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Space travel - 55 entries found

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CIS 09-335 Scheuring R.A., Mathers C.H., Jones J.A., Wear M.L.
Musculoskeletal injuries and minor trauma in space: Incidence and injury mechanisms in U.S. astronauts
The purpose of this study was to catalog and analyze all in-flight musculoskeletal injuries having occurred throughout the United States space programme to date. A database of in-flight musculoskeletal injuries among astronauts was generated from records at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. A total of 219 in-flight musculoskeletal injuries were identified, 198 occurring in men and 21 in women. Incidence over the course of the space program was 0.021 per flight day for men and 0.015 for women. Crew activity in the spacecraft cabin such as translating between modules, aerobic and resistive exercise, and injuries caused by the extravehicular activity suit components were the leading causes of musculoskeletal injuries. The most common location of injury was the hand. Other findings are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.80, No.2, p.117-124. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 08-1369 Meck J.V, Buccello-Stout R.R., Warren L.E.
The NASA Flight Analog Project: Head-down bed rest studies
Whole supplement of the major aerospace medicine journal, devoted to the physiological and psychological effects of long-term space travel involving situations of low or no gravity, as simulated by volunteers spending 60-90 days in a bed-rest position on a bed inclined -6° relative to the horizontal (under normal conditions of gravity). The study measured the effects of this simulation on: vital signs and fluid balance; nutritional status; the bones; the cardiovascular system; immune status, latent viral reactivation and stress; postural reflexes, balance control and functional mobility; behavioural and psychological issues; cognitive functioning.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.80. No.5 (Section II: Supplement), whole issue (65p.) Illus. Bibl.ref.


CIS 06-608 Sides M.B., et al.
The Bellagio report: Cardiovascular risks of spaceflight: Implications for the future of space travel
An international group of experts convened in Bellagio, Italy in 2004 to review available literature for cardiac risks in spaceflight. This led to the creation of a priority assessment framework to allow for an objective assessment of the hazard, the probability of its occurrence, potential mission impact and available risk mitigation factors. This article highlights important aspects of cardiovascular risks in spaceflight and discusses counter measures and potential operational changes.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.76, No.9, p.877-895. 152 ref.

CIS 06-244 Harrison A.A.
Behavioral health: Integrating research and application in support of exploration missions
This article addresses the concept of behavioural health in space, a concept that covers psychological, interpersonal, and cultural adaptation. It provides an overview of the rationale and findings of a NASA-funded workshop entitled "New directions in behavioural health: Integrating research and application", held at the University of California, Davis, USA, on 2-3 December 2003. The purpose of the workshop was to promote fruitful dialogue between researchers and operational personnel in the interests of expanding our understanding of behavioural health on future space exploration missions. Topics discussed include the critical role of behavioural health in space, behaviour and performance, research strategies and obstacles to progress in space-related behavioural health research and application.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 2005, Vol.76, No.6, Section II, Suppl., p.B3-B12. 88 ref.


CIS 03-973 Kraft N.O., Lyons T.J., Binder H.
Group dynamics and catecholamines during long-duration confinement in an isolated environment
The objective of this study was to investigate possible relationships between catecholamine excretion and long-duration confinement in an isolated environment. Stays of long duration in a confinement chamber were made by three groups of four subjects each: an all-Russian team during weeks 1-34; a mixed-nationality team during weeks 3-18; a mixed-nationality team during weeks 22-38. Other groups joined the residents for one-week intervals at weeks 13, 19 and 33. Epinephrine excretion generally remained in the normal range. However, occasional elevations occurred due to psychological stress, which apparently correlate with changes in group dynamics. Norepinephrine excretion was above the normal range and was correlated with social events. These results suggest that to ensure optimum crew performance, entire crews along with their visiting crews should be selected collectively, rather than individually.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.74, No.3, p.266-272. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1870
Health and Safety Executive
Appraisal of pipeline surveillance by high resolution satellite
This report in three volumes evaluates the potential of high-resolution satellites for the monitoring of on-land pipelines. The available technology and possible applications were reviewed. A system was developed to evaluate the benefits of applying satellite imaging techniques to the routing and surveillance of on-land transmission pipelines, and to test an available satellite for estimating the technical effectiveness and cost. Volume I presents the cost-benefit study and considers the sensitivity of several key parameters on costs. Volume II presents an appraisal of the data gathered by the IKONOS satellite for pipeline surveillance. Volume III presents a functional specification of requirements for satellite surveillance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. iv, 24p. Illus. 6 ref. (Vol.I); iv, 74p. Illus. 6 ref. (Vol.II); iv, 12p. Illus. 6 ref. (Vol. III). Price: GBP 35.00. [in English]


