Ketones - 295 entries found
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White K.L., Heikkila K., Williams R., Levin L., Lockey J.E., Rice C.
Diacetyl exposures at four microwave popcorn plants
Exposure to the butter-flavouring compound diacetyl was assessed in four microwave popcorn manufacturing plants in the United States during multiple surveys from 2005-2007. Personal, breathing zone samples were collected and analyzed using NIOSH Method 2557. Samples were collected at the lapel, outside the powered air-purifying respirator used by any worker entering the slurry room. The data were evaluated for similarity of exposure across job duties and resulted in two exposure groups: mixers, those who routinely work in the slurry room mixing vegetable oil, salt and flavourings, and non-mixers (all other production jobs). From 639 samples collected during surveys, summary estimates of exposures were calculated as the arithmetic mean and median of the data and by the geometric mean of log-normally distributed results. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2010, Vol.7, No.4, p.185-193. 27 ref.
Diacetyl_exposures.pdf [in English]
Caubet A., Lopez I., Baert A.
Cétones [in French]
Ketones are mainly used as chemical intermediates and as solvents, often mixed or together with other solvents, which makes it difficult for industrial hygienists or occupational physicians to evaluate exposures. The most commonly-used ketones are acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and cyclohexanone. They are generally considered to be of low toxicity. Acute exposure to vapours causes nasal and ocular membrane irritation and migraine, followed by reduced vigilance and finally coma. Ingestion always carries the risk of vomiting and inhalation pmeumopathy, although the latter is rare. Chronic exposure can give rise to irritative dermatitis. Central nervous system disorders are occasionally reported with one or another ketone.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2009, No.162, 10p. 42 ref.
van Rooy F.G.B.G.J., Smit L.A.M., Houba R., Zaat V.A.C., Rooyackers J.M., Heederik D.J.
A cross-sectional study of lung function and respiratory symptoms among chemical workers producing diacetyl for food flavourings
Four workers of a diacetyl (also known as 2,3-butanedione) plant in the Netherlands were diagnosed with a bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. This lead to an investigation of exposures, respiratory symptoms, lung function and exposure-response relationships in a cohort of 175 workers having worked at the plant between 1960 and 2003. Lung function and questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms were compared to a general population sample and to an unexposed internal reference group. Compared to the two reference groups, diacetyl exposed workers reported significantly more respiratory symptoms, daily cough and asthma. A relationship between exposure and FEV1 was also observed. The excess of respiratory symptoms in this retrospective cohort suggests that diacetyl production poses an occupational hazard.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.66, No.2, p.105-110. Illus. 16 ref.
Martyny J.W., Van Dyke M.V., Arbuckle S., Towle M., Rose C.S.
Diacetyl exposures in the flavor manufacturing industry
Diacetyl is used in the food industry as a flavour. Exposure to diacetyl has been linked to bronchiolitis obliterans. In this study, exposures were monitored at 16 small-to medium-sized flavour facilities, during which 181 personal and area samples were collected in various processing areas. Diacetyl concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 60ppm. Half of the samples were below the limit of detection, and the mean diacetyl concentration for all processes was 1.80ppm. Mean diacetyl levels during powder operations were generally higher (4.24ppm) than during operations involving liquids (2.02ppm). Peak exposures may be considerably higher and warrant further research.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2008, Vol.5, No.11, p.679-688. Illus. 16 ref.
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Supplementary reports XI (Nos. 2,11a,11b,13,83,85)
Ergänzungsberichte XI [in German]
This document includes translations of supplementary reports, finalized between October 1985 and February 1992, relating to six substances (o-chlorobenzene, m-chlorobenzene, p-chlorobenzene, nonylphenol, carbon disulfide and chloranil) evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to ecotoxicological aspects and the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. Toxic effects in humans are reported.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. 286p. (German); 240p. (English). Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 63.00.
Rojas-Hijazo B., Lezaun A., Hausen B.M., Segura N., Garcés M., Colás C.
