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Leukaemia - 111 entries found

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CIS 11-0807 Questel F.
Occupational malignant blood diseases
Hémopathies malignes d'origine professionnelle [in French]
Malignant blood diseases are rare pathologies for which occupational causes are probably underestimated. Benzene and ionizing radiation are the only causal agents which are recognized as having potential to cause leukaemia. Uncertainties concerning other agents remain, in particular for ethylene oxide, pesticides, electromagnetic fields and certain infectious agents, for which further epidemiological studies need to be continued.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 3rd quarter 2011, No.172, 12p. 101 ref.


CIS 09-1048 Youk A.O., Buchanich J.M., Marsh G.M., Cunningham M., Esmen N.A.
Pharmaceutical production workers and the risks of mortality from respiratory system cancer and lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue cancers
The objective of this study was to evaluate further elevated mortality risks from respiratory system cancer (RSC) and lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue cancers (LHTC) in a cohort of 1466 male workers employed full-time in a pharmaceutical production plant. Standardized mortality ratios were computed and mortality risks evaluated in nested case-control studies of RSC and LHTC. While subjects had no elevated RSC risk, a statistically significant LHTC excess was observed. LHTC risks increased with increasing levels of average exposure to dimethylformamide. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.51, No.8, p.903-915. 35 ref.


CIS 09-555 Seniori Costantini A., Benvenuti A., Vineis P., Kriebel D., Tumino R., Ramazzotti V., Rodella S., Stagnaro E., Crosignani P., Amadori D., Mirabelli D, Sommani L, Belletti I., Troschel L., Romeo L., Miceli G., Tozzi G.A., Mendico I., Alberghini Maltoni S., Miligi L.
Risk of leukemia and multiple myeloma associated with exposure to benzene and other organic solvents: Evidence from the Italian multicenter case-control study
This population-based case-control study was carried out to evaluate the association between exposure to organic solvents and risk of myeloid and lymphoid leukaemia and multiple myeloma (MM). Data concerning 586 cases of leukaemia and 1,278 population controls, as well as 263 cases of MM and 1,100 population controls were collected. Experts assessed exposure at individual level to a range of chemicals. No associations were found between exposures to any solvent and acute myeloid leukaemia. There were elevated point estimates for the associations between medium/high benzene exposure and chronic lymphatic leukaemia (odds ratio (OR) 1.8) and MM (OR 1.9). Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.803-811. 50 ref.

CIS 08-828 Hoffmann W., Terschüeren C., Heimpel H., Feller A., Butte W., Hostrup O., Richardson D., Greiser E.
Population-based research on occupational and environmental factors for leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: the Northern Germany Leukemia and Lymphoma Study (NLL)
The Northern Germany Leukaemia and Lymphoma Study is a population-based study designed to provide a quantitative basis for investigations into occupational and environmental risk factors for leukaemia and lymphoma. Subjects include all incident cases of leukaemia and lymphoma diagnosed between 1986 and 1998 in six counties in Northern Germany, together with controls selected from population registries. Self-reported exposure information was used in conjunction with direct environmental measurements. In addition, geographical information system (GIS) data were used to derive estimates of environmental exposure to pesticides, electromagnetic fields associated with transmission lines, and ionizing radiation from nuclear power stations. Findings can be used to calculate risk factors in subsequent studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.51, No.4, p.246-257. 40 ref.


CIS 08-826 Orsi L., Troussard X., Monnereau A., Berthou C., Fenaux P., Marit G., Soubeyran P., Huguet F., Milpied N., Leporrier M., Hemon D., Clavel J.
Occupation and lymphoid malignancies: Results from a French case-control study
To investigate potential relationships between occupational risk factors and lymphoid malignancy (LM), a multicentre hospital-based case-control study was conducted in France between 2000 and 2004, including 824 incident cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma and lymphoproliferative syndrome, and 752 matched controls. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that farming was significantly associated with NHL (odds ratio OR 1.4) and, although not significantly, with lymphoproliferative syndrome and multiple myeloma. ORs were higher for longest durations of exposure. Self-declared exposure to pesticides was significantly associated with NHL (OR 1.8) and HL (OR 2.2). Neither solvent-related jobs nor self-reported exposure to solvents were related to LM. Systematic screening based on job titles did not evidence any other association. The results support the hypothesis that farming plays a role in most types of LM.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2007, Vol.49, No.12, p.1339-1350. 41 ref.

CIS 08-599 McGregor D.
Risk of leukaemia in firemen
Risque de leucémie chez les pompiers [in French]
The objective of this literature survey was to evaluate the risk of developing certain types of cancer among firemen. It resulted in the publication of several reports. This report addresses the risk of leukaemia. It concludes that available epidemiological data do not generally support a conclusion in which the job of fire fighter constitutes an unequivocal risk of leukaemia. See also CIS 08-598 and 08-600/601.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. i, 24p. Illus. 63 ref. Price: CAD 7.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in English] [in French]


