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Heterocyclic compounds - 575 entries found

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CIS 09-1326 Lee K., Park E.K., Stoecklin-Marois M., Koivunen M.E., Gee S.J., Hammock B.D., Beckett L.A., Schenker M.B.
Occupational paraquat exposure of agricultural workers in large Costa Rica farms
This study determined the extent of occupational exposure to paraquat among farm workers in Costa Rica. 24h urine samples were collected from 119 paraquat handlers and 54 non-handlers from banana, coffee and palm oil farms. Information about herbicide handling operations was also collected. The urinary paraquat levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Inhalable dust and airborne paraquat levels were also measured for a subset of the participants. Paraquat levels were non-detectable or very low among workers not handling paraquat. For handlers, 83.3%, 47.1% and 63.9% of the samples were below detection limits before, during and after spray days, respectively. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.455-462. 20 ref.

CIS 09-1243 Sorahan T.
Cancer risks in chemical production workers exposed to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole
This cohort study investigated cancer risks among workers of a chemical factory in north Wales exposed to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT). The mortality (1955-2005) and cancer morbidity experience (1971-2005) of 363 male production workers exposed to MBT were compared to those of the population of the United Kingdom. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Significant excesses were found for mortality by cancers of the large intestine and bladder, while non-significant excesses were found for lung cancer and multiple myeloma. Significant morbidity excesses were found for bladder cancer and multiple myeloma, with non-significant excesses for cancers of the large intestine and lung.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2009, Vol.66, No.4, p.269-273. 10 ref.

CIS 09-1115 Nishimura S., Yasui H., Miyauchi H., Kikuchi Y., Kondo N., Takebayashi T., Tanaka S., Mikoshiba Y., Omae K., Nomiyama T.
A cross-sectional observation of effect of exposure to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) on workers' health
This study was aimed at clarifying the effect of exposure to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) on workers' health. Fifteen male NMP-exposed workers and 15 referent male workers were recruited for this study. Exposure concentrations were assessed by determining NMP in the breathing zones and urinary NMP. Clinical examinations, motor nerve conduction velocities in the dominant arm and neurobehavioral tests were carried out. Subjects were also asked to complete self-administered questionnaires for subjective symptoms and psychological assessment. There were neither dose-dependent changes nor any differences between NMP-exposed and referent workers in terms of clinical data, motor nerve conduction, neurobehavioral responses and subjective symptoms.
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.355-362. Illus. 35 ref.


CIS 09-1129 Jönsson L.S., Littorin M., Axmon A., Jönsson B.A.G., Broberg K.
Lung function in relation to 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and genetic effect modification among rubber workers in Sweden
The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of impaired lung function among Swedish rubber workers. Included in the study were 159 rubber exposed and 118 unexposed controls. Urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (a marker of carbon disulfide and vulcanization fumes) were assessed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes were analyzed by Taqman-based allelic discrimination and conventional polymerase chain reaction. There was an association between increasing levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and impaired lung function among exposed workers. The association was modified by glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 (GSTA1)-52 and GSTP1-114. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep 2008, Vol.50, No.9, p.1006-1012. 43 ref.

CIS 09-403 Park E.K., Duarte Tagles H., Gee S.J., Hammock B.D., Lee K., Schenker M.B.
Recruiting strategy and 24-hour biomonitoring of paraquat in agricultural workers
Agricultural workers in Costa Rica were recruited to participate in a 24-hour urine collection for paraquat exposure assessment and compare the 24-hour sampling to end-of-shift sampling. Participants included 187 workers from coffee, banana, and palm oil plantations exposed to paraquat, and 54 unexposed workers from the same plantations. This study showed that it was possible to reliably obtain 24-hour urine samples from a farm worker population. Furthermore, comparison between the paraquat levels in end-of-shift and 24-hour urine samples demonstrated that for this compound, end-of-shift urine samples are a reliable substitute for 24-hour collections.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.4, p.207-217. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 09-399 Urueña Romero D.G.
Sources and emissions of dioxins and furans
Fuentes y liberaciones de dioxinas y furanos [in Spanish]
The Stockholm Convention is an international agreement negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), whose purpose is to provide the legal grounds for the urgent elimination of persistent organic compounds, including dioxins and furans. The Convention was adopted into Colombian legislation in June 2008. This insert summarizes the current situation in Colombia with respect to the sources and emissions of dioxins and furans. Contents: technical information on dioxins and furans; conditions that give rise to the formation of PCDD and PCDF; emissions of PCDD and PCDF; situation with respect to dioxins and furans in Colombia; main categories and sub-categories of sources and emissions of PCDD and PCDF in Colombia; compliance with the obligations under the Convention.
Protección Integral y Contra Incendios, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.20, No.80, 4p. Insert. 2 ref.

