Waste collection and disposal - 435 entries found
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- Waste collection and disposal
Waste sorting centre - Safety and health in waste sorting
Centre de tri - La prévention profite du tri des déchets [in French]
This richly- illustrated article presents the activities of an enterprise specialized in waste sorting. The opening in 2011 of a state-of-the art sorting plant contributed towards viewing waste truly as a raw material.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2011, No.722, p.2-11. Illus.
Centre_de_tri_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Disposal of radioactive waste - Specific safety requirements
This safety standard establishes safety requirements relating to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types. It sets out the safety objective and criteria for the protection of persons and the environment against radiation risks arising from disposal facilities for radioactive waste in operation and after closure. In order to meet the criteria, measures may need to be taken in site selection and evaluation and in the design, construction, operation and closure of the disposal facility. The requirements are essential from a safety perspective and failure to meet any of the requirements would require action to be taken.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2011. xvi, 62p. 26 ref.
Disposal_of_radioactive_waste_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Stockage_définitif_des_déchets_radioactifs_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Dupéry M., Fabin C., Le Corre E., Montchamp E., Montléon P.Y., Nicolazzo P., Petitfour R., Vilaine C., Wargon C.
Vibrations, power trucks and earthmoving equipment: epidemiological, ergonomical and metrological surveys
Vibrations, chariots automoteurs et engins de chantier: enquêtes épidémiologique, ergonomique et métrologique [in French]
An ergonomic observation and measurement survey of whole-body vibration exposure was carried out at six waste treatment facilities on six types of trucks (compactors, bulldozers, excavators, loaders, dump trucks and power trucks). In half of the cases, vibration emissions were above the values triggering preventive actions. Simultaneously, two questionnaire surveys was carried out, the first among employers and workers using construction site equipment, power trucks for materials handling or fork-lift trucks for the purpose of assessing their knowledge of vibration hazards, the other among workers on their state of health. These surveys confirm the widespread ignorance of vibration hazards.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd quarter 2011, No.126, p.261-274. Illus. 14 ref.
TF_192.pdf [in French]
Richez J.P., Brasseur G., Clergiot J.
Renewable energies - Towards sustainability in occupational safety and health
Energies renouvelables - Vers un développement durable de la prévention [in French]
This collection of articles reviews the specific occupational safety and health hazards related to the construction and operation of equipment for producing biogas and solar, wind and geothermal energy.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.18-34. Illus.
Energies_renouvelables.pdf [in English]
de la Torre S., Gasimbi I., Bhat D., Posner J., Noel M., Masembe V., Songa J., Hossain I.
Protecting at risk cadres of health workers from medical transmission of HIV and hepatitis B and C through injection safety interventions
This study on work practices and awareness of HIV and hepatitis B and C among medical waste disposal workers in several developing countries was presented in a poster session at an international symposium on HIV and emerging infectious diseases held on 24-26 March 2010 in Marseille, France. The study was part of a broader programme aimed to improve injection safety and healthcare waste management practices in eleven developing countries. Cross-sectional studies were carried out to evaluate progress in these areas. Observations of waste management practices and interviews were carried out with waste handlers at several sited. Surveys across countries showed that majority are aware of HIV, but not of hepatitis B or C. In Kenya, 91% of waste handlers mentioned HIV, but only 33% mentioned hepatitis B, and 5% hepatitis C. Only three waste handlers reported receiving all three doses of the hepatitis B vaccination in Kenya while in Uganda, only one waste handler interviewed was fully vaccinated at follow-up. The percent of waste handlers who reported having personal protective equipment varied widely between countries, with 55% in Kenya reporting having heavy duty gloves and boots, while only 7% of waste handlers reporting the same in Haiti. Implications of these findings are discussed.
2010, Vol.7, Suppl.1, p.152.
Protecting_at_risk.pdf [in English]
Cordier S., Lehébel A., Amar E., Anzivino-Viricel L., Hours M., Monfort C., Chevrier C., Chiron M., Robert-Gnansia E.
Maternal residence near municipal waste incinerators and the risk of urinary tract birth defects
Waste incineration releases a mixture of chemicals with high embryotoxic potential into the atmosphere, including heavy metals, dioxins and dibenzofurans. A previous study reported an association between the risk of urinary tract birth defects and residence in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). The objective of this study was to test this association. A population-based case-control study compared 304 infants diagnosed with urinary tract birth defects in the Rhône-Alpes region of France in 2001-2003 with a random sample of 226 population controls, frequency-matched for infant sex, year and place of birth. Exposure to dioxins in early pregnancy at the place of residence, used as a tracer of the mixture released by 21 active waste incinerators, was predicted with second-generation Gaussian modelling. Other industrial emissions of dioxins, population density and neighbourhood deprivation were also assessed. Individual risk factors including consumption of local food were obtained by interviews. Risk was increased for mothers exposed to dioxins above the median at the beginning of pregnancy (odds ratio 2.95). This study confirms the previous observation of a link between the risk of urinary tract birth defects and exposure to MSWI emissions in early pregnancy.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.67, No.7, p.493-499. 21 ref.
