Aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons - 446 entries found
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Vernez D., Wognin B., Tomicic C., Plateel G., Charrière N., Bruhin S.
Cyclododecane exposure in the field of conservation and restoration of art objects
Recent work practices in the conservation and restoration involve the use of cyclododecane (CDD) to protect fragile artifacts during their handling or transportation. Little is known about its toxicity, and no previous exposure has been reported. A short field investigation was conducted to characterize the exposure conditions to both CDD vapours and aerosols. Measurements were conducted in the laboratory of conservation and restoration of the archaeological service in Berne, Switzerland. Three indoor and four outdoor typical work situations, either during brush or spray gun applications, were investigated. Measurements were performed on charcoal adsorbent tube and analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. Indoor exposures were of 0.75-15.5 mg/m3, while outdoor exposures were 19.5-53.9 mg/m3. Exposures appear to be extremely localized due to both physicochemical properties and application methods of the CDD. Vapour exposure increases dramatically with the confinement of the workplace. Preventive measures should be undertaken to limit as much as possible these exposures. Field work in confined areas (ditches, underground) is of particular concern. CDD-coated artifacts or materials should be stored in ventilated areas to avoid delayed exposures.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2011, Vol.84, No.4, p.371-374. Illus. 6 ref.
Cyclododecane_exposure_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Lovreglio P., Barbieri A., Fracasso M.E., Doria D., Drago I., Basso A., D'Errico M.N., Bartolucci G.B., Violante F.S., Soleo L.
Validity of new biomarkers of internal dose for use in the biological monitoring of occupational and environmental exposure to low concentrations of benzene and toluene
This study analyzes the validity of new, more sensitive and specific urinary biomarkers of internal dose, namely, urinary benzene for benzene and urinary toluene and S-benzylmercapturic acid (SBMA) for toluene, to assess their efficacy when compared to traditional biomarkers for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to low concentrations of these two toxic substances. Assessment was made of 41 workers occupationally exposed to benzene and toluene, 18 fuel tanker drivers and 23 filling-station attendants, together with 31 subjects with no occupational exposure to these toxic substances (controls). Exposure to airborne benzene and toluene was measured using passive personal samplers worn throughout the work shift. In urine samples collected from all subjects at the end of the workday, both the traditional and the new internal dose biomarkers of benzene and toluene were assessed, as well as creatinine so as to apply suitable adjustments. Findings confirmed the validity of trans, trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic (SPMA) acid for use in the biological monitoring of exposure to low concentrations of benzene. Urinary benzene showed comparable validity to SPMA. Urinary toluene was found to be a more specific biomarker than S-benzylmercapturic acid. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.83, No.3, p.341-356. Approx. 90 ref.
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. 1,3-Butadiene, ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide)
This volume re-evaluates the available evidence on the carcinogenic potential of 1,3-butadiene, ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide). Ethylene oxide is widely used as a sterilizing agent for hospital equipment. The largest single use for 1,3-butadiene is in the production of styrene-butadiene rubber for tyres, while vinyl chloride is primarily used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. Summary of final evaluations: ethylene oxide, 1,3-butadiene and vinyl chloride are classified in Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans); vinyl bromide is classified in Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), while there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of vinyl fluoride in humans.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2008. ix, 510p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol97/mono97.pdf [in English]
Acetileno [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for acetylene. The substance is an extremely inflammable dissolved gas with a smell of garlic. It is asphyxiating agent and has an anaesthetic effect at low concentrations. Inhalation can induce sleepiness, vertigo and dizziness, loss of coordination and unconsciousness. In atmospheres with a low concentration of oxygen, it can cause convulsions, respiratory collapse, and lead to death. In the case of repeated exposure, skin contact of liquid acetylene can cause irritation and dermatitis.
Protección y seguridad, Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2008]. 4p.