Airborne contact dermatitis in gaitas (flageolets) constructors after exposure to sawdust of caviuna
Exposure to the sawdust of exotic wood can produce dermatitis on exposed body areas among woodworkers. The cases of seven patients who made musical instruments in Spain from caviuna vermelha, part of the rosewood family, are described. They developed dermatitis on exposed areas hours after they had begun to work with caviuna. Patch tests were performed using the European standard series, caviuna sawdust samples and a series of dalbergiones. Fifteen unexposed controls were also tested. Caviuna samples were analysed by thin-layer chromatography. Patch test with caviuna sawdust yielded positive reactions in all subjects. Five of the seven subjects reacted strongly to obtusaquinine and (R)-4-methoxy-dalbergione deriving from Dalbergia retusa but also to sensitizers present in other rosewoods. Other findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2007, Vol.56, No.5, p.274-277. Illus. 11 ref.
Egilman D., Mailloux C., Valentin C.
Popcorn-worker lung caused by corporate and regulatory negligence: An avoidable tragedy
Diacetyl-containing butter flavour was identified as the cause of an outbreak of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and other lung diseases in popcorn-plant workers. Litigation documents show that the outbreak was both predictable and preventable. The industry trade organization was aware of BO cases in workers at butter-flavouring and popcorn-manufacturing plants but often failed to implement industrial hygiene improvements and actively hid pertinent warning information. Due to weaknesses in the organization and mandates of regulatory bodies, organizations such as NIOSH, OSHA, the FDA, particularly the "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) system, and the EPA failed to detect and prevent the outbreak, which highlights the need for systemic changes in food-product regulation, including the need for corporations to act responsibly, for stronger regulations with active enforcement, for a restructuring of the GRAS system, and for criminal penalties against corporations and professionals who knowingly hide information relevant to worker protection.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2007, Vol.13, No.1, p.85-98. Illus. 98 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1301_Egilman.pdf [in English]
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of November 2004: Studies are lacking on the toxicokinetics of triacetonamine (common name of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone) and the acute toxicity after inhalational uptake. The LD50 of triacetonamine in rats is between 1000 and 2000 mg/kg after oral uptake and higher than 2000 mg/kg after dermal uptake. Acute signs of poisoning are a rough coat, timidity, reduced movement, slight tremor, staggering, ataxia, cardiac dysrhythmia, a drop in blood pressure, breathing difficulty, hypothermia and a prone position. Validated investigations with repeated administration of triacetonamine are not available. Triacetonamine is corrosive to the skin and eyes of rabbits. In the maximization test, triacetonamine is sensitizing to guinea pigs. Triacetonamine is negative in the mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli. Studies on the carcinogenic potential of triacetonamine are not available. In vitro genotoxicity investigations with bacteria gave negative results No studies exist on the genotoxicity in vivo. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiii, 43p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 47.00.
BUA_Report_255_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_255_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]
Boylstein R., Piacitelli C., Grote A., Kanwal R., Kullman G., Kreiss K.
Diacetyl emissions and airborne dust from butter flavorings used in microwave popcorn production
Occupational exposure to butter flavourings has been associated with chronic obstructive lung disease. Severe respiratory effects have been reported in rats exposed to butter flavouring vapours and to diacetyl, a diketone found in most butter flavourings. This study assessed diacetyl emissions and airborne dust levels from flavourings used by several microwave popcorn manufacturing companies. Samples of flavourings were heated to 50°C, and gas chromatography was used to measure the organic compounds emitted. Workplace air sampling was also conducted for diacetyl and for total and respirable dust during the mixing of flavourings with heated soybean oil. Powder flavourings were found to give off much lower diacetyl emissions than pastes or liquids. However, a substantial amount of the airborne dust generated by handling powder flavourings was respirable and could thus pose its own respiratory hazard. Companies that use butter flavourings should consider flavourings with lower diacetyl emissions and the use of ventilation and engineering controls to minimize exposures. Until controls are fully implemented, companies should institute the mandatory use of respirators for all exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2006, Vol.3, No.10, p.530-535. Illus. 9 ref.
Methyl ethyl ketone
Metil etil cetona [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for methyl ethyl ketone (butanone), The liquid and vapour of this substance are extremely flammable. Inhalation causes irritation of the nose and throat; inhalation of very high concentrations may cause depression of the central nervous system. Ingestion causes abdominal pain and aspiration into the lungs may cause severe lung damage. Contact with the skin causes irritation; the substance may be absorbed by the skin with possible systemic effects. The vapour causes eye irritation and contact with the liquid may cause painful irritation and damage to the eyes. Prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis and prolonged exposure may result in effects on the central nervous system. Persons with pre-existing skin, eye or functional respiratory problems may be more susceptible to the effects of this substance.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2006]. 4p. Illus.