CIS 03-654 Gontcharov I.B., Kovachevich I.V., Pool S.L., Navinkov A.L., Barratt M.R.
Medical care system for NASA-Mir spaceflights
A fundamental goal of space medicine is to maintain the health and fitness of space crews. Meeting this goal requires reliable, effective, up-to-date medical support systems for use in microgravity. This article describes some of the factors considered in the design and assembly of Russian and U.S. in-flight medical care systems. The successful mutual use of U.S. and Russian medications and medical equipment under the NASA-Mir program conclusively demonstrated the importance and advantages of cooperation among participating space agencies. Continued progress toward the integration of U.S. and Russian flight medical systems will further increase the effectiveness of the medical support of joint missions aboard the International Space Station.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.73, No.12, p.1219-1223. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 03-866 Koscheyev V.S., Coca A., Leon G.R., Dancisak M.J.
Individual thermal profiles as a basis for comfort improvement in space and other environments
Thermoregulation is of considerable importance for humans in space and other extreme environments. A methodology is presented for evaluating heat flux from specific body zones, and for assessing individual differences in the efficiency of heat exchange from these body areas. The goal is to apply this information to the design of individualized protective equipment. A multi-compartment conductive plastic tubing liquid cooling and warming garment was developed. Inlet water temperatures of 8-45°C were imposed sequentially to specific body areas while the remainder of the garment was maintained at 33°C. The greatest amount of heat was exchanged by the thighs, torso, calves and forearms. Calculation of heat transfer rates standardized per unit tube length and flow rate instead of surface area covered showed that there was significantly greater heat transfer in the head, hands and feet. There was considerable subject variability in rates of heat transfer in the torso, thighs, shoulders, and calves and forearms.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.73, No.12, p.1195-1202. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 03-972 Kraft N.O., Inoue N., Mizuno K., Ohshima H., Murai T., Sekiguchi C.
Physiological changes, sleep and morning mood in an isolated environment
The objective of this project was to examine physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood and complaints during confinement. Six male and two female subjects spent seven days in an isolation chamber simulating the interior of the Japanese Experimental Module. Each 24h period included 6h of sleep, three meals and 20min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed questionnaires on the quality of their sleep. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume and body weight were measured two days before and after confinement and sleep motor activity was recorded during confinement. Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine and sleep motor activity showed significant differences during confinement. Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.73, No.11, p.1089-1093. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 03-479 Kanas N., Salnitskiy V., Grund E.M., Gushin V., Weiss D.S., Kozerenko O., Sled A., Marmar C.R.
Lessons learned from Shuttle/Mir: Psychological countermeasures
This study of psychosocial issues during long-duration space missions involved five U.S. astronauts, eight Russian cosmonauts, and 42 U.S. and 16 Russian mission control personnel who participated in the Shuttle-Mir programme. Based on the findings, a number of psychosocial measures are suggested. During future manned space missions, crew members should be selected not only to rule out psychopathology but also to select for group compatibility and facility in a common language. Psychosocial training should involve both crew members and mission control personnel. During the mission, both experts on the ground and the crewmembers should be alert to potential interpersonal problems, including the displacement of negative emotions from the crew to the ground. Supportive activities should consist of both individual and interpersonal strategies, including an awareness of changing leisure time needs. Finally, attention should be given to post-mission readjustment and to support for the families.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.73, No.6, p.607-611. 25 ref.

CIS 03-399 Pilmanis A.A., Webb J.T., Kannan N., Balldin U.
The effect of repeated altitude exposures on the incidence of decompression sickness
Repeated hypobaric exposures in a single day occurring during parachute training, hypobaric chamber training, unpressurized flight and extravehicular space activity can cause decompression sickness (DCS). To test the hypothesis that short exposures with and without ground intervals would result in a lower incidence of DCS than a single exposure of equal duration, 32 subjects were exposed to three different hypobaric exposures: a single 2h continuous exposure (condition A, control); four 30min exposures but no ground interval between the exposures (condition B); four 30min exposures and a 60min period of ground interval between exposures (condition C). All exposures were to a simulated altitude of 7500m with 100% oxygen breathing. Subjects were examined for symptoms of DCS and precordial venous gas emboli (VGE). Results indicate that repeated simulated altitude exposures to 7500m significantly reduce DCS and VGE incidence compared with a single continuous exposure of equivalent duration.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.73, No.6, p.525-531. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1697 Grigoriev A.I., Orlov O.I.
Telemedicine and spaceflight
In the coming decades, the building of the International Space Station (ISS) will be the most important near-Earth space exploration project. Remote monitoring and distance support of the crewmembers by the Earth-based clinical medicine specialists will become increasingly important. In Russia, the construction of the telemedicine network for the Russian node of the ISS has been completed. It is evident that during interplanetary flight biomedical problems will be much more difficult than during orbital flights of the same duration. Such a long-duration flight will require development of a special telemedical support system, as well as onboard facilities, which will present many new challenges. This new system will involve the integration of information technologies with biology, as well as physics and chemistry, representing a new interdisciplinary technological breakthrough.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.73, No.7, p.688-693. Illus. 23 ref.