Maternal_residence.pdf [in English]
Athanasiou M., Makrynos G., Dounias G.
Respiratory health of municipal solid waste workers
The objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory health of municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs). One hundred and eighty-four municipal employees of a locality in Greece (104 MSWWs and 80 controls) participated in a cross-sectional study. All participants were asked to fill in a slightly modified version of the Medical Research Council questionnaire. Lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Spirometry revealed reduced mean forced vital capacity (FVC) and one-second forced expiratory volume (as a percentage of predicted values) in MSWWs compared with controls. After adjustment for smoking status, only the decline in FVC was statistically significant. Prevalence of all respiratory symptoms was higher in MSWWs than in controls. After adjustment for confounding factors, the difference reached statistical significance for morning cough, cough on exertion and sore throat.
Occupational Medicine, 2010, Vol.60, p.618-623. 24 ref.
Canalejas Pérez P., Gadea Carrera E., Solórzano Fábrega M.
Collection, transport and storage of sanitary waste
Recogida, transporte y almacenamiento de residuos sanitarios [in Spanish]
This information note addresses the management of various types of medical wastes, and in particular the way they should be collected, transported and stored prior to disposal. It also presents the regulations which apply in the various Spanish autonomous communities.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus.
NTP_853.pdf [in Spanish]
Good protection requires identifying hazards
Une bonne protection passe par une identification du risque [in French]
This article presents the approach implemented by an enterprise specialized in the disposal of harmful waste, aimed at improving the evaluation of workers' occupational exposures.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2010, No.711, p.38-40. Illus.
Une_bonne_protection.pdf [in French]
Ravallec C., Vaudoux D.
Waste sorting centres - Managing occupational safety and health while being surrounded by waste
Centres de tri - Ménager la prévention au milieu des déchets [in French]
France has set itself the objective of recycling 75% of consumer product packaging by 2012. To meet this goal, waste sorting centres are increasingly automated. However, workers are still faced with physically strenuous working conditions, with numerous risks of occupational diseases and accidents. This collection of articles focuses on occupational safety and health in waste sorting centres.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2010, No.705, p.16-29. Illus. 6 ref.
Centres_de_tri.pdf [in French]
Working conditions at recycling centres in Sweden - Physical and psychosocial work environment
The aim of this study was to investigate physical and psychosocial working conditions for employees at recycling centres in Sweden, to describe how they were perceived, to compare differences between subgroups, and further to identify proposals for improvement. The study population comprised 122 employees of 42 recycling centres which responded a postal questionnaire. Of these, 32 employees from 16 recycling centres were interviewed, as well as their employer. The work at recycling centres was reported to be a meaningful service job comprising many social interactions with users, but also substantial physical strain. There was a high frequency of injuries and minor injuries. Several risks were identified. There is a need for several preventive actions, including better planning when building recycling centres, better machines and equipment, and more training, especially in handling hazardous waste.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.347-354. Illus. 37 ref.
Kawakami T., Khai T.T.
WARM - Work adjustment for recycling and managing waste
Safe and efficient waste collection systems are the foundation for recycling and managing waste and protecting our environment. Waste collectors contribute to cleaning our environment through their collection work day-by-day. However, waste collectors often face many risks associated with their collection work such as handling heavy and dangerous waste, traffic accidents, or hot working environment. This training manual aims to improve the safety, health and efficiency of waste collection work. It uses many illustrations of good examples that waste collectors and managers can put to immediate use, based on the ILO's participatory training approaches. It promotes practical collaborative actions between waste collectors and the community for establishing safety and efficient waste collection systems.