Frictional ignition of methane-air in the presence of liquid hydrocarbons
Methane ignitions in underground coal mining are often caused by the impact of mining machine cutter bits on sandstone during the coal-cutting process. Most ignitions are small and limited to the cutter head location. However, under certain conditions, these ignitions can lead to larger methane explosions and/or fires with the potential for causing serious injury or death to the mining machine operator and other nearby miners. A series ignition tests were conducted in a test chamber, with various methane-air mixtures with and without the presence of liquid hydrocarbons on the sandstone. It was found that hydrocarbon vapours can ignite at significantly lower temperatures than the methane. Extra precautions to prevent fires and explosions must be taken when heavier molecular weight liquid hydrocarbons are present in addition to methane in an underground coal mine.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Mar. 2008. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/pubs/pdfs/2008-124.pdf [in English]
Explosion hazards from methane emissions related to geologic features in coal mines
Explosions in coal mines are caused when buildups of explosive gas and/or dust are ignited by a flame or spark. Methane is normally contained in coal and is liberated during mining. Because this gas is explosive in the range of 5%-15% by volume in air, fresh air is constantly supplied to the working face to prevent the methane/air mixture from reaching this explosive range. The required amount of ventilation air is based on estimates of methane release under normal conditions. Occasionally, unanticipated and unusually high emissions are encountered, which, despite normal ventilation controls, result in an explosive mixture that a spark from a cutting bit or electrical equipment can easily ignite. Investigations have shown that such emissions are often associated with anomalous geologic features or conditions. This report provides operators with specific information on recognizing and alleviating potential hazards from methane emissions related to these geologic features.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Apr. 2008. 18p. Illus. 35 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/pubs/pdfs/2008-123.pdf [in English]
Decree No.2007-1083 of 10 July 2007 updating and completing occupational disease table No.12 appended to book IV of the law on social security [France]
Décret n° 2007-1083 du 10 juillet 2007 révisant et complétant le tableau n° 12 des maladies professionnelles annexé au livre IV du code de la sécurité sociale [France] [in French]
This French decree of 10 July 2007 consists of a complete overhaul of occupational disease table No.12, concerning diseases caused by certain halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The decree specifically updates the list of chemicals and diseases concerned, together with the lag times for compensation.
Secrétariat général du Gouvernement, Hôtel de Matignon, 57 rue de Varenne, 75007 Paris, France, 2007. Internet document (PDF format). 2p.
http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/imagesJOE/2007/0712/joe_20070712_0160_0012.pdf [in French]
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of April 2004: benzanthrone can be absorbed orally and by inhalation. It is of low acute toxicity (inhalation LC50 in the mouse is >5000 mg/m3; oral LD50 in the rat and guinea pig is >2000 mg/kg; dermal LD50 in the rabbit is >3000 mg/kg). In humans, target organs are the skin, nervous system, lung and liver. Benzanthone causes phototoxic dermatitis in humans, with photo-allergic reactions suspected in some cases. It is not mutagenic in the mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimuriumstudies on the carcinogenic potential of benzanthrone are not available. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xv, 112p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 60.00.
BUA_Report_251_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_251_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]
Chalbot M.C., Vei I., Lykoudis S., Kavouras I.G.
Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in recycled paper processing operations
The aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic fractions of dust collected in the vicinity of recycled paper processing operations were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total measured dust concentration (up to 8.73mg/m3) fluctuated substantially in the various steps of paper manufacture. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (from fluorene to benzo[g,h,i]perylene with mean concentrations from 3.8 to 41.4ng/m3) and the mixture of branched, cyclic and unsaturated hydrocarbons were measured in all samples, while n-alkanes from n-C220l to n-C27, were only observed in cutting and packaging areas (180.6 to 4297.9ng/m3). Total benzo[α]pyrene-equivalent concentrations of particulate PAHs, which varied from 323 up to 1104pg/m3, provided evidence that workers were exposed to high quantities of PAHs, posing a long-term threat to their health.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2006, Vol.137, No.2, p.742-751. Illus. 49 ref.
Radican L., Wartenberg D., Rhoads G.G., Schneider D., Wedeen R., Stewart P., Blair A.
