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Amides - 479 entries found

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CIS 11-0307 Goffeng L.O., Alvestrand M., Ulvestad B., Sørensen K.A., Skaug V., Kjuus H.
Self-reported symptoms and neuropsychological function among tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide
The aim of this study was to examine possible exposure-related symptoms and neuropsychological changes among 44 tunnel workers exposed 2-10 years earlier to grout containing acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide. The control group consisted of 49 male tunnel workers with no history of acrylamide exposure. Questionnaires were used to assess retrospectively recalled symptoms during work and current symptoms at the time of the examination. The prevalence of paresthesia in hands and legs, and leg cramps during work periods were higher in the exposed than control group. Self-reported prevalence of skin irritation, peeling of skin on the hands, white-finger attacks, headache, and breathlessness was also higher among the exposed workers. The questionnaire on current symptoms indicated higher symptom prevalence among the exposed of impaired memory and concentration, emotional change, sleep disturbances, tiredness, headache and sensory or motor changes. In contrast, no association was found between neuropsychological test results and acrylamide exposure, adjusting for relevant confounders.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.37, No.2, p.136-146. 33 ref.
Self-reported_symptoms.pdf [in English]


CIS 10-0548 He J., Wang P., Zhu J.Q., Wu G., Ji J.M., Xue Y.
Role of urinary biomarkers of N,N-dimethylformamide in the early detection of hepatic injury among occupational exposed workers
The objective of this study was to identify sensitive and convenient biomarkers for the early detection of hepatic injury in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) exposed workers. Seventy-nine workers at a synthetic leather factory were investigated by means of a questionnaire survey. Air, urine and blood samples were collected at the specific time point. Airborne DMF and the urine metabolites of DMF were measured by gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Traditional liver function tests and hepatic fibrosis parameters were performed by auto-chemistry analyzer and ELISA methods. It was found that workers exposed to DMF with higher N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-cysteine levels were more likely to develop liver diseases. In addition, serum bile acid and hyaluronidase have the potential to act as early indicators of toxic hepatic fibrosis activities for occupational health surveillance.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2010, Vol.83, No.4, p.399-406. 26 ref.

CIS 10-0105 Honnert B., Grzebyk M.
Usage of amides in France
Utilisation des amides en France [in French]
This article presents an INRS industry study of 28 sectors comprising 10,117 industrial facilities surveyed by a self-declaration questionnaire. The level of response was approximately 45%. Around 20,000 employees are potentially exposed to amides and are mainly distributed amongst research laboratories and the industrial chemical sector. Concerning amide quantities involved, there is a clear split between those with industrial uses (dimethylformamide and N,N-dimethylacetamide), involving quantities greater than 1000 tons, those only used for laboratory applications (formamide and acetamide), involving quantities less than 10 tons, and those with mixed applications (N-methylacetamide and N-methylformamide), involving quantities ranging from 50 to 150 tons.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2010, No.219, p.49-56. Illus. 8 ref.$File/ND2329.pdf [in French]


CIS 09-410 Fonia A., White J.M., McFadden J.P., White I.R.
Active sensitization to chloracetamide
Chloracetamide is a preservative found in some cosmetic preparations. This article describes the case of a 21-year-old woman with a history of eczematous eruptions which she attributed to the use of a number of cosmetic products. Patch testing showed a strong positive reaction to chloracetamide.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2009, Vol.60, No.1, p.58-59. 6 ref.


CIS 09-123 Phalen R., Hee S.Q.
A moving robotic hand system for whole-glove permeation and penetration: Captan and nitrile gloves
The aim of this study was to develop a robotic hand to test the influence of hand movement on the permeation and penetration of captan through disposable nitrile rubber gloves. Permeation of an aqueous emulsion (217mg/mL) of captan was tested at 35°C. A surface wipe technique was used to collect captan from the inner surface of the exposed gloves. Findings are discussed. It is suggested that future research should continue to investigate the influence of hand movement and additional work factors on the permeation, penetration and physical integrity of protective gloves.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2008, Vol.5, No.4, p.258-270. Illus. 39 ref.


CIS 08-671 Testud F., Grillet J.P.
Organophosphorus, carbamate, synthetic pyrethroid and various other insecticides
Insecticides organophosphorés, carbamates, pyréthrinoïdes de synthèse et divers [in French]
Insecticides consist of substances that are highly toxic for the central and/or peripheral nervous system. Their neurotoxicity is the reason behind both their effectiveness against insects and their toxic effects on humans. Recent regulatory trends have caused the withdrawal of many active substances, in particular organophosphorus compounds and carbamates. Pyrethroids are currently the most widely-used insecticides, in consideration of their effectiveness on insects coupled with their low mammalian toxicity. For each of the main classes of insecticides, this article presents the toxicokintetics, biochemical mode of action and toxic effects reported in humans in the main exposure settings, namely farming, public health and consumer use.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2007, No.155, 24p. Illus. 187 ref.