ILO Subregional Office for East Asia, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, P.O. Box 2-349, Bangkok 10200, Thailand, 2009. v, 77p. Illus. 32 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---sro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_126981.pdf [in English]
Véchot L.N., Hare J.A.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of the applicability of Dewar tests for screening hazardous waste treatment
In the waste treatment sector, the exothermic reaction incompatibility of mixtures is often determined by recording the temperature rise after mixing samples in a beaker. Instead, the use of non-pressurized Dewar vessels has been proposed by some parts of the industry as an improvement, because their cooling rates and heat losses are closer to bulk containers. Temperature rises of between 6-10°C in the Dewar vessel over a period of 10 minutes have been suggested by the industry to indicate an exothermic reaction of concern, with gas bubblers being used to indicate any gas generation. Specialist inspectors have questioned the validity of these test methods for scale-up to large volumes. The objective of this work was therefore to investigate the range of applicability of the proposed technique. It was found, in particular, that the proposed ten-minute timescale could be insufficient to detect a runaway reaction. A number of other limitations to scale-up are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. vi, 77p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Assessment_of_the_applicability_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Noble Denton BOMEL Limited, Health and Safety Executive
Update to mapping health and safety standards in the UK waste industry
This report describes an update to a previous study on the nature of the United Kingdom waste industry and its safety and health standards. Employment figures were updated and it is estimated that around 176,000 workers were employed in waste and recycling services in 2005/06. This employment figure was combined with updated accident numbers to reveal that the overall accident rate for workers in the waste industry has been decreasing. High risk areas appeared to have remained relatively constant over a ten-year period. Industries providing general public services and sewage/refuse disposal remained significant. Handling sprains, trips and "struck-by" accidents were the most prolific types of accident. Occupations most likely to be involved in accidents were those related to refuse handling and driver jobs, and individuals were likely to have been collecting or handling refuse when they had the accident.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. viii, 72p. Illus. 9 ref.
Update_to_mapping_health_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Martuzzi M., Mitis F., Bianchi F., Minichilli F., Comba P., Fazzo L.
Cancer mortality and congenital anomalies in a region of Italy with intense environmental pressure due to waste
Waste management in the Campania region has been characterised, since the 1980s, by widespread uncontrolled and illegal practices of waste dumping, generating concerns over the health implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible adverse health effects of such environmental pressure. The health effects of waste-related environmental exposures in Campania were assessed in 196 municipalities of the provinces of Naples and Caserta. Poisson regression was used to analyse the association between health outcomes and environmental contamination due to waste. Statistically significant excess relative risks (ERR) in high-index compared with low-index (unexposed) municipalities were found for all-cause mortality (9.2% in men and 12.4% in women) and liver cancer (19.3% in men and 29.1% in women). Increased risks were also found for all cancer mortality (both sexes), stomach and lung cancer (in men). Statistically significant ERRs were found for congenital anomalies of the internal urogenital system (82.7%) and of the central nervous system (83.5%). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.725-732. Illus. 39 ref.
Safety during garbage collection - Health is not a disposable product
Sicherheit bei der Abfallsammlung - Gesundheit ist keine Wegwerfware [in German]
Garbage collection involves a high accident risk. In Germany, one out of ten garbage collectors falls victim to an occupational accident every year resulting in an average of 20 lost workdays. The work is also strenuous, especially with regard to the ageing of the working population. This article addresses the main hazards which lead to accidents during garbage collection and their causes. New and temporary workers are especially at risk and should be trained. A qualification in the form of a "garbage collector's certificate" to be acquired before starting to work would improve the professional status.
Faktor Arbeitsschutz, 2009, No.2, p.6-9. Illus. 4 ref.
Dżaman K., Wojdas A., Rapiejko P., Jurkiewicz D.
Taste and smell perception among sewage treatment and landfill workers
The study investigated the functioning of the taste and smell senses in workers employed at a sewage treatment plant and landfill in Poland. The study population was divided into three groups: sewage workers, landfill workers and laboratory workers. Taste disorders were noted in nearly 20% of subjects in each study group examined before work, and in 50% of sewage workers, 40% of landfill workers and 28% of laboratory workers examined after work. Before work, the smell disorders concerned 32% in the group of sewage workers, 6% of laboratory workers and 22% of landfill workers. After the working hours, these values increased to 40%, 8% and 38%, respectively.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.3, p.227-234. Illus. 29 ref.
Pizon A.F., Schwartz A.R., Shum L.M., Rittenberger J.C., Lower D.R., Giannoutsos S., Virji M.A., Krasowski M.D.
Toxicology laboratory analysis and human exposure to p-chloroaniline
A 20 year-old man working at a chemical waste plant developed dizziness, abdominal pain and nausea. Following medical examinations which revealed cyanosis and methaemoglobinaemia, methylene blue administration led to complete recovery without sequelae. p-Chloroaniline was later identified as the chemical involved. The subject denied direct contact with the chemical, but was not wearing a respirator during work. GC/MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) confirmed p-chloroaniline and its primary metabolite, p-chloroacetanilide, in the patient's urine.
