaled styrene per work day over a period of 15 years, an elevated risk for impaired hearing thresholds can be expected. However, formerly published results on ototoxic effects below 20ppm could not be confirmed. With few exceptions, no dose-response relationship between threshold and exposure data was found. The hearing loss is partly reversible during exposure-free periods.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.463-480. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 09-1151 Jansen E.J.M., Helleman H.W., Dreschler W.A., de Laat J.A.P.M.
Noise induced hearing loss and other hearing complaints among musicians of symphony orchestras
A total of 241 musicians from five Dutch symphony orchestras participated in this survey on the hearing status of professional musicians. Their medical history was reviewed and their subjective judgment of their hearing and hearing problems was assessed. They were subjected to extensive audiometric testing, including audiometric thresholds, loudness perception, diplacusis, tinnitus, speech perception in noise, and otoacoustic emissions. It was found that musicians show more noise induced hearing loss than could be expected on the basis of age and gender. Other indicators, such as complaints and prevalence of tinnitus, hyperacusis and diplacusis suggest that musicians' ears are at risk. Continuing education about the risks of intensive sound exposure and the need for good hearing protection is warranted.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.153-164. Illus. 33 ref.


CIS 11-0474 Lutman M.E., Davis A.C., Ferguson M.A.
Health and Safety Executive
Epidemiological evidence for the effectiveness of the noise at work regulations
The United Kingdom Noise at Work Regulations 1989 and Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (the Regulations) are designed to minimize the risk of occupational noise-induced hearing loss. This study examined their effectiveness in a longitudinal field study, where participants were followed-up annually over a period of three years. Audiometric and otoacoustic emission measures were obtained in 154 recruits aged 18-25 years at risk of noise-induced hearing loss through occupational exposure and 99 non-exposed controls. The study had power to detect approximately 1-2dB change per year, which is a smaller change than would be expected in the noise-exposed participants without protection. There were no significant effects on auditory function, or rate of change in function, in the risk group when other potential explanatory variables were taken into account. Nor were there significant effects when contrasting exposed participants working in companies demonstrating relatively lower or higher compliance with the Regulations. Noise levels in exposed participants averaged approximately 88-89dB(A) before accounting for hearing protection. The only significant effects on hearing demonstrated in the study were small effects of estimated social noise prior to the study, for example at nightclubs or from personal audio systems. It is concluded that there is no evidence of lack of effectiveness of the Regulations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. x, 85p. Illus. 69 ref.
RR_669.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-1338 Schäper M., Seeber A., van Thriel C.
The effects of toluene plus noise on hearing thresholds: An evaluation based on repeated measurements in the German printing industry
The ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise was investigated in a longitudinal study in rotogravure printing and existing findings in the literature were evaluated. The study comprised four repeated examinations during five years. Workers' lifetime weighted average exposures to toluene and noise were determined from individual work histories and historic recordings. Recent individual exposures were measured 10 times during the study. Auditory thresholds were measured with pure tone audiometry. Noise intensity was significant for auditory thresholds. However, no relationships were found between auditory thresholds and toluene concentrations, toluene exposure duration and interactions between toluene and noise. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.3, p.191-200. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-1073 Crawford J.M., Hoppin J.A., Alavanja M.C.R., Blair A., Sandler D.P., Kamel F.
Hearing loss among licensed pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study
This study evaluated the relationship between hearing loss and pesticide exposure among licensed private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study in Iowa and North Carolina. Among 14,229 white male applicators, 4926 reported hearing loss (35%). Logistic regression was performed with adjustment for state, age, and exposure to noise and solvents. Compared with no exposure, the odds ratio for the highest quartile of exposure was 1.19 for insecticides and 1.17 for organophosphate insecticides. Odds of hearing loss were elevated for high pesticide exposure events (1.38), pesticide-related doctor visits (1.38) or hospitalization (1.81) and diagnosed pesticide poisoning (1.75).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.817-826. 36 ref.

