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Rail transportation - 373 entries found

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CIS 11-0733 Dorrian J., Baulk S.D., Dawson D.
Work hours, workload, sleep and fatigue in Australian rail industry employees
This study investigated fatigue in a cross-sectional sample of Australian rail employees. Participants included 85 men and five women from four companies. Data were analysed for a total of 713 shifts. Subjects wore wrist actigraphs, evaluated their subjective fatigue scale, and completed sleep and work diaries for 14-days. Average sleep length, prior wake at shift end, shift duration and fatigue were within limits generally considered acceptable from a fatigue perspective. However, 13% of participants received 5h or less sleep in the prior 24 h, 16%, were awake for at least 16h at the end of shift and 7% worked at least 10h on 7% of shifts. While on average, sleep loss, extended wakefulness, longer work hours and work-related fatigue do not appear problematic in this sample, there is still a notable percentage of shifts that are likely to be associated with high levels of work-related fatigue. Given the size of the Australian rail sector with thousands of shifts occurring each day, this is potentially of operational concern. Further, results indicate that, in addition to sleep length, wakefulness and work hours, workload significantly influences fatigue. This has possible implications for bio-mathematical predictions of fatigue and for fatigue management more generally.
Applied Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.42, p.202-209. Illus. 38 ref.


CIS 11-0700 Chau N., Wild P., Dehaene D., Benamghar L., Mur J.M., Touron C.
Role of age, length of service and job in work-related injury: A prospective study of 446,120 person-years in railway workers
This study assessed the role of age, length of service and job type in work-related injury. It was conducted in the form of a prospective study of all 164,814 permanently-employed male workers at the French national railway company during 1998-2000, using data from the company's injury database. For a total of 446,120 person-years, there were 15,195 injuries with working days lost. The incidence rates of the main types of injury were investigated. Data were analysed using negative binomial regression. Relative risks decreased steadily with increasing length of service, from 2.6 for 1 year to 1.0 for ≥30 years. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.67, No.3, p.147-153. Illus. 38 ref.
Role_of_age.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0262 Bühlmann X., Koch O., Luginbühl H.J.
In-plant railways - Rules for safe operation
Innerbetriebliche Eisenbahnen - Regeln für einen sicheren Betrieb [in German]
Ferrovie aziendali - Regole per la sicurezza [in Italian]
Voies ferrées internes à l'entreprise - Règles pour une exploitation sûre [in French]
Contents of this safety guide on in-plant rail transport: scope; regulation and organization of in-plant rail transport; circulation ways and workplaces; aptitude, training and equipment for workers on board trains; operations; maintenance; acquisition and use of work tools and infrastructure; construction of industrial railway infrastructures; legal bases; additional information.
SUVA, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 2010. 25p. 7 ref.
66124.f.pdf [in French]
66124.d.pdf [in German]
66124.i.pdf [in Italian]

CIS 10-0418 Pickup L., Wilson J., Lowe E.
The operational demand evaluation checklist (ODEC) of workload for railway signalling
This study addressed the issue of the interpretation and assessment of mental workload of railway signallers, and in particular assessment of the load imposed by the work system. It highlights a framework created to direct the development of workload assessment tools capable of assessing the dimensions most relevant to the population being studied. A tool to capture the operational demands on the rail signaller was required to evaluate the load from the system they operated. The study describes the development of an Operational Demand Evaluation Checklist (ODEC), using techniques such as the repertory grid. The practical experience of the development, evaluation, live use and validation of ODEC is discussed and it is concluded that the approach could be adopted to interpret the concept of workload in other work domains.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.393-402. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 09-1382 Ku C.H., Smith M.J.
Organizational factors and scheduling in locomotive engineers and conductors: Effects on fatigue, health and social well-being
This study examined organizational factors and work scheduling at a North American railway freight operator to understand how occupational factors were related to fatigue, state of health and social well-being. Data were collected by means of a 148-item questionnaire distributed to a sample of 276 locomotive engineers and drivers (response rate 45.3%) and subjected to structural equation modelling. Social well-being was found to be an important mediator between scheduling and fatigue. The study also revealed a strong relationship between fatigue and health complaints. Other findings are discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, Jan. 2010, Vol.41, No.1, p.62-71. Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 09-1394 Steenhout I., Lippens V.
SNCB policy with respect to violence: On the right track?
La politique de la SNCB en matière d'agressions: sur les bons rails? [in French]
A survey on violence carried out among train conductors of the Belgian national railways highlighted a growing gap between official statistics and everyday realities. Most of occurrences considered as minor (threats and insults) are rarely reported. This article presents the key statistics together with a summary of the main findings of the survey.
Prevent Focus, Apr. 2009, No.4, p.10-11. Illus.

