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Carbon dioxide - 61 entries found

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CIS 10-0155 Testud F.
Carbon dioxide
Doixyde de carbone [in French]
While carbon dioxide (CO2) is harmless at low concentrations, its build-up in confined spaces is highly dangerous. Together with the often concomitant effects of anoxia, it then causes severe poisoning with a high mortality rate. Work in vats during fermentation processes and the sublimation of dry ice are two situations presenting the highest risks. On the other hand, CO2 is devoid of long-term health effects.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 5p. Illus. 22 ref.


CIS 07-1376 Bennett J.
Feeling sleepy?
Sleepiness is often related to the build-up of exhaled carbon dioxide in work premises. This article discusses what carbon dioxide is, how it can affect work performance and how safety and health practitioners can act to reduce uncomfortable levels. Topics addressed: natural and mechanical ventilation of work premises; threshold limit value of 5000ppm (8h TWA) for carbon dioxide at the workplace defined by United Kingdom regulations; monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in workplace atmospheres.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Jan. 2007, Vol.25, No.1, p.43-45. Illus. 15 ref.


CIS 04-417 Hill R.W., Marks S.
Health and Safety Executive
Flueless gas fires - Concentration of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, and particulate level produced in use
Fixed flueless gas fires to supplement central heating systems are subject to certification by an independent Notified Body for compliance with the Gas Appliances Directive. The certification process includes an assessment of the manufacturer's installation instructions. Three manufacturers are currently offering a range of flueless fires. However, their installation instructions are inconsistent with one another. The objective of this project was to encourage manufacturers to develop common product and installation standards. It involved measuring the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulates produced by the appliances in a test facility simulating a residential home.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 34p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 02-1777 Springston J.P., Esposito W.A., Cleversey K.W.
Baseline indoor air quality measurements collected from 136 metropolitan New York region commercial office buildings between 1997-1999
Between January 1997 and December 1999, 648 surveys were performed in 136 commercial office buildings in the greater New York area as part of an indoor environmental quality programme. Sampling was performed on a spot basis in non-problem buildings, during normal business hours, either quarterly or semiannually. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were among the various physical and chemical parameters which were sampled. More than 15,000 data points were collected, and the results were analyzed to determine the mean, median and standard deviation for each of those parameters. The results were then compared to various standards and guidelines applicable to the indoor environment. It was found that 98% of the CO2 readings were below 1000ppm, and 99.9% of the CO readings were below 10ppm. However for TVOCs, nearly 88% of the readings exceeded the proposed European guideline value of 0.3mg/m3.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2002, Vol.63, No.3, p.354-360. Illus. 41 ref.


CIS 03-865 Okuno T., Ojima J., Saito H.
Ultraviolet radiation emitted by CO2 arc welding
The arcs associated with arc welding emit high levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and this often causes acute injuries in the workplace, particularly photokeratoconjunctivitis. In this study, the effective irradiance for UVR was measured experimentally for CO2 arc welding in order to evaluate its UVR hazards. A welding robot was used in the experiment in order to ensure reproducible and consistent welding conditions. The effective irradiance at 1m from the arc was in the range 0.28-7.85W/m2 under the study conditions. The corresponding permissible exposure time per day is only 4-100s, suggesting that UVR from CO2 arc welding is actually hazardous for the eye and skin. It was found that the effective irradiance is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the arc, is strongly dependent on the direction of emission from the arc with a maximum at 50-60° from the plate surface, and tends to increase with the welding current.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 2001, Vol.45, No.7, p.597-601. Illus. 13 ref

CIS 02-1144 Bonnard N., Brondeau M.T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Miraval S., Protois J.C., Schneider O.
Carbon dioxide
Dioxyde de carbone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonyms: carbonic anhydride; dry ice. Acute toxicity: asphyxiant gas which may cause death; increase in breathing rhythm, state as if under the influence of alcohol; headache; visual disorders; unconsciousness; skin burns in the case of contact with the substance at low temperature. Chronic toxicity: changes of the blood pH; increase of pulmonary ventilation; changes in colour vision. Exposure limits: TWA: USA ACGIH 2000 = 9000mg/m3 (5000ppm); Germany MAK = 9000mg/m3 (2000-5000ppm). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 5p. 23 ref.


