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Acrylates - 171 entries found

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CIS 11-0092 Methyl acrylate
Acrilato de metilo [in Spanish]
Safety data sheet on methyl acrylate: Exposure limits: TWA 2ppmm. Adverse effects: harmful if inhaled, irritates the respiratory tract, toxic if ingested, may cause irritation to the gastrointestinal tract; contact with eyes may cause irritation, methyl acrylate is a lachrymator; skin contact may cause irritation and sensitization; methyl acrylate is harmful by percutaneaous absorbption; prolonged and repeated exposure to the substance can cause allergic reactions and a long-term exposure can cause depression of the nervous system: adverse effects on reproduction have been reported in animals.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 52, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, no date. 4p. Illus.

CIS 09-1312 Andersen S.L., Rastogi S.C., Andersen K.E.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis to hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) in a manicurist
A 35-year-old woman who had been a manicurist for 14 years, presented at the dermatology department of a Danish hospital with hand eczema and severe pulpitis and nail dystrophy. Patch tests were carried out with standard series and specific products, including selected allergens from a series of adhesives and acrylate chemicals. A positive reaction was found to hydroxyethyl methacrylate, a component of artificial nails.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2009, Vol.61, No.1, p.48-50. 11 ref.

CIS 09-1309 Aalto-Korte K., Jungewelter S., Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Kuuliala O., Jolanki R.
Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates
The objective of this study was to analyse patterns of allergic reactions to five epoxy acrylates and methacrylates in relation to exposure. The 1994-2008 patch test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health were reviewed for possible mention of reactions to the five substances, and patients' medical records were reviewed for possible mention of exposure. Twenty-four patients had an allergic reaction to at least one of the studied substances. Further details are discussed and two case reports are presented.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2009, Vol.61, No.1, p.9-21. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 09-1001 Methyl acrylate
Acrilato de metilo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for methyl acrylate. Synonyms: methyl 2-propanoate, acrylic acid, methyl ester. The substance is a flammable liquid. It is harmful when ingested, inhaled or absorbed by the skin. Inhalation may cause irritation of the respiratory tract; contact with the eyes causes irritation; contact with the skin causes irritation and may induce sensitization. Prolonged exposure may result in allergic reactions and depression of the central nervous system.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2009]. 4p. Illus.


CIS 11-0230 Coldwell M.
Health and Safety Executive
Field validation of improved sampling methods for airborne cyanoacrylates
The Health and Safety Laboratory has developed revised sampling methods for ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate and methyl-2-cyanoacrylate following the introduction of a 0.3 ppm short-term exposure limit (see RR645, ISN 111549). This report describes a field validation exercise undertaken to assess these improved cyanoacrylate sampling methods. A three-site, four visit field validation exercise has been carried out. The sites visited were a Police scene-of-crime laboratory, an automotive loudspeaker manufacturer and a producer of adhesives which was visited on two occasions. Static sampling was performed using an impinger based reference method together with the two newly developed tubes, based on a commercially-available Tenax tube. Both tubes performed well and the results were generally in good agreement with the reference method over a representative range of concentrations. Both tubes were found to be suitably robust for fieldwork. It is recommended that the tube with steel mesh be used for all measurement of airborne cyanoacrylate concentrations due to better performance in laboratory validation tests.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 17p. Illus. 2 ref.
RR646.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0229 Coldwell M.
Health and Safety Executive
Measurement of alkyl 2-cyanoacrylates at low concentrations: Further work
This report describes research into improved cyanoacrylate sampling methods. The research was an assessment of Automated Thermal Desorption (ATD) as an alternative sampling and analytical technique for the measurement of airborne cyanoacrylate. It involved developing of modified Tenax sampling tubes. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 19p. Illus. 3 ref.
RR645.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-647 Sauni R., Kauppi P., Alanko K., Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Tuppurainen M., Hannu T.
Occupational asthma caused by sculptured nails containing methacrylates
This article presents two clinical cases of occupational asthma caused by methacrylates among nail technicians applying artificial nails. In both cases, occupational asthma was diagnosed on the basis of a work simulation test combined with the patient's history of occupational exposure and respiratory symptoms. Asthmatic reactions were observed in the bronchial provocation test with methacrylates. Implications are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.51, No.12, p.968-974. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 09-143 Aalto-Korte K., Alanko K., Kuuliala O., Jolanki R.
Occupational methacrylate and acrylate allergy from glues
Glues and sealants are important causes of methacrylate and acrylate allergy. This study aimed to analyse patterns of allergic patch test reactions to acrylic monomers in relation to exposure in patients sensitized from glues. Patch test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health from 1994 to 2006 for allergic reactions in the methacrylate series were screened and the clinical records of sensitized patients analysed. Ten patients had allergic reactions to acrylic monomers and had been sensitized from glues at work. Nine of them had used anaerobic sealants, three cyanoacrylate-based instant adhesives and one patient a bi-component instant adhesive. All the patients reacted to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA); reactions to 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate were also common. The first four methacrylates were found in the glues used by the patients. 2-HEMA and EGDMA appear to be good screeners for contact allergy to anaerobic sealants and also detected a single case deriving from bi-component acrylic glue.
Contact Dermatitis, June 2008, Vol.58, No.6, p.340-346. 30 ref.