CIS 07-88 Abadi-Korek I., Stark B., Zaizov R., Shaham J.
Parental occupational exposure and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in offspring in Israel
This study investigated the possible association between parental employment in occupations that have potential exposures to organic solvents or pesticides and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in offspring. This hypothesis was explored in a case-control study that included 224 children, 112 diagnosed with ALL and 112 matched controls. A significantly higher odds ratio (OR) was found between childhood ALL and reported parental occupational exposures. Analysis of exposures of both parents by exposure time revealed significant OR during preconception, pregnancy and postnatal periods. The results provide support for the association between parental occupational exposures and ALL in children.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2006, Vol.48, No.2, p.165-174. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 07-198 Möhner M., Lindtner M., Otten H., Gille H.G.
Leukemia and exposure to ionizing radiation among German uranium miners
It is well known that uranium miners are at an increased risk of lung cancer. Whether they also have an increased risk for other cancer sites remains under discussion. The aim of this study was to examine the leukaemia risk among uranium miners. It involved 377 former uranium miners in East Germany and 980 matched controls. Using conditional logistic regression models, a dose-response relationship between leukaemia risk and exposure to radon progeny could not be confirmed. Yet, a significantly elevated risk is seen in workers with the highest exposure to the combined effect of γ-radiation and long-lived radionuclides. The results suggest that an elevated risk for leukaemia is restricted to employees with a very long occupational career in underground uranium mining or uranium processing. Moreover, the study does not support the hypothesis of an association between exposure to short-lived radon progeny and leukaemia risk.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.49, No.4, p.238-248. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 06-1339 Brautbar N., Wu M.P.
Leukaemia and low level benzene concentration: revisited
Prior studies have claimed that benzene-related leukaemia and haematotoxicity occur only at high levels of exposure. This article reviews epidemiological human studies, biomarkers studies and experimental animal studies supporting the opinions that: benzene is haematotoxic and leukaemogenic at levels just above zero; benzene is a non-threshold haematotoxin and leukaemogen; and dosimetric risk assessment of benzene should take into account intensity and peak levels of exposure as well as cumulative exposure when applicable.
European Journal of Oncology, Mar. 2006, Vol.11, No.1, p.15-24. Illus. 39 ref.


CIS 06-1446 Linet M.S., Freedman D.M., Mohan A.K., Doody M.M., Ron E., Mabuchi K., Alexander B.H., Sigurdson A., Hauptmann M.
Incidence of haematopoietic malignancies in US radiologic technologists
The objective of this study was to estimate the risk for haematopoietic malignancies among 71,894 radiological technologists (77.9% women) in the United States. Subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1983-89, a second questionnaire in 1994-98, and were followed up until the diagnosis of a first cancer, death, or 31 August 1998, whichever occurred first. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute risks. Relative risks (RR) for leukaemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) were increased among technologists working five or more years before 1950 (RR=6.6) or holding patients 50 or more times for X-ray examination (RR=2.6). Risks of non-CLL leukaemias were not significantly related to the number of years subjects worked in more recent periods, the year or age first worked, the total years worked, specific procedures or equipment used or personal radiotherapy. Working as a radiological technologist was not significantly linked with risk of other malignancies.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2005, Vol.62, No.12, p.861-867. 35 ref.

CIS 06-645 Graf J.J., Sathiakumar N., Macaluso M., Maldonado G., Matthews R., Delzell E.
Chemical exposures in the synthetic rubber industry and lymphohematopoietic cancer mortality
This study evaluated the association between exposure to several chemicals and mortality from lymphohaematopoietic cancer (LHC) among 16,579 synthetic rubber industry workers who were followed up from 1943 to 1998. Poisson regression analyses examined LHC rates in relation to butadiene, styrene and dimethyl dithiocarbamate (DMDTC) exposure, after adjusting for other agents and potential confounders. Cumulative exposure to 1,3-butadiene was associated positively with all leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia and to a lesser extent with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Adjusting for styrene and DMDTC attenuated these associations. After controlling for butadiene, neither styrene nor DMDTC displayed a consistent exposure-response trend, whether for all leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia, or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.47, No.9, p.916-932. 50 ref.


CIS 07-867 Boffetta P.
Risk of acute myeloid leukemia after exposure to diesel exhaust: A review of the epidemiologic evidence
This literature survey analyses the relationship between exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and risk of leukaemia risk, in particular acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), among exposed workers. The available studies do not consistently suggest an increased risk of leukaemia, and specifically AML, among workers exposed to DE. Sporadic positive results were counterbalanced by negative associations and might have resulted from reporting bias. To conclude, DE exposure does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of leukaemia.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.10, p.1076-1083. 41 ref.

CIS 05-73 Ali R., Yu C.L., Wu M.T., Ho C.K., Pan B.J., Smith T., Christiani D.C.
A case-control study of parental occupation, leukemia, and brain tumors in an industrial city in Taiwan
A case-control study was conducted in an industrial city in Taiwan to determine whether parents of newly-diagnosed patients who were younger than 30 years old with leukaemia or brain tumours or the patients themselves were more likely to have been employed in certain occupations or industries. Job histories were collected for parents (and for subjects if they worked) in 103 newly-diagnosed cases of leukaemia, 74 newly diagnosed cases of brain tumours, and 417 controls matched for age and sex. All jobs since the age of 16 that the subjects held for more than six months were coded for occupation and industry according the standard four-digit system used in Taiwan. Certain codes were significantly associated with increased odds ratios of childhood tumours. Leukaemia was more common in children of fathers who had worked as wood treaters (OR 16.03) and as building finishers and related trades workers (OR 4.08). Brain tumours were more common in children of mothers who had worked in electronic parts and components manufacturing (OR 13.78), as textile and garment workers (OR 7.25), as well as in subjects who had worked with certain electronic parts and components (OR 28.67). Separate analyses also were performed for parental jobs held during the preconception, perinatal, and postnatal periods.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.9, p.985-992. 40 ref.