CIS 09-127 Ohbayashi H., Saito M., Senoh H., Umeda Y., Aiso S., Yamazaki K., Nagano K., Yamamoto S., Fukushima S.
Occurrence of two different types of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive hepatocytes after a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats
Occurrence of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive hepatocytes was examined, using 15 Wistar rats of both sexes each orally administered 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDD) by gavage at a single dose of 0, 10, 30, 100 or 300 µ/kg body weight. Liver tissues were stained with anti-GST-P antibody. The characteristics of the two types of GST-P-positive hepatocytes which were found in the TBDD-dosed rat are discussed.
Industrial Health, May 2008, Vol.46, No.3, p.281-288. Illus. 40 ref.


CIS 08-760
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Supplementary Reports XV (Nos. 96, 113, 126, 207, 208)
Ergänzungsberichte XV [in German]
This document includes translations of supplementary reports, finalized between August 1992 and December 1996, relating to five substances (N,N'-diphenylguanidine, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, 2,2'-dithio-bis-benzothiazole, N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylene diamine (IPPD) and N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N` phenyl-1,4 phenylendiamine (6PPD)) evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to ecotoxicological aspects and the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. Sensitizing effects in humans are reported for N,N'-diphenylguanidine, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylene diamine (IPPD) and N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N' phenyl-1,4 phenylendiamine (6PPD).
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. 85p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 47.00.

CIS 08-648 Cabrera Fernández E., Moreno Manzano G., Barchino Ortiz L., Pérez García V., Heras Mendaza F., Conde Salazar L.
Isothiazolines: Their role in the development of occupational contact dermatitis
Isotiazolinas: importancia en el desarrollo de dermatitis de contacto profesional [in Spanish]
The purpose of this study was to highlight the effect of Kathon, a mixture of two isothiazolines, in the development of contact dermatitis in certain occupations. Medical files of 2333 patients having consulted the INHST dermatology services between 2004 and 2006 were examined. A total of 110 cases of Kathon sensitization were identified, of which 32 clearly had occupational causes while 13 were doubtful. Some patients also showed positive reactions to several sensitizing agents other than Kathon. Occupations within which the highest numbers of cases of contact dermatitis were found were hairdressing, perfume manufacture, mechanical goods manufacture, the cosmetics industry and cleaning.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Sep. 2007, Vol.LIII, No.208, p.1-8. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 08-155 Aalto-Korte K., Alanko K., Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Kuuliala O., Jolanki R.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from 2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one
2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (OIT) is an antimicrobial agent that is mainly used in industrial settings. The objective of the study was to find the significance of OIT contact allergy. Clinical records of patients at an occupational dermatology clinic were analysed from 1991 for possible allergic reactions to OIT. Eight patients were found with ordinary allergic reactions to OIT and one with a late reaction. OIT is a rare sensitizer, and its contact allergies occur mainly in paint manufacturing. Other findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2007, Vol.56, No.3, p.160-163. 19 ref.

CIS 08-162 Bergendorff O., Persson C., Lüdtke A, Hansson C.
Chemical changes in rubber allergens during vulcanization
Vulcanization accelerators such as thiurams, dithiocarbamates and mercaptobenzothiazoles are among the rubber additives often responsible for allergic reactions recognized by dermatologists. The chemistry of the vulcanization process is complicated; as it occurs at an elevated temperature with a mixture of reactive chemicals. This study investigated the changes in composition of common allergens during vulcanization at different stages of the process. Major changes were found in which added chemicals were consumed and new ones produced. An important observation is that thiuram disulfides rarely appear in the final rubber even when used as additives. Instead, thiurams are often converted to dithiocarbamates or to products formed by addition to mercaptobenzothiazoles, if these have been used together with thiurams as accelerators. In conclusion, an assessment of exposure to allergens should not be based solely on knowledge concerning the additives used, but also on the chemical analysis of products formed during the vulcanization reaction.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2007, Vol.57, No.3, p.152-157. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 07-1254
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Pyrazolic acid 3
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge of July 2006: in rabbits, pyrazolic acid 3 is not irritating to the skin and weakly irritating to the eye. In rats, the oral LD5l0 is more than 2000mg/kg body weight. In mutagenicity tests, the product is non-mutagenic up to the cytotoxic range. No data are available for an evaluation of the sensitization potential, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. xiii, 22p. 37 ref. Price: EUR 00.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 12-0037
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of February 2005: No studies are available on the metabolism of 2-chlorobenzothiazole or its mechanism of action. The 4-hour LC50 for rats is more than 79 mg 2-chlorobenzothiazole/m3. The oral LD50 for rats is between 100 and 200 mg/kg, being 50 mg/kg for mice. Acute symptoms of poisoning after inhalation and oral uptake are behavioural disturbances, breathing difficulties and spasms. During inhalation, irritation occurs to the conjunctiva of the eye and the nasal mucosa, whereas oral administration causes local irritation of the gastro-intestinal mucosa. Regardless of the exposure route, necropsy reveals emphysematous or edaematous lung lesions, increased iron deposits in the liver, liver necrosis and inflammation of the kidneys. Studies with repeated administration are lacking. The results of the mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium give no indication of a mutagenic potential even in the cytotoxic range. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiii, 34p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 36.00.
BUA_Report_256_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_256_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]