CIS 09-672 Davies H., Marion S., Teschke K.
The impact of hearing conservation programs on incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in Canadian workers
The effectiveness of hearing conservation programmes in preventing occupational noise-induced hearing loss was examined in a group of Canadian lumber mill workers, using annual audiogram series obtained from the Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia for the period 1979-1996 and subjecting the data to Cox proportional hazard models. Mean cumulative noise exposure was 98.1 dB-years. The audiograms from 22,376 individuals, among whom there were 2,839 threshold shifts of 10 dB or greater were retained in multivariable analyses. After adjusting for potential confounders, continuous use of hearing protection, and initial hearing tests later in the study period, the risk of a 10-dB threshold shift was reduced by 30%. Risk remained high, however, among those with the highest noise exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.51, No.12, p.923-931. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 09-540 Spreeuwers D., de Boer A.G.E.M., Verbeek J.H.A.M., van Beurden M.M., van Dijk F.J.H.
Diagnosing and reporting of occupational diseases: A quality improvement study
The objective of this study was to assess the need of quality improvement in the diagnosis and reporting of noise-induced occupational hearing loss and occupational adjustment disorder. Questionnaires were sent to occupational physicians in the Netherlands. Twenty-three questionnaires on noise-induced hearing loss and 125 questionnaires on adjustment disorder were available for analysis. For noise-induced hearing loss, there was a need for quality improvement of the aspects of medical history, audiometric measurement, clinical diagnosis of the disease and reporting. For adjustment disorder, the assessment of other non-occupational causes needed improvement. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.115-121. 23 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-433 Gómez Mur P., Pérez Bermúdez B., Meneses Monroy A.
Hearing loss due to noise exposure among construction industry workers
Pérdidas auditivas relacionadas con la exposición a ruido en trabajadores de la construcción [in Spanish]
The aim of this study was to evaluate noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) among construction workers. It involved pure tone audiometry of 223 construction workers compared to that of 262 office workers. A significantly higher NIHL bilateral prevalence was found for construction workers, with odds ratios for the Klockhoff method and Bilateral Notch of 3.1 and 3.8 respectively. Results indicate that 20.7% to 24.3% of construction workers present bilateral NIHL, compared to 8.4% to 8.8% among office workers. These findings show that it is necessary to reinforce the use of preventive measures, especially hearing protection devices.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.33-40. 18 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 09-432 Picard M., Girard S.A., Simard M., Larocque R., Leroux T., Turcotte F.
Association of work-related accidents with noise exposure in the workplace and noise-induced hearing loss based on the experience of some 240,000 person-years of observation
This retrospective study explored the association between occupational noise exposure, permanent noise-induced hearing loss and work-related accident risk. Log-binomial analysis was used to ascertain the association between study variables by sector of activity and accident context while controlling for age. The study was carried on a sample of 52,982 male workers exposed to a minimum of 80dBA on a daily basis and whose hearing was examined at least once between 1983 and 1996 by the public health authorities of Quebec, Canada. Results show an association between accident risk and worker's hearing sensitivity. Overall, 12.2% of accidents were attributable to a combination of occupational noise exposure of ≥90dBA and noise-induced hearing loss.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2008, Vol.40, No.5, p.1644-1652. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 09-390 Rabinowitz P.M., Galusha D., Slade M.D., Dixon-Ernst C., O'Neill A., Fiellin M., Cullen M.R.
Organic solvent exposure and hearing loss in a cohort of aluminium workers
This retrospective cohort study was undertaken to examine the relationship between solvent exposure and hearing loss among workers of a large aluminium producer in the United States. A cohort of 1319 workers aged 35 years or less at inception was followed for five years. Typical solvent exposures involved mixtures of xylene, toluene and methyl ethyl ketone. Subjects were classified as solvent exposed or not on the basis of industrial hygiene records linked with individual job histories. Hearing levels were assessed using pure tone audiometry. Data were subjected to univariate and multivariate logistic models. Findings show that exposure to organic solvents is a risk factor for high frequency hearing loss, although the data do not allow conclusions about dose-response relationships.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.65, No.4, p.230-235. 18 ref.