CIS 03-270 Ray P.
An innovative approach of risk planning for space programs
According to the current rule-based risk management approach at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the effort is directed to contain all identified risks of a programme. The identification of hazards and mitigation efforts proceed along with the development of the system hardware, till all the tradable resources for a programme are exhausted. No conscious effort is made to evaluate risks and associated cost, and the final design is likely to have undesirable residual risks. This approach also results in allocating a significant amount of resources to gain only marginal mitigation of hazard and leave some undesirable hazards in the system due to the budget limitation. The approach in the proposed knowledge-based risk planning system makes a conscious attempt to trade risk with other resources, such as schedule, cost, reliability and performance in a judicious and cost-effective way.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, July 2000, Vol.26, No.1, p.67-74. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 02-1760 Matney M.L., Beck S.W., Limero T.F., James J.T.
Multisorbent tubes for collecting volatile organic compounds in spacecraft air
The objective of this study was to improve the capability of Tenax-TA tubes to trap and concentrate volatile contaminants from air aboard spacecraft by incorporating additional sorbents within the tubes. Two carbon molecular sieve-type sorbents were tested. Breakthrough volumes were determined by flowing low levels of methanol or trichlorofluoromethane in nitrogen through the sorbent tubes at 30mL/min. Breakthrough volumes for methanol on the two sorbents were about 9L/g and 11L/g, while those for trichlorofluoromethane were 7L/g and >26L/g. Tubes containing either Tenax-TA alone or in combination with each sorbent were next exposed to a 10-component gas mixture and percentage recoveries of each constituent were determined. The Tenax-TA and Carboxen 569 combination gave the best overall recoveries (75-114% for the 10 compounds). Acetaldehyde had the lowest recovery (75%), but this value was an improvement over either the other sorbent combinations or the original single-sorbent tubes.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.69-75. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 00-1347 Hamm P.B., Nicogossian A.E., Pool S.L., Wear M.L., Billica R.D.
Design and current status of the longitudinal study of astronaut health
The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and to provide current mortality data. All astronauts selected for the United States Space Program are followed from selection throughout their lifetime or until the end of the study. Comparisons are ground-based Johnson Space Center employees matched to the astronauts at a 3:1 ratio by sex, age and body mass index. They are followed in the same manner as astronauts. Morbidity and mortality data are obtained from medical records supplemented with questionnaires. Checks for death certificates are made to ascertain death of participants who miss routine examinations. Cause-specific mortality rates for astronauts selected from 1959 through 1991 are not statistically different from rates for comparison participants for cardiovascular, cancer or other disease mortality. However, astronauts have a significantly higher mortality rate due to accidents and injuries.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.71, No.6, p.564-570. 21 ref.

CIS 00-1487 Palinkas L.A., Gunderson E.K.E., Holland A.W., Miller C., Johnson J.C.
Predictors of behavior and performance in extreme environments: The Antarctic Space Analogue Program
To determine the criteria for screening personnel for long-duration space flight, the influence of social and demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station physical environments on performance measures were examined in 657 men who spent an austral winter in Antarctica between 1963 and 1974. Subjects completed a questionnaire on social and demographic characteristics which assessed 5 different personality traits, and a scale which measured 6 dimensions of interpersonal needs. Station environment included measures of crew size and severity of physical environment. Performance was assessed on the basis of peer-supervisor evaluations of overall performance, peer nominations of fellow crew-members who made ideal winter-over candidates, and self-reported depressive symptoms. Military service, low levels of neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness, and a low desire for affection from others were significant predictors of several performance measures.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.71, No.6, p.619-625. 26 ref.