CIS 12-0036
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of November 2004: no studies are available on the mechanism of action or toxicokinetics of hexamethylene-bis-triacetone diamine (HMBTAD, common name of N,N-bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-4-yl)hexane-1,6-diamine). The oral LD50 of HMBTAD in rats is between 820 and 880 mg/kg. Symptoms of poisoning are disturbed coordination, a decrease in triggered reflexes, jerking, light to heavy sedation and ataxia, tremor, a squatting position and hypothermia. Beginning at a concentration of 1000 mg HMBTAD/kg, paralysis of hind legs, ptosis and cyanosis were also observed. All treated animals had hyperaemia of the gastric and intestinal mucous membranes. HMBTAD is corrosive to the skin and eyes of rabbits. It is not sensitizing in guinea pigs. In the mutagenicity test on Salmonella typhimurium and the HPRT gene mutation test with V79 cells, HMBTAD is not mutagenic at concentrations up to 5000 µg/plate. HMBTAD is not clastogenic in the chromosome aberration test with human peripheral lymphocytes. Studies on the carcinogenic potential of HMBTAD are not available. Available in vitro genotoxicity studies give negative results. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiii, 35p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 36.00.
BUA_Report_254_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_254_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]

CIS 08-397 Hahn E.J., Rayens M.K., York N., Okoli C.T.C., Zhang M., Dignan M., Al-Delaimy W.K.
Effects of a smoke-free law on hair nicotine and respiratory symptoms of restaurant and bar workers
In this study, bar and restaurant workers' exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) was compared before and three and six months after implementation of a smoke free ordinance in the county of Lexington, Kentucky, United States. Subjects consisted of 105 smoking and nonsmoking workers from randomly-selected establishments. Nicotine was determined in hair, while data on smoking, self-reported exposure to SHS and respiratory symptoms were collected during interviews. Thirty-eight percent were current smokers. When controlling for cigarettes per day, there was a significant decline in hair nicotine after three months, which was maintained after six months. Bar workers showed a significantly larger decline in hair nicotine compared with restaurant workers. Regardless of smoking status, respiratory symptoms declined significantly.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.48, No.9, p.906-913. Illus. 57 ref.

CIS 08-175 Bard D.
Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques halogénés [in French]
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or "Seveso dioxin" is the most toxic of all halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dioxins, together with similar families of products including polychlorodibenzofuranes (PCDFs) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) have been grouped together to yield a single numerical value called the "toxic equivalent quantity" (TEQ) to characterize the potential toxicity of any environment where these congeneric substances are found. Non-carcinogenic effects are very diverse, the most reported and specific appearing at high doses. TCDD has been classified as a carcinogenic to humans in 1997. All persons are exposed daily to very low doses of dioxins, essentially through the ingestion of food. The form of the dose-response relationship for cancer remains uncertain. Several chemical industry worker cohort studies have yielded information allowing the modelling of the relationship, but the findings remain open to various interpretations.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2006, No.153, 7p. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 07-649 Madan V., Beck M.H.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from N,N-methylene-bis-5-methyl-oxazolidine in coolant oils
Contact with metal working fluids (MWF) is an important factor in the development of occupational hand dermatitis in patients working in the metal processing industry. Biocides are added to MWF as preservatives and are known sensitizers. This study analysed 318 patch test reactions to N,N-methylene-bis-5-methyl-oxazolidine 1% in petrolatum present in coolant oils in patients exposed to MWF and with suspected occupational dermatitis. Positive allergic reactions were noted in 15 cases. In seven cases, it was possible to confirm the presence of N,N-methylene-bis-5-methyl-oxazolidine in the oils used by the patients. Positive reactions to formaldehyde were seen in 11 patients. Sensitization to N,N-methylene-bis-5-methyl-oxazolidine and/or formaldehyde allergy was considered likely to have contributed to the workers' dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2006, Vol.55, No.1, p.39-41. 10 ref.