CIS 04-321 Adegoke O.J., Blair A., Shu X.O., Sanderson M., Addy C.L., Dosemeci M., Zheng W.
Agreement of job-exposure matrix (JEM) assessed exposure and self-reported exposure among adult leukemia patients and controls in Shanghai
Estimating a person's history of occupational exposure in case-control studies is often difficult. This study evaluates the agreement between self-reported occupational exposures and job-exposure matrix (JEM) exposure assessment for participants of a case-control study of 486 leukaemia subjects and 502 healthy controls in Shanghai (China). The sensitivities for self-reported exposures ranged from 0.75 to 0.98. That for pesticide exposure was 0.44 in subjects >51 years old. Variations in agreement for benzene exposure between males and females as well as between the direct interview and surrogate interview subgroups were observed. However, the overall agreement between self-reported exposures and JEM assessment was good. The levels of agreement observed in this study suggest that self-reported exposures are a suitable method for assessing occupational exposures in this population.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.45, No.3, p.281-288. 25 ref.


CIS 03-1615 Collins J.J., Ireland B., Buckley C.F., Shepperly D.
Lymphohaematopoeitic cancer mortality among workers with benzene exposure
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between lymphohaematopoeitic cancer mortality and benzene exposure among 4417 workers at a chemical plant in the US. There was little evidence of increasing risk with increasing cumulative benzene exposure for all leukaemias, for acute non-lymphocytic leukaemias (ANL) or the other lymphohaematopoeitic cancers with the exception of multiple myeloma. For multiple myeloma, the SMRs were 1.1 in the non-exposed group, 1.4 in the <1ppm-years group, 1.5 in the 1-6ppm-years group, and 2.6 in the >6ppm-years group. No relationships were found between peak exposures and any of the cancers. However, when peak exposures over 100ppm for 40 or more days were considered, the observed number of all leukaemias (SMR=2.7), ANL (SMR=4.1) and multiple myeloma (SMR=4.0) were greater than expected. Although the observed number of deaths was small in this study, the number of peak exposures to benzene greater than 100ppm was a better predictor of risk than cumulative exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.60, No.9, p.676-679. 32 ref.


CIS 02-1805 Rinsky R.A., Hornung R.W., Silver S.R., Tseng C.Y.
Benzene exposure and hematopoietic mortality: A long-term epidemiologic risk assessment
Previous studies of a cohort of rubber industry workers indicated an association between benzene exposure and excess mortality from leukaemia and multiple myeloma. To determine whether risks remain elevated since plant shutdown, follow-up was extended from 1981 through 1996. Risks were evaluated using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and generalized Cox proportional hazards regression models. Five new leukaemia cases were observed in benzene-exposed white males, but the summary SMR for this group declined from 3.37 to 2.56. In regression models, cumulative exposure was significantly associated with elevated relative risks for leukaemia mortality. Four new multiple myeloma deaths occurred, three of which were in workers judged to be unexposed. These findings reaffirm the leukaemogenic effects of benzene exposure and suggest that excess risk diminishes with time.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec 2002, Vol.42, No.6, p.474-480. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1650 Zheng T., Blair A., Zhang Y., Weisengurger D.D., Zahm S.H.
Occupation and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia
To investigate the association between occupation and the risk of non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), data from two population-based case-control studies of NHL were analysed. A total of 555 incident NHL cases, 56 CLL cases and 2380 population-based controls were included in the analysis. Information on occupation and other confounding factors was collected through telephone interviews. In men, an increased risk of NHL and CLL was found in agriculture, forestry, and logging (odds ratio (OR) 1.6). The OR was 1.9 for crop production. An increased risk was also observed for industries involving metalworking machinery and equipment (OR 8.4), motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment (OR 4.2) and telephone communications (OR 3.1), and for teachers (OR 2.5), farmers (OR 2.0), and welders and solderers (OR 2.9). The risks for these associations increased by duration of employment. Work in the printing and publishing industry was associated with an increased risk of NHL among women.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.44, No.5, p.469-474. 37 ref.


CIS 03-181 Tinnerberg H., Björk J., Welinder H.
Evaluation of occupational and leisure time exposure assessment in a population-based case control study on leukaemia
To evaluate the procedures used in a case-control study on leukaemia, 1,087 cases and matched controls by sex, age and region of residence were interviewed. Exposure assessments were performed for 13 occupational agents and ten leisure activities. The exposure assessments were performed by one of three occupational hygienists who were unaware of the case or control status. 10% of the interviews were reassessed by the other two occupational hygienists. Leisure activities contributed to a large extent to the overall prevalence of exposure. For organic solvents, approximately 25% of the controls classified as exposed would be misclassified if leisure-time exposure were not considered. It is concluded that is important to take leisure activities into account, and that for cancers with poor prognoses, prospective studies are preferable to minimize possible information bias.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.74, No.8, p.533-540. 30 ref.