Hamelin G., Tardif R., Truchon G.
Study of environmental and physiological factors contributing to biological variability: characterization of the "exposure - biological exposure indicator" relationship for n-hexane
Etude des facteurs environnementaux et physiologiques contribuant à la variabilité biologique - Caractérisation de la relation "exposition - indicateur biologique d'exposition" pour le n-hexane [in French]
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) is questioning the long-standing use of the total urinary 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) as a biological indicator of the exposure to n-hexane. In this study, experimental checks were run on five volunteers during two consecutive five-day periods of seven hours per day, to simulate two full working weeks. Subjects were exposed to 50ppm of n-hexane during the first week, and to 25ppm during the second week. Measurements were made of alveolar n-hexane and urinary 2,5-HD at the end of each of the five-day periods. It is concluded that urinary 2,5-HD remains the most practical and reliable method evaluating the exposure to n-hexane.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. v, 36p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: CAD 5.35.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-369.pdf [in French]
Kawai T., Zhang Z.W., Takeuchi A., Miyama Y., Sakamoto K., Higashikawa K., Ikeda M.
Methyl isobutyl ketone and methyl ethyl ketone in urine as biological markers of occupational exposure to these solvents at low levels
To examine whether urinary methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) are useful markers of low-level occupational exposure to these solvents, 27 furniture-making workers (19 men and eight women) and 11 non-exposed controls (six men and five women) volunteered to participate in this study. Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of solvent vapours in air were monitored by diffusive sampling. Urine samples collected at the end of the shift were subjected to gas chromatography analysis. The relationship between the solvent concentrations and the corresponding urinary levels was examined by simple as well as multiple regression analysis. Significant correlations were found for both MIBK and MEK. It is concluded that urinary concentrations are good markers of exposure to both solvents.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2003, Vol.76, No.1, p.17-23. Illus. 46 ref.
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Methyl vinyl ketone
Conclusions of this criteria document: methyl vinyl ketone has an unpleasant odour (threshold for perception: 0.2mL/m3). Irritation of the respiratory tract occurs at 1.7mL/m3. Methyl vinyl ketone can cause skin sensitization and is caustic to the skin. Target organs in animal studies are the central nervous system, the kidneys and the liver.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2003. xii, 153p. 97 ref.
http://www.hirzel.de/bua-report/PDF/Summary_Report233.pdf [in English]
Piotrowski J., Orłowski C.
Cykloheksanon [in Polish]
Cyclohexanone is primarily used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of nylon. Information on the toxicity of this substance in humans is fragmentary. Acute exposure is characterized by irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. In two exposed persons, drowsiness and renal impairment were found. However these workers were also exposed to other compounds. Hepatic disorders were found in a group of workers exposed for over five years. The proposed threshold limit value for cyclohexanone is based on the effects on reproduction. In female rats, following inhalation exposure at a concentration of 2600mg/m3 during the 9th to 16th day of pregnancy, a reduction of body weight was found in both the mother and the foetus. This concentration was accepted as being the lowest observed adverse effect level. The threshold limit value (time-weighted average) calculated on this basis is 40mg/m3, and the proposed short-term exposure limit is set at 80mg/m3.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.33, No.3, p.21-36. 27 ref.
Sapota A., Ligocka D.
3,5,5-Trimetylocykloheks-2-en-1-on [in Polish]
Isophorone (3,5,5-Trimethylcyclohex-2-enone) is used as a solvent for various natural and synthetic polymers, resins, paints, inks, waxes, fats, oils, pesticides and herbicides. It is also a chemical intermediate used in synthesis. There are many reports in the literature concerning the irritating action of isophorone on the upper airways, eyes and mucous membranes in both in humans and animals. Its effects on the central nervous system in humans may be regarded as critical. The RD50 value of 157mg/m3 determined in investigations on mice was accepted as the basis for the threshold limit value (TLV) (time-weighted average), for which calculations resulted in a value of 5.23mg/m3. It is suggested that the TLV be left at the current level of 5mg/m3, which should ensure the prevention of upper airways and eye irritation among exposed workers. Because of its irritant nature, a short-term exposure limit of 10 mg/m3 is suggested.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.31, No.1, p.155-166. 16 ref.
Czerczak S., Pakulska D.