CIS 07-387 Thyssen J.P., Sederberg-Olsen N., Thomsen J.F., Menné T.
Contact dermatitis from methylisothiazolinone in a paint factory
The introduction of new potential contact-sensitizing chemicals have in the past led to epidemics of contact dermatitis. A new preservative containing only methyl-isothiazolinone (MI) and not methyl-chloroisothiazolinone (MCI) has recently been introduced for use in products such as paint, glue and cosmetics. This article describes an outbreak of contact allergy to MI and MCI among four out of 14 workers in a paint factory. Patch test results from all four patients showed positive reactions for MI and MCI/MI. The reactions were stronger for MI than MCI/MI indicating a primary sensitization to MI. The combination of MCI/MI remains widely used, and therefore various patterns of exposure and sensitization may be seen in the future. The data show that MI holds a potential for eliciting and probably inducing contact allergy in humans.
Contact Dermatitis, June 2006, Vol.54, No.6, p.322-324. 16 ref.

CIS 06-907 Huh J.W., Hong S.B., Lim C.M., Do K.H., Lee J.S., Koh Y.S.
Sequential radiologic and functional pulmonary changes in patients with paraquat intoxication
The sequential changes of paraquat-induced pulmonary damage were studied using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in long-term follow-up. Among the cohort of 27 patients who had ingested paraquat, the HRCT findings showed a normal (n=14) and an abnormal group (n=13). Increased paraquat ingestion in the abnormal group was associated with more rapid and severe pulmonary changes. Ground-glass opacity on HRCT peaked on day 7 after ingestion. Between 2 weeks and 1 month, consolidation increased and pulmonary fibrosis progressed, and slow improvements were observed for up to six months. Compared with the PFT results obtained at 1 and 6.5 months, FVC, FEV1, and diffusing capacity all improved slightly. Lung changes after paraquat intoxication are functionally and radiologically reversible following treatment. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.203-208. Illus. 24 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-905 Sass J.B., Colangelo A.
European Union bans atrazine, while the United States negotiates continued use
Atrazine is a common agricultural herbicide with endocrine disruptor activity. There is evidence that it interferes with reproduction and development, and may cause cancer. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved its continued use in October 2003, that same month the European Union (EU) announced a ban on atrazine because of ubiquitous and unpreventable water contamination. The authors reviewed regulatory procedures and government documents, and report efforts by the manufacturer of atrazine, Syngenta, to influence the U.S. atrazine assessment, by submitting flawed scientific data as evidence of no harm, and by meeting repeatedly and privately with EPA to negotiate the government's regulatory approach. Many of the details of these negotiations continue to be withheld from the public, despite EPA regulations and federal open-government laws that require such decisions to be made in the open. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.260-267. 82 ref. [in English]


CIS 06-1169 Bégin D., Beaudry C., Gérin M.
The substitution of solvents with propylene carbonate
La substitution des solvants par le carbonate de propylène [in French]
This report analyses published data on the occupational safety and health and environmental aspects of propylene carbonate. It aims to provide guidance for industrial hygienists and other safety and health specialists on its possible use as a substitute for traditional solvents. It is concluded that, given the low toxicity of propylene carbonate, in humans and in the environment, it constitutes an acceptable replacement for solvents such as flammable ketones (e.g. acetone, methyl ethyl ketone). However, the use of protective gloves and glasses is recommended.
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. 39p. Illus. 126 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 06-1019
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Triallyl cyanurate
Conclusions of this criteria document (status December 2003): animal studies show that the acute toxicity of triallyl cyanurate is low; the substance does not irritate the skin or eyes of rabbits and it has no skin sensitizing effect on guinea pigs; no mutagenic effect has been observed; no data are available for humans.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2005. xiv, 27p. 50 ref. Price: EUR 36.00.

CIS 06-1018
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
N-Cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate
Conclusions of this criteria document (status October 2003): animal studies indicate that N-cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate (CPC) can be absorbed orally, dermally or by inhalation; the substance is highly irritating to the skin and there are signs of a caustic potential; allergic effects have been reported in tests on humans.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2005. xiii, 72p. 91 ref. Price: EUR 47.00.

CIS 06-1017
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
2-Phenyl-2-imidazoline and its salts with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid
Conclusions of this criteria document (status October 2003): in animal studies, 2-phenyl-2-imidazoline and its salts with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (pyromellitic acid mono(phenylimidazolinium) salt and pyromellitic acid di(phenylimidazolinium) salt) have an irritant effect on the eyes and/or skin of animals; no data are available for humans.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2005. xvi, 138p. 99 ref. Price: EUR 54.50.

CIS 06-895 Zapór L.
Benzothiazole: Documentation of maximum admissible values for occupational exposure
Benzotiazol: Dokumentacja proponowanych wartości dopuszczalnych wielkości narażenia zawodowego [in Polish]
Benzothiazole is a yellow liquid with an unpleasant odour similar to quinoline. Occupational exposure through inhalation or dermal contact occurs mostly at rubber processing facilities and during asphalt paving. No data is available on the toxicity of benzothiazole in humans. Acute toxicity testing in laboratory animals revealed effects on the central nervous system and liver. Based on an LOAEL value of 135 mg/kg and on uncertainty factors, a MAC (TWA) value has been calculated at 20 mg/m3. A skin notation is also considered appropriate.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2005, Vol.45, No.3, p.37-48. 21 ref.