CIS 08-144 Blein Sánchez de León A., Arruga Laviña M.V.
Initial hygiene evaluation of acrylamide in air during the preparation of polyacrylamide (PAA) gel in a genetics laboratory
Evaluación higiénica previa de acrilamida en aire durante la preparación de gel de poliacrilamida (PAA) en un laboratorio de genética [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of acrylamide, classified by IARC as a type 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans) in workplace air during the preparation of polyacrylamide gel in a genetics laboratory in Spain. Sampling and analyses were carried out using the NIOSH procedure PV2004 involving sorbent tubes, desorption and analysis by high performance liquid chromatography using an ultraviolet detector. The detected level of acrylamide in the weighing stage was found to be 723% of the TLV TWA and 145% of the TLV-C. No acrylamide was detected in the stirring stage. Based on these findings, several preventive measures were proposed for immediate implementation.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, June 2007, Vol.LIII, No.207, p.47-52. 16 ref.

CIS 08-162 Bergendorff O., Persson C., Lüdtke A, Hansson C.
Chemical changes in rubber allergens during vulcanization
Vulcanization accelerators such as thiurams, dithiocarbamates and mercaptobenzothiazoles are among the rubber additives often responsible for allergic reactions recognized by dermatologists. The chemistry of the vulcanization process is complicated; as it occurs at an elevated temperature with a mixture of reactive chemicals. This study investigated the changes in composition of common allergens during vulcanization at different stages of the process. Major changes were found in which added chemicals were consumed and new ones produced. An important observation is that thiuram disulfides rarely appear in the final rubber even when used as additives. Instead, thiurams are often converted to dithiocarbamates or to products formed by addition to mercaptobenzothiazoles, if these have been used together with thiurams as accelerators. In conclusion, an assessment of exposure to allergens should not be based solely on knowledge concerning the additives used, but also on the chemical analysis of products formed during the vulcanization reaction.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2007, Vol.57, No.3, p.152-157. Illus. 13 ref.


CIS 08-70 Lee C.Y., Jung S.L., Kim S.A., Park K.S., Ha B.G.
Incidence of dimethylacetamide induced hepatic injury among new employees in a cohort of elastane fibre workers
The objective of this cohort was to investigate the incidence of N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA)-induced hepatic injury among new elastane fibre workers and to explore risk factors relating to this injury. A total of 440 new workers employed from 1 January 2002 to 31 July 2004 were included as study subjects. DMA exposure estimates were based on urinary N-methylacetamide (NMA) concentrations. There were 28 cases of DMA-induced hepatic injury. The overall incidence of DMA induced hepatic injury among new elastane fibre workers was 0.089/person-year. Incidence rates were seven to ten times higher in high exposure groups than in low exposure groups. Results suggest the existence of a dose-dependent DMA-induced hepatic injury. The inverse relation between the incidence of DMA-induced hepatic injury and duration of employment may reflect a type of healthy worker effect or an acquired tolerance to DMA-induced hepatic injury.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.63, No.10, p.688-693. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 07-393 Paulsson B., Larsen K.O., Törnqvist M.
Hemoglobin adducts in the assessment of potential occupational exposure to acylamides - Three case studies
Workers in three types of occupations with potential exposure to acrylamide were examined by measurement of acrylamide adducts in haemoglobin. The first case concerned workers transporting acrylamide-contaminated waste soil, where no exposure was detectable. The second case included workers handling a sealing product containing acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide, where moderate exposure was detected and where the sealant was replaced as a precautionary measure. The third case concerned a worker with observed neurotoxic symptoms, working with a sealing product containing acrylamide. This worker had an extremely high acrylamide-adduct level (23 nmol/g globin). The acrylamide product was replaced, and the adduct level substantially decreased within a year. These studies illustrate the usefulness of in vivo dose measurement using haemoglobin adducts for occupational surveillance and as a basis for the health risk assessment of electrophilically-reactive compounds.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.32, No.2, p.154-159. 29 ref.


CIS 06-610 Käfferlein H.U., Ferstl C., Burkhart-Reichl A., Hennebrüder K., Drexler H., Brüning T., Angerer J.
The use of biomarkers of exposure of N,N-dimethylformamide in health risk assessment and occupational hygiene in the polyacrylic fibre industry
To evaluate exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in occupational settings, N-methylformamide (NMF) and N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl) cysteine (AMCC) were measured in urine, and N-methylcarbamoylated haemoglobin (NMHb) was measured in blood in 35 healthy workers employed in the polyacrylic fibre industry. Workplace documentation and questionnaire information were used to categorize workers in groups exposed to low, medium, and high concentrations of DMF. It was found that all three biomarkers may be used to identify occupational exposure to DMF. However, measurement of NMHb in blood is recommended rather than measurement of NMF and AMCC in urine to accurately assess exposure to DMF in health risk assessment. NMF and AMCC nonetheless remain useful biomarkers for occupational hygiene intervention.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2005, Vol.62, No.5, p.330-336. Illus. 33 ref.