CIS 02-1252 Band P.R., Le N.D., Fang R., Astrakianakis G., Bert J., Keefe A., Krewski D.
Cohort cancer incidence among pulp and paper mill workers in British Columbia
In a cohort of male pulp and paper workers in British Columbia (Canada), 1756 cancer cases were observed in the period 1950-1992. The results of the analysis suggest that long-term work in the pulp and paper industry is associated with excess risks of prostate and stomach cancers and all leukaemias for work in workers engaged in both the kraft and the sulfite processes, and of rectal cancer for work in the sulfite process only.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.113-119. 33 ref.

CIS 02-1423 Harrington J.M., Nichols L., Sorahan T., van Tongeren M.
Leukaemia mortality in relation to magnetic field exposure: Findings from a study of United Kingdom electricity generation and transmission workers, 1973-97
To investigate whether risks of leukaemia are related to occupational exposure to magnetic fields, the mortality of cohort of 83,997 employees of the Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales was investigated for the period 1973-97. All were employed for at least 6 months in the period 1973-82. Computerized work histories were available for 79,972 subjects for the period 1971-93. Based on mortalities for England and Wales, the standardized mortality ratio of 84 for all leukaemias (observed 111, expected 132.3) was similar to that of 83 for all causes (observed 14 845, expected 17 918). No significant positive trends were found for the risks of various types of leukaemia (chronic lymphatic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia, all leukaemia) either with lifetime cumulative exposure to magnetic fields or with such exposures received in the most recent 5 years. In conclusion, there are no discernible excess risks of leukaemia as a consequence of occupational exposure to magnetic fields in United Kingdom electricity generation and transmission workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.58, No.5, p.307-314. 14 ref.

CIS 02-183 Blair A., Zheng T., Linos A., Stewart P.A., Zhang Y.W., Cantor K.P.
Occupation and leukemia: A population-based case-control study in Iowa and Minnesota
A population-based case-control study (513 cases and 1,087 controls) was conducted in Iowa and Minnesota to evaluate the association between various occupations, industries, and occupational exposures and leukaemia risk. A lifetime occupational history and other risk factor information were collected through in-person interviews, and a job-exposure matrix was used to assess possible risks associated with specific exposures. A significantly increased risk of leukaemia was observed among agricultural service industries and among nursing and healthcare workers. Janitors, cleaners, and light truck drivers also experienced increased risk. Those employed in plumbing, heating and air conditioning industries, and sales of nondurable goods (such as paints and varnishes) had an increased risk. Printers, painters, and workers in the food and metal industries had a non significantly increased risk of leukaemia. Analyses by specific exposures and histology of leukaemia showed that risk of leukaemia associated with occupational or industrial exposures may vary by histological type of the disease.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.3-14. 57 ref.

CIS 02-202 Leukaemia and lymphoma - detection, reporting and compensation
Leucémies et lymphomes - Comment les repérer, les déclarer, les faire reconnaître, les faire indemniser [in French]
Contents of this booklet describing the compensation system for occupational leukaemia and lymphoma in France: introduction and general considerations on occupational cancers; reporting procedures; occupational activities having possibly given rise to exposures to agents known to cause leukaemia and lymphoma (ionizing radiation, arsenic, benzene, ethylene oxide), as well as the corresponding compensation systems. It duplicates the section of the general booklet on the compensation of occupational cancers in France (see CIS 02-201) applicable specifically to leukaemia and lymphoma.
Ligue nationale contre le cancer, 14 rue Corvisart, 75013 Paris, France, 2001. 15p.


CIS 02-1232 Huebner W.W., Chen V.W., Friedlander B.R., Wu X.C., Jorgensen G., Bhojani F.A., Friedmann C.H., Schmidt B.A., Sales E.A., Joy J.A., Correa C.N.
Incidence of lymphohaematopoietic malignancies in a petrochemical industry cohort: 1983-94 follow up
An increased mortality for the period 1970-82 from lymphohaematopoietic (LH) malignancies was previously found in a US petrochemical industry cohort (see CIS 01-1432). This follow-up provides information on cases between 1983 and 1994. 672 cases of cancer were identified, including 59 LH malignancies. Women (n=1169) had four LH malignancies versus 2.28 expected. Among 7773 men, those first employed before 1950 had a significant 1.4-fold increase in overall LH malignancies and four chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cases (CLL) versus 3.27 expected. The findings do not suggest a continuing excess of CLL, but show a small increase in incidence of overall LH malignancy for workers first employed before 1950.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.605-614. 34 ref.