A retrospective occupational cohort study of end-stage renal disease in aircraft workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other hydrocarbons
Various case-control studies suggest that hydrocarbons increase end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk. No cohort studies have been conducted. In this study, an occupational database was matched to the U.S. Renal Data System, and the outcome of ESRDs was examined using multivariable Cox regression. Sixteen individual hydrocarbons were studied. For the 1973-2000 period there was an approximate twofold increased risk of ESRD among workers exposed to trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and JP4 gasoline compared with unexposed subjects. Relative risk was greater than unity for several other hydrocarbons. Associations attenuated when 2001-2002 data were included in the analyses. It is concluded that certain hydrocarbons may increase ESRD risk, although some findings are contradictory and further research is needed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.48, No.1, p.1-12. 32 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
1,3-Butadiene in air - Laboratory method using diffusive samplers, thermal desorption and gas chromatography
This revised analytical method describes the sampling of 1,3-butadiene in air using diffusive samplers, thermal desorption and gas chromatography. The main changes with respect to the earlier edition are the restriction of the maximum diffusive sampling time to 10 hours when using Molecular Sieve 13X sorbent and the addition of validation data for Molecular Sieve 13X and uptake rate data for graphitized carbon sorbents. The method can be used for the determination of personal exposure or for fixed location monitoring. Replaces the previous edition (CIS 91-585).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2rd ed., Mar. 2005. 12p. 25 ref. Price: GBP 13.50.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/mdhs/pdfs/mdhs63-2.pdf [in English]
Hamelin G., Tardif R., Truchon G.
Study of environmental and physiological factors contributing to biological variability: characterization of the "exposure - biological exposure indicator" relationship for n-hexane
Etude des facteurs environnementaux et physiologiques contribuant à la variabilité biologique - Caractérisation de la relation "exposition - indicateur biologique d'exposition" pour le n-hexane [in French]
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) is questioning the long-standing use of the total urinary 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) as a biological indicator of the exposure to n-hexane. In this study, experimental checks were run on five volunteers during two consecutive five-day periods of seven hours per day, to simulate two full working weeks. Subjects were exposed to 50ppm of n-hexane during the first week, and to 25ppm during the second week. Measurements were made of alveolar n-hexane and urinary 2,5-HD at the end of each of the five-day periods. It is concluded that urinary 2,5-HD remains the most practical and reliable method evaluating the exposure to n-hexane.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. v, 36p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: CAD 5.35.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-369.pdf [in French]
Henderson M.H., Lipscombe R.P., Blakley K.C.
Method for monitoring exposure to LPG containing small amounts of 1,3-butadiene
This report provides a detailed validation of a sampling and analytical methodology based on gas chromatography for occupational exposure monitoring of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and its components, including trace amounts of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen.
CONCAWE, Madouplein, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, Dec. 2004. iv, 35p. 3 ref.
http://www.concawe.org/Content/Default.asp?PageID=31 [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
1,3-Butadiene in air: Laboratory method using pumped samplers, thermal desorption and gas chromatography
This revised analytical method is aimed at occupational hygienists, safety practitioners and laboratory technicians. It describes the sampling of 1,3-butadiene in air using pumped samplers, thermal desorption and gas phase chromatography. The main changes with respect to the earlier edition include the recommendation for using a drying pre-filter when using molecular sieve 13X sorbent, and for adding new validation data for molecular sieve 13X and graphitized carbon black sorbents. Contents: requirements of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations (see CIS 03-1023); scope; reagents; apparatus; procedure; calculation of results; method performance; quality control measures. Replaces CIS 92-589.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2003. 11p. 24 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
Butane (gaz liquéfié) [in French]
International Chemical Safety Card published in 2003 (Spanish version already abstracted under CIS 94-1145). Exposure routes: inhalation. Short-term exposure effects: frostbite on contact with liquid butane; exposure to high concentrations may cause effects on the central nervous system. Threshold limit value: 800ppm as 8h TWA (ACGIH 2003); pregnancy risk group: IIc (DFG 2003).
Internet documents, 2003. 2p.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc02/icsc0232.pdf [in English]
http://www.cdc.gov/Niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn0232.html [in French]
Sapota A., Ligocka D.
Cykloheksen [in Polish]
Cyclohexene is mainly used in synthesis as an alkylating agent and as a solvent of catalysts during oil extraction. According to the European Union classification, cyclohexene belongs to the group of harmful compounds. There are only sparse data concerning the toxicity of cyclohexene in experimental animals, and a lack of data on its human toxicity. The results of a 6-month inhalation exposure tests on rats, guinea pigs and rabbits were used as the basis for determining the threshold limit values (time-weighted average). Among rats exposed to a concentration of 2010mg/m3, there was a significant decrease of body mass in comparison with the control group. This effect was not observed at lower concentrations. No effects were observed in other animal species subjected to the same experiment. Consequently, it is recommended that the current threshold limit (time-weighted average) and short-term exposure limit values of 300 mg/m3 and 900mg/m3 respectively should remain without change.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.33, No.3, p.41-47. 11 ref.