CIS 01-1790 Berenguer Subils M.J., Bernal Domínguez F.
Carbon dioxide levels as an indicator of indoor air quality
El dióxido de carbono en la evaluación de la calidad del aire interior [in Spanish]
This information note concerns the determination of carbon dioxide (CO2) as an indicator of the quality of indoor air quality. Contents: characteristics of carbon dioxide; CO2 as air contaminant; CO2 as indicator of ambient odour due to bio-effluents; measurement of ventilation flow based on the determination of ambient CO2; other information concerning ventilation that can be derived from a determination of ambient CO2.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. 6 ref.


CIS 01-1475 Louis F., Guez M., Le Bâcle C.
Poisoning from carbon dioxide inhalation
Intoxication par inhalation de dioxyde de carbone [in French]
A case of collective carbon dioxide (CO2) poisoning which occurred in a fast-food restaurant in the Seine-Saint-Denis department of France (near Paris) provides an opportunity to restate the importance of remaining vigilant with respect to this hazard. Indeed, ignorance of this hazard may prove to be fatal to exposed persons, while the conditions under which this colourless and odourless gas is produced or used in occupational settings have been known for a long time. Contents include: toxicity of CO2; sources of exposure; descriptions of CO2 poisonings; preventing the CO2 exposure risk.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1999, No.79, p.179-194. 52 ref.

CIS 00-486 BCGA Code of practice CP 26 - Bulk liquid carbon dioxide storage at users' premises
This document of the British Compressed Gases Association is intended as a Code of Practice for the guidance of UK companies associated with the installation, operation and maintenance of liquid carbon dioxide storage installations at users' premises. It makes reference to current UK legislation and British Standards in this field. Contents: general considerations; layout and design features; access to the installation; testing of the installation and commissioning; operation and maintenance; training and protection of personnel.
British Compressed Gases Association, 14 Tollgate, Eastleigh, Hampshire, SO53 3TG, United Kingdom, rev.1, 1999. 32p. Illus. 26 ref.


CIS 99-635 Bearg D.W.
Improving indoor air quality through the use of continual multipoint monitoring of carbon dioxide and dew point
An approach for improving the indoor air quality in a building by providing feedback on the performance of the ventilation system is described. This is achieved by means of an automated sampling system that draws air from multiple locations and delivers it to a carbon monoxide monitor and a dew point sensor. The use of single shared sensors facilitates calibration checks and helps to guarantee data integrity. Topics: air sampling; carbon dioxide; continuous monitoring; determination in air; humidity measurement; humidity; ventilation systems.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1998, Vol.59, No.9, p.636-641. Illus. 6 ref.


CIS 97-888 Chiron M.
Poisoning by carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
Intoxication oxycarbonnée, intoxication par le gaz carbonique [in French]
Acute CO poisoning is the most frequent reported cause (although probably often underreported due to misdiagnosis) of accidental death by poisoning in France, whereas the incidence or the prevalence of chronic poisoning are not known, because of its insignificant clinical manifestations. This data sheet contains information on the physics and chemistry of both CO and CO2 as well as on the clinical aspects of poisoning.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 1996, No.112, 5p. Illus. 18 réf.

CIS 97-619 Jankovic J.T., Ihle R., Vick D.O.
Occupant generated carbon dioxide as a measure of dilution ventilation efficiency
Dilution chamber tests were carried out to test a model for estimating the rate of decay of occupant generated carbon dioxide after workers have left a work area. The slope of the decay curve was used to calculate the number of effective air changes per unit time and hence the effective ventilation rate. Tests in 34 locations showed that the number of air changes, as measured by carbon dioxide decay, was positively correlated with subjective assessment of ventilation effectiveness.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1996, Vol.57, No.8, p.756-759. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 96-2148
Health and Safety Executive
Smoke and vapour effects used in entertainment
This data sheet provides advice on the safe use of smoke and vapour effects which use dry ice, oil mist, glycol or mineral oil smoke, or pyrotechnic smoke effects. Contents: potential hazards (freeze burns, skin irritation, asphyxiation, obscuring visibility); compliance with exposure standards; risk assessment; preventing and controlling exposure; use of personal protection; minimizing risks to the audience.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, June 1996. 2p. 6 ref.