CIS 08-163 Isaksson M., Zimerson E.
Risks and possibilities in patch testing with contaminated personal objects: Usefulness of thin-layer chromatograms in a patient with acrylate contact allergy from a chemical burn
The case of chemical burn caused by dipropylene glycol diacrylate (DPGDA) impregnated in shoes of a worker of a paint factory in Sweden is described. The burn was followed by active sensitization, giving an occupational allergic contact dermatitis on the patient's feet. Diagnostic tests included patch testing with acetone extracts made from the various components of the shoe, together with thin-layer chromatograms. An invisible spot on the thin-layer chromatography plate caused a positive eczema reaction and was further investigated with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. DPGDA was detected in the spot.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2007, Vol.57, No.2, p.84-88. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 08-73 Lindbohm M.L., Ylöstalo P., Sallmén M., Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Nurminen T., Forss H., Taskinen H.
Occupational exposure in dentistry and miscarriage
The objective of this Finnish study was to investigate whether dental workers are at an increased risk of miscarriage. The study was conducted among exposed women (dentists and dental assistants) and a control group of women occupationally unexposed to dentistry materials. Data on occupational exposure were obtained using postal questionnaires. The study population included 222 cases of miscarriage and 498 normal births. An occupational hygienist assessed exposure to acrylate compounds, disinfectants and solvents. Exposure to other agents was assessed on the basis of the questionnaire data. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression. In general, no strong association or consistent dose-response relationship was observed between exposure to chemical agents in dental work and the risk of miscarriage. A slightly increased risk was found for exposure to mercury amalgam and to some acrylates, solvents and disinfectants.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.64, No.2, p.127-133. 40 ref.


CIS 07-1005
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document, which reflects the state of knowledge as of 2005: 4-hydroxybutylacrylate is a high boiling-point, reactive, clear liquid used as a chemical intermediate product in the manufacturing of automobile varnishes. The main modes of entry are through ingestion and skin penetration. Animal studies show low toxicity (LD50 between 500 to 1000mg/kg), with few symptoms appearing below the lethal dose. It is a skin and eye irritant. In vitro studies show the product to be non-mutagenic. Although no experimental data are available, carcinogenicity is considered unlikely.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiii, 59p. 91 ref.

CIS 07-872 Ungers L.J., Vendrely T.G.
Comparison of sampling and analytical methods used during the preparation of methyl methacrylate bone cements
Surgeons, surgical nurses, and other operating room staff are exposed to airborne concentrations of methyl methacrylate during the preparation of orthopaedic bone cement. This study compares the reliability of sampling and analysis methods used to measure methyl methacrylate in this work environment. It is concluded that assessments using photo-acoustic infrared spectrometry and solid sorbent, gas chromatography with flame ionization detection may be relied on, but the detector tube method underreports actual exposures. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2006, Vol.3, No.1, p.351-357. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 06-1162 Roberge B., Cloutier Y., Malo J.L.
Profile of the use of acrylate-based products in Quebec workplaces
Portrait de l'utilisation des produits à base d'acrylates en milieux de travail québécois [in French]
Widely used in many industrial sectors, acrylates can cause allergic sensitization, rhino-conjunctivitis and occupational asthma. This study was carried out as part of a broader IRSST programme aimed at developing safe bronchial provocation tests. It consisted of identifying processes using acrylates, documenting the types and names of the acrylates used in Quebec, prioritizing the most important acrylates for study in terms of their health effects and documenting existing methods of sampling and analysis. Next steps involve the establishment of a strategy for investigating these compounds and their related health problems and the development of methods for diagnosing respiratory diseases attributable to acrylates.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. v, 27p. 51 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (pdf format) free of charge. [in French]