Clinical Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.132-136. Illus. 12 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Glass recycling - Noise exposure from simulated roadside collection of recyclable glass - Follow-up measurements
This report describes the results of trials carried out relating to the noise exposure of workers engaged in roadside collection of glass for recycling. Previous tests under controlled conditions had established the dominant sources of noise when glass is collected into metal troughs on a roadside collection vehicle, and identified working factors likely to affect noise exposure. The trials described here were carried out to assess the effect of modifications to the design of the troughs on the noise levels produced. Results show that lining collection troughs with a suitable resilient material, and providing a flap to partially cover the opening of the trough, can significantly reduce the noise levels produced compared to a standard metal trough. Within the context of the reductions in noise that have been shown, working factors such as the speed and method of depositing glass in to the collection troughs remain a factor in the noise levels produced, with rapid depositing producing the highest noise levels and also preventing the full benefits of the modifications to the collection trough being realized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 43p. Illus. 5 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_651.pdf [in English]
Campos Vasconcelos R., de Paula Antunes Lima F., Medeiros da Silveira Abreu A.C., Ribeiro Silva R.C., Camarotto J.A., Pires Murta E.
The "reduction" strategy and the workload of a big city garbage collectors. A case study based on Ergonomic Work Analysis
A estratégia de "redução" e a carga de trabalho dos coletores de lixo domiciliar de uma grande cidade: estudo de caso baseado na Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho [in Portuguese]
The so called "reduction" process consists in preparing garbage bags to be collected piling up intermediate stocks before they are loaded on trucks. Garbage collectors' activity was studied through Ergonomic Work Analysis, supplemented by physiological and biomechanical workload measuring. As far as work organization is concerned, it was observed that when garbage collectors adopt this strategy they improve their work rhythm; they have more possibilities to separate garbage, such as plastic bags containing glass pieces from the rest; they manage to interact more with co-workers and communicate better with local residents on better ways of garbage packing. As regards health and safety, when garbage collectors follow this process they are less liable to getting cut, to being run over, to falling down or to having quarrels with drivers, and their tasks are performed with less biomechanical load. It is concluded that the "reduction" strategy not only decreases biomechanical load and exposure to risks, but also improves residential garbage collection.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2008, Vol.33, No.117, p.50-59. Illus. 17 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20117%20Estrat%C3%A9gia%20de%20redu%C3%A7%C3%A3o.pdf [in Portuguese]
Used lamps processing - Guide to hazard evaluation at collection points and at collection and recycling enterprises
La filière des lampes usagées - Aide au repérage des risques dans les points de collecte et les entreprises de collecte et de recyclage [in French]
This booklet is aimed at enterprises involved in the disposal of used lamps (including retailers, neighbourhood waste collection centres, electricians, refuse collection centres, large users and recycling enterprises) as well as at occupational safety and health specialists. Its objective is to provide guidance for occupational hazard evaluation during the various phases of the elimination chain (collection, sorting, regrouping and transport). It proposes solutions for reducing risks during each step.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 2008. 19p. Illus. Price: EUR 4.20. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/DAF9E06EFC743107C125754300536CDF/$FILE/ed6043.pdf [in French]
Navia R., Bezama A.
Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: An overview
The new Chilean Hazardous Waste Management Regulation came into force on 12 June 2004. During the next 180 days (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was required to present a Hazardous Waste Management Plan if the facility generated more than 12 tons/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. This article describes three case studies on the hazardous waste management plans carried out in facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood products facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified, minimization measures were implemented, and reuses and recycling options were evaluated.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Oct. 2008, Vol.158, No.1. p.177-184. Illus. 8 ref.
Shih T.S., Lu P.Y., Chen C.H., Soo J.C., Tsai C.L., Tsai P.J.
Exposure profiles and source identifications for workers exposed to crystalline silica during a municipal waste incinerator relining period
In this study, respirable crystalline silica exposures to furnace relining workers were assessed by conducting personal respirable dust sampling. All samples were analyzed for their tridymite, cristobalite and quartz contents using X-ray diffraction. Results show that quartz was the only detectable crystalline silica content. The operations with the highest levels of respirable quartz exposure were different from those for which respirable dust exposure levels were the most important. Nearly all workers' respirable quartz exposures exceeded the TLV-TWA (0.025mg/m3) indicating appropriate control strategies should be taken immediately.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 2008, Vol.154, Nos.1-3, p.469-475. 21 ref.
Li X.R., Koseki H., Iwata Y.
Risk assessment on processing facility of raw organic garbage
This article presents work done in order to investigate the cause of an explosion during the processing of raw garbage in a volume-reduction processing facility at a Japanese shopping mall. Variable onset temperatures of the exothermal reaction were found as a function of oil content, decreasing from 150°C in the samples containing 10.9-14.1% oil to 114°C when the oil content reached 40%. The disposal process was then simulated in a laboratory-scale facility heated by hot air of 150°C blown into the bottom through nozzles. In the case of the dried garbage containing 14.1% oil, white smoke emitted after several hours, accompanied by an abrupt rise of the temperatures in particular at the bottom of the facility. The maximum temperature reached 1070°C, accompanied by the emission of several gases, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and ethane. Probable mechanisms explaining the observed explosion are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 2008, Vol.154, Nos.1-3, p.38-43. Illus. 14 ref.