CIS 96-2203 Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Greco T.M.
Health and social concerns of restaurant/bar workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke
Smoking (22) and non-smoking (21) workers were surveyed by means of interviews to assess their reactions to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in three restaurant settings. There was a significant difference between the non-smokers and the smokers in their attitudes towards ETS in workplace (non-smokers showed more health symptoms and anti-smoking attitudes than smokers). Carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations ranged from 1 to 23ppm; carbon dioxide (CO2) from 100 to 6,000ppm and nitrogen oxides were in practice non detectable. Levels of CO increased during the entire workshift, CO2 levels increased when workplaces were more crowded. Designation of non-smoking sectors did not seem to reduce workers' exposure.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1996, Vol.87, No.2, p.122-132. Illus. 33 ref.


CIS 96-242 Batterman S., Peng C.
TVOC and CO2 concentrations as indicators in indoor air quality studies
An indicator for use in investigations of indoor air quality (IAQ) is formulated based on the relationship between the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and volatile organic compound (VOC). The indicator is evaluated by case studies involving continuous monitoring in two contrasting office buildings and by a review of published air-quality studies. Results show that bioeffluent and occupation-related emissions often account for a large share of VOC emissions; the suggested indicator clearly shows when other sources are significant. Factors influencing the interpretation of IAQ indicators are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1995, Vol.56, No.1, p.55-65. Illus. 67 ref.


CIS 94-962 Wilhelm V.
Occupational safety and health on waste disposal sites - Hazards and pollution by gas emissions
Arbeitsschutz an Deponien - Gefährdungen und Belastungen durch Deponiegas [in German]
Anaerobic decomposition of the organic components in waste produces a gas which consists mainly of carbon dioxide and methane. It also contains traces of harmful substances such as dichloromethane, hydrogen sulfide, benzene and vinyl chloride. A design of outgassing facilities which prevents explosions and health hazards is outlined.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1993, Vol.105, No.9, p.614-616, 618-619. Illus. 4 ref.


CIS 94-60 Carbon dioxide
Dioxyde de carbone [in French]
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: asphyxiation; frostbite in case of contact with rapidly evaporating gas. Long-term exposure effects: behavioural changes. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 1013 (2).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.


CIS 92-1691 Nagda N.L., Koontz M.D., Konheim A.G.
Carbon dioxide levels in commercial airliner cabins
The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) sponsored a study to quantify pollutant levels in airliner cabins and to assess the associated health risks for cabin crew members and passengers. Study measurements focused on environmental tobacco smoke but also included other contaminants and environmental parameters. The article reports on the study methods, results, and implications as they relate to carbon dioxide (CO2). Based on monitoring near the middle of the airliner cabin, CO2 concentrations averaged 1,615ppm across all 92 study flights. Average CO2 levels were somewhat lower on smoking (1,568ppm) than non-smoking (1,756ppm) flights. Measured CO2 concentrations exceeded the 1,000ppm level of ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 on 87% of the flights. Even for flights with the highest ventilation rates (exceeding 35 cfm/passenger), the average CO2 levels were about 1,250ppm. The relationship of CO2 to selected factors (type of aircraft, air recirculation, load factor, fresh air rate) is presented.
ASHRAE Journal, Aug. 1991, Vol.33, No.8, p.35-38. Illus. 11 ref.


CIS 90-1796 Carbon dioxide
Dioxyde de carbone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: asphyxiant; contact with solid, liquid or gas from pressurised cylinder may cause frostbite burns; prolonged exposure to concentrations of about 1.5% may cause a mild stress and behavioural changes (irritability).
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1990. 1p. Illus.