CIS 06-897 Soćko R., Czerczak S.
Ethyl acrylate: Documentation of maximum admissible values for occupational exposure
Akrylan etylu: Dokumentacja proponowanych wartosci dopuszczalnych wielkosci narazenia zawodowego [in Polish]
Ethyl acrylate is a colourless liquid with an acrid odour. Liquid and vapour phases of ethyl acrylate are irritating to the eyes, the skin and mucous membranes. Prolonged inhalation exposure to ethyl acrylate produces drowsiness, headache and nausea. Limited data indicate the potential for ethyl acrylate to produce skin sensitization. Based on animal data for chronic irritation, a value of 20 mg/m3 was established as the maximum exposure limit value for ethyl acrylate. The suggested STEAL value is 40 mg/m3. Notations for skin absorption, irritant and sensitizer are also assigned.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2005, Vol.44, No.2, p.5-28. Illus. 70 ref.

CIS 06-894 Kupczewska-Dobecka M., Czerczak S.
Hydroxypropyl acrylate - mixture of isomers: Documentation of maximum admissible values for occupational exposure
Akrylan hydroksypropylu - mieszanina izomerów: Dokumentacja proponowanych wartości dopuszczalnych wielkości narażenia zawodowego [in Polish]
Hydroxypropyl acrylate (HPA) is a mixture of isomers: 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate and 2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl acrylate. HPA has been used in the manufacture of thermosetting resins for surface coatings. The substance causes moderate burns and contact allergy has been reported in exposed workers. Results of animal experiments indicate that HPA is of moderate to low toxicity. Based on indications of ocular, nasal and upper respiratory tract irritation in animals after repeated HPA inhalation, an 8-h TWA value of 2.8 mg/m3 is recommended. In order to minimize irritation symptoms, a STEL of 6 mg/m@m3 is recommended. Notations C (corrosive), S (skin absorption) and A (sensitizer) are also assigned.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2005, Vol.45, No.3, p.5-18.Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 06-665 Golbabaei F., Mamdouh M., Jelyani K.N., Shahtaheri S.J.
Exposure to methyl methacrylate and its subjective symptoms among dental technicians in Tehran, Iran
Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and total dust exposures, as well as workers' health symptoms, were investigated in 20 dental laboratories in Tehran, Iran. Time-weighted average (TWA) of MMA and peak concentrations were determined and total dusts were evaluated. Data on health symptoms were collected by questionnaire. There were no significant differences between the TWA of MMA and the peak concentration in different workdays; however, important within-day variations were observed. Cough and skin dryness were the common health symptoms. Smoking and a history of asbestos exposure were factors influencing cough prevalence. Although short-term exposures were found to be lower than the current short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 100ppm, it is argued that the STEL is not low enough to protect technicians against the adverse effects caused by MMA.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.283-289. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 06-661 Tomenson J.A., Carpenter A.V., Pemberton M.A.
Critical review of the epidemiology literature on the potential cancer risks of methyl methacrylate
This literature review on the carcinogenicity of methyl methacrylate (MMA) to humans focused on cast acrylic sheet manufacturing workers because of the high exposure potential in this industry. Excesses of respiratory, stomach and colorectal cancers were observed in some cohorts of workers exposed to MMA, although there was little to suggest that MMA exposure was responsible for these excesses of respiratory and stomach cancer and it is more likely that they resulted from lifestyle exposures such as cigarette smoking or diet. An excess of colorectal cancer in one group of workers exposed to high levels of MMA during the 1930s and 1940s remains unexplained. Overall, the lack of consistency of the various studies, the absence of dose-response relationships and the lack of support from animal toxicology do not provide persuasive evidence that MMA is a human carcinogen.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2005, Vol.78, No.8, p.603-612. 15 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-385 Hagberg S., Ljungkvist G., Andreasson H., Karlsson S., Barregård L.
Exposure to volatile methacrylates in dental personnel
Exposures to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HMMA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) were determined in five randomly-selected public dental clinics and at a university odontology faculty in Sweden, where whole-day and task-specific short-term measurements were performed. The median 8-h time-weighted averages were 2.5µ/m3 (dentists) and 2.9µ/m3 (dental nurses) for 2-HMMA and 0.8µ/m3 (dentists) and 0.3µ/m3 (dental nurses) for MMA. The maximum short-term exposure levels were 79µ/m3 and 151µ/m3 for 2-HMMA and MMA respectively for both dentists and dental nurses. These observed levels are much lower than for complete denture fabrication. Irritant effects would not be expected in healthy persons at these levels. Nevertheless, occupational respiratory diseases may occur, and improvements in the handling of these chemicals in dentistry are warranted.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2005, Vol.2, No.6, p.302-306. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 06-380 Kiec-Swierczynska M., Krecisz B., Swierczyska-Machura D., Zaremba J.
An epidemic of occupational contact dermatitis from an acrylic glue
Dermatological examinations were performed in 81 workers involved in the manufacture of electric coils for television displays. They had worked for four years in contact with a UV-curing glue containing various acrylates. Acrylate-specific dermal lesions were detected in 21 of these workers. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 12 of the workers and occupational allergic contact dermatitis in the other nine. Twelve reacted to acrylates. Cross-reactions with methacrylates were not observed. The highest number of positive tests was obtained with triethyleneglycol diacrylate (10) and diethyleneglycol diacrylate (9).
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2005, Vol.52, No.3, p.121-125. 18 ref.