CIS 09-185 Stanbury M., Rafferty A., Rosenman K.
Prevalence of hearing loss and work-related noise-induced hearing loss in Michigan
This study assessed the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss (HL) and work-related noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in the State of Michigan, USA. Questions related to HL and NIHL were included in a telephone survey-based surveillance system of health conditions among adults. It was found that 19% reported HL, with a proportion that increased steeply with age. Among those with HL, close to 30% reported it to be related to noise at work. Associations were found between HL/NIHL and current cigarette smoking and elevated cholesterol.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.50, No.1, p.72-79. 33 ref.

CIS 09-26 Tak S.W., Calvert G.M.
Hearing difficulty attributable to employment by industry and occupation: An analysis of the National Health Interview Survey - United States, 1997 to 2003
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing difficulty by industry and occupation among workers in the United States. Data on 130,102 respondents of the National Health Interview Survey who were interviewed between 1997 and 2003 were analyzed. The estimated population prevalence of hearing difficulty was 11.4% (of which 24% attributable to employment). The adjusted prevalence ratios of hearing difficulty were highest for railroads, mining and primary metal manufacturing. Occupations with increased risk of hearing difficulty were mechanics/repairers, machine operators and drivers of transportation equipment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.50, No.1, p.46-56. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 09-177 Hübscher G., Schibig D., Heiniger C., Arnold B., Mathis H., Repond M.C., Gendre N., Rüdin T.
Lärm [in German]
Rumore [in Italian]
Bruit [in French]
Topics addressed in this issue on noise hazards in occupational settings: tinnitus; noise exposure among professional musicians; hearing protection; "mosquito" high-pitched sound system to disperse teenagers from sensitive areas such as building sites; protection against noise among airport field operators. Other topics: revision to the accident insurance law in Switzerland; accident insurance premiums in Switzerland in 2009; case of a fatal fall from a scaffolding; case of reemployment of a worker after an accident having required the amputation of a leg.
Benefit, Sep. 2008, No.3, p.1-23 (whole issue). Illus. [in German] [in Italian] [in French]

CIS 08-1421 Tsukada T., Sakakibara H.
A trail [sic] of individual education for hearing protection with an instrument that measures the noise attenuation effect of wearing earplugs
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of individual training of workers, using an instrument to quantitatively evaluate the noise attenuation gained with the use of earplugs, on the use of hearing protection devices. The subjects were 68 male workers exposed to noise of above 80dB(A) at an electronic parts manufacturer in Japan. They received group instruction on the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss, and individual education on the proper use of earplugs. Two months after the training, the prevalence of the regular use of hearing protectors among workers in loud working environments increased from 46% to 66%. The results suggest that individual training is an effective means to increase both the usage rate and the proper use of hearing protection devices.
Industrial Health, July 2008, Vol.46, No.4, p.393-396. 11 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1442
Health and Safety Executive
Sound advice - Control of noise at work in music and entertainment
These practical guidelines apply to the control of noise at work in music and entertainment, including concert halls and theatres, amplified live music venues, pubs/clubs and recording studios. It has been drafted and supported by representatives from a wide range of music and entertainment sectors in the United Kingdom, as well as Environmental Health Officers and the HSE. Its aim is to help employers, employees and freelancers control or reduce exposure to noise at work without stopping people from enjoying music. A first part explains the requirements of The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (CIS 06-1259), with specific advice provided in a second part.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July, 106p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: GBP 14.50.