CIS 90-1450 Carbon dioxide
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: asphyxiation; frostbite in case of contact with rapidly evaporating gas. Long-term exposure effects: behavioural changes. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 1013 (2).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.


CIS 90-596 Coleman A.R.
A programme of safety assurance of liquid carbon dioxide storage vessels
Results of an inquiry on the rupture of a 25 ton vertical CO2 storage vessel and recommendations for preventing similar accidents.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Feb. 1989, No.85, p.10-17. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 90-602 Fire protection - Fire extinguishing media - Carbon dioxide
Protection contre l'incendie - Agents extincteurs - Dioxyde de carbone [in French]
This standard specifies requirements for carbon dioxide for use as a fire extinguishing medium. Methods for determination of contaminants are appended.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Dec. 1989. 12p. Illus.


CIS 90-242 Schmider F.
Descent into manholes - The air in manholes may be deadly
Einsteigen in Schächte - Die Luft im Schacht kann tödlich sein [in German]
Carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sulfide are the most hazardous gases that may occur in manholes. Two examples are used to illustrate that natural ventilation may not suffice to remove all toxic concentrations. Manholes must be supplied with fresh air forced all the way to the bottom. In addition, measurements of the CO2, CH4 and O2 concentrations are necessary prior to entry.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, 1988, Vol.10, No.8, p.6-9.


CIS 88-1971 Barčan G.P., Levkovič M.M., Testoedova S.I., Steblecova V.D.
Gas chromatographic method for determination of carbon monoxide and dioxide
Gasohromatografičeskij metod opredelenija oksida i dioksida ugleroda [in Russian]
The characteristic feature of the method is the preliminary separation of CO and CO2 at room temperature on a short column (45 x 3.5mm), filled with SKT activated carbon (0.25-0.50mm) outside the chromatograph. The separated oxides are converted to methane on a nickel catalyst at approx. 500°C and analysed with a flame-ionisation detector. Hydrogen was used as carrier gas and reducing agent. The minimum detectable amount of oxide is 0.5mg/m3 in a sample volume of 2mL. The method was used to analyse products of out-gassing from coatings containing phenol-formaldehyde resins.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1987, No.1, p.49-50. Illus. 3 ref.


CIS 88-1786 Carbon dioxide
Dioxyde de carbone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (ACGIH, 1985-86): TLV-TWA = 9000mg/m3. Toxicity: asphyxiant; stress and emotional changes.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1986. 13p. 13 ref.

CIS 87-400 Carbon dioxide
Dióxido de carbono [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Asphyxiant. Causes burns in the liquid and solid states. Exposure limits: ACGIH (USA, 1986), TWA limit = 9,000mg/m3; FRG, MAK = 9,000mg/m3; Sweden, permissible limit = 9,000mg/m3.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, C/Torrelaguna, No.73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1986. 6p. Bibl.


CIS 88-1307
Health and Safety Executive
Bulk storage and use of liquid carbon dioxide: hazards and procedures
This guidance note contains information on the hazards arising from the bulk storage of liquid carbon dioxide and gives general advice on appropriate precautionary measures and control techniques. Contents: uses of liquid carbon dioxide; physical and chemical properties; toxicity; recommended exposure limits; design and construction of storage vessels; operating conditions of liquid carbon dioxide tanks; pressure relief; tank filling; transfer of liquid carbon dioxide from road tanker to storage tank; vaporisers; siting of storage tanks; relief of storage tanks; inspection and maintenance; delivery routine, operator protection; statutory requirements.
HMSO Sales, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, June 1985. 6p. 3 ref.