CIS 09-1238 Hart J.E., Laden F., Eisen E.A., Smith T.J., Garshick E.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality in railroad workers
United States railroad workers have been exposed to diesel exhaust since diesel locomotives were introduced after World War II. This retrospective cohort study examined the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality with years of work in diesel-exposed jobs. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the adjusted incidence rate ratio. Workers in jobs with diesel exhaust exposure had an increased risk of COPD mortality relative to those in unexposed jobs. Workers hired after the introduction of diesel locomotives had a 2.5% increase in COPD mortality risk for each additional year of work in a diesel-exposed job.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2009, Vol.66, No.4, p.221-226. Illus. 68 ref.

CIS 09-963 Baysari M. T., Caponecchia C., McIntosh A.S., Wilson J.R.
Classification of errors contributing to rail incidents and accidents: A comparison of two human error identification techniques
Two error identification tools, the Human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) and the Technique for the retrospective and predictive analysis of cognitive errors (TRACEr-rail) were used as the means of identifying and classifying train driver errors associated with rail accidents/incidents in Australia. Nineteen rail safety investigation reports were reviewed. The HFACS analysis indicated that slips of attention were the most common "unsafe acts" committed by drivers. The TRACEr-rail analysis indicated that most "train driving errors" were violations while most "train stopping errors" were errors of perception. Both tools identified the underlying factors with the largest impact on driver error to be decreased alertness and incorrect driver assumptions about upcoming information.
Safety Science, Aug. 2009, Vol.47, No.7, p.948-957. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 09-919 Birlik G.
Occupational exposure to whole body vibration - Train drivers
Whole body vibration exposure of the train drivers working for Turkish state railways was assessed with reference to ISO standard 2631-1 and European Directive 2002/44/EC(CIS 02-24). The vibration measurements were carried out in the drivers' cabins of suburban and intercity trains. Suburban train drivers usually work in a standing posture, while intercity train drivers' work seated and are exposed to longer periods of continuous vibration. Daily exposure action values suggested in European Directive were exceeded in case of intercity train drivers and their exposure falls within the health caution zone of ISO 2631-1. Intercity train drivers are therefore under the risk of having back disorders. It is proposed that the spinal column of train drivers be examined every five years and that extended work days be avoided.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.47, No.1, p.5-10. 20 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-469 Ryan B., Wilson J.R., Sharples S., Morrisroe G., Clarke T.
Developing a rail ergonomics questionnaire (REQUEST)
This article describes the development of a shortened Rail Ergonomics Questionnaire (REQUEST), designed to survey attitudes and opinions of railway workers on a range of human factors issues. The longer version of the questionnaire has already been used on a number of occasions for samples of 100-150 persons. The shortened version was developed for administration of the survey to a large population. An expert group reviewed question wording, and the findings from the principal components analysis and other analyses of data from previous administrations of the survey. Improvements were made to the design and layout of the questionnaire. In a subsequent study, it was addressed to over 4000 target respondents and achieved an overall response rate of 83%.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar.2009, Vol.40, No.2, p.216-229. Illus. 22 ref.


CIS 09-933 Adler K.
Work near railway lines
Arbeiten im Gleisbereich [in German]
This article presents a system for the warning and protection of workers on or close to active railway lines, together with its advantages compared to barrier-type conventional systems.
Tiefbau, Feb. 2008, Vol.120, No.2, p.101-105. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 09-926 Walther M., Handschin P.
Leg height of a safety shoe has no influence on the incidence of ankle sprains - A prospective study in cooperation with the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB)
Die Schafthöhe des Sicherheitsschuhs hat keinen Einfluss auf die Häufigkeit des Distorsionstraumas - Eine prospektive Studie in Kooperation mit der Schweizer Bundesbahn (SBB) [in German]
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the leg height of safety shoes on the incidence of ankle sprains among railway workers. Eighty workers of the Swiss Federal Railway (SBB) were supplied either with a high top shoe (19cm shaft) or a standard shoe (12cm shaft). The investigation lasted two years. Workers were asked to evaluate the comfort, stability and fatigue, and all foot and ankle injuries were recorded. No foot or ankle injury was observed during the time of investigation. Comfort and fatigue were assessed to be significantly better with the standard shoe than with the high top shoe. Thus, the low top shoe does not lead to an increased rate of foot and ankle injuries.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.20-27. Illus. 21 ref.