5-Metyloheptan-3-on [in Polish]
5-Methyl-3-heptanone is used as a solvent for nitrocellulose-alkyd, nitrocellulose-maleic and vinyl resins. The oral LD50 for rats is 3500mg/kg. Vapours and aerosols are irritating to the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Neurotoxic effects occur at high concentrations. No incidents of illness caused by industrial handling of 5-methyl-3-heptanone have been reported. Humans exposed to concentrations of 130mg/m3 experienced irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract and reported a strong odour. At a concentration of 524mg/m3, irritation of mucous membranes, headache, and nausea were too severe to tolerate for more than a few minutes. The Polish Expert Group for Chemical Agents recommends a threshold limit value (time-weighted average) of 50mg/m3 for 5-methyl-3-heptanone. Based on the irritative effects of the substance, a short-term exposure limit value of 100mg/m3 is recommended.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.31, No.1, p.111-121. 20 ref.
Sapota A., Kilanowicz A.
5-Metyloheksan-2-on [in Polish]
Occupational exposure to 5-methyl-2-hexanone (methyl isoamyl ketone) occurs through inhalation and dermal contact during production and use of this compound. There are no available data concerning toxic effects in humans. In laboratory animals, it shows a weak irritating action on the skin and eyes and irritating activity on the respiratory tract, the RD50 value for mice being 5695mg/m3. In a long-term experiment on rats, no harmful effects were observed at a concentration of 923mg/m3, which is taken as the no observed adverse effect level. There are indications of nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects. The calculated threshold limit value (time-weighted average) of 116.5mg/m3 is only slightly greater than the corresponding value accepted in the European Union (95mg/m3). Thus, it is suggested that this latter value be accepted.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.31, No.1, p.99-109. 20 ref.
Kupczewska-Dobecka M., Dobecki M.
Heptan-4-on [in Polish]
The acute toxicity of 4-heptanone in laboratory animals is low by all routes of administration. The value of LC50 for 6-hour inhalation by rats is 12535mg/m3. The dermal LD5l0 for rabbits is 4624mg/kg, and the oral LD5l0 for rats is 3047mg/kg. The vapours and aerosols are irritating to the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Effects on the central nervous system and the respiratory tract occur at high concentrations. A threshold limit value (time-weighted average) of 230mg/m3 is recommended for 4-heptanone, based on its irritative effects. There are currently insufficient data to provide a sound scientific basis for defining short-term exposure limit values.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.31, No.1, p.69-78. 12 ref.
Sapota A., Kilanowicz A.
Heptan-3-on [in Polish]
Long-term occupational exposure to 3-heptanone causes a slight irritation of the skin, although the substance does not appear to demonstrate allergic activity. Animal experiments indicate neurotoxic effects following a 6-hour inhalation exposure to a concentration of 14010mg/m3. After a 24-week exposure to a concentration of 3269mg/m3, no neurotoxic, irritative or organ toxicity effects were observed in rats. This concentration was accepted as a lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level. However, a statistically significant decrease of leucocytes (60%) was observed in the investigated animals compared to the control group. This resulted in a calculated threshold limit value of 102.2mg/m3, which is only slightly greater than that accepted in the European Union (95 mg/m3). It is therefore suggested that the same threshold value as that in force in the EU be accepted. There is no basis for establishing short-term exposure limit values or biological exposure indices for 3-heptonone.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.31, No.1, p.55-67. 25 ref.
Kupczewska-Dobecka M., Dobecki M.
Heptan-2-on [in Polish]
Heptanone is used as a flavour or fragrance in the food, detergents and cosmetics industries and as a solvent for varnishes, nitrocellulose, oils, resins and polymers. The oral LD50 in rats was found to be 1670mg/kg. Heptanone vapours and aerosols are irritating to the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Effects on the central nervous system and respiratory tract occur at high concentrations. The concentration at which heptanone begins to produce ocular or upper respiratory tract irritation in humans is not known. For heptanone, the Polish Expert Group for Chemical Agents recommends a threshold limit value of 240mg/m3 (time-weighted average), while the recommended short-term exposure limit value is twice that of the time-weighted average value, namely 480mg/m3, in consideration of the irritative effects of the substance.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.31, No.1, p.39-54. 32 ref.