CIS 86-1025 Poddubnaja L.P.
Products of the thermal destruction of aromatic polyamide materials in an air stream
Produkty termodestrukcii v toke vozduha materialov na osnove aromatičeskih poliamidov [in Russian]
Materials based on aromatic polyamides form during their pyrolysis in air (600-850°C) a complex of volatile substances - carbon oxides, saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and a number of nitrogen-containing compounds including hydrogen cyanide. Polyamides based on meta-phenylenediamine and isophthalic acid form the largest amount of volatile substances such as hydrogen cyanide, aromatic amines, ammonia, and nitrogen oxides.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1985, No.1, p.25-28. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 85-1893 McConnaughey P.W., McKee E.S., Pritts I.M.
Passive colorimetric dosimeter tubes for ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide
These colorimetric stain length personal dosimeters, known by the trade name Vapor Guard, have been developed by the Mine Safety Appliances Company, Pittsburgh, PA 15208, USA. Calibration tests indicate that the tubes are accurate to ±25% and that temperature (5-40°C) and relative humidity (20-90%) do not significantly affect the results.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1985, Vol.46, No.7, p.357-362. Illus. 64 ref.

CIS 85-1035 Lockyer C.
Carbon dioxide detection in public house cellars
In the cellars of public houses ("pubs") carbon dioxide from cylinders is used for the dispersal of beer from containers. To detect hazardous leaks from these cylinders, a detector-alarm has been developed which is cheap, maintenance-free and easily installed. It provides an immediate audible and visible alarm when the concentration by volume of CO2 in the local air reaches 0.5% (first stage), and again when it reaches 2% (second stage). Analysis is by the measurement of infrared absorption of sampled air. Test results and observations are described. Recommended safety practices for public house cellars are given.
Safety Practitioner, Jan. 1985, Vol.3, No.1, p.36-37. Illus. 1 ref.


CIS 85-1927 Ėjtingon A.I., Šašina T.A., Poddubnaja L.T., Ulanova I.P., Veselovskaja K.A., Naumova L.S.
Setting of emergency exposure limits for pyrolysis products of polyvinyl chloride materials
Obosnovanie avarijnyh predelov vozdejstvija produktov gorenija polivinilhloridnyh materialov [in Russian]
Description of a method for determining the "saturation point" of materials (SP), i.e. the maximum amount of materials which, when burning, will not yield enough combustion products to cause death or serious injury to people during their emergency evacuation, and the emergency exposure limits (EEL) for the main substances produced by the combustion of these materials. The SP for polyvinyl chloride is 7.3g/m3 and the EELs are 60±10mg/m3 for carbon monoxide, 950±290mg/m3 for carbon dioxide, 124±49mg/m3 for hydrogen chloride.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1984, No.8, p.52-54. 7 ref.


CIS 85-412 Carbon dioxide
Contents of this data sheet: description and uses; hazardous reactions; hazards in the event of fires and use as a fire extinguishant; toxicity; safety precautions; emergency and first aid procedures.
Safety Practitioner, July 1983, Vol.1, No.7, p.20-21. 10 ref.

CIS 83-1933 Gros P.
Gaseous fire-extinguishing agents - Comparative study of Halons 1211 and 1301 and CO2: properties, toxicity, use
Les agents extincteurs gazeux - Etude comparative des halons 1211 et 1301 et du CO2: propriétés, toxicité, emploi [in French]
Physical properties and handling of the title extinguishing agents. Mechanisms of extinction, applications, and utilisation. Toxicity of the agents at ambient temperature; toxicity of their decomposition products and toxicity of the total atmosphere after their use. Review of French regulations, standards and recommendations for use.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1983, No.113, Note No.1453-113-83, p.535-542. Illus.


CIS 84-6 Bamberg G.
Fire hazard from electrostatic charging of carbon dioxide
Zündgefahren durch elektrostatische Aufladung von Kohlendioxid [in German]
Many accidents involving tanks can be attributed to ignition of explosive gas/air mixtures by discharge of electrostatically charged carbon dioxide, which is used for fire extinguishing or displacement of explosive atmospheres. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the electrostatic charging of carbon dioxide at the outlet of a tank of compressed gas. The electric charge can vary from 0.01 to 30µC/kg, depending on the way the gas expands and on the shape of the outlet. Thus, CO2 tanks and installations should be earthed if they are to be used in the presence of explosive mixtures. Dry ice would be a safe means of displacing explosive gases and mixtures.
Chemische Technik, 1982, Vol.34, No.7, p.393-393. 13 ref.