CIS 08-3 The carriage of dangerous goods and use of transportable pressure equipment regulations 2007 [United Kingdom]
These United Kingdom Regulations on the carriage of dangerous goods by road and rail came into force on 1 July 2007. They transpose Directives 2006/89/EC and 2006/90/EC with regard to the transport of dangerous goods by rail into United Kingdom law. They take into account the European Agreement on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road 2003 (ADR 2003). They also update and supersede various United Kingdom Regulations, including The Carriage of Dangerous Goods and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment Regulations 2004 (see CIS 03-1521).
The Stationery Office, PO Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN, United Kingdom, 2007. 79p. Price: GBP 12.80. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 08-957 Fletcher D.I., Kapoor A., Franklin F.J., Smith L., Hyde P.
Health and Safety Executive
Comparison of the Hatfield and alternative UK rails using models to assess the effect of residual stress on crack growth from rolling contact fatigue
This report details modelling work conducted to develop a method for comparing various types of rail steels through the examination of the effect of decarburisation on crack initiation. The experimental input data on decarburisation was collected in an earlier project and from published literature. Also included in this report is validation work on fracture mechanics based crack growth models to predict the effect of residual stress. This validation has been conducted using newly developed fully three dimensional models. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 50p. Illus. 23 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-509 Health and Safety - The Railways and Other Guided Transport Systems (Safety) Regulations 2006 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations impose prohibitions and requirements in relation to safety on railways and other guided transport systems (tramways etc.). Contents: interpretation; safety management, certification and authorization; general duties in relation to safety; safety critical work. Some regulations are repealed, including the following: the Railways (Safety Case) Regulations 2000 (with amendments) (see CIS 02-1449) and the Railways (Safety Critical Work) Regulations 1994 (see CIS 94-1461). In schedules: safety management system; application for a safety certificate; common safety indicators; written safety verification scheme requirements.
TSO (The Stationery Office), P.O. Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN, United Kingdom, 2006. 40p. Price: GBP 6.50 (Free downloead from the Internet). [in English]

CIS 07-940 Gauchard G.C., Mur J.M., Touron C., Benamghar L., Dehaene D., Perrin P., Chau N.
Determinants of accident proneness: A case-control study in railway workers
A case-control study was carried out among 1305 French railway workers who had suffered an occupational injury during 1999-2000 and 1305 uninjured controls, all male. A standardized questionnaire was completed by an occupational physician in the presence of the subject. The data were analysed using logistic regression. Having more than one injury was associated with short service in the present job, younger age, sleep disorders, smoking, requesting a job change, physical disability and lack of physical activity. Safety training was negatively related to injury frequency. Short service in the present job was the only significant factor for single injuries. This study identified a number of work and individual factors that predicted occupational injury frequency and may be useful in designing preventive measures.
Occupational Medicine, May 2006, Vol.56, No.3, p.187-190. 12 ref.

CIS 07-424 Oggero A., Darba R.M., Muñoz M., Planas E., Casal J.
A survey of accidents occurring during the transport of hazardous substances by road and rail
A study of 1932 accidents that occurred during the transport of hazardous substances by road and rail from the beginning of the 20th century to July 2004 was carried out. Findings show an increase in the frequency of accidents over time. More than half of the accidents occurred on roads (63%). The most frequent accidents were releases (78%), followed by fires (28%), explosions (14%) and gas clouds (6%). The causes of the accidents, the type of substance involved and the consequences for the population (number of people killed, injured or evacuated) are discussed. Among the various measures taken to improve this situation, the training of workers involved in transportation of dangerous substances appears to be the most important.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 2006, Vol.133, No.1-3. p.1-7. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 07-1273
Health and Safety Executive
A review of safety culture and safety climate literature for the development of the safety culture inspection toolkit
Following the recommendations made from inquiries into several major railway accidents in the United Kingdom, the Railway Inspectorate requested that a safety culture inspection toolkit be developed. The toolkit was required to provide a pragmatic approach for the measurement of safety culture in rail organizations. The Inspectorate requested that the approach should focus on a limited number of indicators that are known to influence safety culture. The first phase of the project described in this report consisted of a literature review, in which the five indicators found to be the most relevant were leadership, two-way communications, employee involvement, learning culture and attitude towards blame.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. viii, 42p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 07-1188 den Hertog D., van Zante-de Fokkert J.I., Sjamaar S.A., Beusmans R.
Optimal working zone division for safe track maintenance in the Netherlands
After a sequence of serious accidents in the Netherlands, the safety of rail track workers became an urgent and political problem. Analysis revealed that working on rail tracks was one of the most dangerous jobs. The Dutch Railways decided to divide the railway infrastructure into working zones that can be taken out of activity during maintenance work. An essential problem consisted of how to divide the Dutch railway infrastructure while satisfying conflicting interests. This article shows how the division rules were developed and implemented.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2005, Vol.37, No.5, p.890-893. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 06-1129 Bellemare M., Beaugrand S., Champoux D., Larue C., Massicotte P., Gonella M.
Study of subway operators' OHS problems and possibilities for cab layout reorganization
Etude de la problématique santé et sécurité du travail des opérateurs du métro et des possibilités de réaménagement des loges de conduite [in French]
This study examined the working conditions and health status of subway drivers in Montreal. It was based on an analysis of company data on occupational accidents and sickness absences, a questionnaire survey of drivers and observations of drivers at work. Results indicated that exposure to vibration and uncomfortable work posture were the main constraints for cab drivers. Computer simulations and full-size mock-up trials led to proposed modifications for increasing the space inside the cab and to proposed criteria for choosing and positioning new seats.
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. xii, 169p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: CAD 16.05. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. Report is also available on CD-ROM (included). [in French]