CIS 04-408 Leggat P.A., Kedjarune U., Smith D.R.
Toxicity of cyanoacrylate adhesives and their occupational impacts for dental staff
Cyanoacrylate (CA) and its homologues have a variety of medical, dental and industrial applications as adhesives. The increasing use of CA in dentistry, particularly as an adhesive and sealing glue, has raised concerns regarding its potential toxicity in humans. Although the reported toxicity of CA is uncommon in the dental workplace, possible effects include urticaria, contact dermatitis and other dermatoses. Dental staff using CA adhesives should avoid direct contact with CA and use appropriate personal protective measures. Furthermore, maintaining higher levels of humidity, optimizing room ventilation and using special air conditioning filters in the working environment may be useful in minimizing the toxicity of volatile CA adhesives.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2004, Vol.42, No.2, p.207-211. 32 ref.


CIS 03-1063 Butyl acrylate
Acrylate de butyle [in French]
International Chemical Safety Card published in 2003 (Spanish version already abstracted under CIS 00-638). Exposure routes: inhalation and skin absorption. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; aspiration into the lungs may result in chemical pneumonitis. Long-term exposure effects: prolonged or repeated contact may induce skin sensitization. Threshold limit value: 2ppm (ACGIH 2002); MAK 2ppm; pregnancy risk group: D (DFG 2003). Synonyms: acrylic acid n-butyl ester; 2-propenoic acid, butyl ester; butyl 2-propenoate.
Internet documents, 2003, 2p. [in English] [in French]


CIS 02-1560 Screening information data set SIDS for high production volume chemicals - Volume 8, Parts 1 and 2
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of 7 chemicals: 1,4-butanediol, p-tert-butylphenol, diacetone alcohol, 4-5-dihydroxy-1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl) imidazolidin-2-one (synonym: dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea), glycidyl methacrylate, 4,4'- methylenedianiline and 1,1,2-trichloroethane.
United Nations Environment Programme, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, Nov. 2002. viii, 264p. Bibl.ref. (Part 1); viii, 302p. Bibl.ref. (Part 2).

CIS 97-45 Butyl methacrylate
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. Irritates the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. May cause skin allergy.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p. [in English]


CIS 02-1128
German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (No.20); 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (No.30); Hexachloroethane (No.34); 2-Chloro-4-nitroaniline (No.43); 1,2-Dibromoethane (No.66); Methallyl chloride (No.109); Ethyl acrylate (No.128); Tetramethyllead / Tetraethyllead (No.130); Acrolein (No.157); Thiourea (No.179)
These short reports concern 11 substances suspected of having a hazardous potential, but for which available data are insufficient. The purpose of these reports is to establish a basis for assessment, identify gaps in knowledge and recommend areas for further investigation.
S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2001. 95p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-1263 Crépy M.N.
Occupational skin diseases caused by polyacrylate and polymethacrylate resins
Dermatoses professionnelles aux résines polyacrylates et polyméthacrylates [in French]
Polyacrylate and polymethacrylate resins are used in dental care, inks, paints, coatings, adhesives and plastics. By themselves they have little or no allergic potential; however, they are obtained through the polymerization of monomers (acrylates and methacrylates) which are potent sensitizers. The resins often contain residual quantities of monomers, which may give rise to occupational skin diseases among persons involved in their processing. Contents of this information note on occupational skin diseases caused by polyacrylate and polymethacrylate resins: aetiology; epidemiology; diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialized institutions; prognosis; prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.87, p.345-354. Illus. 69 ref.