Screening information data set SIDS for high production volume chemicals - Volume 8, Parts 1 and 2
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of 7 chemicals: 1,4-butanediol, p-tert-butylphenol, diacetone alcohol, 4-5-dihydroxy-1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl) imidazolidin-2-one (synonym: dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea), glycidyl methacrylate, 4,4'- methylenedianiline and 1,1,2-trichloroethane.
United Nations Environment Programme, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, Nov. 2002. viii, 264p. Bibl.ref. (Part 1); viii, 302p. Bibl.ref. (Part 2).
2-Pentanona [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limits: 700mg/m3 or 200ppm (OSHA); TWA 530mg/m3 or 150ppm (NIOSH); 700mg/m3 or 200ppm and short-term exposure 875mg/m3 or 250ppm (ACGIH). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; dermatitis; headache; nausea; vertigo; disturbances of coordination and eyes.
Noticias de seguridad, Mar. 2002, Vol.64, No.3, 4p. Insert.
Isoforona [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 140mg/m3 or 25ppm (OSHA); 23mg/m3 or 4ppm (NIOSH); 25/m3 or 5ppm (ACGIH). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; loss of appetite; headache; vertigo; fatigue; nausea; diarrhoea; medical supervision and biological monitoring are recommended.
Noticias de seguridad, Nov. 2001, Vol.63, No.11, 5p. Insert.
5-Metil-3-heptano [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 130mg/m3 or 25ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of skin, the eyes, nose and throat; effects on the central nervous system.
Noticias de seguridad, Sep. 2001, Vol.63, No.9, 4p. Insert.
2-Hexanona [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limits: 410mg/m3 or 100ppm (OSHA); 4mg/m3 or 1ppm (NIOSH); 20mg/m3 or 5ppm (ACGIH). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Acute toxicity: headache; drowsiness; unconsciousness; moderate irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. Chronic toxicity: nausea; loss of weight; fatigue; tingling and shooting pain in the arms and legs; peripheral neuropathy; skin irritation and inflammation.
Noticias de seguridad, Apr. 2001, Vol.63, No.4, 5p. Insert.
German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
In vitro studies indicate 1,4-naphthoquinone to be non mutagenic. Oral LD50 in mice and rats is in the range of 140-400mg/kg, so the substance is classified as toxic if swallowed. With a 4h LC50 in rats of 46mg/kg, the substance must be considered as being highly toxic through inhalation. Other animal tests indicate a sensitizing potential and possible mutagenicity. The limited studies on carcinogenicity are not conclusive. In humans, 1,4-naphthoquinone causes irritation to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Despite lack of data on carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, further studies do not appear warranted considering the low levels of exposure which occur during the production and processing of 1,4-naphthoquinone.
S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2000. xiv, 53p.137 ref.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Screening information data set SIDS for high production volume chemicals - Volume 6, Part 1
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of acetone, 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) or azobisisobutyronitrile, hexamethylene glycol (1,6-hexanediol), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid) and isocyanuric acid.
United Nations Environment Programme, Case postale 356, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, June 2000. viii, 319p. Bibl.ref.
http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/volume6/part1/COVOL61.PDF [in English]
Ortometilciclohexanona [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limits: 100ppm or 460mg/m3 8h-TWA (OSHA); 50ppm (ACGIH). Toxicity: irritation of eyes and respiratory tract; sleepiness; unconsciousness; skin rash.
Noticias de seguridad, Aug. 2000, Vol.62, No.8. 4p. Insert.
Pival [in Spanish]
Pindone is a vitamin K antagonist, the ingestion of which may lead to haemorrhaging. It does not provoke immediate symptoms. The use of respiratory protective equipment and the medical supervision of exposed workers are required. OSHA permissible exposure level: 0.1mg/m3.
Noticias de seguridad, Jan. 2000, Vol.62, No.1, insert 4p.
Bircher A.J., Bigliardi P., Langauer Messmer S., Surber C.
Occupational airborne contact dermatitis from diphencyprone in a pharmacy employee
Topics: diphenylcyclopropenone; case study; drugs; eczema; glassware handling; hospitals; laboratory work; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1999, Vol.41, No.1, p.52. 8 ref.
Fire Protection Association
Topics: 4-heptanone; data sheet; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; fire protection; legislation; storage; transfer of liquids; United Kingdom.
Fire Prevention, Oct. 1999, No.325, 2p. Insert.