Screening information data set - SIDS - for high production volume chemicals - Volume 7, Parts 1, 2 and 3
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of: acetic anhydride; D & C Red No. 9; benzyl chloride; 2-butoxyethanol; 4-chloro-o-cresol; 2,6-dichlorotoluene; dicyclopentadiene; cresyl diphenyl phosphate; pentaerythritol; hydroquinone; melamine; 3-methyl butynol; α-methyl styrene.
United Nations Environment Programme, Case postale 356, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, June 2002. viii, 328p. Index (Part 1); viii, 322p. Index (Part 2); viii, 295p. Index (Part 3).
http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/oecdsids/indexcasnumb.htm [in English]
Bonnard N., Falcy M., Jargot D., Miraval S., Protois J.C., Schneider O.
1,3-Butadiène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonyms: bivinyl; vinyl ethylene. Acute toxicity: inhalation exposure to concentrations above 10,000ppm induces coughing. a state similar to that under the influence of alcohol, fatigue, headache and blurred vision; higher concentrations can cause coma. Chronic toxicity: there is lack of data on toxicity to humans; mutagenic activity has been detected (chromosome changes); the substance is carcinogenic (leukaemia, lymphosarcoma, reticulum cell sarcoma, haematopoietic cancer). Exposure limits (ACGIH): TWA = 2ppm. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.601-013-00-X; T, F+, R12, R45, R46, S33, S45, 203-450-8. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 6p. Illus. 36 ref.
Rosenberg C., Liukkonen T., Kallas-Tarpila T., Ruonakangas A., Ranta R., Nurminen M., Welling I., Jäppinen P.
Monoterpene and wood dust exposures: Work-related symptoms among Finnish sawmill workers
This study was carried out on 22 Finnish sawmill workers who processed pine and spruce between 1997 and 1999. Exposure to monoterpenes was assessed by determining monoterpenes in air and verbenols in urine. A questionnaire was used to evaluate work-related subjective symptoms. The highest monoterpene concentration in the breathing zone, measured during processing of pine, was less than one fourth of the Finnish occupational exposure limit (OEL, 570mg/m3). Verbenol concentrations in post-shift urine samples reflected accurately the exposure to monoterpenes. The concentrations of inhalable dust were less than one-half the Finnish OEL (5mg/m3). No significant differences in dust exposure were observed among tree species processed. Work-related eye, skin and respiratory symptoms appeared to correlate with monoterpene exposure during processing of pine and with wood dust exposure during processing of spruce.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.41, No.1, p.38-53. Illus. 48 ref.
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. May cause dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting. High levels may cause suffocation from lack of oxygen. It is a highly flammable gas and a fire hazard.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p.
http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/0286.pdf [in English]
Mixture of methyl acetylene and propadiene
Mixtura de acetileno de metilo y propadieno [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 1800mg/m3 or 1000ppm (OSHA). Exposure route: inhalation. Toxicity: anaesthetic effect (drowsiness and unconsciousness); frostbite.
Noticias de seguridad, Oct. 2001, Vol.63, No.10, 3p. Insert.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
1,3-Butadiene: Human health aspects
1,3-Butadiene is a product of incomplete combustion resulting from natural processes and human activity, as well as an industrial chemical used primarily in the production of elastomers. It has low acute toxicity in experimental animals. In studies involving mice and rats, long-term exposure was associated with ovarian and testicular atrophy; inhaled butadiene was found to be a potent carcinogen and to show mutagenic effects. Among exposed workers, mortality due to leukaemia increased with estimated cumulative exposure. The available epidemiological and toxicological data provide evidence that butadiene is a human carcinogen, and possibly also a genotoxic agent. IARC has classified butadiene in group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans). Summaries in French and in Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 73p. Illus. 256 ref. Price: CHF 21.00 (CHF 14.70 in developing countries).
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad30.pdf [in English]
Demers P.A., Teschke K., Davies H.W., Kennedy S.M., Leung V.