CIS 02-1115 Methyl acrylate
Acrilato de metilo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 35mg/m3 or 10ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the skin, eye and respiratory tract; prolonged contact with eyes and skin may cause serious injuries.
Noticias de seguridad, Oct. 2001, Vol.63, No.10, 4p. Insert.

CIS 02-799 Wrangsjö K., Swartling C., Meding B.
Occupational dermatitis in dental personnel: Contact dermatitis with special reference to (meth)acrylates in 174 patients
Between 1995 and 1998, 174 dental personnel were referred as patients to the Department of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Stockholm. Hand eczema was diagnosed in 109 patients. 77 had positive reactions to substances in the standard series and 44 to substances exclusive to the dental series. 24 patients had positive reactions to (meth)acrylates, the majority with reactions to several test preparations. The most frequent allergens besides (meth)acrylates were nickel, cobalt, palladium, fragrance mix, colophonium and thiuram mix. Allergy to natural rubber latex was diagnosed in 14 patients. In conclusion, irritant hand dermatitis was the dominant diagnosis. Contact allergy to (meth)acrylate was seen in 22% of the patch tested patients, with reactions to 3 predominant test substances.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2001, Vol.45, No.3, p.158-163. 21 ref.

CIS 02-76
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Methyl cyanoacrylate and ethyl cyanoacrylate
Conclusions of this criteria document: methyl cyanoacrylate (MCA) and ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (ECA) are irritant to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract and may induce asthma.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 28p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: CHF 21.00 (CHF 14.70 in developing countries). [in English]

CIS 02-298 Geukens S., Goosens A.
Occupational contact allergy to (meth)acrylates
Among 13,833 patients suspected of contact dermatitis examined during the years 1978-1999, occupational contact allergy to acrylates and methacrylates was diagnosed in 31 patients. The three most common sensitizers were ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (17 positive patch tests), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (14 positive tests) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (6 positive tests). The aim of this report was to identify the occupations and industries responsible for occupational sensitization to acrylates and methacrylates. 14 of the 31 patients worked in the dental sector, where acrylate- or methacrylate-containing dental prostheses and dental composites would appear to be mainly responsible for allergy to acrylates and methacrylates. An increase in skin problems related to the growing use of acrylates or methacrylates is clearly shown by the data.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2001, Vol.44, No.3, p.153-159. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 01-983 Methyl methacrylate
Metacrilato de metilo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 410mg/m3 or 100ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Acute toxicity: irritation of the eyes, skin, nose and throat; vertigo; unconsciousness. Acute toxicity: skin diseases.
Noticias de seguridad, July 2001, Vol.63, No.7, 4p. Insert.


CIS 02-1325 Tomenson J.A., Bonner S.M., Edwards J.C., Pemberton M.A., Cummings T.F., Paddle G.M.
Study of two cohorts of workers exposed to methyl methacrylate in acrylic sheet production
A study among workers at two British plants to investigate patterns of mortality (in particular, mortality from colon and rectal cancer) after exposure to methyl methacrylate (MMA). The mean duration of exposure was 7.6 years at a mean exposure of 13.2ppm, although exposures in some work groups were as high as 100ppm. The study provided no clear evidence that employment at the factories or exposure to MMA had adversely affected the mortality of workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.57, No.12, p.810-817. 16 ref.