CIS 06-988 Dickinson C., Bevan J.
Managing violence on the railways
This article describes the findings of a series of inspections that considered the arrangements and measures for managing and preventing work-related violence in train-operating companies (TOCs). In general, TOCs manage the risk of violence to their staff in the same way as other personal risks. Hence, the inspection considered risk assessments, reporting measures and investigation reports. A number of deficiencies were identified, the most serious of which concerned the arrangements and measures in place for contract staff employed in checking tickets or in security activities. Action was taken by HM Railway Inspectorate to ensure the TOCs and the employers of the contract staff address and resolve this issue.
Applied Ergonomics, Nov. 2005, Vol.36, No.6, p.729-738. 15 ref.

CIS 06-978 Kumar R., Chaikumarn M., Kumar S.
Psychological, subjective and postural loads in passenger train wagon cleaning using a conventional and redesigned cleaning tool
A cleaning process for passenger train wagons was studied and analysed using both conventional and ergonomically-redesigned cleaning tools. Results of a study of 13 cleaners performing their normal tasks showed that perceived exertion, oxygen consumption and heart rate were significantly lower when using the new tool and the postural load was also significantly less. It is concluded that the redesigned cleaning tool allowed cleaners to maintain a more upright posture when cleaning, thus reducing biomechanical load.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 2005, Vol.35, No.10, p.931-938. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 06-975 Sallinen M., Härmä M., Mutanen P., Ranta R., Virkkala J., Müller K.
Sleepiness in various shift combinations of irregular shift systems
This study examined the prevalence of sleepiness in various shift systems ending with a night or morning shift. Sleep and work shift diary data were collected for three weeks from 126 train drivers and 104 rail traffic controllers. The prevalence of severe sleepiness varied between 25% and 62% in the schedules ending with a night shift and between 12% and 27% in the those ending with a morning shift. Factors that affect a risk for sleepiness at work include having a child, shift length and starting time, and individual sleep need.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.114-122. Illus. 21 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-592 Hocking B., Landgren F., Powning J., Wheatley K.
Risk-based medical standards for Australian rail safety workers
This article describes the setting of a new Australian standard for the health assessment of rail safety workers. A procedure for assessing the risks associated with various jobs was developed. Four main categories of risk were recognized and appropriate health assessments were matched to each. Conventional health assessments were reinforced by additional assessments for risk of a cardiovascular event, sleepiness and psychological problems. The resulting new health assessments are based on a transparent process of risk assessment, and are proportional to the risk while being consistent with disability discrimination and privacy legislation.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2005, Vol.21, No.4, p.311-319. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 06-591 Sánchez Casado J., Castillo Ramos S., Valiente Álvarez J., Rodríguez Ortiz de Salazar B.
Occupational accidents in a railway company 1998-2003
Accidentes de trabajo en una empresa ferroviaria 1998-2003 [in Spanish]
This study analyses occupational accidents in a Spanish railway company from 1998 to 2003 as a function of the following variables: age, sex, length of employment, job and workplace, day and hour of the accident, accident cause, accident description, location of injury, disability, length of accident absenteeism. Incidence, frequency and severity rates were then calculated, together with the mean time away from work. It is concluded that accident indices are below those of other companies of the sector because of the high mean age of the workers in this company. The typical profile of the injured worker is a young worker with less than one year of service.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, June 2005, Vol.LI, No.199, p.15-25. Illus. 14 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 06-469 Lamond N., Darwent D., Dawson D.
Train drivers' sleep and alertness during short relay operations
Within Australia, there has been a recent increase in relay working in rail transport operations. To address concerns about the amount of sleep by drivers in relay vans and resulting potential deficits in alertness, the current study assessed the sleep behaviour and alertness of 15 train drivers working short (<48h) relay operations. In total, drivers obtained 8-12h of sleep during the relay trip, which took approximately 40h. Overall, they reported that they felt more alert following each sleep period. Drivers were able to sustain attention during the 10-min vigilance tasks administered before and after each shift. These findings suggest that the amount of sleep obtained in crew vans during short relay operations is sufficient to maintain alertness during the trip. The importance of scheduling shifts to maximize the number of sleep opportunities between 10 pm and 7 am is emphasized.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2005, Vol.36, No.3, p.313-318. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 06-324 Farrington-Darby T., Pickup L., Wilson J.R.
Safety culture in railway maintenance
This paper discusses the practical problems of understanding and addressing unsafe behaviour and negative safety culture in rail maintenance. Analysis of interviews with staff enabled identification of 40 main factors that influence safe behaviour and safe culture. These factors ranged in proximity of their connection to the unsafe event from those that could be found at trackside and which directly influence the behaviour of the track workers on the day (e.g. the weather), to more medium term and distanced factors (e.g. the supervisors' style of management), to those at considerable distance in terms of where they emanate and can be changed, such as contradictory rules. As a result of this structured qualitative enquiry, the maintenance company most concerned disseminated findings throughout the organization and established a strategy to improve both safety systems and behaviour.
Safety Science, Jan. 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.39-60. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 06-423 Boileau P.E., Boutin J., Rakheja S., Politis H.
Evaluation of the whole-body vibration exposure of Montreal subway operators and study of the dynamic behaviour of cars and their suspension system
Evaluation de l'exposition aux vibrations globales du corps des opérateurs du métro de Montréal et étude du comportement dynamique des motrices et de leur système de suspension [in French]
Montreal subway drivers complain about the confined space, uncomfortable seats and exposure to vibration, which suggests that the ergonomic constraints and vibration pose health risks such as musculoskeletal disorders. As part of an ergonomic study, this project defined the vibrational stresses to which these workers are exposed, characterized the vibration environment of the cars, identified the operational factors likely to influence whole-body vibration exposure levels and finally, led to the development of seat suspension design criteria for reducing vibration.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. ix, 64p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 05-458 Dutton J.
Health and Safety Executive
Dynamic tensile properties of thin sheet materials
Dynamic properties of materials are particularly important in the modelling of railway vehicles to improve their crashworthiness. This report describes experimental work carried out to determine the dynamic tensile properties of six materials. Five of the materials were supplied by the European Structural Integrity Society (ESIS) and the other was from an extruded beam taken from a carriage involved in a railway accident in the United Kingdom. Test specimens were manufactured to a design developed by the Health and Safety Laboratory, along with the test apparatus and technique used. Tests were carried out at various strain rates giving a reasonable spread of data. To enable the capture of data at high strain rates, a high-speed data logger was used along with a linescan camera to measure specimen elongation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 49p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 07-215
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Use of remote controls for trains
Betrieb von Funkfernsteuerungen bei Eisenbahnen [in German]
Contents of these guidelines of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association on the use of remote controls for trains: scope; definitions; measures aimed at preventing the risk of fatalities and health impairment at work; date of entry into force. Appendices include the design of the last step of goods wagons, directives and related rules and standards.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Jan. 2004. 18p. Illus. [in German]