Diméthyl-2,6 heptadiène-2,5 one-4 [in French]
Dimetil-2,6 heptadieno-2,5 ona-4 [in Spanish]
Synonym: phorone. International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Acute symptoms: cough; breathlessness; sore throat; redness of the skin and eyes; abdominal pain; nausea. Insufficient data are available on the effect of this substance on human health, therefore utmost care must be taken. No TLV has been established.
Internet site: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcs/icstart.html, 1993-1998. Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain. 2p.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Summaries in French and Spanish. Topics: acetone; criteria document; ecotoxicology; eye irritation; ILO; IPCS; literature survey; neurological effects; neuropsychic effects; toxic effects; toxicology; UNEP; WHO.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1998. xviii, 159p. approx. 380 ref. Price: CHF 36.00 (CHF 25.20 in developing countries).
Delépine A., Caubet A., Verger C., Teysser-Cotte C.
Cétones [in French]
Topics: aromatic ketones; compensation of occupational diseases; encyclopaedia; ketones; metabolic process; poisoning; toxicology.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 1998, No.119, 5p. Illus. 35 ref.
Apostoli P., Alessandro G., Placidi D., Alessio L.
Metabolic interferences in subjects occupationally exposed to binary styrene-acetone mixtures
The excretion of styrene metabolites (mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA)) was investigated in plastic manufacturing workers to verify the possible influence of coexposure to acetone on styrene metabolism. Amounts of MA and PGA did not differ in groups with different levels of acetone exposure, but when the acetone air concentration increased, the degree of correlation between styrene and MA and PGA decreased. Coexposure to acetone levels similar to those described here may hamper the use of urinary metabolites for the assessment of exposure to styrene, especially on an individual basis. Topics: acetone; styrene; phenylglyoxylic acid; mandelic acid; determination in air; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; exposure tests; metabolic process; plastics industry; synergism; urinary metabolites.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 1998, Vol.71, No.7, p.445-452. Illus. 31 ref.
Fukuda Y., Nagano M., Futatsuka M.
Occupational leukoderma in workers engaged in 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone manufacturing
Three cases are presented of occupational leukoderma in the upper extremities of workers exposed to 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone (HPB). In two of the cases, symptoms of contact dermatitis were present in the same areas before the occurrence of depigmentation. An epidemiologic study of 13 workers exposed to chemicals in the production of HPB showed that 9 had symptoms of dermatitis which were more severe in sunshine or hot weather. These facts suggest that HPB and/or the chemicals used in its manufacture have irritant and phototoxic potential. Topics: 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone; chemical industry; epidemiologic study; leukoderma; pigmentation disorders.
Journal of Occupational Health, Mar. 1998, Vol.40, No.2, p.118-122. Illus. 20 ref.
Heksan-2-on [in Polish]
Topics: 2-hexanone; description of technique; determination in air; gas chromatography; sampling and analysis.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 1998, Vol.19, p.87-90. 1 ref.
Kumagai S., Matsunaga I., Tabuchi T.
Effects of variation in exposure to airborne acetone and difference in work load on acetone concentrations in blood, urine, and exhaled air
Topics: acetone; conditions of exposure; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in exhaled air; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; mathematical simulation; physical workload.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1998, Vol.59, No.4, p.242-251. Illus. 29 ref.
Topics: benzoquinone; elimination of spills; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; irritation; limitation of exposure; medical examinations; personal protective equipment; renal damage; respirators; respiratory impairment; storage; threshold limit values; ulceration of the skin; USA; visual function disorders; waste disposal.
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Right to Know Program, PO Box 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1998. 6p.
Ciclohexanona [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Topics: cataract; cyclohexanone; data sheet; determination in air; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; hepatic damage; irritation; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; neurotoxic effects; personal protective equipment; renal damage; respirators; USA; waste disposal.
Noticias de seguridad, Feb. 1998, Vol.60, No.2. 5p. Insert.
4-Hydroxy-4-méthyl-2-pentanone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: diacetone alcohol. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 89-1127. Acute toxicity: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Chronic toxicity: dermatosis. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 240mg/m3 (50ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.603-016-00-1; Xi, R36, S24/25, 204-626-7. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 4p. Illus. 13 ref.
4-Méthyl-2-pentanone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: hexone. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 88-752. Acute toxicity: eye, nose and throat irritation. Chronic toxicity: neurological, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms; skin dryness. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 205mg/m3 (50ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No. 606-004-00-4; F, R11, S9, S16, S23, S33, 293-550-1. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 3p. Illus. 12 ref.