CIS 06-631 Fransman W., Vermeulen R., Kromhout H.
Dermal exposure to cyclophosphamide in hospitals during preparation, nursing and cleaning activities
This study investigated potential and actual levels of dermal exposure to cyclophosphamide (CP) used in oncology treatment in hospitals. Exposure was assessed during various tasks by the collection of samples from protective gloves and protective clothing and from hand, forearm and forehead skin. Results demonstrated that actual dermal exposure to CP is common among oncology nurses working with patients treated with this drug. Pharmacy technicians and cleaning personnel, on the other hand, are only potentially exposed to CP, and protection provided by gloves appears to be sufficient.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2005, Vol.78, No.5, p.403-412. Illus. 23 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-132 Sitarek K.
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone: Documentation of maximum admissible values for occupational exposure
1-Metylo-2-pirolidon: Dokumentacja proponowanych wartości dopuszczalnych wielkości narażenia zawodowego [in Polish]
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (methylpyrrolidinone, NMP) is an industrial solvent. It can be absorbed through the skin. The substance is not mutagenic, genotoxic or carcinogenic but it is embryotoxic, foetotoxic and teratogenic at doses which are non-toxic to the mothers. On the basis that it disturbs prenatal development in more than one animal species, in the Scandinavian countries NMP has been classified in the IB group, which comprises substances probably harmful to human reproduction. Based on the NOAEL value obtained in an experimental study (500 mg/m3) and appropriate uncertainty factors, a TLV of 120 mg/m3 and a short-term exposure level of 240 mg/m3 have been proposed. In addition, notations are suggested for irritation, foetotoxicity and skin absorption.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.103-115. 26 ref.

CIS 05-635 Kumagai S., Koda S.
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentrations in serum samples of workers at an infectious waste incineration plant in Japan
In 1998-2000, concentrations of summed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the exhaust gas of an infectious waste incineration plant were found to be considerably in excess of the Japanese legal limit value of 80ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/m3. The incinerator ceased operation in November 2000. This study investigated whether the incinerator workers were exposed to high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. Blood samples of five workers and five unexposed control subjects were collected one month and 16 months after the end of the occupational exposure. Ash remaining in the incinerator and dust deposited around the conveyer and incinerator areas was also collected; TEQ values were 44 and 10ng TEQ/g, respectively. A month after the end of occupational dioxin exposure, mean TEQ for the workers was 49.1pg TEQ/g lipid, 2.7 times higher than among the controls, while at 16 months, it was still 1.6 times higher than among the controls.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2005, Vol.2, No.2, p.120-125. 36 ref.


CIS 05-178 Falcy M., Poisson N., Protois J.C., Dornier G.
Dioxins and furanes
Dioxines et furanes [in French]
Dioxins and furanes are organic chemical pollutants produced in traces during thermal, industrial or natural processes. They constitute a class of compounds with a particularly low toxicity threshold and a long environmental persistence. Among humans, exposure to dioxins and furanes may give rise to skin diseases, immune system disorders, cancer and reproductive system disorders. Occupational exposure occurs mainly during the cleaning of incinerator filters. Contents of this information sheet on dioxins and furanes: description of the mechanism which gives rise to the formation of dioxins and furanes; risks to humans; preventive measures; regulations.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2004. 4p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed5024.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-254
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Pentachlorophenol (No. 3). 3-Trifluoromethylaniline (No. 44). Chlorotoluidines (No. 55). 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (No. 74). Chlorinated paraffins (No. 93). 4-Chloro-2-methylphenol (No. 134). Dimethyldicykan (No. 143). Isodecanol (No. 149). Propargyl Alcohol (No 213)
This document comprises supplementary reports, finalized between December 1999 and June 2002, relating to nine substances evaluated in earlier BUA reports: pentachlorophenol (CIS 94-995), 3-trifluoromethylaniline (CIS 92-565), chlorotoluidines, benzothiazolethiol (CIS 97-1265), chlorinated paraffins (CIS 96-286), 4-chloro-o-cresol (CIS 95-2188), 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dimethyldicyclohexylmethane, isodecyl alcohol (CIS 97-1269) and propargyl alcohol (CIS 02-572). The new data relate mainly to the results of ecotoxicity and animal studies carried out following recommendations made in the original reports. No new effects on humans are reported. Protective measures are recommended when handling some of these substances.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2004. 152p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 54.50.