CIS 83-1248 Mishina M.
Mouth occlusion pressure responses to CO2 rebreathing and exercise in silicotic patients
Mouth-occlusion pressure (P0.1) and ventilatory responses during carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing and exercise on a bicyle ergometer, were examined in 12 patients with silicosis and 8 healthy subjects. Similar values were observed for P0.1 at rest and P0.1 response to PCO2 during rebreathing in both groups. Patients had significantly higher values of P0.1 during the 30 W-ergometer exercise test, and these were comparable to the P0.1 of the healthy subjects during the 90W exercise test and with the maximum values obtained during CO2 rebreathing. Despite the elevated P0.1, the increased ventilatory responses during rebreathing and exercise were lower in patients than in healthy subjects.
Respiration and Circulation, 15 Sep. 1982, Vol.30, No.9, p.881-887. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 83-716 Belegaud J.
Oxygenated carbon derivatives
Dérivés oxygénés du carbone [in French]
Update of this encylopaedia article on carbon monoxide: main physical and chemical properties; natural occurrence and industrial production of CO; fate in body; mode of action; clinical signs and symptoms of acute poisoning (warning signs, neurological, cardiovascular and biological signs), insidious effects on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system, action to be taken in the event of acute poisoning, detection of CO in blood and expired air, technical safety measures and safety and health regulations. A brief review of the occupational health aspects of CO2 is also given.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France, 1982. 4p. 7 ref.

CIS 83-154 Guillemin M., Gubéran E.
Value of the simultaneous determination of P-CO2 in monitoring exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane by breath analysis
The P-CO2 was measured as a correction factor in the monitoring of solvent exposure by breath analysis. Volunteers were exposed to 200ppm 1,1,1-trichloroethane for 8h, and alveolar samples were taken 15-19h later by voluntary hyperventilation, 10-s breath holding and the "standard" method for simultaneous P-CO2 and solvent determination. The results of breath analyses for solvent exposure should be corrected for hyperventilation or hypoventilation and for dilution of alveolar air with dead-space air by a proportional adjustment of the solvent concentration at the mean normal alveolar P-CO2 or by disregarding samples with a P-CO2 outside the normal range. Monitoring exposure by breath analysis would have little meaning without such an adjustment or rejection criterion.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1982, Vol.39, No.2, p.161-168. Illus. 19 ref.


CIS 81-2022 Wang T.C.
Residence time and carbon dioxide scrubbing efficiency in life support systems
The effect of the residence time, the length of time the gas is exposed to the absorbent material, on the absorption efficiency and capacity of 5 different commercial granular absorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) was evaluated under controlled flow and temperature conditions. Anhydrous and partially hydrated lithium hydroxide (LiOH) had the highest CO2 absorption capacity when residence time was about 0.8s and absorption capacity increased with increasing porosity. At 0.4s residence time the absorption capacity of partially hydrated LiOH was 13 times greater than that of anhydrous LiOH. The CO2 absorption capacity of both Sodasorb and Baralyme increased with increasing residence time but was greatly reduced for residence times <1.0s.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1981, Vol.52, No.2, p.104-108. Illus. 14 ref.