CIS 01-252 Payne D.A., Mehta S.K., Tyring S.K., Stowe R.P., Pierson D.L.
Incidence of Epstein-Barr virus in astronaut saliva during spaceflight
Astronauts experience psychological and physical stresses that may result in reactivation of latent viruses during spaceflight, potentially increasing the risk of disease among crewmembers. In order to test the hypothesis that the level of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of astronauts increases during spaceflight, a total of 534 saliva specimens were collected from 11 EBV-seropositive astronauts before, during, and after four space shuttle missions. The presence of EBV DNA in saliva was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. The findings were that EBV DNA was detected more frequently before flight than during or after flight. No significant difference between the inflight and postflight periods was detected in the frequency of occurrence of EBV DNA. In conclusion, the increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.70, No.12, p.1211-1213. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 99-1697 Stein T.P., Schluter M.D.
Plasma amino acids during human spaceflight
Plasma amino acid distribution patterns were measured before, during and after flight on the Space Shuttle. The plasma samples were collected from the four payload crewmembers of a 1993 shuttle mission. Samples were taken 45, 15 and 8 days before flight; inflight on days 2, 8 and 12 after launch; post flight on the day of landing; and again 6, 14 and 45 days after landing. Most of the changes found pertained to the essential amino acids, particularly the branched chain amino acids (BCAA). The principle findings were: a) plasma aminograms for inflight days 8 and 12 were very similar and both aminograms were very different from that of flight day 2. Flight day 2 was not different from the preflight ground control; b) with increasing time in space, there was an increase in the concentration of leucine and isoleucine in the plasma. This increase occurred even though dietary BCAA intake was not increased inflight; and c) concentrations of total essential amino acids and BCAA in particular were decreased on the day of landing. Topics: amino acids; blood monitoring; blood plasma; body weight; determination in blood; nutrition; plasma changes; space travel.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.70, No.3, p.250-255. Illus. 22 ref.


CIS 98-655 Wessels H.
Safety implementation in manned spacecraft: A few recent examples
Topics: breathing atmosphere; control and regulation; fire protection; safety by design; safety engineering; space travel; toxic atmosphere detection.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Feb. 1998, Vol.16, No.2, p.24-27. Illus.


CIS 97-1687 Acceptability of risk from radiation - Application to human space flight
Proceedings of a symposium on the acceptability of risk from radiation in human space flight held in Arlington, Virginia, USA, 29 May 1996. Papers cover: the space radiation environment; biology relevant to space radiation; development of radiation protection standards for space activities; analytic concepts for assessing risk in human space flight; approaches to acceptable risk; perception and acceptance of space radiation risk; philosophy on astronaut protection; space flight and radiation limits.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095, USA, Apr. 1997. vi, 197p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: USD 30.00.

CIS 97-1384 Loftin K.C., Conkin J., Powell M.R.
Modeling the effects of exercise during 100% oxygen prebreathe on the risk of hypobaric decompression sickness
Previous studies on the effect of exercise during oxygen prebreathe on the incidence of hypobaric decompression sickness (DCS) were analyzed, and a statistical model was developed as a predictive tool for DCS. A dose-response probability tissue ratio (TR) model was created for two groups: prebreathe with exercise and resting prebreathe. Results suggested that exercise during prebreathe increases tissue perfusion and nitrogen elimination approximately 2-fold and markedly lowers the risk of DCS. The model provides a useful planning tool for developing appropriate prebreathe exercise protocols and for predicting DCS for astronauts.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1997, Vol.68, No.3, p.199-204. 23 ref.

CIS 97-1383 Tafforin C., Campan R., Imbert C.
Visual localization within single geometric planes of a space habitat
This study investigated the way in which human subjects capture and restore visual information configuring a 3-dimensional (3D) environment in order to construct an adequate mental representation of space. Nine subjects were asked to localize a light point appearing for 3s in different spatial positions and for different tilt angles in a line drawing representing the 3D configuration of a space module. Results showed that the variations of the average point-localizing errors depended on both the tilt angles and the point positions. It is concluded that visual localization in single geometric planes is orientation-dependent.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1997, Vol.68, No.3, p.192-198. Illus. 23 ref.


CIS 97-627 Webb J.T., Fischer M.D., Heaps C.L., Pilmanis A.A.
Exercise-enhanced preoxygenation increases protection from decompression sickness
The use of exercise-enhanced preoxygenation (breathing 100% oxygen prior to decompression) to reduce the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) during high altitude flight was investigated. 26 male subjects accomplished a 1h preoxygenation with exercise, a 15min preoxygenation with exercise, or a 1h resting preoxygenation. Exercise involved 10min of dual-cycle ergometry. Incidence of DCS following the 1h preoxygenation with exercise was significantly less that than following 1h resting preoxygenation, indicating that preoxygenation with exercise can provide improved DCS protection compared with resting preoxygenation.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 1996, Vol.67, No.7, p.618-624. 29 ref.