CIS 02-811 Stayner L.T., Dankovic D.A., Smith R.J., Gilbert S.J., Bailer A.J.
Human cancer risk and exposure to 1,3-butadiene - A tale of mice and men
The purpose of this study was to evaluate empirically the relevance of animal-bioassay-based models for predicting human risks from exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) using epidemiological data. Relative-risk results obtained with a regression model in a recent epidemiological study were used to estimate leukaemia risk for occupational and environmental exposures to BD and to compare these estimates with those previously derived from an analysis of animal bioassay data. The estimates of risk were found to be highly dependent on the model used when low levels of exposure were evaluated that are of environmental concern, but not at the levels of occupational concern.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.322-330. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 01-859 Savitz D.A., Cai J., van Wijngaarden E., Loomis D., Mihlan G., Dufort V., Kleckner R.C., Nylander-French L., Kromhout H., Zhou H.
Case-cohort analysis of brain cancer and leukemia in electric utility workers using a refined magnetic field job-exposure matrix
This study is based on data from a completed cohort study on the association between occupational electric and magnetic field exposure and cancer. The 164 men who died of leukaemia, 145 men who died of brain cancer and a random sub-cohort of 800 men were selected from the original cohort. Job groups were subdivided based on differences in work environments or tasks performed. Magnetic field exposure remained unrelated to leukaemia mortality and positively associated with brain cancer mortality based on both cumulative and average magnetic field indices. An increased risk of brain cancer was found in relation to career exposure, with risk ratios of 1.8 and 2.5 in the uppermost categories for cumulative and average exposure, stronger for exposure 2-10 years past.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.417-425. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 01-540 Villeneuve P.J., Agnew D.A., Miller A.B., Corey P.N., Purdham J.T.
Leukemia in electric utility workers: The evaluation of alternative indices of exposure to 60Hz electric and magnetic fields
The association between adult leukaemia and exposure to electric and magnetic fields was explored by a case-control study of 31,453 Ontario (Canada) electric utility workers. The percentage of time spent above electric field thresholds of 20 and 39V/m was predictive of leukaemia risk after adjusting for duration of employment. Duration of employment was strongly associated with an increased risk of leukaemia. Those who had worked for at least 20 years, and were in the highest tertiles of percentage of time spent above 10 and 20V/m, had odds ratios of 10.17 and 8.23, respectively, when compared with those in the lowest tertile. Non-significant elevations in risk were observed between indices of magnetic fields and leukaemia. The results support the hypothesis that electric fields act as a promoting agent in the aetiology of adult leukaemia. Exposure assessment based on alternative indices of electric and magnetic fields should be incorporated into future occupational studies of cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2000, Vol.37, No.6, p.607-617. 36 ref.


CIS 01-168 Environmental exposure to benzene
This report provides a review of health risks from environmental exposure to benzene. A method is described that allows the estimation of the daily absorbed dose of benzene for a range of individuals representative of different life-styles and occupations. The current understanding of the relationship between exposure to benzene and the occurence of leukaemia is summarized.
CONCAWE, Madouplein, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, Oct. 1999. iv, 34p. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 00-1131 Gundestrup M., Storm H.H.
Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia and other cancers in commercial jet cockpit crew: A population-based cohort study
Cockpit crews receive cosmic radiation during flight operations. Altogether 3,877 cockpit crew members could be traced for follow-up, accruing 61,095 person-years at risk in 3,790 men and 661 person-years at risk in 87 women. The total number of cancers observed was 169 whereas 153.1 were expected. Significantly increased risks of acute myeloid leukaemia, skin cancer excluding melanoma and total cancer were observed among Danish male jet cockpit crew members flying more than 5,000h compared to the normal population. Increased risk of malignant melanoma irrespective of aircraft type was also found among those flying more than 5,000h.
Lancet, Dec. 1999, Vol.354, No.9195, p.2029-2031. 13 ref.

CIS 00-833 Kheifets L.I., Gilbert E.S., Sussman S.S., Guénel P., Sahl J.D., Savitz D.A., Thériault G.
Comparative analyses of the studies of magnetic fields and cancer in electric utility workers: Studies from France, Canada and the United States
To summarize and facilitate comparison of three major studies of electric utility workers that examined the relation between exposure to magnetic fields and risk of brain cancer and leukaemia, a common analytical approach was applied to the data of the three studies. A nested case-control design with conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk/10 microtesla-years (µT-years) for each of the contributing cohorts and for the combined data. Apparent inconsistencies in the findings of these studies can be explained by statistical variation. Overall, the studies suggest a small increase in risk of both brain cancer and leukaemia. Different methodological choices had little impact on the results. Based on a combined analysis of data from ail five studies, the relative risk/10 µT-years was 1.12 for brain cancer, and 1.09 for leukaemia, neither of which was significant at the 95% confidence interval (CI) level. The combined estimates seem to provide the best summary measures of the data from all studies. However, fluctuations in risks among studies may reflect real differences, and the exposure measurements in different studies may not be entirely comparable.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.56, No.8, p.567-574. Illus. 19 ref.


CIS 99-1886 Baker P., Inskip H., Coggon D.
Health and Safety Executive
Leukaemia in teachers
This review was carried out at the request of the UK Health and Safety Executive. It was stimulated by observations of high mortality from leukaemia and related disorders among teachers in a national analysis of occupational mortality for England and Wales during 1979-80 and 1982-90, and the suggestion of elevated mortality from leukaemia among teaching professionals in a similar analysis for an earlier period. The aim was to assess systematically the epidemiological evidence for an increased incidence of haematopoietic cancer in teachers, and to explore the most likely explanation for the elevation of mortality recorded in the national statistics. Topics: educational institutions; epidemiologic study; haemic and lymphatic diseases; infectious diseases; leukaemia; literature survey; risk factors; teaching; United Kingdom; virus diseases.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. iii, 64p. Illus. 62 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.


CIS 98-1446 Kheifets L.I., Afifi A.A., Buffler P.A., Zhang Z.W., Matkin C.C.
Occupational electric and magnetic field exposure and leukemia - A meta-analysis
Topics: electric fields; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; leukaemia; literature survey; magnetic fields.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1997, Vol.39, No.11, p.1074-1091. Illus. 82 ref.