Exposure to dust, resin acids, and monoterpenes in softwood lumber mills
The objective of this study was to assess exposure to potential respiratory hazards in a large lumber mill processing spruce, pine and fir. Personal samples of inhalable particulate were collected to measure exposure to dust and resin acids (abietic acid and pimaric acid). Passive dosimeters were used to measure exposure to α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ3-carene and other unidentified wood volatiles believed to be monoterpenes. The mean concentration of inhalable particulates was 1.0mg/m3 whereas the mean abietic acid, pimaric acid and estimated wood dust levels were 7.2µg/m3, 0.6µg/m3 and 0.5mg/m3, respectively. The mean values of the monoterpene samples were 0.1mg/m3 for α-pinene, 0.3mg/m3 for β-pinene, 0.1mg/m3 for Δ3-carene and 0.5mg/m3 for the unidentified wood volatiles. Monoterpene exposures were much lower than those observed in other studies conducted in Sweden and Finland. The results highlight the importance of considering the content of airborne particulates in lumber mills as well as potential exposure to wood chemicals.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2000, Vol.61, No.4, p.521-528. Illus. 40 ref.
Acétylène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 86-675. Synonym: ethyne. Acute toxicity: anaesthetic effect; central nervous system depression; coordination disturbances; unconsciousness or severe coma; increased blood pressure. Chronic toxicity: asthenia; headache, sleepiness, gastric pain, bronchitis. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.601-015-00, 200-816-9; F+, R5, R6, R12, S6, S16, S33, 200-819-9. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 15 ref.
Stayner L.T., Dankovic D.A., Smith R.J., Gilbert S.J., Bailer A.J.
Human cancer risk and exposure to 1,3-butadiene - A tale of mice and men
The purpose of this study was to evaluate empirically the relevance of animal-bioassay-based models for predicting human risks from exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) using epidemiological data. Relative-risk results obtained with a regression model in a recent epidemiological study were used to estimate leukaemia risk for occupational and environmental exposures to BD and to compare these estimates with those previously derived from an analysis of animal bioassay data. The estimates of risk were found to be highly dependent on the model used when low levels of exposure were evaluated that are of environmental concern, but not at the levels of occupational concern.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.322-330. Illus. 36 ref.
Vermeulen R., de Hartog J., Swuste P., Kromhout H.
Trends in exposure to inhalable particulate and dermal contamination in the rubber manufacturing industry: Effectiveness of control measures implemented over a nine-year period
Exposure to inhalable particulates and dermal exposure to cyclohexane soluble matter (CSM) were evaluated in seven rubber manufacturing companies in The Netherlands in 1988 and 1997. The identified exposure trends were used to study the effectiveness of control measures implemented over a nine-year period. Inhalable particulate exposure was measured with a PAS6 sampling unit. Dermal exposure was assessed by means of a dermal pad sampler worn at the lower wrist. Changes in working organization and control measures taken after 1988 were identified based on discussions with plant management and two walk-through surveys performed in 1994 and 1997. Comparison of the exposure levels between 1988 and 1997 revealed a reduction rate of 5.7 and 6.7% per year for inhalable particulate and dermal exposure, respectively, showing the success of the efforts undertaken to improve working conditions in the rubber manufacturing industry.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2000, Vol.44, No.5, p.343-354. Illus. 33 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Take care with acetylene
Acetylene is highly flammable gas. It is also unstable, capable under certain conditions of explosive decomposition into carbon and hydrogen. These properties involve specific explosion hazards and require special precautionary measures. This booklet is aimed at persons using acetylene for welding and cutting. Contents: description of an acetylene cylinder explosion; hazards of acetylene cylinders; safe use of acetylene cylinders; preventing flashbacks; emergency actions in the event of a flashback.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2000. 11p. Illus. 7 ref.
Décane [in French]
International Chemical Safety Card published in 1998 (Spanish version already abstracted under CIS 96-472). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: aspiration into the lungs may cause chemical pneumonitis. Long-term exposure effects: defats the skin. Threshold limit value not established. Synonym: n-decane.
Internet documents, 1998, 2p.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc04/icsc0428.pdf [in English]
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn0428.html [in French]
Teschke K., Demers P.A., Davies H.W., Kennedy S.M., Marion S.A., Leung V.