CIS 05-375 Krzemińska S., Nazimek T.
Selection of sorption material for tests of pesticide permeation through protective clothing fabrics
This article presents the results of studies on selecting a solid sorption material for absorbing liquid crop protection agents which permeate protective clothing fabrics. The selected substances (dichlorvos, cypermethrin, 2,4-D and carbofuran) were tested with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The tests demonstrated that polypropylene melt-blown type nonwoven fabric had high recovery coefficients for all four active ingredients studied. The highest recovery coefficient, 0.97, was obtained for carbofuran. The recovery coefficients obtained for the three remaining substances were lower: 0.89 for cypermethrin and 2,4-D, and 0.84 for dichlorvos.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.387-397. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 04-328 Acquavella J.F., Delzell E., Cheng H., Lynch C.F., Johnson G.
Mortality and cancer incidence among alachlor manufacturing workers 1968-99
Alachlor is the active ingredient in herbicide formulations used widely on corn, soybeans and other crops. It has been found to cause nasal, stomach, and thyroid tumours in rodent studies, however at levels that are much higher than likely human exposures. This study was carried out to evaluate mortality rates from 1968 to 1999 and cancer incidence rates from 1969 to 1999 among workers at an alachlor manufacturing plant. Worker mortality and cancer incidence rates were compared to corresponding rates for the Iowa state general population. Analyses addressed potential intensity and duration of exposure. There were no cancers of the types found in toxicology studies and no discernible relation between cancer incidence for any site and years of alachlor exposure or time since first exposure. These findings are significant considering that these workers had chronic exposure during extended manufacturing campaigns, while use in agriculture is typically limited to a few days or weeks each year.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.61, No.8, p.680-685. 20 ref.


CIS 06-1010 Urea
Existing Chemicals Information Sheet. There are no data suggesting that urea is a skin sensitizer, a carcinogen or a reproductive toxicant. Urea has not been rigorously examined with respect to reproductive and developmental toxitity. However, chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies have suggested a no observed adverse effect level of 2000-6000mg/kg bw/day in rats and mice. Though it does appear to have genotoxic properties, this occurs at doses far in excess of what a person would normally expect to be exposed to. The toxicity of urea appears to be restricted to skin irritation, which was reported in a single human study. The risk to humans from urea depends on the level of exposure to the chemical. The bulk of human exposure to urea comes from food, and occupational exposure adds little to the amount received orally. Despite the human health effects associated with urea together with data indicating potentially extensive use in both industrial and consumer areas, it appears that for both consumers and workers the human health hazards are low.
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, 2003. 5p. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-105 Lebailly P., Devaux A., Pottier D., De Meo M., Andre V., Baldi I., Severin F, Bernaud J., Durand B., Henry-Amar M., Gauduchon P.
Urine mutagenicity and lymphocyte DNA damage in fruit growers occupationally exposed to the fungicide captan
The objective of this study was to determine haematological parameters, urine mutagenicity (on three Salmonella typhimurium strains), and DNA damage (using the comet assay) in mononuclear leucocytes of farmers before and after a one-day spraying period of pear and apple trees with the fungicide captan in usual conditions. A total of 19 farmers were exposed to captan during the 1998 and the 2000 spraying seasons. It was found that one-day spraying periods with captan and other pesticides does not significantly induce DNA damages in mononuclear leucocytes. In contrast, inefficient protective clothing could correlate with an increase in urine mutagenicity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.910-917. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 05-526 Sapota A., Ligocka D.
N,N-Dimetyloformamid [in Polish]
Dimethylformamide (DMF) is used mainly as a solvent in the production of polyvinyl chloride, polyacrylonitrile and various fibres and coatings. Animal experiments show DMF to be hepatotoxic at high doses. DMF vapours are absorbed in the airways and through the skin. In experimental studies on volunteers, DMF retention in the lungs was about 90%. Liquid DMF applied to the skin is rapidly absorbed and the absorption coefficient determined in humans is 9mg/cm2/h. Systemic activity on the liver is considered to be the critical effect. To determine a threshold limit value, the NOAEL value of 75mg/m3 established for inhalation exposure in rats was used. Taking the above findings into account, it is proposed that the current threshold limit value of 10mg/m3 for DMF be retained.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2003, Vol.35, No.1, p.61-82. Illus. 73 ref.