CIS 01-1488 Nylander-French L.A.
A tape-stripping method for measuring dermal exposure to multifunctional acrylates
A noninvasive sampling method was developed and tested for measuring dermal exposure to a multifunctional acrylate employing a tape stripping of the nonviable epidermis (stratum corneum). Samples were subsequently extracted and a gas-chromatographic method was employed for quantitative analysis of tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA). This method was tested in 10 human volunteers exposed either to a known level of TPGDA or to a UV-radiation curable acrylate coating containing TPGDA (UV-resin). On the average, the first tape stripping removed 94% (coefficient of variation 16%) of the theoretical quantity of deposited TPGDA in the first group and 89% (coefficient of variation 15%) in the second group. Quantities of TPGDA recovered from two consecutive tape strippings accounted for all of the test agent, demonstrating both the efficiency of the method to measure dermal exposure and the potential to determine the rate of absorption with successive samples over time. The results indicate that this tape-stripping technique can be used to quantify dermal exposure to multifunctional acrylates.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 2000, Vol.44, No.8, p.645-651. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 01-1487 Surakka J., Lindh T., Rosén G., Fischer T.
Workers' dermal exposure to uv-curable acrylates in the furniture and parquet industry
The use of ultraviolet radiation-curable coatings (UV-coatings) has increased rapidly in the parquet and furniture industry. Work with UV-coatings involves risk from skin exposure to chemically reactive, concentrated acrylates that are known skin contact irritants and sensitizers. Skin exposure to UV-coatings was measured employing a quantitative tape stripping method that was developed for this purpose. A pilot study was performed at three workplaces. In the main study, workers' skin exposure to uncured UV-coatings was measured at seven workplaces and on two separate workdays (rounds 1 and 2) within a six-month period to determine exposure variation. Skin exposure was measured at four standardized sites on the hand, 3-4 times per work shift. A questionnaire was carried out with the workers in both rounds to find out factors that can affect skin exposure to UV-coatings. Despite the limited sampling area and sampling sites, we could find residues of tripropylene glycol diacrylate at all sampling times, even at the beginning of the work shift. This may be due to transfer of UV-coatings through contaminated equipment, shoes and surfaces. The study indicates that there is a risk of harmful skin exposure to UV-coatings in the furniture and parquet industry.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 2000, Vol.44, No.8, p.635-644. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 01-161 Wallenhammar L.M., Örtengren U., Andreasson H., Barregård L., Björkner B., Karlsson S., Wrangsjö K., Meding B.
Contact allergy and hand eczema in Swedish dentists
The occurrence of contact allergy, in particular in reaction to acrylates and methacrylates, was investigated. Certain consequences of hand eczema were evaluated by a questionnaire mailed to 3,500 Swedish dentists. Among respondents residing in three major cities, 14.9% reported hand eczema during the previous year and were invited to a clinical examination, including patch testing. 83% attended, among whom a diagnosis of hand eczema was confirmed in 94% of the cases. Irritant contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 67% and allergic contact dermatitis in 28%. On patch testing, 50% presented at least one positive reaction. The most frequent allergens were nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, gold sodium thiosulfate and thiuram mix. It is concluded that dentistry is a high-risk occupation for hand eczema, and that irritant contact dermatitis is most common. However, the prevalence of contact allergy to acrylates was below 1% in the population of responding dentists.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 2000, Vol.43, No.4, p.192-199. 31 ref.

CIS 00-1257
Health and Safety Executive
Methyl cyanoacrylate and ethyl cyanoacrylate - Risk assessment document
Main conclusions of this risk assessment document: little information is available on the toxicokinetics of methyl cyanoacrylate and ethyl cyanoacrylate. Vapours and aerosols are irritant to the eyes and the respiratory tract. There is no clear evidence of occup skin sensitization and little evidence of occupational asthma although in a number of case reports asthma has been linked to exposure to methyl cyanoacrylate and ethyl cyanoacrylate. There are no studies on effects of repeated exposure of ethyl cyanoacrylate in humans; overall effects of methyl cyanoacrylate and ethyl cyanoacrylate are local irritant responses. Methyl cyanoacrylate is a mutagen in S. tiphimurium whereas ethyl cyanoacrylate gives negative results; both seem unlikely to express mutagenic properties in vivo. There are no data available on carcinogenic or reproductive effects. Both substances have an OES of 0.3ppm (15min reference period) in the United Kingdom. No 8h-TWA has been set.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iv, 68p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 00-1409 Kanerva L., Alanko K., Estlander T., Jolanki R., Lahtinen A., Savela A.
Statistics on occupational contact dermatitis from (meth)acrylates in dental personnel
During 1975-1998, 630 cases of occupational dermatosis in dental personnel were reported to the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases, 70.6% of which were allergic. The number of cases greatly increased during the last decade. No cases of acrylates or methacrylates allergy were reported in 1975-1981. During 1982-1998, 161 cases were reported, 87% being allergic. The largest annual number of occupational dermatoses from acrylates and methacrylates in dental personnel were reported in 1998.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2000, Vol.42, No.3, p.175-176. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 00-337 Ethyl acrylate
Acrilato de etilo [in Spanish]
Ethyl acrylate vapours cause irritation of the eyes and of the respiratory tract. The use of personal protective equipment, including respirators, and the medical supervision of exposed workers are recommended. OSHA permissible exposure level: 100mg/m3.
Noticias de seguridad, Mar. 2000, Vol.62, No.3, insert 4p.