CIS 82-31 Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems
This revised ANSI/NFPA standard was approved 20 Nov. 1980. It covers: general information and requirements, including definitions; total flooding systems; local application systems; hand hose line systems; standpipe systems and mobile supply. Explanations, examples of hazard protection and a list of pertinent NFPA standards and other publications are appended.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, Massachusetts 02269, USA, 20 Nov. 1980. 103p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 81-313 Crescitelli S., Meli S., Russo G., Tufano V.
Flammability limits of saturated vapors: toluene-oxygen-carbon dioxide mixtures.
The flammability limits of saturated toluene-oxygen-carbon dioxide mixtures were evaluated by a new experimental technique, using a closed stainless steel vessel in which both saturated gaseous and liquid phases are present. The flammability zone was determined in the range 40-120°C and 1-15 bar at different oxygen/carbon dioxide ratios by direct measurement, without the extrapolation procedure necessary when using the classic techniques. The good agreement obtained with the data in the literature shows the effectiveness of this technique, which is simpler, cheaper and safer than the classic one.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 1980, Vol.3, No.4, p.293-299. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 80-1310 Carbon dioxide.
Properties (heavier than air; hazardous chemical reactions); sources (by-products of industrial processes; natural gas wells); commercial uses in solid, liquid and gaseous state); storage and shipping; hazards (in grain silos, wine fermentation vats, bulk flour containers; ships' holds containing fish or cereals liable to decay); toxicity; U.S. TLV (TWA): 5,000ppm for 8-h workday (ACGIH); short-term exposure limit (TLV-STEL): 15,000ppm; hazard controls (exhaust ventilation; CO2 testing of manholes; confined spaces (especially where there is a possibility of oxidation of organic material); respiratory protective equipment; first aid.
National Safety News, Data Sheet 1-682-80, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, USA. Feb. 1980, Vol.121, No.2, p.69-71. Illus. 5 ref.


CIS 80-1444 Riley R.L., Bromberger-Barnea B.
Monitoring exposure of brewery workers to CO2: A study of cellar workers and controls.
Carbon dioxide exposure was assessed by blood monitoring before work on Monday and after work on Monday and Friday in 19 cellar workers and 20 controls. The differences found were not statistically significant. Breathing zone air of 3 cellar workers was monitored for a week, yielding a time-weighted average of 1.08% CO2. In view of the risk of acute lethal exposure, emphasis should be placed on warning devices for acutely hazardous levels above 20% rather than on a time-weighted average in the 1% range.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1979, Vol.34, No.2, p.92-96. 3 ref.

CIS 80-1149 Swimming pools - Storage and use of sodium hypochlorite, hypochloric acid, sulfuric acid, carbon dioxide
Zweminrichtingen - De opslag en het gebruik van chloorbleekloog, zoutzuur, zwavelzuur, kooldioxyde [in Dutch]
These 4 directives, issued under the Regulations concerning work in swimming pools (CIS 79-2058), contain data on the chemical and physical properties and disinfectant and harmful effects of these substances, indicating safety measures and precautions for handling them and in case of leaks. Instructions for first aid, transport and storage (tanks and their location, ventilation of premises, pipes and fittings, filling storage tanks and marking to identify their contents); monitoring.
Labour Inspectorate, General Directorate of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1979. 13 + 13 + 12 + 16p. Illus. Price: Glds.0.50 each booklet.

CIS 80-158 Love R.G., Muir D.C.F., Sweetland K.F., Bentley R.A., Griffin O.G.
Tolerance and ventilatory response to inhaled CO2 during exercise and with inspiratory resistive loading.
The use of self rescuers in mines is likely to be associated with inhalation of CO2. This study investigates tolerance to the effects of 2, 3, and 4% CO2 under conditions similar to those of miners wearing a self-rescuer. The average minute volume increased with CO2 concentration. Individuals showed considerable differences. A majority of subjects experienced breathlessness and headache when inhaling 4 and 5% CO2. The design of respirators for use under conditions in which increased CO2 might be inhaled should allow for the resulting increased ventilation.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1979, Vol.22, No.1, p.43-53. 19 ref.


CIS 78-1141 Mano Y., D'Arrigo J.S.
Relationship between CO2 levels and decompression sickness: Implications for disease prevention.
A report of the clinical findings obtained from 84 caisson workers engaged in foundation work for the construction of a blast furnace on reclaimed ground in Tokyo Bay. The maximum depth reached by the caisson was 56.3m from the surface, the workers being exposed to 5 different ranges of pressure and totalling 12,586 exposures in 5 months' work. There were no cases of decompression sickness at caisson pressures 1.8-2.7ata; at 2.7-3.9ata the overall incidence was 1.64%. When the bottom pressure was 3.0-3.2ata, and the man lock contained 1.8-2.3% carbon dioxide during decompression, the incidence of sickness was 3.05%. On reducing the CO2 to 0.3-0.8%, the incidence was 0.96%, even at 3.2-3.4ata. Based on the nature of muscular activity required of the workers just prior to decompression, their most common site of the disease was in the region where the highest amounts of CO2 would be expected during decompression.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1978, Vol.49, No.2, p.349-355. Illus. 21 ref.