Determinants of exposure to inhalable particulate, wood dust, resin acids, and monoterpenes in a lumber mill environment
Respirable particulate, resin acid and monoterpene exposures were measured, and wood dust exposures estimated in a lumber mill. Potential determinants of exposure were documented, including weather conditions, tree species, wood conditions, jobs, tasks, equipment used, and certain control measures. Geometric mean concentrations were 0.98mg/m3 for respirable particulate, 0.49mg/m3 for wood dust, 8.04µg/m3 for resin acids, and 1.11mg/m3 for total monoterpenes. Spruce and pine produced higher exposures than alpine fir or mixed tree species. Sawing wood in the primary breakdown areas of the mill was the main contributor to monoterpene exposures. Cleaning up sawdust, planing kiln-dried lumber and driving mobile equipment in the yard substantially increased exposures to both respirable particulate and estimated wood dust. Jobs at the front end of the sawmill where primary breakdown of the logs takes place had lower exposures.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, May 1999, Vol.43, No.4, p.247-255. 11 ref.
Occupational safety in oxyacetylene welding
Segurança do trabalho na soldagem oxiacetilênica [in Portuguese]
Guidance to safe acetylene welding. Main topics covered: description of the oxyacetylene system; hazards due to the use of oxygen and acetylene; safety devices and requirements for their use; safe operation (preparing the equipment, igniting the blowpipe; welding; extinguishing the blowpipe; putting away the equipment; use of personal protective equipment).
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2nd ed., 1999. 70p. Illus. 23 ref.
Tan E., Leow Y.H., Ng S.K., Goh C.L.
A study of sensitization rate to sesquiterpene lactone mix in Singapore
This is a report on a study of the sensitization rate to sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix performed at the National Skin Centre, Singapore. In a retrospective review of 1,256 patients who were patch tested to SL mix (0.1%) from January 1995 to December 1997, 18 out of 1,256 patients reacted positively to SL mix. Their ages ranged from 13 to 58 years. There was a female preponderance, with a female: male ratio of 3.5:1. The most common clinical presentations were dermatitis of the hands or face or generalized dermatitis. After extensive evaluation, only 2 patients had a positive patch test reaction that was of current clinical relevance. 13 patients had concomitant sensitization to other allergens. The three commonest concomitant allergens were nickel, balsam of Peru and fragrance mix. In the series, SL allergy was more common in females and the mean age was lower compared to the classical Compositae dermatitis. The sensitization rate was comparable to other studies, although the clinical relevance was only 11%.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1999, Vol.41, No.2, p.80-83. 13 ref.
Béguin D., Gérin M.
Substitution of solvents by d-limonene
La substitution des solvants par le d-limonène [in French]
The solvent d-limonene belongs to the class of terpenes. At first, it was used as a fragrance, but for several years it has also been used as a cleaning and scouring agent. This publication presents a concise and critical overview of current knowledge relating to the occupational safety and health, environmental and technical aspects of this solvent. It is an irritant and can give rise to the development of allergic contact dermatitis upon oxidative degradation. Certain workers could be overcome by its smell. In Sweden, its occupational exposure limit has been set at 25ppm for 8 hours and 50ppm for 15 minutes.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montréal (Québec) H3A 3C2, Canada, June 1999. 42p. 100 ref.
Knoblauch A., Steiner B.
Major accidents related to manure: A case series from Switzerland
Data on 61 serious accidents related to manure exposure in Switzerland between 1951 and 1995 were analysed. 44 were due to inhalation of manure gas, 11 involved falls into manure containers and six were methane explosions. There were 105 victims in all, with 49 fatalities, including 12 in which persons attempting to rescue primary victims died. 37 persons survived gas poisoning. There were 15 successful rescues and four cases in which primary victims saved themselves. The main danger is that of gradual or sudden manure gas intoxication, which is often fatal. However, almost a third of the accidents were due to falls into manure containers or manure gas explosions. Accidents in which victims of gas poisoning regained consciousness and saved themselves are also reported. Analysis of the accident circumstances confirms the importance of strict observation of existing safety guidelines with respect to both structural design and working practices. Specific measures at the scene can substantially increase the chances for survival of both primary victims and would-be rescuers.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.177-186. Illus. 22 ref.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for hexane
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: musculoskeletal effects (muscle wasting, atrophy); erythema; neurotoxic effects (peripheral neuropathy, paralysis, narcosis).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, July 1999. xix, 230p. Illus. approx. 330 ref.
Fire Protection Association
Topics: nonane; data sheet; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; fire protection; legislation; storage; transfer of liquids; United Kingdom.