CIS 97-272 Dolk H., Shaddick G., Walls P., Grundy C., Thakrar B., Kleinschmidt I., Elliott P.
Cancer incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain: 1. Sutton Coldfield transmitter
This study of cancer incidence in 1974-1986 evaluates a previous unconfirmed report of a "cluster" of leukaemias and lymphomas near a television and FM radio transmitter in the West Midlands, England. The study used a national database of postcoded cancer registrations, population and socioeconomic data from the 1981 census. The study area was defined as a 10km radius circle around the transmitter. The risk of adult leukaemia within 2km was 1.83 (observed/expected ratio) and there was a significant decline in risk with distance from the transmitter. These findings confirmed the previously reported excess of leukaemias near the said radio and television transmitter. Study of other radio and TV transmitters is required since no causal implications can be made from a single cluster investigation of this kind.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Jan. 1997, Vol.145, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 34 ref.


CIS 98-750 Clavel J., Hémon D., Mandereau L., Delemotte B., Séverin F., Flandrin G.
Farming, pesticide use and hairy-cell leukemia
Topics: agriculture; crop protection; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; forage crops; France; insecticides; length of exposure; leukaemia; organophosphorus compounds; pesticides; smoking.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1996, Vol.22, No.4, p.285-293. 35 ref.

CIS 97-2028 Guénel P., et al.
Exposure to 50-Hz electric field and incidence of leukemia, brain tumors, and other cancers among French electric utility workers
The association between cancer and exposure to electric fields was investigated in a case-control study nested within a cohort of 170,000 workers employed at the French electric utility company Electricité de France (EDF) between 1978 and 1989. Exposure was assessed by personal monitoring of 850 EDF workers for a full work week. The analysis did not show any increased risk for leukaemia. For brain tumours (69 cases) there was some indication of a dose-response relation, although the risk did not increase uniformly with exposure. An unexpected association was also observed for colon cancer, but not for any other type of cancer. This study indicates that electric fields may have a specific effect on the risk of brain tumour.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1996, Vol.144, No.12, p.1107-1121. 41 ref.

CIS 96-2283 Sokejima S., Kagamimori S., Tatsumura T.
Electric power consumption and leukaemia death rate in Japan
This brief communication describes an investigation into the correlation between electric power consumption per person and male death rates in 47 prefectures in Japan. An inverse correlation was noted between consumption of electric power per person and death rate from leukaemia; an inverse correlation was also noted for all cancers. No correlation was noted for all causes of death. Results suggest a possible non-linear relation between electromagnetic fields and leukaemia which may explain the discrepant results of epidemiological investigations.
Lancet, 21 Sep. 1996, Vol.348, No.9030, p.821-822. 5 ref.

CIS 96-2280 Miller A.B., To T., Agnew D.A., Wall C., Green L.M.
Leukemia following occupational exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields among Ontario electric utility workers
Report on a nested case-control study of 1,484 cancer cases and 2,179 matched controls from a cohort of 31,543 Ontario Hydro (electrical utility for the province of Ontario, Canada) male employees. Associations of cancer risk with electric field exposure were evaluated and compared with previously reported findings for magnetic fields. Pensioners and active workers were followed for 18 years and 15 years, respectively. Exposures to electric and magnetic fields and to potential occupational confounders (such as ionizing radiation and known carcinogens) were estimated through job exposure matrices. Odds ratios were elevated for haematopoietic malignancies (all leukaemias) with cumulative electric field exposure. For cumulative magnetic field exposure, there were similar elevations. Evaluation of the combined effect of electric and magnetic fields for leukaemia showed significant elevations of risk for high exposure to both, with a dose-response relation for increasing exposure to electric fields and an inconsistent effect for magnetic fields. There was some evidence of a nonsignificant association for brain cancer and benign brain tumours with magnetic fields. For lung cancer, the odds ratio for high exposure to electric and magnetic fields was 1.84 (95% CI 0.69-4.94).
American Journal of Epidemiology, July 1996, Vol.144, No.2, p.150-160. 33 ref.


CIS 97-180 Ong C.N., Kok P.W., Lee B.L., Shi C.Y, Ong H.Y., Chia K.S., Lee C.S., Luo X.W.
Evaluation of biomarkers for occupational exposure to benzene
In order to evaluate the relations between environmental benzene concentrations and various biomarkers of exposure to benzene, analyses were carried out on environmental air, unmetabolized benzene in urine, trans,trans-muconic acid (ttMA) and three major phenolic metabolites of benzene (catechol, hydroquinone and phenol) in two field studies on 64 workers exposed to benzene. Forty non-exposed subjects were also investigated. Among the five urinary biomarkers studied, ttMA correlated best with environmental benzene concentration. The results from the study showed that both ttMA and hydroquinone were able to differentiate the background level found in subjects not occupationally exposed and those exposed to less than 1ppm of benzene. This suggests that these two biomarkers are useful indices for monitoring low concentrations of benzene. The good correlations between ttMA, hydroquinone and atmospheric benzene suggest that they are sensitive and specific biomarkers for benzene exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.52, No.8, p.528-533. 26 ref.