Integral management of industrial waste and special handling of dangerous residues
Gestión integral de excedentes industriales y manejo especial de residuos peligrosos [in Spanish]
This article discusses trends in industrial waste disposal in Colombia during the last few decades, until the organization of waste recovery and recycling supply chains, and the integrated management of wastes. It also presents a pilot project for the disposal of used refrigerators, including the recovery of refrigerants that are harmful to the environment.
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug. 2008, Vol.54, No.320, p.47-51. Illus.
Waste: From sorting to disposal, steps of coherent and optimized waste management
Déchets: du tri à l'évacuation, les étapes d'une gestion rigoureuse et optimale [in French]
Construction site waste management is both an environmental and business necessity. Good management begins with an analysis of the production processes so as to minimize waste at the source, and includes sorting, which lowers disposal costs. Key issues concerning special waste (plaster, asbestos) are highlighted in a box.
Prévention BTP, May 2008, No.107, p.34-36. Illus.
Rapp R., Henry F., Fontaine J.R.
Air diffusion in sorting rooms at domestic waste treatment centres - Study of the ventilation characteristics of four air input systems
Diffusion de l'air dans les salles de tri des centres de traitement des ordures ménagères - Etude des caractéristiques aérauliques de quatre dispositifs d'introduction de l'air [in French]
The INRS recommends that an overhead air supply island be placed above each workstation in domestic waste sorting premises. In this study, the aerological performance of various types of air supply islands were evaluated based on measured air velocities at the exit of the unit and at the breathing level of potential operators. It was found that a system comprised of a simple casing with a single perforated grill (perforation ratio above 45%) is insufficient to ensure a properly- directed flow. Acceptable performance can be obtained with two grills (perforation ratio below 32%) or with a casing fitted with a filter.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2008, No.210, p.15-24. Illus. 6 ref.
Study of CMRs in hazardous waste
Etude des composés CMR dans les déchets dangereux [in French]
This article presents the findings of a study on the exposure of waste disposal workers to carcinogens, mutagens and reprotoxic agents (CMRs). A first part describes the methodology used for the survey. Next, the results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. A final section outlines proposed operating procedures for improving protection against risks posed by CMRs, including the formalization of information transfer to the parties concerned.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.73-88. Illus. 9 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_PR%2031/$File/pr31.pdf [in French]
Savary B., Vincent R.
Centres for the collection of diffuse hazardous wastes - Characterization of potential hazards
Les centres de regroupement des déchets dangereux diffus - Caractérisation des risques potentiels [in French]
The complexity of managing the disposal of low-concentration hazardous wastes is due to their nature and their highly-diverse sources. Furthermore, they are often contained in small-sized packaging. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical hazards in hazardous waste collection facilities. Work procedures in several centres were observed. These procedures are essentially manual and the protective measures implemented are often inadequate. The problem is even more pronounced for the collection of household hazardous waste, given that no analyses are carried out on wastes collected from public waste disposal facilities and no information on the possible presence of hazardous chemicals is currently communicated to the processing operators. Various measures aimed at improving the flow of information to the operators of waste disposal facilities are proposed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.23-29. 9 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202278/$File/ND2278.pdf [in French]
Savary B., Vincent R.
Characterization of potential chemical risks in the treatment of various waste streams
Caractérisation des risques chimiques potentiels dans quelques filières de traitement des déchets [in French]
Changes in waste treatment regulations require the development of management systems specific to certain waste products, with the emergence of new processes. The aim of this study was to characterise the potential chemical risks for car waste, electric and electronic equipment waste, industrial packaging, toxic waste in dispersed quantities and feathers and down. Following a description of the processes concerned, chemical agents were identified and the number of potentially-exposed employees was estimated. Most treatment processes involve one or more manual operations before and after the waste shredding operations. In both cases, employees are exposed through the respiratory tract to liquid waste vapours or solid waste dust. Manual dismantling operations currently used for treating electrical and electronic equipment waste will not be able to meet future needs given the strong projected growth in waste volumes. Necessary mechanisation of waste treatment is likely to modify worker exposure to chemical agents in this waste processing chain.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2007, No.207, p.59-75. Illus. 49 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202271/$File/ND2271.pdf [in French]
Non-infectious occupational respiratory diseases due to biological agents - Sector of waste collection, sorting and recovery
Affections respiratoires professionnelles non infectieuses dues aux agents biologiques - Secteur des déchets: collecte, tri et valorisation [in French]
This information sheet describes the main respiratory symptoms faced by workers involved in collecting and sorting household waste. These include hypersensitivity pneumopathy, organic dust toxic syndrome, ocular, nasal and bronchial irritation symptoms and chronic bronchitis. Prevention is based on avoiding the inhalation of dusts and microorganisms. It includes the design and layout of equipment, machinery and containers, ventilation of work premises, work organization and the use of personal protective equipment suited to the types of exposures and activities.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2007, No.110, p.229-236. Illus. 27 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TR%2039/$File/TR39.pdf [in French]
Sustainable development and occupational safety and health
Développement durable et prévention [in French]
This collection of articles covers the topic of sustainable development in the construction sector. Topics addressed include: sorting of waste on construction sites; use of environmentally-friendly products and construction materials; construction materials made from natural products (wood, clay bricks, insulation made from hemp); safety in waste sorting and recycling operations.