CIS 01-1765 Mäkelä E.A., Väänänen V., Alanko K., Jolanki R., Estlander T., Kanerva L.
Resistance of disposable gloves to permeation by 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and triethyleneglycol dimethylacrylate
Contact sensitization of dental personnel to acrylic compounds is increasing, in particular due to the increased use of the methacrylates contained in dental materials. Gloves are important in avoiding skin contact with these chemicals, but usually the gloves at dental clinics are not certified for chemical protection. The aim of this study was to find out whether disposable gloves resist permeation by methacrylates, when tested according to the relevant European standard. A test chemical consisting of mixture of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (50%) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (50%) was used. The breakthrough times for typical natural rubber (NR) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials were less than 10min. Synthetic elastomers and combinations of polyethylene (PE) or PE copolymers with NR brought the breakthrough times from 13min to more than 8h.
Occupational Hygiene, 1999, Vol.5, No.2, p.121-129. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 01-841 Lönnroth E.C., Dahl J.E., Shahnavaz H.
Evaluating the potential occupational hazard of handling dental polymer products using the HET-CAM technique
The irritation potencies of eight dental polymer products, used as dental restorative materials, adhesives or temporary constructions, were tested using the HET-CAM (hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane) technique. Results showed that the liquid component of all products had a strong irritation capacity but powder suspensions and extracts from cured and freshly mixed non-cured materials had no effect on the CAM. Thus, dental personnel who manually handle liquid and powder are exposed to components with a high irritation potential, in contrast to patients who are exposed to the cured and mixed non-cured materials with low irritation potential. This illustrates the importance of safe handling procedures and practices for dental personnel who handle non-cured polymers manually.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.43-57. 43 ref.

CIS 01-162 Nayebzadeh A., Dufresne A.
Evaluation of exposure to methyl methacrylate among dental laboratory technicians
Following the diagnosis of two cases of occupational asthma among dental technicians, an industrial hygiene survey was conducted in two dental laboratories to determine time-weighted average and peak concentrations of methyl methacrylate vapour and time-weighted average concentration of acrylic dust. The time-weighted average concentrations of methyl methacrylate vapour were 0.7ppm and 1.6ppm and average peak concentrations were 9.3ppm and 9.7ppm for the first and second laboratory, respectively. The use of a local exhaust ventilation system was significant in reducing the peak concentration of methyl methacrylate vapour in the breathing zone of dental technicians. However, the local exhaust ventilation was not efficient in reducing the concentration of airborne acrylic dusts. Occupational exposure of dental technicians to dental materials, in particular to methyl methacrylate, requires further investigation. Local exhaust ventilation systems can reduce the concentration of methyl methacrylate in the dental laboratories to a significant extent if installed and used properly.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1999, Vol.60, No.5, p.625-628. 15 ref.

CIS 01-135 Tumerelle E.
Occupational allergic diseases caused by polyfunctional aziridines: A case report
Allergies professionnelles liées aux aziridines polyfonctionnelles - Revue de la littérature, à propos d'un cas [in French]
Polyfunctional aziridines (PFA) are a new class of occupational allergens, causing rare conditions. A case of occupational dermatosis induced by a PFA hardener of an acrylic resin used as glue in a textile screen-printing firm is reported. Skin tests were unable to identify the responsible allergen positively. PFAs are likely to provoke allergic contact dermatitis, occupational asthma and even a combination of both. One case of urticaria with a positive prick test has been reported. The responsible allergens are the PFAs themselves, and in some cases, the polyfunctional acrylates used in their production and other hardening constituents. There remains a degree of uncertainty about the immunological or irritative nature of these affections. Because of the growing use of water-based acrylics, polyurethanes and polyvinyl acetates requiring the use of PFA hardeners, users must be rigorously protected. PFA-induced eczema, rhinitis and asthma should also be added to the list of occupational diseases in France.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Mar. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.36-41. 14 ref.