CIS 97-493 Walford R.L., Bechtel R., MacCallum T., Paglia D.E., Weber L.J.
"Biospheric medicine" as viewed from the two-year first closure of Biosphere 2
The medical aspects of biospheres are discussed with reference to the experiences of four men and four women confined for two years inside Biosphere 2, an enclosed ecological space in Arizona, USA. Biospheric medicine as a clinical discipline is discussed in terms of mission objectives, medical resources and capabilities, anticipation of medical issues, facility design, and selection and training of personnel. Psychological and psychosocial issues are also considered. Medical problems encountered in Biosphere 2 included severe weight loss, oxygen deprivation, and psychological and social problems.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 1996, Vol.67, No.7, p.609-617. 33 ref.

CIS 97-671 Jennings R.T., Bagian J.P.
Musculoskeletal injury review in the U.S. space program
Physical training program undertaken by U.S. astronauts have resulted in a number of orthopaedic injuries. Injuries identified during the period 1987-1995 include fractures, and soft tissue injuries causing tears to muscles, ligaments and cartilage. Injury patterns are analyzed and suggestions are made for improvements. These include decreased reliance on running and competitive athletics for conditioning, improved personal preflight fitness training, and coordinated postflight rehabilitation.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.67, No.8, p.762-766. 29 ref.

CIS 97-320 Wickman L.A., Luna B.
Locomotion while load-carrying in reduced gravities
Six subjects ran or walked underwater on a treadmill in simulated reduced-gravity levels while carrying a range of loads. Energy expenditure, calculated from measured oxygen consumption, was positively correlated with gravity-level, speed of movement and load size. The data are used to project that individuals in average physical condition will be able to walk for 8h on the moon while carrying up to 170% of their bodymass without undue fatigue, and on Mars with up to 50% of their body mass. Implications for the design of portable life support systems are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1996, Vol.67, No.10, Section 1, p.940-946. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 96-1159 Sandal G.M., Vaernes R., Bergan T., Warncke M., Ursin H.
Psychological reactions during polar expeditions and isolation in hyperbaric chambers
Psychological data from environments that are considered as analogous to space were collected from 67 subjects: 18 in hyperbaric chambers, 15 in polar expeditions, and 34 on Arctic stations. Psychological reactions to the environments were assessed by a questionnaire at weekly intervals. Reactions followed patterns that were specific to the type of environment and were independent of the duration of isolation. Certain personalities showed superior adaptation in hyperbaric chambers. The data suggest that while no one model covers all aspects of the space environment, these terrestrial settings may be considered as models for different aspects of life in space.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1996, Vol.67, No.3, p.227-234. 27 ref.

CIS 96-1015 Conkin J., Kumar V., Powell M.R., Foster P.P., Waligora J.M.
A probabilistic model of hypobaric decompression sickness based on 66 chamber tests
An approach to estimating the probability of decompression sickness (DCS) in astronauts performing extravehicular activities (EVAs) is described. Data from 66 hypobaric chamber tests (211 cases of DCS in 1075 exposures) were analyzed. Variables considered were denitrogenation prior to decompression, magnitude of the decompression, exercise after decompression, and length of the EVA. Probability models were fitted using techniques from survival analysis. Constant probability of DCS was better described by tissue ratios that decrease as ambient pressure after decompression decreases, a conclusion supported by other studies.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.67, No.2, p.176-183. 20 ref.