CIS 05-471 Krause N., Rugulies R., Ragland D.R., Syme S.L.
Physical workload, ergonomic problems, and incidence of low back injury: A 7.5 year prospective study of San Francisco transit operators
In this study of biomechanical factors for low-back injury (LBI), baseline information on 1,233 drivers employed by the San Francisco municipal railway was gathered during medical examinations and by questionnaire. First LBI during 7.5 years of follow-up was ascertained from insurance records. Risk factors were analysed with regression models after controlling for age, sex, height, weight, ethnicity and biomechanical and psychosocial job factors. An exponential dose-response relationship was found between weekly driving hours and incidence of first LBI. Rates of severe LBI increased 39% for every 10-hr increase in weekly driving (hazard ratio (HR) 1.39). Higher risks of severe LBI were also found among operators performing heavy physical labour on cable cars (HR 2.76) or reporting more ergonomic problems at baseline. Estimates of aetiologic fractions suggest that reduction of ergonomic problems to the low level currently experienced by 25% of drivers would result in a 19% reduction of severe LBI among this population.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2004, Vol.46, No.6, p.570-585. 54 ref.

CIS 04-734 Cothereau C., de Beaurepaire C., Payan C.
Train drivers involved in "person under train" incidents: The policy followed by the French state railways, a tool of accompaniment and prevention
A propos des conducteurs de trains confrontés à un accident de personne: la politique d'accompagnement de la S.N.C.F., outil de prise en charge et de prévention [in French]
In 1995, the French Railways (SNCF) implemented a policy of psychological support of train drivers having experienced a "person under train" accident. In this background, SNCF's medical department undertook a national epidemiologic study to gain a better understanding of the psychiatric disorders, somatic health and professional effects on train drivers having experienced a "person under train" accident and to study the relevance and effectiveness of the policy of accompaniment applied by the network since 1995. The study compared a group of 106 train drivers having experienced a "person under train" accident in 1994 before the introduction of the new policy with a group of 202 train drivers having experienced a "person under train" accident in 1996, having benefited from these new measures. At the time of each visit, the occupational physician evaluated the professional events, medical fitness and performed a clinical examination. The differences between the two groups, which were not as important as expected, are discussed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2004, Vol.65, No.5, p.396-405. 22 ref.