Fire Prevention, Sep. 1999, No.324, 2p. Insert.
Essences spéciales [in French]
Replaces CIS 72-2077. Uses, physical and chemical properties, pathology and toxicology. Attention is drawn to French legislation relating to occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations are made concerning technical and medical aspects. Topics: alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic hydrocarbons; aromatic hydrocarbons; central nervous system; data sheet; delayed effects; determination in air; erythema; eye irritation; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; France; handling and storage; health hazards; irritants; labelling; legislation; limitation of exposure; neurological effects; neuropsychic effects; peripheral neuritis; personal protective equipment; solvents; spills; threshold limit values.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1999. 5p. 12 ref.
Metilciclohexano [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Topics: bladder tumour; methylcyclohexane; data sheet; delayed effects; determination in air; dyspnoea; eczema; elimination of spills; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; irritants; irritation; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; methaemoglobinaemia; narcotic effects; neurological effects; personal protective equipment; respirators; skin absorption; skin allergies; threshold limit values; unconsciousness; USA; vertigo; waste disposal.
Noticias de seguridad, Feb. 1999, Vol.61, No.2. 4p. Insert.
Perico A., Cassinelli C., Brugnone F., Bavazzano P., Perbellini L.
Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to cyclohexane by urinary 1,2- and 1,4-cyclohexanediol determination
Individual exposure to cyclohexane was evaluated in 156 workers employed in shoe and leather factories by measurement of 1,2-cyclohexanediol (1,2-DIOL) and 1,4-DIOL in urine during the working week. Individual exposure to cyclohexane ranged from 7 to 617mg/m3. Urinary concentrations of 1,2-DIOL were 3.1, 7.6, 13.2 and 6.3mg/g creatinine on Monday (pre- and post-shift), Thursday (post-shift) and Friday (pre-shift), respectively. Corresponding values recorded for 1,4- DIOL were 2.8, 5.1, 7.8 and 3.7mg/g creatinine. A significant correlation was found between environmental exposure to cyclohexane and post-shift urinary 1,2-DIOL and 1,4-DIOL on Monday. Data for Thursday and Friday showed only a poor correlation to exposure. Both metabolites have a urinary half-life of close to 18h and accumulate during the week. Comparison between data obtained from a PBPK model and those found in workers suggests that 1,2-DIOL and 1,4-DIOL are suitable for the biological monitoring of industrial exposure to cyclohexane. Topics: adhesives; cyclohexane; determination in air; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; leather goods industry; shift work; shoe industry; urinary metabolites; urine monitoring.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 1999, Vol.72, No.2, p.115-120. Illus. 18 ref.
Code of practice for the filling, inspection, testing and maintenance of containers for the storage and transport of compressed gases - Part 2: Containers for dissolved acetylene gas
The second part of this standard on the filling, inspection, testing and maintenance of containers for dissolved acetylene gas was revised in the year 1998 to bring its contents up-to-date with current industrial practices, and to enhance safety during the transport and storage of gas containers. Containers for gases other than dissolved acetylene are covered in the first part of the present standard (see CIS 01-1502).
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Singapore, 1998. 37p. Illus. 5 ref.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Screening information data set SIDS for high production volume chemicals - Volume 5, Part 2
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of ethylene, dibutylmaleate, aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid (synonym: formamide sulfinic acid, FSA), triethylphosphate and vanilline.
United Nations Environment Programme, Case postale 356, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, Oct. 1998. viii, 307p. Bibl.ref.
http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/insids.PDF [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Fire and explosion risks from pentane in expandable polystyrene (EPS)
Topics: pentane; polystyrene; data sheet; expanded plastics; explosion hazards; explosive atmospheres; fire hazards; fire protection; hazard evaluation; plastics industry; sources of ignition; storage.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Sep. 1998. 3p. 3 ref.
Fire Protection Association
Topics: 2,2-dimethylbutane; data sheet; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; legislation; storage; United Kingdom.
Fire Prevention, Dec. 1998, No.315, 2p. Insert. 2 ref.
Falk A., Bard J., Karlsson S.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Topics: limonene; d-limonene; l-limonene; criteria document; first aid; ILO; IPCS; irritants; literature survey; sampling and analysis; sensitization; skin absorption; toxic effects; toxicology; UNEP; WHO.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1998. iv, 32p. 175 ref. Price: CHF 13.00 (CHF 9.10 in developing countries).