CIS 96-1120 Wichman H.A., Donaldson S.I.
Remote ergonomic research in space: Spacelab findings and a proposal
Two prototype studies of crew members working in the micro-G environments aboard the first two flights of Spacelab are described. Video cameras situated in the spacecraft were used to observe various aspects of crew restraint, stabilization, manipulation of controls and mobilization. Particular attention was paid to the use of foot restraints and hand stabilization. Principles for the design of an adequate foot restraint are put forward along with proposals for future spacecraft studies.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.67, No.2, p.171-175. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 96-998 Wilson J.W., Kim M., Schimmerling W., Badavi F.F., Thibeault S.A., Cucinotta F.A., Shinn J.L., Kiefer R.
Issues in space radiation protection: Galactic cosmic rays
There is limited knowledge concerning the physical properties of and biological responses to cosmic rays. Herein, the current status of space shielding technology and its impact on radiation protection is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of biological response on optimum materials selection for cosmic ray shielding is presented in terms of the transmission characteristics of the shield material. Although liquid hydrogen is an optimum shield material, it is difficult to use. The evaluation of the effectiveness of polymeric structural materials as a substitute must await improvement in our knowledge of both the biological response and the nuclear processes.
Health Physics, Jan. 1995, Vol.68, No.1, p.50-58. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 96-372 LeBlanc A., Rowe R., Schneider V., Evans H., Hedrick T.
Regional muscle loss after short duration spaceflight
Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the regional muscle volume changes of the calf, thigh and back in two male and two female crewmembers of an eight-day Shuttle flight. The soleus-gastrocnemius, anterior calf, hamstrings, quadriceps, and intrinsic back muscles were all decreased compared to baseline. After two weeks, the hamstrings and intrinsic lower back muscles were still below baseline. Even short duration spaceflight can result in significant muscle atrophy; appropriate exercise countermeasures may be required.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1995, Vol.66, No.12, p.1151-1154. 25 ref.


CIS 95-1363 Nicogossian A.E., Huntoon C.L., Pool S.L.
Space physiology and medicine
Contents of this manual: overview of human space flight (history, characteristics of the space environment, planetary exploration); spacecraft and the spacecraft environment (life support systems, extravehicular activities, airborne toxic hazards, microbiology, radiation and radiobiology, human capabilities in the spacecraft environment); physiologic adaptation to space flight (motion sickness, sensory and sensory-motor function, cardiopulmonary function, nutrition, muscle structure and function, bone and mineral metabolism, endocrine and biochemical functions, haematologic and immunologic functions, microgravity situations); health-care programmes for space crews.
Lea & Febiger, Box 3024, 200 Chester Field Parkway, Malvern, PA 19355-9725, USA; in Europe: Waverly Europe Ltd., Broadway House, 2-6 Fulham Broadway, London SW6 1AA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 1994. xx, 481p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 85.00.

CIS 95-579 Stein T.P., Schluter M.D., Boden G.
Development of insulin resistance by astronauts during spaceflight
Dietary intake and urine output were monitored continuously for four crewmembers of a Space Shuttle mission from 11 days before launch to 7 days after landing (total 27 days). The urinary C-peptide excretion rate was used as a marker for insulin secretion. Mean inflight C-peptide excretion rates were significantly lower than either the pre- or postflight rates. The progressively increasing C-peptide excretion during 9 days of spaceflight is indicative of the development of insulin resistance in astronauts.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1994, Vol.65, No.12, p.1091-1096. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 95-624 James J.T., Limero T.F., Leano H.J., Boyd J.F., Covington P.A.
Volatile organic contaminants found in the habitable environment of the space shuttle: STS-26 to STS-55
Analysis of spacecraft respirable air during 28 space shuttle missions indicated that the major contaminants were relatively nontoxic alcohols, ketones, alkanes, halocarbons and siloxanes. Occasionally more toxic contaminants such as methanol, acetaldehyde and tetrachloroethene were present at low concentrations. Toxicity assessments showed that air quality was consistently in line with current guidelines. While the usual airborne load of volatile organic contaminants poses little risk to crew health, accidental contamination of the air, especially through pyrolysis of polymeric material, is a recurring problem.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.65, No.9, Section I, p.851-857. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 94-2085 Kumar K.V., Powell M.R.
Survivorship models for estimating the risk of decompression sickness
The applicability of survival analysis for modelling the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) is illustrated by using data from earlier studies of hypobaric chamber exposures. A method for estimating the overall incidence-free survival rates for circulating microbubbles, symptoms and test aborts is described and the results are discussed. Survival analysis is shown to have certain advantages over other methods for modelling the risk of DCS.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 1994, Vol.65, No.7, p.661-665. 15 ref.

CIS 94-1954 Gmünder F.K., Konstantinova I., Cogoli A., Lesnyak A., Bogomolov W., Grachov A.W.
Cellular immunity in cosmonauts during long duration spaceflight on board the orbital MIR station
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was tested in five cosmonauts by intradermal application of seven antigens and a control. In four of the five cosmonauts, reaction scores of DTH-responses below the warning level were noted either during the flight or following landing. Results confirm earlier observations of a decreased lymphocyte function following spaceflights and support the theory of a possibly impaired cell-mediated immunity under stress in association with spaceflight.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, May 1994, Vol.65, No.5, p.419-423. 26 ref.