Prévention BTP, July-Aug. 2007, No.98, p.36-47. Illus.
Construction site waste - From onsite sorting to the processing centres
Déchets de chantier - Du tri sur site aux centres de traitement [in French]
From 1 July 2002, only inert waste that cannot be further treated or usefully converted is accepted in landfills in France. As a consequence, construction enterprises need to limit their production of waste and resort to on-site sorting in order to lower the cost of landfilling. This article presents an example of how to organize waste streams on a construction site.
Prévention BTP, July-Aug. 2007, No.98, p.28-29. Illus.
Waste - Avoiding risks when demolishing what was constructed
Déchets - Déconstruire sans risques ce que l'on a construit [in French]
The waste disposal sector must satisfy the requirements of both environmental protection and the protection of its workers. This collection of articles reviews the regulations that are specific to the collection, transport, treatment and elimination of waste. Contents: disposal of electrical and electronic waste; recycling of motor vehicles; evaluation of the exposure to benzene during the emptying of the fuel tanks of vehicles involved in accidents; requirements with respect to the packaging and transport of waste.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2007, No.669, p.22-33. Illus
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/archivests/archivests.nsf/(alldocparref)/TS669page23_1/$file/TS669page23.pdf?openelement [in French]
Soil remediation: Careful, danger!
Dépollution des sols, attention danger! [in French]
This collection of articles covers soil remediation, an area which is experiencing rapid growth because of the scarcity of land and the increased interest in the redevelopment of derelict industrial areas. Contents: current situation; comments by the vice president of the French trade association of site remediation enterprises and the director of a remediation enterprise; hazards related to the various types of treatment and their prevention; rules to be followed on a typical site; prevention measures adopted by an enterprise involved in the remediation of an illegal waste site containing solvents.
Prévention BTP, Dec. 2006, No.91, p.39-47. Illus. 3 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Fachausschuss "Tiefbau" der Berufsgenossenschaftlichen Zentrale für Sicherheit und Gesundheit (BGZ)
Kontaminierte Bereiche [in German]
This code of practice applies to repair-work in sanitary landfills, to clean-up work of contaminated soils and buildings (but not to the removal of asbestos-containing material), to construction or demolition work on contaminated sites and to clean-up after a fire. It specifies measures to protect workers during the assessment of hazards posed by harmful substances before work is started and measures to protect workers during the work. The protective measures addressed include: access restriction, fire and explosion protection, first aid, medical supervision by the industrial physician, protection from accidents involving earthmoving equipment, protection from inhalation of harmful substances and the supply of personal protective equipment. Update of the 2002 code of practice with the same title (CIS 04-66).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Straße 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, rev.ed., Feb. 2006. 66p. Price: EUR 6.80.
http://www.mtm.de/index.htm?/cont/kontaminierte_bereiche_01.htm [in German]
Missel T., Felten C.
Checking the efficiency of protective measures in refuse disposal plants by correlated particle counts
Wirksamkeitsüberprüfung Technischer Schutzmaßnahmen in der Abfallwirtschaft mit der Korrelierten Partikelzählung [in German]
The German guidelines on biological hazards, TRBA 211 of September 2001, limit the concentration of airborne moulds in composting plants to 50,000cfu/m3 air. This study investigated whether particle counting may be used an alternative to biological cultivation methods for assessing concentrations of microbial agents in air. Comparison of measurements of microorganisms and dust particles in more than 300 workplaces showed that the composition of bioaerosols in composting plants is almost uniform. It is therefore proposed that the concentration of microorganisms in these plants could be assessed using dust particle measurements.
Ergo-Med, May-June 2006, Vol.60, No.3, p.84-89. Illus. 14 ref.
Safety guide to the management, storage and disposal of chemicals used for producing illicit drugs
Guía de seguridad para el manejo y la eliminación de los químicos utilizados en la fabricación ilícita de drogas [in Spanish]
The safe management, storage and disposal of chemical products and residues seized in clandestine drug laboratories constitute problems for the authorities involved. This safety guide aimed at these authorities describes the various methods available for the disposal of specific substances used for the manufacture of illegal drugs.