CIS 04-394 Fletcher S.
Health and Safety Executive
Recruiting safe employees for safety-critical roles
The objective of this study was to develop a selection process for safety-critical employees within the rail industry in the United Kingdom. It involved the following tasks: identifying the key characteristics required for safe and effective performance in a range of safety-critical activities undertaken on the track that have not previously been analysed; selecting suitable assessment tools to measure these key characteristics; evaluating these assessment tools applicants and existing workers; validating the assessment tools by comparing where possible the performance during the tests with job performance and accident and safety behaviour records
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. iv, 66p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-214
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of The Railways (Safety Case) Regulations
This study evaluates the impact of the Railway (Safety Case) Regulations 1994 (see CIS 97-1789) on rail safety from when they were first introduced in 1994 and over subsequent years through the various amendments. While much of the focus is on recent practice, the work was structured to identify also the relative position pre-1994. Data were collected through various sources, including a stakeholder workshop, an industry-wide questionnaire, interviews and an appraisal of safety literature. Based on the findings, recommendations for future regulatory amendments are proposed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. xxii, 224p. Illus. 32 ref. Price: GBP 35.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 03-1521 Health and Safety - The Carriage of Dangerous Goods and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment Regulations 2004 [United Kingdom]
These new Regulations act as one consolidated piece of legislation replacing the previous range of regulations on the subject. They implement, in part or completely, several Directives of the European Commission. They replace Regulations S.I. 1987/116 (CIS 90-713), 1988/896 (CIS 89-387), 1991/2097 (CIS 93-1082), 1996/2092 (CIS 97-377), 1996/2093 (CIS 97-375), 1996/2094 (CIS 97-370), 1999/257 (CIS 00-1522), 2001/1426 and 2002/2099 (CIS 03-1040), as well as Regulations modifying these. The main changes introduced are: new limited quantity and load thresholds for transporting dangerous goods; packaging requirements now based on RID/ADR; the transport of diesel, gas oil and heating oil coming fully into scope; new reporting requirements; phasing out of the competent person periodic inspection regime for transportable pressure equipment by 1/7/06. In schedules: old tanks; old pressure receptacles; competent authority functions; conformity assessments and reassessments; periodic inspection procedures; conformity marking; placards, marks and plate markings for carriage within Great Britain.
The Stationery Office Ltd (TSO), PO Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN, United Kingdom, 2004. 95p. Illus. Price: GBP 9.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1022 Annexes A and B to Council Directive 96/49/EC as announced in Commission Directive 2001/6/EC adapting for the third time to technical progress Council Directive 96/49/EC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States with regard to the transport of dangerous goods by rail [European Union]
Annexes A et B de la directive 96/49/CE du Conseil telles qu'annoncées dans la directive 2001/6/CE de la Commission portant adaptation pour la troisième fois au progrès technique de la directive 96/49/CE du Conseil relative au rapprochement des législations des Etats membres concernant le transport des marchandises dangereuses par chemin de fer [Union européenne] [in French]
Anexos A y B de la Directiva 96/49/CE del Consejo, tal como anunciados en la Directiva 2001/6/CE de la Comisión, por la que se adapta por tercera vez al progreso técnico la Directiva 96/49/CE del Consejo sobre la aproximación de las legislaciones de los Estados miembros relativas al transporte de mercancías peligrosas por ferrocarril [in Spanish]
Annex to Council Directive 96/49/EC of 23 July 1996 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States with regard to the transport of dangerous goods by rail (see CIS 98-408). Contents: 1 - General provisions: scope and applicability, definitions and measurement units, training and safety responsibilities of people involved in the transportation of dangerous goods, exemptions, general safety rules for Class 7 (radioactive) substances, control and other support measures. 2 - Classification of dangerous goods (definitions, extensive lists). 3 - List of dangerous goods, special provisions and exemptions for the transportation of goods packed in limited quantities. 4 - Use of packing, large bulk containers, bulk packaging, mobile and metallic tank cars, fibre-reinforced plastic containers. 5 - Dispatch procedures (including standards for warning labels). 6 - General rules for the preparation of packaging. 7 - Provisions for transportation, loading, unloading and handling.
Official Journal of the European Union - Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, 26 Apr. 2004, Vol.47, No.L 121, p.1-864 (whole issue). Illus. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]


CIS 05-625 Verma D.K., Finkelstein M.M., Kurtz L., Smolynec K., Eyre S.
Diesel exhaust exposure in the Canadian railroad work environment
An investigation of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust in terms of elemental carbon was carried out within the Canadian railroad industry. Both personal and area samples were collected from three major operating divisions of the railways: mechanical service, transportation and engineering. A total of 255 elemental carbon samples are described. The results show that all but six elemental carbon concentrations are well below the 2001 proposed American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value (TLV) of 20µg/m3. The concentration of diesel exhaust expressed as elemental carbon is much lower in the railroad industry than in some other major industries such as mining and forklift truck operations.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.18, No.1, p.25-34. 33 ref.