Cyclohexanone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 90-37. Acute toxicity: irritation of the eyes and of the upper respiratory tract. Chronic toxicity: drowsiness; repeated or prolonged contact may cause dermatosis. Exposure limit (France): TWA = 100mg/m3 (25ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.606-010-00-7; Xn, R10, R20, S25, 203-631-1. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 4p. Illus. 23 ref.
2-Butanone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 88-1785. Toxicity: irritation of the throat, eyes and nose; digestive disorders; headache; dermatosis; potentiation of effects of other solvents in case of simultaneous exposures. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 200ppm (600mg/m3). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.606-002-00-3; F, Xi, R11, R36/37, S9, S16, S25, S33, 201-159-0.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM, 2000. 4p. Illus. 16 ref.
Acétone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 88-1782. Acute toxicity: irritation of the eyes and upper airways; neurological effects. Chronic toxicity: digestive symptoms (haematemesis); neurological effects; dermatosis; potentialization of the toxic effects of ethanol and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Exposure limits (France, 1985): TWA = 1800mg/m3 (750ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.606-64-1; F, R11, S9, S16, S23, S33, 200-662-2.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM, 2000. 4p. Illus. 17 ref.
Amyl methyl ketone
Cetona de metilo (n-amilo) [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Topics: data sheet; dermatitis; determination in air; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; heptanone; irritation; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; narcotic effects; personal protective equipment; respirators; USA; waste disposal.
Noticias de seguridad, May 1997, Vol.59, No.5. 5p. Insert.
Ethyl butyl ketone
Cetona de etilbutilo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Topics: 3-heptanone; data sheet; dermatitis; determination in air; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; irritation; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; narcotic effects; personal protective equipment; respirators; USA; waste disposal.
Noticias de seguridad, Mar. 1997, Vol.59, No.3. 4p. Insert.
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Ethyl acetoacetate. Acetone
Conclusions of this criteria document, translations of reports finalized in June 1995: ethyl acetoacetate is of low acute toxicity in animals; skin tests on humans produced no indications of skin irritation or sensitization; human exposure to acetone at concentrations of 2,400mg/m3 and above causes irritation of the mucous membranes, headache, respiratory complaints and dizziness; adaptation to acetone is expected to occur following repeated exposures; dermal contact produces a local irritative effect (degreasing dermatitis); a sensitizing effect is considered to be unlikely.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1997. vii, 169p. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 97.00.
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Glutaric acid. C4-6 Dicarboxylic acids. Cyclohexanone
Conclusions of this criteria document, translations of reports finalized between October 1992 and June 1993: no data are available on the effects of glutaric acid in man; toxicological studies give no indication of a hazard potential; the C4-6 dicarboxylic acids (a mixture of succinic acid, glutaric acid and adipic acid) have a low oral or inhalation toxicity; isolated cases of skin and respiratory tract irritation have been reported in workers handling these acids; the acute toxicity of cyclohexanone is low; short term inhalation exposure causes irritation of the eyes, nose and throat; allergic contact dermatitis is reported following contact with a resin containing cyclohexanone.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1997. 174p. Bibl.ref.
Alfacloroacetofenona [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: strong irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; conjunctivitis; may cause corneal damage; may cause skin burns; may cause pulmonary oedema (may be delayed).
Noticias de seguridad, Dec. 1996, Vol.58, No.12. 4p. Insert.
Residual electroneurographic modifications in subjects with n-hexane induced polyneuropathy: A follow-up study
This study reports on the neurological examinations of 90 shoe workers diagnosed with polyneuropathy. The examinations were repeated at least one year after cessation of occupational exposure to n-hexane (the subjects were divided into two groups: 63 had the re-examination less than 10 years after cessation of exposure, while 27 had it after more than 10 years). The aetiologic agent of polyneuropathy was thought to be 2,5-hexanedione, a neurotoxic metabolite of n-hexane. The follow-up study demonstrated a complete recovery of motor conduction velocity in both groups of subjects. On the other hand, even though there was improvement in other neurological functions (conduction velocity and distal latency of the sensory nerves and distal latency of the ulnar nerve) among the subjects in both groups, there was a statistically significant deterioration in these functions independent of the time that had elapsed since cessation of exposure.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1996, Vol.87, No.4, p.289-296. 22 ref.
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