CIS 03-1084 Ziegler-Skylakakis K., Kielhorn J., Könnecker G., Koppenhöfer J., Mangelsdorf I.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Conclusions of this criteria document: exposure to thiourea can induce contact and photocontact allergies in humans. Thyroid hyperplasia was observed in exposed workers. Animal studies indicate that the major adverse effect is the inhibition of the thyroid gland function, although effects on lungs, liver haemopoietic system and kidney have also been described. Thiourea has mitogenic properties.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2003. iv, 37p. Illus. 174 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1305 Pałczyński C., Walusiak J., Krakowiak A., Szymczak W., Wittczak T., Ruta U., Górski P.
Nasal lavage fluid examination in diagnostics of occupational allergy to chloramine
Chloramine T is a known sensitizing agent in the occupational environment of health care workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the nasal challenge test in diagnostics of respiratory allergy to chloramine T. The study was conducted in six subjects with chloramine T asthma and rhinitis. Two control groups comprised seven atopic subjects with asthma and rhinitis and six healthy persons. All controls had negative results of prick tests with chloramine T and none displayed any respiratory symptoms under exposure to the agent. A "nasal pool" technique was used to evaluate morphological and biochemical parameters in nasal washings before and 30min, 4h and 24h after the provocation with chloramine T and placebo. A significant increase was found in the total count and percentage of eosinophils and basophils, albumin, tryptase and eosinophil cationic proteins in the nasal lavage fluid from patients with chloramine T respiratory allergy when compared to both control groups. The results indicate the applicability of the "nasal pool" technique as a diagnostic procedure in chloramine T-induced airway allergy.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2003, Vol.16, No.3, p.231-240. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 03-785 Devantier Jensen C., Thormann J., Ejner Andersen K.
Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate at a paint factory
The fungicide 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate (IPBC) is used in both industrial products and cosmetics. This article presents the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis from airborne exposure to this preserving agent. A 34-year-old female production worker at a paint factory developed dermatitis on exposed skin areas. Patch testing showed a positive reaction to IPBC 0.01% in petrolatum. The compound was used as a preservative in wood treatment products manufactured at her workplace. Based on animal studies, IPBC is considered safe as a cosmetic preservative. However, widespread use of the chemical might lead to increasing levels of contact allergy, and therefore, close monitoring of IPBC is recommended.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2003, Vol.48, No.3, p.155-157. 19 ref.

CIS 03-518 Commission Directive 2003/81/EC of 5 September 2003 amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC to include molinate, thiram and ziram as active substances [European Union]
Directive 2003/81/CE de la Commission du 5 septembre 2003 modifiant la directive 91/414/CEE du Conseil en vue d'y inscrire les substances actives molinate, thirame et zirame [Union européenne] [in French]
Directiva 2003/81/CE de la Comisión, de 5 de septiembre de 2003, por la que se modifica la Directiva 91/414/CEE del Consejo a fin de incluir las sustancias activas molinato, tiram y ziram [in Spanish]
This Directive modifies Directive 91/414/EEC (see CIS 95-1942). It adds the substances molinate (as a herbicide only) and thiram and ziram (as fungicides/repellents only) to the list of active plant protection products.
Official Journal of the European Union - Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, 6 Sep. 2003, Vol.46, No.L 224, p.29-31. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]


CIS 05-520 Piotrowski J., Szymańska J.
4'-Etoksyacetanilid [in Polish]
Phenacetin (4'-ethoxyacetanilide) is mainly used as analgesic and antipyretic. Acute intoxications are characterized by skin eruptions, methaemoglobinaemia, haemolytic anaemia, headache, dizziness and the necrosis of renal mammilla. Consumption of phenacetin in high doses (at least 1g/day) for extended periods results in renal insufficiency. Epidemiological studies indicate that nephropathies caused by analgesics represent 1-20% of all nephropathies. Necrosis of the kidneys may result in renal cancer. On the basis of epidemiological data, the short-tem exposure limit value was set at 5mg/m3 for phenacetin dust.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.33, No.3, p.119-137. 37 ref.

CIS 03-1058 Bensulide
Bensulide [in French]
International Chemical Safety Card published in 2002 (Spanish version already abstracted under CIS 00-650). Exposure routes: inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: effects on the nervous system (convulsions, respiratory failure, cholinesterase inhibition, death); exposure may result in death; effects may be delayed. Long-term exposure effects: cholinesterase inhibition; cumulative effect is possible. Threshold limit value not established. Synonyms: O,O-diisopropyl S-2-phenylsulfonylaminoethyl phosphorodithioate; phosphorodithioic acid; O,O-bis(1-methylethyl)S-(2-((phenylsulfonyl)amino)ethyl)ester.
Internet documents, 2002. 2p. [in English] [in French]

CIS 02-1560 Screening information data set SIDS for high production volume chemicals - Volume 8, Parts 1 and 2
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of 7 chemicals: 1,4-butanediol, p-tert-butylphenol, diacetone alcohol, 4-5-dihydroxy-1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl) imidazolidin-2-one (synonym: dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea), glycidyl methacrylate, 4,4'- methylenedianiline and 1,1,2-trichloroethane.
United Nations Environment Programme, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, Nov. 2002. viii, 264p. Bibl.ref. (Part 1); viii, 302p. Bibl.ref. (Part 2).