CIS 94-1929 Newberg A.B.
Changes in the central nervous system and their clinical correlates during long-term spaceflight
Changes that occur in the human central nervous system (CNS) during long-duration spaceflight are reviewed. Effects discussed include: changes in the neurovestibular and sensory systems; CNS changes due to musculoskeletal alterations; sleep disturbances and circadian rhythm; radiation effects on the CNS; fluid and electrolyte influences on the CNS; neurotransmitter changes in the CNS; psychological and behavioural changes. More extensive and persistent changes might be expected with extended stays in space.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 1994, Vol.65, No.6, p.562-572. 94 ref.


CIS 93-1744 Gagnon F.A., Susak L.E., Phillips N., Wing P.C., Tsang I.K.Y.
Study design for microgravity human physiology experiments
A step-by-step approach to designing and conducting a small N study is presented. The technique provides a useful method for obtaining the optimum scientific value from studies performed on limited number of subjects in the limited time available in microgravity. An example is given of a small N study design used to plan an investigation of the effects of a substantial height increase on spinal cord function at microgravity.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.64, No.2, p.153-157. 21 ref.

CIS 93-1743 Tafforin C., Lambin M.
Preliminary analysis of sensory disturbances and behavioural modifications of astronauts in space
Behavioural modifications of astronauts over time spent in microgravity conditions were investigated according to an ethological approach based on video recordings during the Spacelab-1 mission. The method consisted of a description and quantification of motor activity of a subject (movement and orientation) while performing working tasks. The data were correlated with the findings of physiological experiments performed during the same spaceflight. Results revealed an increase in frequencies of certain motor outputs which favoured several specific sensory inputs. Behavioural interpretations are discussed in the light of sensorimotor interactions and cognitive events.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.64, No.2, p.146-152. 22 ref.


CIS 93-1042 Kumar K.V., Waligora J.M., Gilbert J.H.
The influence of prior exercise at anaerobic threshold on decompression sickness
In a study to examine the effects of exercise prior to decompression on the incidence of altitude decompression sickness (DCS), 39 subjects exercised at their predetermined anaerobic threshold levels for 30min each day for three days prior to exposure to an altitude of 6,400m in a hypobaric chamber. No significant difference in DCS preferences was found.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1992, Vol.63, No.10, p.899-904. 26 ref.

CIS 92-2075 Cavanagh P.R., Davis B.L., Miller T.A.
A biomechanical perspective on exercise countermeasures for long-term spaceflight
It has been suggested that a single exercise programme may be designed to counteract both skeletal and cardiovascular adaptation during spaceflight. Peak loads and rates of change of load on the feet during three exercises that have been proposed for use in the Space Station were examined: rowing on an ergometer, stationary cycling and running while tethered on a treadmill. Results suggest that exercise during spaceflight must be considered from both biomechanical and physiological perspectives if optimal response is to be obtained.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 1992, Vol.63, No.6, p.482-485. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 92-1605 Quisenberry B.R.
System safety in the commercialization of space
A license to conduct a commercial space launch in the US must be secured from the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Office of Commercial Space Transportation (OCST). The OCST must conduct a safety review of both the launch vehicle system and the spacecraft along with a review of the license applicant's safety programme and procedures, before a license is granted. A model commercialisation agreement has been developed for launches from test ranges controlled by the U.S. Air Force. This agreement requires that the range user must comply with the various range safety requirements established by the range organisations. The paper discusses the system and range safety activities associated with the commercialisation of space from the perspective of the system safety manager for one of the commercial launch services contractors.
Hazard Prevention, 1991, Vol.27, No.3, p.26-31. 16 ref.

CIS 92-1012 Seigneuric A.
Pathology associated with altitude and flights in the atmosphere and in space
Pathologie liée à l'altitude et aux vols dans l'atmosphère et dans l'espace [in French]
Following a summary of the hazards associated with high altitude (oxygen rarefaction and hypoxia, cold, humidity and radiation), acute pathological effects are examined: mountain sickness, acute pulmonary oedema, cerebral oedema and vascular complications, particularly in the retina. Effects of a prolonged stay at altitude, which may result in either a satisfactory adaptation or Monge disease, are also outlined. The effects of flights in the atmosphere and in space are dependent on the duration and altitude of the flight and require the protective measures described.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1991. 10p. 77 réf.