CIS 00-1102 Controlling chemical hazards during the application of artificial fingernails
Topics: asthma; beauty parlours; ethyl methacrylate; data sheet; eczema; exhaust ventilation; health hazards; personal hygiene; protective clothing; safe working methods; USA.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Jan. 1999. 4p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 99-1269 Craven N.M., Bhushan M., Beck M.H.
Sensitization to triglycidyl isocyanurate, epoxy resins and acrylates in a developmental chemist
Topics: acrylates; triglycidyl isocyanurate; case study; eczema; epoxy resins; laboratory work; printing inks; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1999, Vol.40, No.1, p.54-55. 5 ref.


CIS 01-840 Lönnroth E.C., Shahnavaz H.
The correlation between symptoms, frequent use of dental polymers, and evaluation of health risk
Dental personnel are at risk when they manually handle polymer products containing monomers and additives that may cause irritation or induce allergy. Gloves and face masks can be easily penetrated by monomers. 587 dental personnel and a referent group of 585 persons in Sweden were given a questionnaire regarding symptoms of atopy, asthma, conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, hand dermatitis and hay fever/rhinitis. The dental personnel were asked to name the polymer products used in their practice and the frequency of their use, and to evaluate the risk of 5 different types of polymer materials on a scale from 1 to 5. Significantly more dentists reported symptoms of atopic dermatitis and conjunctivitis than did controls and dental assistants. Results show that dental personnel with symptoms evaluated most materials at significantly higher risk than dental personnel without symptoms. Furthermore, the occurrence of some symptoms was associated with frequent use of 8 polymer products.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1998, Vol.4, No.4, p.411-422. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 99-1297 Methyl acrylate CAS No.96-33-3
Topics: methyl acrylate; caustic substances; chemical industry; corneal damage; criteria document; delayed effects; fire protection; first aid; irritants; literature survey; sensitization dermatitis; storage; toxic effects; toxicology.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4 (Bte 6), 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 1998. vii, 65p. 66 ref.

CIS 99-551 Kołodyńska U.
Butyl methacrylate
Metakrylan butylu [in Polish]
Topics: butyl methacrylate; description of technique; determination in air; gas chromatography; sampling and analysis.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 1998, Vol.19, p.117-121. 5 ref.

CIS 99-205 Kanerva L., Tarvainen K., Jolanki R., Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Estlander T.
Airborne occupational allergic dermatitis due to trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) used in the manufacture of printed circuit boards
Topics: trimethylolpropane triacrylate; case study; eczema; eye irritation; printed circuits; sensitization dermatitis; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1998, Vol.38, No.5, p.292-294. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 98-1370 Goossens A., Coninx D., Rommens K., Verhamme B.
Occupational dermatitis in a silk-screen maker
Topics: case study; eczema; epoxy resins; hand; methacrylates; protective gloves; screen printing; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; wrist.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1998, Vol.39, No.1, p.40-42. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 98-1334 Kanerva L., Mikola H., Henriks-Eckermann M.L., Jolanki R., Estlander T.
Fingertip paresthesia and occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylics in a dental nurse
Topics: allergens; allergy tests; case study; dental services; dermatitis; eczema; fingers; Finland; list of chemical substances; methacrylates; nerve stimulation tests; paraesthesia; polyacrylates; sensitization dermatitis; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1998, Vol.38, No.2, p.114-116. 16 ref.

CIS 98-805 Dormer W., Gomes R., Meek M.E.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Methyl methacrylate
Topics: asthma; methyl methacrylate; criteria document; first aid; ILO; IPCS; irritation; literature survey; neurotoxic effects; sensitization; skin absorption; threshold limit values; toxic effects; toxicology; UNEP; WHO.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1998. iv, 40p. 117 ref. Price: CHF 16.00 (CHF 11.20 in developing countries). [in English]


CIS 02-1065 Methyl methacrylate
Méthacrylate de méthyle [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 93-1460. Acute toxicity: skin absorption; moderate irritant of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Chronic toxicity: weak irritant of the skin; moderate sensitizer (allergic asthma); neurological effects (symptoms and peripheral disorders); cardiomyopathy; digestive disorders; changes in blood counts; carcinogenic effects; effects on reproduction. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 410mg/m3 (100ppm); ceiling value = 820mg/m3 (200ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.607-035-00-6; Xi, F, R36/37/38, R43, S9, S16, S29, S33, 201-297-1.The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 5p. Illus. 42 ref.

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