CIS 02-1369 Pantusa V.P., Stock T.H., Morandi M.T., Harrist R.B., Afshar M.
Inhalation exposures to acrylamide in biomedical laboratories
This study evaluated airborne acrylamide exposures experienced by laboratory personnel using either crystalline acrylamide or commercially-available solutions to make polyacrylamide gels. Exposures were monitored for a short-term (15-min) period and for a long-term period, during which a sample was collected for as long as the subject was potentially exposed to acrylamide. Mean air concentrations for the 15-min exposures were 7.20±5.64µg/m3 and 5.81±4.53µg/m3 for the users of crystalline and solution acrylamide, respectively. Mean concentrations for the long-term exposures were 12.77±24.20µg/m3 for workers employing crystalline acrylamide and 4.22±7.05µg/m3 for personnel using acrylamide solutions. Although the results indicate that several subjects were exposed to elevated levels, the calculated 8-hour time-weighted average exposures were below current occupational exposure limits. However, because the neurotoxic effects of acrylamide are cumulative and it is a suspected carcinogen, all exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.468-473. 22 ref.

CIS 97-47 Carbaryl
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. May cause mutations and may be a teratogen and should be handled with extreme caution. May cause carbamate poisoning with blurred vision, sweating, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Irritates the skin and eyes. May affect the kidneys and nervous system.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p. [in English]


CIS 04-673 Tomás García P., Obiols Quinto J.
N,N-dimethylformamide exposure assessment: Environmental and biological monitoring
Evaluación de la exposición a N,N-dimetilformamida: control ambiental y biológico [in Spanish]
This information note on the evaluation of exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide covers biological and environmental monitoring. Contents: characteristics of N,N-dimethylformamide; effects on health (skin irritation, conjunctivitis, skin diseases, hepatic damage); N,N-dimethylformamide metabolism; classification (toxic to the reproductive system) and threshold limit values (daily TLV of 10ppm); sampling and analysis methods for N,N-dimethylformamide in workplace atmospheres; biological monitoring (measurement of two unrinary metabolites, N-methylformamide and N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl) cysteine (AMCC)).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 6p. Illus. 13 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 03-743 Hagmar L., Törnqvist M., Nordander C., Rosén I., Bruze M., Kautiainen A., Magnusson A.L., Malmberg B., Aprea P., Granath F., Axmon A.
Health effects of occupational exposure to acrylamide using hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of internal dose
A total of 210 workers at a tunnel construction site exposed for about two months to a chemical-grouting agent containing acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide underwent a health examination. Blood samples were drawn for the analysis of haemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide. 50 workers claiming recently-developed or deteriorating symptoms of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) were referred to a neurophysiological examination. Workers with Hb-adduct levels exceeding 0.3nmol/g globin attended follow-up examinations 6, 12, and 18 months after exposure cessation. 47 workers had Hb-adduct levels within the normal background range (0.02-0.07nmol/g globin), while the remaining 163 had increased levels up to 17.7nmol/g globin. Clear-cut dose-response associations were found between the Hb-adduct levels and PNS symptoms. However, the PNS symptoms were generally mild and reversible in almost all cases.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2001, Vol.27, No.4, p.219-226. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1823 Nomiyama T., Uehara M., Miyauchi H., Imamiya S., Tanaka S., Seki Y.
Causal relationship between a case of severe hepatic dysfunction and low exposure concentrations of N,N-dimethylformamide in the synthetics industry
A 19-year-old man suffered hepatic dysfunction after five months of exposure to dimethylformamide (DMF) at his job in the synthetic resins industry. Medical examinations and laboratory data revealed elevated levels of AST (578IU/L), ALT (1193IU/L), and γ-GTP (107IU/L), no viral infection with HAV, HBV, or HCV, and no history or evidence of hepatic injury, although he did have a slight abdominal abnormality and swelling which was detected by palpation. His urinary methylformamide level, as a biological exposure index of DMF, was 42.8mg/L, indicating 10-30ppm of DMF exposure. After two months, the worker was reinstated in a workplace where environmental DMF concentrations were less than those in the former workplace. On the 18th day after his reinstatement, there was again evidence of hepatic dysfunction. After the second period of medication and one month of rest from work, he had fully recovered and was reinstated, but to a workshop without DMF exposure.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2001, Vol.39, No.1, p.33-36. 12 ref.