CIS 08-1166 Somma G., Pietroiusti A., Magrini A., Coppeta L., Ancona C., Gardi S., Messina M., Bergamaschi A.
Extended high-frequency audiometry and noise induced hearing loss in cement workers
It has been suggested that extended high-frequency audiometry (EHFA) might be more sensitive than conventional audiometry in detecting early signs of hearing impairment. The usefulness of this method was investigated in noise-exposed workers from two Italian cement plants. Conventional frequency audiometry (0.25-8kHz) and EHFA (9-18kHz) were compared in 184 noise-exposed and 98 non-noise-exposed workers. Both methods showed significantly higher hearing threshold levels in noise exposed workers for most of the tested frequencies; however, the differences were more marked for EHFA, especially in young exposed workers. Significant differences in the extended high-frequency range were detected also in the subgroup of noise-exposed workers with normal findings at conventional audiometry.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2008, Vol.51, No.6, p.452-462. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 08-779 Randolph R.F., Reinke D.C., Unger R.L.
NIOSH hearing loss simulator instruction and training guide
The NIOSH Hearing Loss Simulator is a software training and communication tool for promoting hearing loss prevention. It allows a user or trainer to demonstrate the effects of noise exposure on hearing without experiencing an actual noise-induced hearing loss. Estimates of the effects of different levels of noise exposure are based on the ANSI S3.44 standard, which specifies the predicted hearing loss for noise-exposed populations of individuals based on risk factors that include gender, age, sound levels and years of exposure. This guide explains the major objectives that can be addressed with the simulator and proposes training scenarios that can be applied to real-life occupational situations. The guide explains the simulator's functions in detail.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Mar. 2008. 9p. Illus. 3 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-822 Torres K.
Can you hear me now? Impacts of hearing loss
It is estimated that the number of workers who suffer from noise-induced hearing loss in the United States is in the tens of millions. While noise exposure is a pervasive problem in the workplace, it is entirely preventable. Twenty years ago, OSHA introduced detailed noise exposure regulations (29 CFR 1919.95) and since then, many employers and safety professionals have diligently monitored noise levels at work sites, posted warning signs, supplied earplugs and routinely tested employees' hearing. Yet noise-induced hearing loss continues to occur at an alarming rate. This article discusses possible reasons for this situation and proposes improved protective measures. Contents: effects of hearing loss (tinnitus, psychological impact, communication problems in safety-critical situations); activities involving high exposure to noise (mining, agriculture, construction, manufacturing); protective measures (engineering controls, job rotation, hearing protection); reasons behind low levels of compliance in the use of hearing protection; information dissemination; training; motivation.
Occupational Hazards, Feb. 2008, Vol.70, No.2, p.53-56. Illus.

CIS 08-930 Bessette R.S.
Developing and hearing - Managing an effective conservation program
By implementing the five main components of an OSHA-approved hearing conservation program and examining recent hearing protector attenuation research, employers can make their hearing conservation program more effective. OSHA's first proposed line of defence against hazardous noise levels involves engineering and administrative controls on equipment or manufacturing processes. If these fail to achieve eight-hour time-weighted averages of 85dB(A) or lower, the Occupational Noise Exposure Standard and Hearing Conservation Amendment (29 CFR 1910.95) outlines a rigorous programme described in this article, involving monitoring, audiometric testing, training; hearing protection and record-keeping.
Occupational Hazards, Feb. 2008, Vol.70, No.2, p.28-31. Illus.

CIS 08-528 Hudak R.L., Schulz T.Y., Randolph R.F.
Inquiring ears want to know: A fact sheet about your hearing test
Many workers receive an audiogram (hearing test) at some point, especially if they are in a hearing conservation program. This information sheet contains important answers to frequent questions workers ask about their audiograms. It addresses why workers should get regularly have their hearing tested, how to understand audiograms and why the results should be saved to help evaluate and maintain the worker's hearing. It also includes some basic information on the causes of hearing loss and how to prevent it.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2008. 2p. Illus. [in English]


CIS 10-0459 Occupational safety and health manual - Electroplating industry
Manual de segurança e saúde no trabalho - Indústria galvânica [in Portuguese]
This manual covers the occupational safety and health aspects specific to the electroplating industry in Brazil. It is based on the results of a literature survey as well as a field study carried out in 65 enterprises by a multidisciplinary team. It specifies the hazards that are to be found within this industry and proposes preventive measures aimed at protecting the workers and improving productivity. Contents: typology of enterprises and risk factors; field studies; hazard prevention and action programmes; legal aspects.
Serviço Social da Indústria (SESI), Departamento Regional de São Paulo, Av. Paulista 1313, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 2007. 259p. Illus. 60 ref.
Manual_de_SST.pdf [in Portuguese]