CIS 88-1040 Physiologic adaptation of man in space
Special issue containing 53 articles, grouped under the following headings: space motion sickness; cardiovascular adaptation; (body) fluid shifts; extravehicular activity; general physiology; perception; vestibular response modifications; vestibular physiology; pharmacology. The articles reproduce papers presented at the VII International Man in Space Symposium, held in Houston (Texas, USA), 10-13 Feb. 1986.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.58, No.9, Section II, 276p. Illus. Bibl.


CIS 86-1184 Christensen J.M., Talbot J.M.
Review of the psychological aspects of space flight
This literature review covers scientific observations and anecdotal reports of temporary psychological aberrations during space flight. They include disorientation, spatial illusions, visual disturbances, anomalous myopias, sleep disturbances and substandard performance. Both physical (artificial life support, microgravity, continuous threat of hazards) and social (isolation, boredom, crowding, lack of privacy) stress factors are present in space travel. An ad hoc Working Group set up in the USA has recommended the establishment of a comprehensive research and development programme aimed at all aspects of the problem, in particular as it relates to the Space Station Program planned by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA).
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1986, Vol.57, No.3, p.203-212. 90 ref.


CIS 86-479 Rambaut P.C., Goode A.W.
Skeletal changes during space flight
This literature survey (one of whose authors works for the US Nation Aeronautics and Space Administration) summarises the evidence (from both US and USSR space flights) for calcium loss after extended periods of weightlessness. The loss of calcium during a 3-month space mission amounts to less than 2% of the total calcium pool in the body. Several short trips might lead to substantial bone loss, and recurrent hypercalciura might lead to the formation of renal calculi or to hypertension. Various countermeasures against bone loss are discussed.
Lancet, 9 Nov. 1985, Vol.2, No.8463, p.1050-1052. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 86-280 Kanas N.
Psychosocial factors affecting simulated and actual space missions
This literature review surveys over 60 studies of psychosocial reactions by people in isolation (Antarctic and submarine research, simulated and actual spaceflight), covering literature from both the USA and the USSR. Some factors judged to be important were: isolation, monotony, confinement, group interactions, aggressivity, need for dominance and compatibility. Most of the missions reported on accomplished their goals despite the presence of psychosocial stress factors. Implications for prolonged spaceflight are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1985, Vol.56, No.8, p.806-811. 46 ref.


CIS 85-880 Barone R.P., Caren L.D.
The immune system: effects of hypergravity and hypogravity
A literature review of the effects on the immune system of abnormal gravity, either simulated on the surface of the earth or during actual spaceflight. Both positive and negative effects were found, with stress being a possible confusing factor. Most of the experiments reported on involved animals.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1984, Vol.55, No.11, p.1063-1068. 35 ref.


CIS 84-1433 Lackner J.R., Graybiel A.
Etiological factors in space motion sickness
Susceptibility to motion sickness was studied during exposure to sudden-stop stimulation as a function of gravitoinertial force level. Susceptibility is greatly enhanced, both with eyes closed and eyes open, for zero-g and 2-g conditions in parabolic flight compared with 1-g test conditions. Likely factors are: changes in vestibulo-ocular function, the altered pattern of otolithic activity, and the altered canal-otolith response synergies resulting from exposure to gravitoinertial force levels greater or less than terrestrial levels. These factors are related to the aetiology of space motion sickness. An explanation is proposed for the decrease in susceptibility to motion sickness in Skylab astronauts.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.54, No.8, p.675-681. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 84-260 Advanced technologies and extreme environments
Technologies avancées et milieux extrêmes [in French]
Summary of the problems discussed during a conference in Paris, France (4-5 Oct. 1983), organised by CESTA (Centre d'études des systèmes et des technologies avancées). Discussion and definition of hazards connected with the conquest and exploitation of environments hostile to man, such as space, underwater areas and nuclear energy applications.
Revue de la sécurité, Dec. 1983, Vol.19, No.207, p.18-24. Illus.


CIS 82-1481 Auffret R., Vieillefond H.
Physiological aspects of special selection tests for astronauts
Aspects physiologiques des tests spéciaux de sélection des cosmonautes [in French]
Present knowledge of physiological reactions observed during space flight has enabled certain criteria for astronaut selection to be codified and accepted by the international scientific community. Study of 5 so-called "special" tests completing medical selection of astronauts, designed to investigate cardiovascular, respiratory and vestibular functions during simulation of stress conditions experienced by astronauts in space flight (acceleration, vestibular, orthostatic, hypoxia and muscular exercise tests).
Nouvelle presse médicale, 1981, Vol.10, No.21, p.1683-1686. Illus. 7 ref.

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