CIS 04-81 Dewan A., Bhatnagar V.K., Mathur M.L., Chakma T., Kashyap R., Sadhu H.G., Sinha S.N., Saiyed H.N.
Repeated episodes of endosulfan poisoning
A number of families in a rural area of India were affected by repeated episodes of convulsive illness over a period of three weeks. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause of the illness. It included interviews of affected families, discussions with treating physicians, and examination of hospital records. Food samples were also collected and analysed with GC-ECD. 36 persons of all age groups presented convulsive illness symptoms of varying severity over a period of three weeks, including three fatalities among children. Subsequently, patients responded well to medical treatment. Infective aetiology was ruled out. Blood and food samples showed presence of endosulfan, which was confirmed by GC-MS. One of the food items prepared from wheat flour was found to contain 676ppm of α-endosulfan. This report highlights the unsafe behaviour of many illiterate villagers who use empty pesticide containers for food storage.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, June 2004, Vol.42, No.4, p.363-369. Illus. 15 ref.


CIS 05-156 Garnier R., Bazire A., Chataigner D.
Health effects of the occupational use of paraquat
Effet sur la santé de l'utilisation professionnelle du paraquat [in French]
In exposed workers, paraquat is mostly responsible for local irritant effects on the skin, nails and mucous membranes. Skin lesions result from direct and prolonged contact with paraquat solutions, especially during the dilution of concentrates or after the wetting of protective clothing during spraying. Paronychia and nail damage may result from contamination of the extremities. Skin damage consists in burns, blisters or ulceration at the site of contact. There are several reports of cases of severe burns of the back, buttocks and groin after dermal exposure from a leaking knapsack sprayer. Eye splashes can result in severe blepharitis, keratitis, and conjunctivitis. Inhalation exposure is often responsible for epistasis and epigastralgia. These local effects are prevented by good application practices and the use of protective equipment. The use of knapsack sprayers is potentially responsible for severe accidents and should be abandoned. Systemic paraquat poisoning has been reported after percutaneous exposure and has resulted in around 20 deaths. The features of paraquat poisoning following dermal absorption are moderate hepatic damage, reversible renal tubular necrosis, and most importantly, pulmonary fibrosis, which is the cause of death.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2003, Vol.64, No.5, p.310-324. 119 ref.

CIS 03-1760 Kumagai S., Koda S., Oda H.
Exposure evaluation of dioxins in municipal waste incinerator workers
In Japan, the largest source of dioxin is solid waste incineration plants. Workers employed at these plants handle fly ash and slag contaminated by dioxins and can absorb dioxins into the body during work, with possible adverse health effects. This study examines dioxin exposures, daily dioxin intake and blood dioxin level in workers employed at municipal incineration plants. Estimated dioxin exposures were 0.5 to 7.2pg TEQ/m3 (TEQ=toxicity equivalents) in daily operations and 0.2 to 92,000pg TEQ/m3 in periodic maintenance. It was also found that the daily dioxin intake can exceed the tolerable daily intake limit values in incineration plants with fly ash of high dioxin concentration. The mean blood dioxin concentration was 346pg TEQ/g lipid in the highest exposed worker group of the Toyono-gun incineration plant and 11 to 40pg TEQ/g lipid in the other incineration plants.
Industrial Health, July 2003, Vol.41, No.3, p.167-174. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 03-1538
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for atrazine
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of atrazine is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, importation, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: effects on the reproductive function (pre-term delivery); slightly increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among exposed farmers as well as suggestive evidence of weak associations between triazine/atrazine exposure and increased risk of prostate, breast and ovarian cancers.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2003. xix, 222p. Illus. Approx. 560 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1818
Health and Safety Executive
Control of exposure to triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) in coating powders
This guidance is aimed at all persons involved with the formulation or use of coating powders which contain TGIC. Contents: applicable legislation; characteristics of TGIC; health effects (R and S phrases); exposure routes; exposure limits (maximum exposure limit 0.1mg/m3 8 hour TWA); precautions that users of coating powders containing TGIC should take; maintenance of control measures; monitoring of exposure; measure of exposure levels; health surveillance; information, instruction and training; accidents, incidents and emergency procedures. Revision of CIS 99-247.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2003. 6p. 10 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1312 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for the analysis of process gases (see CIS 90-955). Contents: updates of analytical methods and several laws, ordinances and technical rules on dangerous substances, biological substances and protection against immissions; directory of European standards for the implementation of directive 94/9/CE; national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants (2001/81/CE).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 62. Ergänzungslieferung, May 2003. 236p. Bibl.ref.