CIS 97-112 Amadori D., Nanni O., Falcini F., Saragoni A., Tison V., Callea A., Scarpi E., Ricci M., Riva N., Buiatti E.
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by histological type in farming-animal breeding workers: A population case-control study based on job titles
A population based case-control study was conducted in an agricultural area in Italy in order to evaluate the association between farming and animal breeding and the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Occupational histories and other data were collected by personal interview on 164 NHLs, 23 CLLs, diagnosed in 1988-90, and 977 controls. The article only reports the results of the analysis relative to the coding of job titles through the modified International Labour Office (ILO) classification. Estimates of odds ratios for occupational variables were calculated after adjustment for sex, age, altitude of municipality, first degree familiarity and previous Herpes zoster infection. Subjects working in agriculture associated with animal breeding are at high risk of NHL/CLLs, particularly CLLs and low grade NHLs. This finding could be related to the use of chemicals in agriculture or to exposure to animal-transmitted diseases or specific chemicals used in animal breeding.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.374-379. 38 ref.

CIS 96-683 Sathiakumar N., Delzell E., Cole P., Brill I., Frisch J., Spivey G.
A case-control study of leukemia among petroleum workers
The relationship between leukaemia and the work histories of active and retired employees of a large petroleum company was investigated. The study included 69 leukaemia cases and 284 matched controls. Employment in production-related work in the oil and gas division was associated with myelogenous leukaemia and particularly with acute myelogenous leukaemia. The association with the acute form was strongest for subjects with longest duration (32+ years) of production-related work, and there was a consistent trend of increasing risk for increasing duration of employment. No clear association was found between leukaemia and work in the refining division.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1995, Vol.37, No.11, p.1269-1277. 23 ref.

CIS 96-763 Utterback D.F., Rinsky R.A.
Benzene exposure assessment in rubber hydrochloride workers: A critical evaluation of previous estimates
Many risk assessments for leukaemia associated with benzene exposure have been based on a 1981 mortality study among a cohort of rubber hydrochloride workers. A re-examination of this study in 1992 resulted in retrospective benzene exposure estimates far greater than those previously reported; this suggests that calculated risk estimates for benzene were lower than previously estimated. The 1992 reanalysis is critically examined and it is concluded that the approach falls short of the claim of providing more plausible exposure estimates for the cohort. The original exposure estimates remain the most consistent with all the information available on rubber hydrochloride manufacturing.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1995, Vol.27, No.5, p.661-676. 35 ref.

CIS 95-2249 Savitz D.A., Loomis D.P.
Magnetic field exposure in relation to leukemia and brain cancer mortality among electric utility workers
The authors conducted an historical cohort mortality study of 138,905 men employed at 5 large electric power companies in the US between 1950 and 1986. Exposure was estimated by linking individual work histories to data from 2,842 workshift magnetic field measurements. Mortality follow-up identified 20,733 deaths based on 2,656,436 person-years of experience. Total mortality and cancer mortality rose slightly with increasing magnetic field exposure. Leukaemia mortality, however, was not associated with indices of magnetic field exposure except for electricians. Brain cancer mortality was modestly elevated in relation to duration of work in exposed jobs and much more strongly associated with magnetic field exposure indices. Brain cancer risk increased by an estimated factor of 1.94 per microtesla-year of magnetic field exposure in the previous 2-10 years, with a mortality ratio of 2.6 in the highest exposure category.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Jan. 1995, Vol.141, No.2, p.123-134. 33 ref.

CIS 95-1850 Infante-Rivard C.
Electromagnetic field exposure during pregnancy and childhood leukaemia
A study of 128 cases of childhood leukaemia in Spain is briefly reported. An excess risk was observed in children of mothers working at home as sewing machine operators during pregnancy. Another report suggests that electromagnetic field exposures to factory and home sewing machines are among the highest for any profession. It is suggested that results of the Spanish study may be interpreted as being electromagnetic-field related.
Lancet, 15 July 1995, Vol.346, No.8968, p.177. 5 ref.


CIS 95-2144 Coggon D.
Epidemiological studies of styrene-exposed populations
Several cohort studies of occupationally exposed populations have suggested that workers exposed to styrene in the chemical industry have increased mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer. However, this finding has not been consistent and has not been reproduced in studies of reinforced plastics manufacturers, whose exposures to styrene are generally higher. The explanation for the observed associations may therefore be confounding by concomitant exposures to other chemicals such as benzene and butadiene, which are not used in the reinforced plastics industry. Despite their large size, the published studies of mortality and cancer incidence lack the statistical power to rule out an important hazard from long-term exposure to high (>50ppm) airborne concentrations of styrene. However, they indicate that any risk of cancer from lower levels of exposure is likely to be small.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Oct. 1994, Vol.24, Suppl., p.S107-S115. 21 ref.

CIS 95-2157 Snyder R., Kalf G.F.
A perspective on benzene leukemogenesis
This review focuses on several of the problems facing investigators who study the mechanism of benzene-induced leukaemogenesis. Benzene metabolism is reviewed with the aim of suggesting metabolites that may play a role in the aetiology of the disease. The formation of DNA adducts and their potential significance are analyzed. The clastogenic activity of benzene is discussed both in terms of biomarkers of exposure and as a potential indication of leukaemogenesis. The significance of chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus formation and chromosomal translocations is discussed. The mutagenic activity of benzene metabolites is reviewed and benzene is placed in perspective as a leukaemogen with other carcinogens. Finally, a pathway from benzene exposure to eventual leukaemia is discussed in terms of biological mechanisms, the role of cytokines and related factors, latency and expression of leukaemia.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, July 1994, Vol.24, No.3, p.177-209. 278 ref.