CIS 02-1128
German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (No.20); 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (No.30); Hexachloroethane (No.34); 2-Chloro-4-nitroaniline (No.43); 1,2-Dibromoethane (No.66); Methallyl chloride (No.109); Ethyl acrylate (No.128); Tetramethyllead / Tetraethyllead (No.130); Acrolein (No.157); Thiourea (No.179)
These short reports concern 11 substances suspected of having a hazardous potential, but for which available data are insufficient. The purpose of these reports is to establish a basis for assessment, identify gaps in knowledge and recommend areas for further investigation.
S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2001. 95p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-1352 Zheng T., Zahm S.H., Cantor K.P., Weisenburger D.D., Zhang Y., Blair A.
Agricultural exposure to carbamate pesticides and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma
To explore the possible relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and carbamate insecticide use among farmers, a pooled analysis of three population-based case-control studies conducted in four mid-western states in the United States was conducted involving 985 white male subjects and 2895 matched controls. Compared with non-farmers, farmers who had ever used carbamate pesticides had a 30% to 50% increased risk of NHL, whereas farmers without carbamate pesticide use showed no increased risk. Analyses for individual carbamate pesticides found a more consistent association with Sevin but not carbofuran, butylate, or S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate plus protectant. Among farmers using Sevin, the risk of NHL was limited to those who personally handled the product, those who first used the product for >20 years before their disease diagnosis, and those who used the product for a longer period. These associations persisted after adjusting for other major classes of pesticides. These results suggest an increased risk of NHL associated with carbamate pesticide use, particularly Sevin. Further investigation of the association is warranted.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.43, No.7, p.641-649. 33 ref.

CIS 02-573
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document: there are no data available on the toxicokinetics, metabolism and carcinogenicity of 2-chloroacetamide, nor on its dermal acute toxicity or dust inhalation toxicity. Numerous cases of 2-chloroacetamide-induced contact allergies are reported.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2001. xiii, 125p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-815 Luo J.C., Kuo H.W., Cheng T.J., Chang M.J.W.
Abnormal liver function associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide and hepatitis B virus
N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) has excellent solvent properties and is used intensively in the production of synthetic leather and resins. It has caused hepatoxicity in human and animal studies. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus infections are reported to be the major causes of chronic liver diseases (including liver cirrhosis and liver cancer) in Taiwan. This study examined the dose-response relationship of the observed abnormal liver function among the DMF-exposed workers and the interactions among DMF, other chemical exposures, HBV infection, and potential confounders on liver abnormalities. It was observed that a significant dose-response relationship existed between liver function abnormalities and DMF exposure among workers in Taiwan, and that HBV carrier status or increased BMI had synergistic effects with DMF exposure in causing liver abnormalities (abnormal liver function tests and clinical chronic liver diseases).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.43, No.5, p.474-482. 29 ref.

CIS 02-562 Tetramethylthiuram disulfide
Tiram [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Synonym: thiram. Exposure limit: 5mg/m3 (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the skin, eyes, throat and nose; skin allergies effects similar to those of Antabuse (nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, loss of appetite); teratogenic effects in animals.
Noticias de seguridad, Mar. 2001, Vol.63, No.3, 4p. Insert.

CIS 02-72
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Conclusions of this criteria document: dimethyformamide is slightly irritant and corrosive to the eyes and skin. Occupational exposure results from dermal absorption and inhalation. The primary target is the liver, giving rise to digestive disorders and changes in hepatic enzymes. Data on carcinogenicity and genotoxicity are not convincing; available data are insufficient for the assessment of neurological and immunological effects.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 56p. Illus. 262 ref. Price: CHF 17.00 (CHF 11.90 in developing countries). [in English]


CIS 02-1854 Héry M., Dornier G.
Chloramines in swimming pools and in the food industry
Chloramines dans les piscines et l'agroalimentaire [in French]
Thanks to its outstanding bactericidal properties, its low cost and the ease of use of some if its compounds, chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant. In recent years, a large number of questions were addressed to the French National research and safety institute for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases (INRS) by workers engaged in activities using chlorine, in particular in swimming pools and in the food industry. This information sheet was prepared in order to provide answers to the concerns of workers exposed to chlorine and who are often subject to eye or respiratory irritation. Contents: chlorine chemistry and the formation of chloramines, substances which the primary irritants; determination of chloramines in swimming pools and in the food industry; current activities of INRS and its collaborating organizations; protective measures that need to be implemented in swimming pools and in the food industry.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2000. 4p. Illus. 7 ref. Can also be found on the site:

CIS 02-795 Marcelloni A.M., Panebianco A., Plebani C., Salerno A., Tranfo G., Gabrielli P., Zanin T.
Occupational exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide: Complementary use of biological and environmental monitoring
Esposizione professionale ad N,N,-dimetilformammide: complementarità del monitoraggio biologico ed ambientale [in Italian]
Exposure evaluation of N,N,-dimethylformamide (DMF), used as a solvent in the garment industry. Monitoring of air contamination by DMF and urine monitoring of one of the DMF metabolites (NMF) have also been performed. Results indicate that workers are exposed to dermal and inhalation absorption of DMF, which might be responsible of gastrointestinal and nervous system diseases.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2000, Vol.13, No.1, p.115-117. 5 ref.