United Nations, Sales Section, New York, USA, 2006. 89p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.unodc.org/pdf/publications/st-nar-36_es.pdf [in Spanish]
Bondéelle A., Delmotte H., Gauron C.
Radioactive hospital waste - Radiation under control
Déchets hospitaliers radioactifs - Rayonnements sous contrôle [in French]
This collection of articles describes current practices and regulatory provisions in France governing the disposal of hospital radioactive waste. Topics addressed: regulatory trends; role of the competent person; flowchart of a hospital radioactive waste management system (sorting, storage, elimination) for liquid and solid wastes generated by health care activities contaminated by radioactive substances; training and information; glossary.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2006, No.664, p.21-29. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/archivests/archivests.nsf/(allDocParRef)/TS664page20_1/$File/TS664page20.pdf?OpenElement [in French]
Duchet M., Grosmann J.L., Hugues J., Fontaine J.R., Terrier C.
Design of common industrial and building site waste sorting plants
Conception des centres de tri des déchets industriels banals et des déchets de chantier [in French]
This booklet outlines occupational safety and health recommendations for persons working in waste material sorting plants. These recommendations apply to the integration of safety and health into the design of new plants or into the modifications of existing plants. The approach aims to involve all persons and organizations concerned by the project (principals, facility owners, designers and coordinators). Contents: types of industrial and building site waste; sorting procedures; health hazards; general safety measures and precautions according to the phase of the process; specific measures for building site waste and for the treatment of wood; maintenance and cleaning of equipment and installations.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Feb. 2006. 49p. Illus. Index. Price: EUR 8.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/82953DC6F334D5CDC125714F004BCD57/$FILE/ed948.pdf [in French]
da Silva M.C., Fassa A.G., Siqueira C.E., Kriebel D.
World at work: Brazilian ragpickers
This cross-sectional survey was carried out to evaluate the working conditions of ragpickers in a Brazilian locality. The sample of 455 ragpickers was also compared to that of 535 non-ragpickers from the same poor neighbourhoods. The survey was carried out in the form of household interviews. Findings concerning the nature of the work, work postures, exposures and other risk factors are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2005, Vol.62, No.10, p.736-740. Illus. 15 ref.
How to use and dispose of asbestos in a safe manner
Jak bezpiecznie użytkować i usuwać azbest [in Polish]
Varieties of asbestos and asbestos products that can be found in Poland are listed and the classification of these products is explained. Methods of safe use and disposal of asbestos-containing products are discussed in detail and legal requirements are outlined.
Prewencja i Rehabilitacja, 2005, No.3, p.12-19. Illus.
Dounias G., Kypraiou E., Rachiotis G., Tsovili E., Kostopoulos S.
Prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers in municipal solid waste workers in Keratsini (Greece)
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers among municipal solid waste workers. Participants consisted of 166 workers in Keratsini, Greece. Evaluations included the prevalence of biological markers of HBV infection (HbsAg, anti-Hbc, anti-Hbs) and their association with exposure to waste and various socio-demographic factors. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of anti-Hbc positivity between exposed and non-exposed employees to waste. Older employees had a significantly higher prevalence of anti-Hbc positivity. Logistic regression analysis showed that the exposure to waste and age were independently associated with the anti-Hbc positivity. It is concluded that occupational exposure to waste is possibly associated with the acquisition of HBV infection. Immunization of these workers should be considered to reduce the risk of HBV infection.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.55, No.1, p.60-63. 22 ref.
Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education
Obraščenie s radioaktivnymi othodami, obrazujuščimisja v rezul'tate ispol'zovanija radioaktivnyh materialov v medicine, sel'skom hozjajstve, issledovanijah i obrazovanii [in Russian]
Gong ye nong ye yan jiu he jiao xue ying yong zhong chan sheng de fei wu de guan li [in Chinese]
This safety guide provides recommendations and guidance on the fulfilment of the safety requirements related to the management of radioactive waste. It covers the roles and responsibilities of the various bodies involved in the predisposal management of radioactive waste and in the handling and processing of radioactive material. It is intended for organizations generating and handling radioactive waste or handling such waste on a centralized basis, and for the regulatory body responsible for regulating such activities.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2005. xii, 73p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: EUR 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1217_web.pdf [in English]
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1217r_web.pdf [in Russian]
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1217c_web.pdf [in Chinese]
Darves-Bornoz M., Welitz G.