CIS 95-2073 Semenciw R.M., Morrison H.I., Morison D., Mao Y.
Leukemia mortality and farming in the prairie provinces of Canada
The purpose of the study was to examine the risk of fatal leukaemia according to various farming practices in a large cohort of Canadian farm operators. The mortality experience (1971-1987) of male farmers in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta was studied. The census records of 156,242 male farmers identified on the 1971 Census of Agriculture and the corresponding Census of Population were linked to mortality records through 1987. A statistically significant test for trend (p=0.03) was observed between leukaemia mortality and the number of chickens and/or turkeys owned (relative risk for ≥130 chickens and/or turkeys=1.32, 95% confidence interval=0.99, 1.77). No association was observed between leukaemia mortality and either insecticide or herbicide use.
Canadian Journal of Public Health - Revue canadienne de santé publique, May-June 1994, Vol.85, No.3, p.208-211. 24 ref.

CIS 95-673 Gennart J.P., Sanderson J.T.
Exposure and health risks associated with non-occupational sources of benzene
The health effects of long-term exposure to benzene are summarized: chromosome aberrations, depression of blood-cell formation and induction of leukaemia. Occupational exposure to levels above 50ppm is clearly associated with a significant risk of leukaemia. Excluding occupational exposure, smoking is the major potential contributor to the daily absorbed dose for the general population. Key sources of exposure are identified and estimates of the total daily absorbed dose for the general population are calculated. Replaces CONCAWE Report No.8/89 (CIS 90-1999).
CONCAWE, Madouplein 1, 1030 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 1994. iv, 24p. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 94-1989 Crump K.S.
Risk of benzene-induced leukemia: A sensitivity analysis of the Pliofilm cohort with additional follow-up and new exposure estimates
This reports updates an earlier risk assessment for benzene-induced leukaemia which was used by OSHA in the establishment of permissible exposure limits. The present study was based on mortality data on a cohort of workers employed at two Pliofilm manufacturing plants where there were relatively high exposures to benzene. New risk estimates are derived using follow-up data to 1987 and using new exposure estimates. Results indicate a significant excess of acute myelocytic or acute monocytic leukaemia and a strong dose-response trend.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, June 1994, Vol.42, No.2, p.219-242. 34 ref.


CIS 95-2096 Walker J.T., Bloom T.F., Stern F.B., Okun A.H., Fingerhut M.A., Halperin W.E.
Mortality of workers employed in shoe manufacturing
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1993, Vol.19, No.2, p.89-95. 31 ref. ###

CIS 95-1683 Rushton L.
A 39-year follow-up of the UK oil refinery and distribution center studies - Results for kidney cancer and leukemia
This paper reports the principal results of a mortality analysis of workers at UK oil refineries and distribution centres, together with detailed results for kidney cancer and leukaemia. The mortality from all causes of death is lower than that of the general population, and reduced mortality is also found for many of the major nonmalignant causes of death. In the refinery study, some increased mortality patterns are found for diseases of the arteries, and no healthy worker effect is found in the distribution centre study for ischaemic heart disease. Mortality from all neoplasms is lower than expected overall in both studies, largely due to a deficit of deaths from lung neoplasms. Mortality from kidney neoplasms is increased overall in the distribution centre study, and in drivers in particular. The deaths from leukaemia are slightly less than expected in the refinery study and slightly more than expected in the distribution centre study.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1993, Vol.101, Suppl.6, p.77-84. 71 ref.

CIS 95-1854 McLaughlin J.R., King W.D., Anderson T.W., Clarke E.A., Ashmore J.P.
Paternal radiation exposure and leukaemia in offspring - The Ontario case-control study
A case-control study was conducted to determine whether there is an association between the occupational exposure of men to ionizing radiation and leukaemia in their children. Cases (n=112; 890 controls) were children to age 14 who died from or were diagnosed as having leukaemia from 1950-1988 and were born to mothers living in the vicinity of an operating nuclear facility. Six fathers of cases and 53 fathers of controls had a total body dose >0.0mSv before a child's conception, resulting in an odds ratio of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.32-2.34). There was no evidence of an increased leukaemia risk in relation to any exposure period (lifetime, six months or three months before conception) or exposure type (total whole body dose, external whole body dose, or tritium dose), except for radon exposure to uranium miners, which had a large odds ratio that was not significantly different from the null value.
British Medical Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.307, No.6910, p.959-966. 40 ref.

CIS 94-2084 Matanoski G.M., Elliott E.A., Breysse P.N., Lynberg M.C.
Leukemia in telephone linemen
This case-control study examines potential associations between telephone linework and the occurrence of leukaemia with the exception of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Workers with lifetime exposure scores to extremely low frequency non-ionizing radiation above the median for the population show an excess of leukaemia 2.5 times higher than workers below the median (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-8.6). Those individuals with a long duration of employment in jobs with intermittent peak exposures may be at a higher risk of leukaemia than those with a constant exposure level. Analyses that allow for a latent period suggest that the risk is associated with exposures that occurred 10 or more years before death. Workers with peak exposure scores to extremely low frequency non-ionizing radiation above the median have odds ratios of 2.4 (95% CI 0.7-9.0) and 6.6 (95% CI 0.7-58) for latent periods of 10 and 15 years, respectively. The data suggest an increasing risk with increasing exposure (p for trend = 0.05) when cumulated scores are based on peak exposure scores. The numbers in this study are small and the differences observed may be due to chance.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Mar. 1993, Vol.137, No.6, p.609-619. 13 ref.

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