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad05.pdf [in English]
2-Methylpropen [in German]
Synonym: isobutene. Inhalation of 100ppm of 2-methylpropen by human volunteers during 20min showed a 17% retention (difference of concentration between inhaled and exhaled air). Animal experiments show a low inhalation toxicity and no toxic effects upon acute oral exposure. Narcotic-like effects have been reported. No mutagenic or genotoxic activity has been found.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 27p. 45 ref.
Cyclohexane [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 88-1791. Acute toxicity: central nervous system depression (vertigo, unconsciousness, tremor, areflexia, nausea, vomiting; cardio-vascular collapse. Chronic toxicity: irritation dermatosis. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 1050mg/m3 (300ppm); ceiling value = 1300mg/m3 (375ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.601-017-00-1; F, R11, S9, S16, S33, 203-806-2. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 3p. Illus. 15 ref.
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards XVIII
Vetenskapligt Underlag för Hygieniska Gränsvärden 18 [in Swedish]
This volume consists of the consensus reports submitted by the Criteria Group at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life between July 1996 and June 1997. Topics: 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane; 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; platinum chloride; potassium tetrachloroplatinate; ethoxyethoxyethanol; ethoxyethoxyethyl acetate; manganese dioxide; trimanganese tetraoxide; platinum tetrachloride; methyl cyanoacrylate; ammonium tetrachloroplatinate; ammonium hexachloroplatinate; potassium hexachloroplatinate; sodium hexachloroplatinate; hexachloroplatinic acid; potassium aluminium fluoride; ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate; manganese chloride; criteria document; cyanoacrylates; determination of exposure limits; ethylene; limitation of exposure; literature survey; manganese and compounds; platinum and compounds; Sweden; toxic effects; toxicology; translation.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1997. 78p. Bibl.ref.
Karlberg A.T., Dooms-Goossens A.
Contact allergy to oxidized d-limonene among dermatitis patients
Topics: cleaning agents; eczema; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests; d-limonene.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1997, Vol.36, No.4, p.201-206. Illus. 37 ref.
Eriksson K.A., et al.
Terpene exposure and respiratory effects among workers in Swedish joinery shops
A cross-sectional study of 38 workers was carried out in 4 joinery shops in Sweden to evaluate acute respiratory effects following exposure to terpenes, while processing Scotch pine. Personal exposure to terpenes ranged between 10 and 214mg/m3. No acute effects on forced vital capacity or forced expiratory volume during 1s were detected. Personal exposure to terpenes may thus exceed the present Swedish occupational exposure limit of 150mg/m3 during the winter season when workrooms air is commonly recirculated. The determination of metabolites of alpha-pinene (verbenols) in urine can be used as an index of exposure to fumes released during wood-treating processes.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1997, Vol.23, No.2, p.114-120. Illus. 20 ref.
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. May cause dizziness and lightheadedness. May cause frostbite. It is highly flammable.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1997. 6p.
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (propane, butane, isobutane and mixtures)
This report is a translation of a report finalized in June 1994. Main conclusions: while there are no reports of toxicity studies on LPGs, possible toxicity may be predicted from information on the major components, propane, isobutane (methylpropane), and butane; exposure to increasing concentrations of LPG vapour results in narcotic effects, with loss of consciousness and asphyxiation at high concentrations; the narcotic effect of butane is greater than that of propane; operating experiences show that propane, isobutane and butane are non-irritating and non-sensitizing; direct contact of LPG with the skin causes erythema, oedema and deep necrosis.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1997. xvii, 86p. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 72.00.
Yao C., Krueger D.C., Loos K.R., Koehn J.W.
Collection and determination of 1,3-butadiene using passive dosimeters and automatic thermal desorption
A passive dosimeter for sampling ambient levels of 1,3-butadiene was constructed using automatic thermal desorption tubes packed with charcoal sorbent wafers. The exposed tubes were thermally desorbed and analyzed by gas chromatography, and the effects of concentration, back diffusion and sample storage time were studied. Results of laboratory and field validation tests indicated that the method is valid for occupational exposure monitoring of 1,3-butadiene. Results obtained with the new device were not statistically different from those obtained using the current National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1997, Vol.58, No.1, p.44-50. Illus. 19 ref.
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