CIS 02-306 Testud F., Gingomard M.A., de Larquier A., Abdelmalek Y., Thibaudier J.M.
Acute Lannate® poisoning in the agricultural sector
Intoxications aiguës par le Lannate® en milieu agricole [in French]
28 occupational poisonings involving Lannate® recorded in France since 1991 are reported. The active constituent is methomyl, a powerful anticholinesterasic carbamate insecticide. Along with available toxicological data on methomyl, these cases confirm risk factors that are usually observed in connection with pesticide handling: summertime, prolonged spraying, inadequacy or absence of protective devices, and spraying while facing the wind. It appears that intoxication following skin penetration was largely underestimated, by both crop sprayers and the manufacturer, although this is a recognized route of poisoning for organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Preventive measures to decrease the incidence of these poisonings are proposed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.170-176. 23 ref.

CIS 01-825 Imbriani M., Marraccini P., Saretto G., Abatangelo L., Ghittori S., Cavalleri A.
Determination of N-methylformamide following occupational exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide
Il dosaggio della N-metilformamide nella esposizione professionale a N,N-dimetilformamide [in Italian]
To evaluate the correlation between the excretion of N-methylformamide (NMF) and levels of exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) among occupationally exposed persons, 25 male workers aged between 25 and 54 in a synthetic leather factory were studied daily over a 5-day period. The mean time-weighted average (TWA) exposure was about half (13.5mg/m3) of the current threshold limit value, the range of the values varying from 0.4 to 75.2mg/m3. A linear equation existed between urinary NMF concentration and DMF concentration in the environment. The findings show that the urinary NMF concentration can be used as an appropriate biological exposure index. For occupationally exposed subjects, a urinary NMF concentration corresponding to the time-weighted average of the threshold limit value of 39.9mg/L (37.2mg/g creatinine) and a 95% lower confidence limit (biological threshold) of 23.4mg/L (22.2mg/g creatinine) are suggested.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.91, No.2, p.114-124. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 00-1253
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (DECOS)
Urethane (ethyl carbamate) - Health-based calculated occupational cancer risk values
Main topics covered: survey of carcinogenicity studies suitable for risk estimation in the occupational environment; carcinogenic activity in experimental animals under life-time low-dose exposure; health risk to humans; calculation of health-based conditions; occupational cancer risk values; occupational exposure limits; toxicity profile. The additional lifetime estimated cancer risk for ethyl cabamate is estimated to be 4 x 10-5 for 40 years of occupational exposure to 0.002mg/m3 and 4 x 10-3 for 40 years of occupational exposure to 0.2mg/m3. The substance is listed as a carcinogen in several countries (e.g., the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom). Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, Sep. 2000. 34p. 12 ref.


CIS 03-1079 EPTC
EPTC [in French]
International Chemical Safety Card published in 1996 (Spanish version already abstracted under CIS 96-2004). Exposure routes: inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: effects on the central nervous system exposure. Threshold limit value not established. Synonyms: S-ethyl dipropyldithiocarbamate; carbamothioic acid, dipropyl, S-ethyl ester; S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamothioate; S-ethyl N,N'-dipropylthiocarbamate.
Internet documents, 1996, 2p. [in English] [in French]

CIS 03-1073 Sodium N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate
Diéthyldithiocarbamate de sodium [in French]
International Chemical Safety Card published in 1995 (Spanish version already abstracted under CIS 00-1250). Exposure routes: ingestion. Short term exposure effects: irritation of the skin. Threshold limit value not established. Synonym: dithiocarb sodium.
Internet documents, 1995, 2p. [in English] [in French]

CIS 02-1082 Hexaflumuron
Hexaflumuron [in French]
Hexaflumuron [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Long-term exposure effects: haematological effects (methaemoglobinaemia).
English/French versions: Internet documents, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. [in French] [in Spanish] [in English]

CIS 01-1346 2-Mercaptoimidazoline
2-Mercaptoimidazoline [in French]
2- Mercaptoimidazolina [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Synonyms: 2-imidazolidinethione; ethylene thiourea (ETU). Exposure routes: inhalation and skin absorption. Long-term exposure effects: effects on the thyroid and liver, resulting in impaired functions; animal tests show that this substance possibly causes malformations in new borns. No TLV has been established.
On the Internet site cts/icsc/index.htm ; Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 01-1319 Flutolanil
Flutolanil [in French]
Flutolanil [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Decomposition on burning giving rise to toxic and corrosive fumes. No TLV has been established.
On the Internet site cts/icsc/index.htm ; Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 01-1312 N,N'-Ethylene bis(stearamide)
N,N'-Ethylène bis(stéaramide) [in French]
N,N'-etilene bis(estearamida) [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Short-term exposure effects: slight irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. No TLV has been established.
On the Internet site, 1993-1999. Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain. 2p.