CIS 09-1150 Yildirim I., Kilinc M., Okur E., Inanc Tolun F., Kiliç M.A., Kurutas E.B., Ekerbiçer H.C.
The effects of noise on hearing and oxidative stress in textile workers
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of noise on hearing, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in textile workers. Thirty workers exposed to a noise level of 105dB(A) in a textile factory and 30 unexposed hospital workers, all male, were included in the study. Both groups were given audiometric tests and provided blood samples for the determination of various markers of oxidative stress. Mean pure tone audiometric thresholds in workers were significantly higher in the exposed group than in control subjects. In the exposed group, hearing losses were more evident at high frequencies than at low frequencies. Also, textile workers with longer employment duration had poorer hearing thresholds, starting among those having worked for 5-8 yrs. Blood analyses support the hypothesis that the noise causes the oxidative stress.
Industrial Health, Dec. 2007, Vol.45, No.6, p.743-749. 25 ref.

CIS 09-141 Johnson A.C.
Relationship between styrene exposure and hearing loss: Review of human studies
Occupational exposure to styrene occurs mainly in the manufacturing of fibreglass-reinforced plastics. Since 1988, nine studies have been published on the relationship between occupational exposure to styrene and hearing loss. All studies were cross-sectional epidemiological studies or clinical studies from occupational health clinics. They involved more than 1000 workers exposed to styrene, both with and without concurrent noise exposure. Of the nine studies, seven showed some effects on the auditory system associated with styrene-alone exposure. These effects are examined using different outcome measures such as pure tone audiometry, high frequency hearing loss, and central hearing tests. In some studies, an increased risk for hearing loss was associated with exposure estimates.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.4, p.315-325. 27 ref.