CIS 90-1797 Carbon dioxide
Dwutlenek węgla [in Polish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (Poland) = 0.5%.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1977. 2p.

CIS 78-1506 Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems.
This standard, updating previous editions, was approved as American National Standard ANSI/NFPA 12 1977 on 18 July 1977. Sections are devoted to: general information and requirements; personnel safety; specifications, plans and approvals; operation and control of systems; carbon dioxide supply; distribution systems; inspection, maintenance and instruction. Separate chapters cover: total flooding, local application, hand hose line and standpipe systems with mobile supply. Appendices: explanatory notes; examples of hazard protection, etc.
NFPA No.12-1977, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1977. 93p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: US-$3.25.

CIS 77-1341 Skare I.
Evaluation of indicator tubes - Part IV: Carbon dioxide
Utvärdering av vissa analysampullers tillförlitlighet - IV. Koldioxid [in Swedish]
Seven tubes (Auer 817; Bacharach 19-199; Dräger CH 235; Gastec 2LL, 2L, 2H; MSA 85976) were tested for accuracy and effects of temperature and humidity. The accuracy was acceptable for all types, and there were no interfering substances at the high carbon dioxide concentrations. At extremely high humidities, all tubes gave positive errors. All the tubes were acceptable except the Gastec 2LL (because of the measuring range). English summary.
Undersökningsrapport 1977:1, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1977. 19p. 3 ref. Price: Swe-cr.5.00.


CIS 77-442 Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to carbon dioxide.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of adverse effects of carbon dioxide on the health of workers. The time-weighted average exposure (10h work shift) should not exceed 10,000ppm (approx. 18,000mg/m3) over a 40h week. The ceiling concentration is fixed at 30,000ppm (approx. 54,000mg/m3) as determined by a sampling period not to exceed 10min. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protective equipment, information of employees, work practices, and monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of a standard; research needs. Procedures for sampling and analysis of the compound in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-194, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Aug. 1976. 169p. 151 ref.


CIS 76-1924 Truhaut R., Boudène C., Jouany J.M.
Toxicity of the combustion and pyrolysis products of materials employed in the building industry - I. Acute inhalation toxicity of major toxins produced during fires
Etude de la toxicité des produits de combustion et de pyrolyse de matériaux utilisés dans le bâtiment - I. Etude de la toxicité aiguë, par voie aérienne, des toxiques majeurs pouvant être libérés lors d'incendies. [in French]
Animal study of the hazards of the most powerful toxins produced by pyrolysis or combustion: CO, CO2 (with and without oxygen deficiency), HCl and HCN. "Physiograms" (3-coordinate diagrams) were established for these different types of poisoning, permitting comparisons of the various substances and different dose levels. Oxygen insufficiency, CO and HCN produce different types of cell hypoxia; HCl is very aggressive, but its toxicity depends on the degree of penetration of the respiratory tract.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1975, Vol.36, No.12, p.707-738. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 76-532
Anvisningar nr. 19:4, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Stockholm, Mar. 1975.
Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing plant - Directives for shipyards
Kolsyresläckningsanläggningar - Varvsanvisningar [in Swedish]
These directives apply to shipbuilding, repair, maintenance and alteration work and testing of vessels equipped with carbon dioxide fire extinguishing plant. Leakages of this gas may cause asphyxiation by displacing oxygen in confined spaces. Safety rules for shipbuilding, alterations, design and layout, ship repairs in dockyards and sea trials (safety locking of CO2 plant during all structural work, display of notices of locking for safety, custody of keys, responsibility, etc.). A model certificate of locking for safety and unlocking is appended.
Liber Förlag, Fack, 16289 Vällingby, Sweden, 1975. 11p. Price: Swe-cr.5.25.

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