CIS 05-517 Starek A.
Diquat dibromide
Dikwatu dibromek [in Polish]
Diquat is a non-selective herbicide mainly used in the form of its soluble dibromide salt, commonly also referred to as "diquat". Ingestion of diquat leads to severe lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and liver. This intoxication usually leads to death. The exposure to diquat aerosols may lead to irritation of nasal mucosa and upper airways. The acute toxicity of diquat for laboratory animals is relatively high by all routes of administration. Diquat is possibly also mutagenic and foetotoxic, and may exert a negative effect on the development of offspring. No carcinogenic effects have been reported. The recommended maximum exposure limit of 0.1mg/m3 is based on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) and lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL) derived from long-term studies on rats. The proposed short-term exposure limit value of 0.3mg/m3 is based on the irritant effects of the substance.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.33, No.3, p.51-65. 31 ref.

CIS 03-1061 Benzofuran
Benzofurane [in French]
International Chemical Safety Card published in 2002. Exposure routes: inhalation. Long-term exposure effects: effects on the kidneys and liver; the substance is possibly carcinogenic. Threshold limit value not established. Synonyms: 2,3-benzofuran; coumarone.
Internet documents, 2002, 2p. [in English] [in French]

CIS 03-1051 2,2'-Dipyridyl
2,2'-Dipyridyl [in French]
International Chemical Safety Card published in 2002. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Threshold limit value not established. Synonyms: 2,2'-bipyridine; alpha,alpha'-bipyridyl, 2,2'-bipyridyl; 2-(2-pyridyl)pyridine.
Internet documents, 2002, 2p. [in English] [in French]

CIS 03-811 Screening information data set - SIDS - for high production volume chemicals - Volume 7, Parts 1, 2 and 3
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of: acetic anhydride; D & C Red No. 9; benzyl chloride; 2-butoxyethanol; 4-chloro-o-cresol; 2,6-dichlorotoluene; dicyclopentadiene; cresyl diphenyl phosphate; pentaerythritol; hydroquinone; melamine; 3-methyl butynol; α-methyl styrene.
United Nations Environment Programme, Case postale 356, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, June 2002. viii, 328p. Index (Part 1); viii, 322p. Index (Part 2); viii, 295p. Index (Part 3). [in English]

CIS 03-332 Sweetman A., Lee R., Jones K.
Health and Safety Executive
Dioxin exposure from work related activities
As part of a study on occupational exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), this report covers air monitoring and personal air sampling using portable equipment. Occupational exposure via inhalation was quantified for a variety of industries including aluminium and copper recycling, waste incineration and landfill operation, and these estimates were compared to dietary intake and the Committee on Toxicity Tolerable (COT) daily intake values. Results show that some workers may be exposed to PCDDs and PCDFs in excess of the COT recommended tolerable daily intake via inhalation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. ii, 7p. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]

CIS 02-1810 Sánchez-Pérez J., Pascual López M., García-Díez A.
Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from olaquindox in a rabbit breeder
A 47-year-old rabbit breeder with no history of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis or drug intake reported that, eight months before, erythematous, scaly and pruritic patches had appeared symmetrically on the backs of his hands and fingers, and on the extensor aspects of his arms. Lesions had temporarily improved after treatment with oral and topical corticosteroids, with recurrence in the same areas on discontinuing therapy. The patient had worked on a rabbit farm for many years in contact with various types of dry food and, more recently; olaquindox powders at 10% in calcium carbonate. He used to powder several grams of olaquindox into the rabbits' water, by hand, to treat enteritis. He used this product irregularly and without wearing protective clothing or gloves. Positive patch tests were obtained to olaquindox 1%, which was negative in 20 control patients. The patient improved after avoidance of olaquindox and no new lesions have been observed at subsequent follow-ups.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.3, p.185. 6 ref.

CIS 02-1782 Wortley P.M., Caraballo R.S., Pederson L.L., Pechacek T.F.
Exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace: Serum cotinine by occupation
To examine workplace exposure in the United States to second-hand smoke by occupation, data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 to 1994), a nationally representative sample of the non-institutionalized population was analysed. The analysis was restricted to 4952 employed nonsmoking adults who reported no home exposure to cigarette smoke. Occupations were assigned to 40 groups and seven categories. Among the categories, geometric mean serum cotinine (ng/mL) ranged from 0.09 for farming/forestry/fishing occupations to 0.22 for operators/fabricators/labourers (median, 0.16). The lowest values were observed among farmers and nursery workers (0.06) and the highest among waiters (0.47). Between 1988 to 1991 and 1991 to 1994, the overall geometric mean cotinine and the proportion reporting that they could smell smoke at work decreased significantly.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.503-509. 30 ref.