CIS 09-140 Śliwinska-Kowalska M.
Exposure to organic solvent mixture and hearing loss: Literature overview
There is increasing evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies that occupational exposures to organic solvents have a detrimental effect on hearing. Most of the literature data concern one of the three following types of exposure to industrial solvents: mixed solvent exposure (the most common type); styrene-only exposure; and toluene-only exposure. This literature survey reviews the effects of occupational exposure to a mixture of organic solvents on hearing, with special regard to the dose-response relationship. Although the existing data make it difficult to derive a dose-response relationship between solvent exposure and hearing outcome, the current occupational exposure limits seem inadequate.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.4, p.309-314. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-175 Murphy W.J., Tubbs R.L.
Assessment of noise exposure for indoor and outdoor firing ranges
NIOSH received a request for a health hazard evaluation from the employees and management of a police department concerned about potential hearing damage from noise generated during weapons training on their indoor and outdoor firing ranges. NIOSH investigators conducted noise sampling with an mannequin head and microphone to characterize the noise exposures that officers might experience during small arms qualification and training when wearing a variety of hearing protection devices provided by the department. The peak sound pressure levels for the various weapons ranged from 156 to 170dB, which are higher than the recommended 140dB exposure guideline from NIOSH. Earplugs, ear muffs and customized hearing protectors provided between 25 and 35dB reduction. Double hearing protection (plugs plus muffs) added a further 15-20dB reduction. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2007, Vol.4, No.9, p.688-697. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 08-1288 Tabasco Fernández M.
Ototoxicity in the world of work
Ototoxicidad en el mundo laboral [in Spanish]
Based on the findings of a literature survey, this article discusses the main substances (chemicals, pharmaceuticals, solvents) that affect to the auditory health of the workers and their effects, and proposes preventive measures. The consequences of simultaneous exposure to noise and ototoxic substances are also discussed.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2007, No.179, p.40-51. Illus. 17 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 08-1128 Fuente A., McPherson B.
Central auditory damage induced by solvent exposure
This study aimed to investigate possible auditory processing disorders related to solvent exposure. Thirty solvent-exposed workers and 30 matched controls were selected to participate in the study. Various data were collected by means of questionnaires, and participants underwent various audiometric tests including filtered speech (FS), random gap detection (RGD) and hearing-in-noise tests (HINT). Both groups of workers had normal mean hearing thresholds. However, significant differences between groups were observed for RGD, FS and HINT, probably related to solvent exposure.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2007, Vol.13, No.4, p.391-397. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 08-572 Michiels F.
Occupational diseases of the sensory organs
Affections d'origine professionnelles des organes des sens [in French]
Review of a conference on occupational diseases in the armed forces and in the ordinance industries held in Marseille, France, on 31 May and 1 June 2007. The conference included three sessions on occupational diseases of the sensory organs: hearing disorders; vision disorders; olfactory disorders. Each session included the findings of both research and field studies.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.112, p.543-552. Illus.$File/TD159.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-530 Have you heard? Hearing loss caused by farm noise is preventable: Young farmers' guide for selecting and using hearing protection
Aimed at farmers aged below 35 years and their families, this leaflet presents an overview the variety of hearing protectors available and when and how to use them. Contents: fitting formable plugs; fitting pre-moulded plugs; fitting canal caps; tips on using hearing protection; buying hearing protection; common noise levels. See also CIS 08-529.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2007. 2p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-529 They're your ears. Protect them
This leaflet encourages young farmers to protect their ears from noise. A 25-year-old farmer can often have the ears of a 50-year-old who is not exposed to noise and not even know it. The leaflet is designed to increase the awareness of young farmers below the age of 35 and their families about the relationship between farm noise and the early onset of tinnitus and hearing loss. See also CIS 08-530.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Oct. 2007. 2p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-683 Hernández Diaz A., González Méndez B.M.
Hearing loss among workers exposed to industrial noise
Alteraciones auditivas en trabajadores expuestos al ruido industrial [in Spanish]
This study examined the extent of hearing loss among workers exposed to industrial noise, as well as their exposure to various levels of noise. It involved 98 workers of an aluminium window frame factory in Havana, Cuba. A total of 77 cases (78.5%) of hearing loss attributable to noise were found; 30.6% of workers were exposed to noise levels that were avoidable when considering the nature of their work. Recommendations include reducing workplace noise levels whenever they exceed 85db(A), requiring the use of hearing protectors and implementing medical surveillance by means of annual audiometric tests.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Sep. 2007, Vol.LIII, No.208, p.9-19. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 08-147 Śiwinska-Kowalska M., Prasher D., Alves Rodrigues C., Zamysłowska-Szmytke E., Campo P., Henderson D., Lund S.P., Johnson A.C., Schäper M., Ödkvist L, Starck J., Toppila E., Schneider E., Möller C., Fuente A., Gopal K.V.
Ototoxicity of organic solvents - From scientific evidence to health policy
Review article on a workshop on the ototoxicity of organic solvents held in Łódź, Poland, 15-16 November 2006. The papers presented examined the evidence and the links between isolated exposure to organic solvents, combined exposure to noise and solvents, and effects on the auditory system. The main purpose of the conference was to review the key scientific evidence and to gather the necessary knowledge for developing adequate occupational health policies.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.2, p.215-222. 45 ref.

CIS 08-198 Kurmis A.P., Apps S.A.
Occupationally-acquired noise-induced hearing loss: A senseless workplace hazard
The aim of this literature survey was to provide a synopsis of the current understanding of occupational noise-induced hearing loss and its impact on individual workers and on society at large, and to identify barriers to the systematic use of hearing protection. A number of publications describing the relationship between workplace-related noise exposure and subsequent development of employee hearing impairment demonstrate an overwhelming gender imbalance, with up to 97% of affected individuals being male. Industry-specific associations (e.g. mining, manufacturing and heavy construction) were well documented, as were exposures to specific ototoxic substances. However, evidence of integration of appraisal of the topically-current area of genetic susceptibility was often lacking. Much discordance still exists among international agencies in the prescriptive regulation and enforcement of "safe" exposure limits. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.2, p.127-136. Illus. 76 ref.