CIS 04-689 Cambou J.P., Cothereau C., Cantet C., Garneau M.J., Tournon C.
Role of audiometry in the management of occupational exposure to noise above 85dB: Results of the SURDIPOSTE survey
Place du bilan audiométrique dans la maîtrise du risque d'exposition à des bruits supérieurs à 85 décibels: résultats de l'étude SURDIPOSTE) [in French]
The objectives of this study were to classify railway industry occupations according to the risk of hearing loss associated with exposures to noise levels above 85dB and to highlight occupations where preventive actions need to be focused. This cross-sectional study involved 3150 noise-exposed and 636 non noise-exposed subjects recruited among French railway workers. Conventional frequencies audiometry (0.5-4kHz) was used to assess the hearing loss of each subject. The threshold used for hearing impairment was 30dB or more on the best ear. Multivariate analysis allowed a classification of the occupations according to the prevalence of hearing loss. The prevalence of hearing loss differed widely, varying from 2% to 21% among exposed subjects compared to 1.9% among non-exposed subjects. Among the 21 occupations studied, 9 were identified as being at high risk of hearing loss, 7 at moderate risk and 5 at low risk, comparable to that of the control group.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2003, Vol.64, No.7-8, p.486-494. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 03-1905
Health and Safety Executive
Safe movement of trains - Railway Safety Principles and Guidance, Part 3 Section B
The guidance on railway safety was developed by industry experts and will help in the development of safety cases and railway standards. It is aimed mainly at those responsible for safe train movements, particularly those working for infrastructure controllers, and train and station operators. This publication sets out essential principles and guidance regarding operational aspects of rail safety. It deals specifically with the risks affecting the movement of trains, such as collisions between trains or with obstructions on the line. It also includes guidance on the wider aspects of the carriage of dangerous goods by rail and on the operational aspects of evacuation and escape from trains in an emergency.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 64p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: GBP 12.95.

CIS 03-1426
Health and Safety Commission
Railways (Safety Case) Regulations 2000 including 2001 and 2003 amendments - Guidance on regulations
This publication is aimed at managers, safety advisers and safety representatives of railway operators, including owners of infrastructure, train operators and station operators. It contains Health and Safety Executive (HSE) guidance on the Railways (Safety Case) Regulations 2000 as amended by the Railway Safety (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2001 and Railways (Safety Case) (Amendment) Regulations 2003. They require all operators to prepare a comprehensive safety plan ("safety case"), covering the safety and health of all staff and the public. The 2003 amendments make two changes. Firstly, an independent assessment of the safety case is no longer needed for an assessment body, and secondly, the duty to procure an annual external health and safety audit is transferred from the infrastructure controller to each railway operator. The 2001 amended Guidance on Regulations (see CIS 02-1449) is replaced.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. iv, 72p. 37 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 03-911 Evans A.W.
Health and Safety Executive
Transport fatal accidents and FN-curves: 1967-2001
This report presents transport fatal accident data and empirically based curves plotting the frequency of fatal accidents against the number for fatalities (FN-curves). The objectives were firstly to compare the frequencies and severities of fatal railway accidents with those of road and air transport, and secondly to present FN-curves showing the severities and frequencies of fatal main line train accidents, separately identifying those which are preventable by automatic train protection systems. Data for 1967-2001 on all United Kingdom transport fatal accidents having caused ten or more fatalities on all modes of transport are presented and analysed, together with all mainline train accidents having caused 20 or more fatalities in the fifteen countries of the European Union.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. iv, 30p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]


CIS 10-0273
Health and Safety Executive
Guidance on the provision of equipment and arrangements for evacuation and escape from trains in an emergency
This booklet on guidance on the provision of equipment and arrangements for evacuation and escape from trains is divided into four parts, each based on specific sections of the HSE's guidance on emergency evacuation and escape from trains. It is primarily aimed at management of train operating companies, rolling stock manufacturers and leasing companies. Topics addressed: fire safety; safety signs; doors and glazing; partitions; lighting; public address system; on-board equipment for emergency use; safe movement of trains; evacuation; escape.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2002. 23p. 7 ref.
Guidance on the provision.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-213
Health and Safety Executive
Railway safety. HSE's Annual Report on the safety record of the railways in Great Britain during 2001/02
This report provides statistics and comments on accidents and dangerous occurrences in railway operations in Great Britain during 2001/2002 and on the health and safety of railway employees. Includes reports on: management of railway safety cases; incident investigations; train protection strategy; incidents at level crossings; failures of rolling stock and infrastructure; and research.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. xii, 139p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: GBP 17.95.

CIS 04-690 Malchaire J., Piette A.
Hearing protection and audibility of signals
Protection auditive et audibilité des signaux [in French]
Railway track maintenance work is often noisy, exposing workers to noise levels often exceeding 90dB(A) and making the wearing of ear protectors necessary. At the same time, many track maintenance tasks take place without interrupting the rail traffic. The ability to hear acoustic signals warning of the impending arrival of a train is vital to workers' safety. Under these conditions, hearing protectors are perceived as an additional risk of not hearing the alarm signal. This study was able to demonstrate that hearing loss among track maintenance workers is no greater than among the general population of same average age. Furthermore, testing in laboratory conditions showed that wearing hearing protectors did not detract from hearing the acoustic alarm signals. However, these findings need to be confirmed in field tests.
Travail et bien-être, Mar.-Apr. 2002, No.2, p.29-33. Illus.