CIS 03-337 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: update of appendices I and II of the Law on Chemicals (BPL); update of the following technical rules (TRGS): determination and evaluation of hazards from dangerous substances at the place of work (440), general requirements for laboratories (526), maximum admissible concentrations at the place of work (900), values of tolerable concentrations of industrial substances in the body (903) and list of substances classified as being carcinogenic, mutagenic or having reproductive toxicity (905); update of the Law on the Safety of Equipment, the Law on the Protection from Emissions and the Law on Occupational Safety and Health; Directive 2000/69/EC which sets health-based limit values for carbon monoxide and benzene in breathing air; Directive 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 56. Ergänzungslieferung, Aug. 2001. 238p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-336 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: list of ISO standards on controlling the quality of workplace air and workplaces; directory of European "air quality" standards CEN/TC 264; European directives concerning the accreditation for quality assurance; technical rules applicable to formaldehyde or ethylene oxide fumigations in sterilization or disinfection installations (TRGS 513); update of the following technical rules (TRGS): pollution clean-up and work in contaminated areas (524), handling of substances, preparations and products containing dibenzo-p-dioxines and polyhalogenated dibenzofuranes (557) and maximum admissible concentrations at the place of work (900); aerosols directive 75/324/EEC; Directive 89/655/EEC concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for the use of work equipment by workers at work; Directive 2000/39/EC establishing a first list of indicative occupational exposure limit values; Directive 1999/92/EC on minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 55. Ergänzungslieferung, Mar. 2001. 238p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-829 Wesseling C., van Wendel de Joode B., Ruepert C., León C., Monge P., Hermosillo H., Partanen T.J.
Paraquat in developing countries
The herbicide paraquat is considered safe by industry and most regulatory bodies worldwide. This may not be the case, however, under the conditions of exposure which persist in developing countries. Little is known about systemic absorption from occupational exposures. The relationships between exposure conditions, levels of external exposure, biomarkers of exposure, and outcomes are not clear. High rates of severe acute poisonings have been documented. In addition, topical injuries occur in as many as 50% of exposed workers. Non-worker populations are also at risk, particularly children. Long-term and delayed health effects include Parkinson's disease, lung effects, and skin cancer. Independent risk assessment in the developing-country context and application of the precautionary principle are necessary to prevent adverse effects of dangerous pesticides in susceptible populations.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.275-286. Illus. 117 ref.

CIS 02-342 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Main topics covered: addition of a new chapter on the quality of indoor air; analytical laboratories accredited under the provisions of the dangerous substances order; classification and labelling of substances, preparation and products; example of certification of the fumigation of goods holds; formaldehyde disinfection of premises; limit values for substances that are carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to the reproductive system; methods for the determination of airborne biological substances; European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) No.761/2001 of 19 March 2001, enabling the participation of voluntary organizations in a community system of environmental management and audit system (EMAS).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 57. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 2001. 248p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-341
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Proceedings of the subregional workshop on identification and management of PCBs and dioxins/furans
Papers presented at a workshop on the identification and management of PCBs, dioxins and furans held in La Habana, Cuba, 23-26 April 2001. The workshop examined the current international situation concerning persistent organic chemicals (POPs), PCBs, dioxins and furans. Other topics addressed: developing inventories for these products; classification of PCBs; storage of PCBs; technologies for treating and eliminating PCBs; experience in managing PCBs; techniques aimed at reducing emissions of furans and dioxins; Basle Convention and other legal aspects.
UNEP Chemicals, International Environmental House, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, 2001. 332p. Illus.

CIS 02-75
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Conclusions of this criteria document: methylpyrrolidone is irritant to the eyes and skin and causes headache. Acute toxicity studies in rodents show low toxicity. The mutagenic potential is low.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 34p. Illus. 102 ref. Price: CHF 21,00 (CHF 14,70 in developing countries). [in English]


CIS 03-792 Beyst H., de Pauw P., de Thibault de Boesinghe L., Min Jou W., Segers P.
Implementing safety rules for working with ethidium bromide in laboratories
Implementatie van veiligheidsvoorschriften bij het gebruik van ethidiumbromide in laboratoria [in Dutch]
Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is a strong mutagenic agent, frequently used in molecular biology. A number of measurements and laboratory visits led to the conclusion that the complex ways in which this substance is handled poses various safety and health problems. To detect EtBr, the use of an UV hand lamp is necessary. Detection depends on a minimal concentration of EtBr (approximately 1µg/mL) and the nature of the materials contaminated by EtBr. Taking these measurements, experiences and interviews with laboratory personnel into account, various prevention measures are proposed, together with labelling and safety rules.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 2000, Vol.XXXVII, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 03-335 Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: update of the summary table on NIOSH analytical methods and new published analytical methods; update of the Law on Chemicals, of the Ordinance on prohibited chemicals and the Law on Dangerous Substances; updates of the following technical rules (TRGS): criteria applicable to certain specific processes and substances aimed at ensuring admissible levels in air over the long term (420) and fumigations (512); update of the Law on Protection against Immissions and corresponding Ordinances; update of Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances; Directive 91/155/EEC defining and laying down the detailed arrangements for the system of specific information relating to dangerous preparations; Directive 96/56/EC on the elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 54. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 2000. 264p. Bibl.ref.

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