CIS 08-399 Domínguez Gracia A.I., Rubio Aranda E., Martínez Terrer T., Conte Solano J.C., Rubio Calvo E.
Hearing trauma induced from a combined exposure to smoking and occupational noise in the metalworking industry
Adquisición de un trauma acústico por multiexposición a tabaco y ruido laboral en la industria del metal [in Spanish]
This study evaluated the combined effect of smoking and exposure to noise in the metalworking industry on hearing loss. It involved 257 workers, including 112 in good health, 66 with massive hearing trauma and 79 showing initial signs of hearing trauma. The study shows that the probability of hearing loss increases among workers exposed to noise in occupational settings and who are smokers. The worst results were found among workers smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day and exposed to occupational noise for 20 years or more.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Dec. 2006, Vol.LII, No.205, p.33-40. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 08-199 Antunez M.Y.
Occupational hearing loss in agricultural settings
Most of the information on hearing loss due to noise in the agricultural sector consists of training materials in the form of brochures and manuals, together with and journal articles published by academic presses, government associations, and professional organizations. However, few books are entirely devoted to the topic of hearing loss in agricultural settings. Recently, many occupational safety and health Web sites have been adding information and links to publications dealing with hearing loss in the agricultural industry. This literature survey focussed on Web-based publications addressing the topic of occupational hearing loss in agriculture briefly describes the information that can be obtained from various selected Web sites.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Information, 2006, Vol.7, No.4, p.57-62. 1 ref.

CIS 07-432 Montiel-López M., Corzo-Alvarez G., Chacín-Almarza B., Rojas-González L., Quevedo A., Lubo-Palma A., Rendiles H.
Prevalence and characterization of hearing loss among workers exposed to industrial noise in the electricity turbogeneration plant of a petrochemical complex
Prevalencia y caracterización de la pérdida auditiva en trabajadores expuestos a ruido industrial de una planta eléctrica turbogenerada en un complejo petroquímico [in Spanish]
This study investigated the impact of occupational exposure to noise and its relationship with other factors that can induce hearing loss among workers in the electricity generating plant of a petrochemical complex in Venezuela. A cross-sectional study was conducted that involved medical examinations and audiometric tests on 75 workers. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) were quantified at various workplaces. It was found that most of the workers were exposed to high noise levels (>85dBA) and for more than the recommended time. All workers used hearing protectors appropriately. Although the hearing loss prevalence in workers was 16.0%, it was not possible to prove that it was noise induced. The hearing threshold registered in the audiometric tests was diminished, but remained within normal threshold values. Twelve cases of grade I conductive hearing loss were diagnosed, with no sensorial or mixed hearing losses. No relationship was found between the equivalent noise level and hearing loss. Recommendations for workers' protection are made, including the implementation of a hearing protection programme.
Investigación Clínica, June 2006, Vol.47, No.2, p.117-131. 40 ref.

CIS 07-373 Lawton B.W., Hoffmann J., Triebig G.
The ototoxicity of styrene: A review of occupational investigations
Seven occupational studies dealing with the ototoxicity of styrene were analysed. Factors assessed included the experimental design, measurement of the styrene-in-air concentration, confirmation of styrene exposure by blood or urine analysis, determination of hearing threshold levels and measurement of noise at the workplace. Findings are equivocal. Four investigations failed to find any effect of styrene on hearing thresholds. In contrast, other investigations claimed to have demonstrated styrene-induced hearing loss in industrial populations, with synergism between styrene and noise. However, these reports exhibited shortcomings of experimental design and data analysis. Considering the body of evidence as a whole, hearing deficits due to occupational exposure to styrene at low concentrations have not been demonstrated by scientifically reliable argument.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2006, Vol.79, No.2, p.93-102. Illus. 23 ref.

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