CIS 00-792 Katsarou A., Koufou V., Katsaris V., Kalogeromitros D.
Acute contact dermatitis from naphthol AS
Topics: allergens; aromatic azo compounds; naphthol as; case study; clothing; dermatitis; dyes; eczema; gas chromatography; itch; skin allergies; skin tests; textiles; vesicular contact dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.228-229. 8 ref.

CIS 00-481 Tielemans E., Louwerse E., de Cock J., Brouwer D., Zielhuis G., Heederik D.
Exposure to fungicides in fruit growing: Re-entry time as a predictor for dermal exposure
Dermal exposure to the fungicides captan and tolylfluanid was measured among workers in the fruit-growing sector using cotton gloves (12 persons) and skin pads on several body parts (12 persons). For harvesting activities, re-entry time appeared to be an important determinant of dermal exposure to captan and tolylfluanid. For captan, calculated half-life times from the most recent exposure survey were lower (glove data: 5 days; pad data: 6 days) compared with half-life times based on another study conducted recently (11 days). Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed. For tolylfluanid, estimated half-life times during harvesting were 2 and 3 days, based on pad and glove data, respectively. Prediction of captan exposure during other crop activities appeared to be far more difficult, although the estimated half-life time was comparable with that for harvesting.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.60, No.6, p.789-793. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 99-1957 Assier-Bonnet H., Revuz J.
Chloroacetamide as a cause of contact dermatitis in hairdressing
Topics: allergens; chloroacetamide; case study; dermatitis; dyes; hairdressing; preservatives; sensitization dermatitis; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1999, Vol.40, No.5, p.284-285. 10 ref.

CIS 99-1594 Marsh G.M., Lucas L.J., Youk A.O., Schall L.C.
Mortality patterns among workers exposed to acrylamide: 1994 Follow up
The mortality experience of a cohort of 8,508 workers with potential exposure to acrylamide at three plants was followed from 1984 to 1994. The contribution of 1,115 additional deaths and nearly 60,000 person-years over the 11 year follow up period corroborate the original cohort study (1925-1983) findings of little evidence for a causal relation between exposure to acrylamide and mortality from any cancer sites, including those of initial interest. This is the most definitive study of the human carcinogenic potential of exposure to acrylamide conducted to date. Topics: acrylamide; cancer; carcinogens; cohort study; dose-response relationship; epidemiologic study; length of exposure; mortality; tumour of the pancreas.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.56, No.3, p.181-190. 17 ref.

CIS 99-883 Wrbitzky R.
Liver function in workers exposed to N,N-dimethylformamide during the production of synthetic textiles
The hepatotoxic effects of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and the combination effects of DMF exposure and ethyl alcohol consumption were investigated in 126 male employees of a synthetic fibres production factory. DMF concentrations in air ranged from < 0.1 to 37.9ppm. Concentrations of the DMF metabolite N-methylformamide (NMF) in urine were 0.05-22.0mg/L (preshift) and 0.9-100.0mg/L (postshift), corresponding to 0.02-44.6mg/g creatinine (preshift) and 0.4-62.3mg/g creatinine (postshift). The results indicate a statistically significant toxic influence of DMF on liver function. Alcohol has a synergistic effect. The effects of DMF and of alcohol are dose-dependent. Experience gained from former occupational health surveillance in DMF-exposed persons and from the present study show that there are individual differences in tolerance of interactions between DMF and ethyl alcohol. Further studies are necessary for the evaluation of these individual degrees of susceptibility. Topics: alcoholism; dimethylformamide; cross-sectional study; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; hepatotoxic effects; liver function tests; metabolic process; synergism; synthetic fibre industry.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 1999, Vol.72, No.1, p.19-25. Illus. 49 ref.


CIS 00-1677 de Vreede J.A.F., Brouwer D.H., Stevenson H., van Hemmen J.J.
Exposure and risk estimation for pesticides in high-volume spraying
During twenty applications with a spray pistol of methomyl to chrysanthemums, inhalation exposure as well as potential and actual dermal exposure were monitored using the "whole-body" method. On the basis of exposure data, the health risk from methomyl and thirteen other pesticides frequently used in flower horticulture was evaluated. From the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) in animal experiments an Indicative Limit Value (ILV) was derived. The ILV is considered indicative of the limit of daily exposure which probably has no adverse health effects. This value is only a rough approximation, as it is based on limited data. The database for a proper assessment of such a value is generally incomplete. To reduce dermal exposure levels below the ILV, exposure of the hands in particular has to be reduced, for example by using impermeable gloves.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1998, Vol.42, No.3, p.151-157. Illus. 16 ref.

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