CIS 03-1853
Health and Safety Commission
Approved carriage list - Information approved for the carriage of dangerous goods by road and rail other than explosives and radioactive material
This Approved Carriage List was approved for the purposes of the Carriage of Dangerous Goods (Classification, Packaging and Labelling) and Use of Transportable Pressure Receptacles Regulations 1996 (CIS 97-377), the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road Regulations 1996 (CIS 97-1081), and the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail Regulations 1996 (CIS 97-369). It updates and replaces an earlier edition (CIS 96-2253). For each dangerous substance in the list, information is provided on: shipping name; UN number; classification for carriage; packing group; emergency action code; whether or not the substance can be carried in tanks or in bulk; and any special provisions.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 2002. iv, 228p. lllus. 14 ref. Price: GBP 14.75.

CIS 03-1040 Health and Safety - The Packaging, Labelling and Carriage of Radioactive Material by Rail Regulations 2002 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations implement in Great Britain the provisions of Council Directive 96/49/EC (CIS 98-408) and Commission Directive 2001/6/EC. Contents: interpretation; determinations (radioactive materials, the transport index, the criticality safety index); duties (of consignors, train operators, consignees, operators of wagons and containers, and of designers of packages and manufacturers of packagings); approvals and notifications; quality assurance and training; security measures and emergency arrangements; keeping of information; exemption certificates. Annexes. S.I. 1996/2000 on the same subject (CIS 97-380) is revoked.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2002. (Also: TSO Online Bookshop, 30p. Price: GBP 6.00. [in English]

CIS 03-424 Hall D.C., Wiltshire F.P.
Health and Safety Executive
Railway safety - Assessment of Railtrack's response to improvement notice I/RJS/991007/2 covering the "top 22" signals passed most often at danger
This report presents the results of an audit into the measures taken by the railway infrastructure operating company in the United Kingdom (Railtrack) to mitigate the risks of signals passed repeatedly at danger (SPAD) for the 22 signals that had been passed most often at danger between 1990 and 1998. Each of the 22 signals were viewed from the drivers' cab and discussed with the drivers and representatives of the train operating companies. It is expected that the Train Protection and Warning Systems (TPWS) currently being installed will significantly improve safety.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2002. vi, 49p. Illus. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]

CIS 03-423 Hall D.C., Wiltshire F.P.
Health and Safety Executive
Railway safety - Assessment of Railtrack's management of multi-SPAD signals
The objective of the report was to assess the effectiveness of the systems of the railway infrastructure operating company in the United Kingdom (Railtrack) systems for ensuring that the risks arising from signals passed repeatedly at danger (SPAD) are reduced as far as reasonably possible. The report contains examples of measures taken at a number of specific signals to reduce the likelihood of further SPAD incidents. Contents: methodology; technical background; management systems and actions for reducing risk due to SPAD; technical factors contributing to driver error; case studies; role of drivers and train operating companies; conclusions; lessons to be learned; glossary. Appendices include lists of signals, relevant standards and SPAD statistics. See also CIS 03-424.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2002. vi, 61p. Illus. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]

CIS 03-422
Health and Safety Executive
Railway safety 2001/02
These statistics on railway safety are produced under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR 95, see CIS 95-1930). Topics covered: fatalities; injuries; train incidents; track defects and enforcement; railway incidents in Wales; railway incidents in Scotland.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2002. 6p. Illus.

CIS 02-1875 Bale A.
Health and Safety Executive
Main changes between the 2001 and 2003 editions of the regulations concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID)
This report identifies the main changes made to the 2001 edition of the UN regulations concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by rail (RID) that will be reflected in the 2003 edition of RID and provides the background to these changes. It discusses the likely effects on industry, and examines the changes in the light of requirements in Railway Group Standards and derogations permitted under the RID framework directive where applicable.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 23p. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]

CIS 02-1430 Johanning E., Fischer S., Christ E., Göres B., Landsbergis P.
Whole-body vibration exposure study in U.S. railroad locomotives - An ergonomic risk assessment
Whole-body vibration exposure of locomotive engineers and the vibration attenuation of seats in 22 locomotives built between 1959 and 2000 was studied using international measurement guidelines. Triaxial vibration measurements on the seat and on the floor were compared. In addition to the basic vibration evaluation, the vector sum, the maximum transient vibration value, the vibration dose value and the vibration seat effective transmissibility factor were calculated. The power spectral densities were also reported. It was found that locomotive rides are characterized by relatively high shock content (acceleration peaks) of the vibration signal in all directions. Locomotive vertical and lateral vibrations are similar, which appears to be characteristic for rail vehicles compared with many road and off-road vehicles. Tested locomotive cab seats currently in use (new or old) appear inadequate to reduce potentially harmful vibration and shocks transmitted to the seated operator, and older seats particularly lack basic ergonomic features regarding adjustability and postural support.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.439-446. Illus. 28 ref.

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