Prevention of hazards in the compacting zone
Prévention des risques en zone de compactage [in French]
Waste compactors are used to reduce volumes of wastes such as cardboard, printing industry trimmings, plastic bottles and industrial wastes. This practical safety information sheet applies to manually-fed horizontal hydraulic compactors. The main hazard associated with the use of this type of equipment is the risk of being crushed by the compacting head during normal operations, which include the feeding of waste, removal of unsuitable waste and recovery from jamming. Contents: main causes of accidents; preventive measures (compactor selection, access control, personal protective equipment, safety instructions, instructions to operators, organizational measures).
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2005, No.655, insert 4p. Illus. 8 ref.
Roberge B., Baril M., Bariteau C.
Hazards in hazardous waste management facilities - What is the current situation?
Des risques dans les centres de transferts des matières dangereuses résiduelles - Qu'en est-il? [in French]
Industry generally provides for the disposal of hazardous wastes in specialized centres. Persons working in these centres are exposed to various health hazards. This article describes this industry in Quebec, Canada based on visits made to six of these centres. It describes the centres, the processes they use and the risks and hazards to workers due to chemical, physical ergonomic and safety-related factors. Workplace layouts were found to be designed primarily to satisfy productivity and flexibility requirements rather than ergonomics, leading to risks of musculoskeletal disorders and occupational accidents.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2005, Vol.21, No.3, p.14-17. 7 ref.
Roberge B., Baril M., Bariteau C.
Documentation of the risks in hazardous material transfer centres
Documentation des risques dans les centres de transfert des matières dangereuses résiduelles [in French]
In recent years, the residual hazardous materials sector, including activities related to industrial cleaning, has been the scene of several occupational accidents, some of them fatal. This study results from a request from the Comité paritaire de l'environnement (CPE, joint environmental committee), consisting of representatives of the Quebec Commission for Occupational Safety and Health (CSST) and sector professionals. Health and safety hazards and risk factors in residual hazardous material transfer centres were investigated by documenting the procedures and equipment used, materials treated, the chemical, microbiological and ergonomic risks faced by workers, safety measures in place and safety training offered. The documentation thus produced provides the managers of hazardous residual material treatment centres with useful tools for implementing preventive measures.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. i, 21p. 12 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-402.pdf. [in French]
Kumagai S., Koda S.
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentrations in serum samples of workers at an infectious waste incineration plant in Japan
In 1998-2000, concentrations of summed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the exhaust gas of an infectious waste incineration plant were found to be considerably in excess of the Japanese legal limit value of 80ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/m3. The incinerator ceased operation in November 2000. This study investigated whether the incinerator workers were exposed to high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. Blood samples of five workers and five unexposed control subjects were collected one month and 16 months after the end of the occupational exposure. Ash remaining in the incinerator and dust deposited around the conveyer and incinerator areas was also collected; TEQ values were 44 and 10ng TEQ/g, respectively. A month after the end of occupational dioxin exposure, mean TEQ for the workers was 49.1pg TEQ/g lipid, 2.7 times higher than among the controls, while at 16 months, it was still 1.6 times higher than among the controls.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2005, Vol.2, No.2, p.120-125. 36 ref.
Chollot A., Rodriguez C., Courtois B., Dornier G.
Electrical and electronic equipment waste
Déchets d'équipements électriques et électroniques [in French]
According to European Directive 75/442/EEC, electrical and electronic equipment waste (EEEW) includes all components, sub-assemblies and consumer products that constitute the equipment at the time of its scrapping. By the end of 2006, it will be required to recover 4kg of EEEW per inhabitant per year and recycling rates will have to reach over 70% depending on the type of waste. As a result, new waste processing chains are being set up, involving tasks that are potentially harmful to workers' health. Contents of this information sheet: types of EEEW; description of the waste processing stream; occupational hazards (dusts, chemical hazards, biological hazards); preventive measures, regulations, research by INRS on the topic.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2005. 4p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/FDD65C7F02AAD973C1256FD3003AB8BE/$FILE/ed5029.pdf [in French]
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Garbage collectors - Batteries in urban waste - reduction of household waste
Revista do trabalhador: Coletores de lixo - Pilhas e baterias no lixo urbano - Redução do lixo domiciliar [in Portuguese]
The first of these videotapes examines the working conditions of garbage collectors, the second highlights the problem of the disposal of increasing numbers of batteries in urban waste and the third addresses the need to reduce the quantities of household waste and to raise awareness of the importance of waste sorting and recycling.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Three videotapes (VHS format), 14min, 11min and 13min.
Heldal K.K., Eduard W.
Associations between acute symptoms and bioaerosol exposure during the collection of household waste
Associations between work-related symptoms and bioaerosol exposure were investigated in 22 household waste workers. Full-shift exposures to bacteria, fungal spores, endotoxins and total dust were measured. Data on symptoms experienced during work were obtained by means of a questionnaire. The median exposure levels of spherical bacteria and fungal spores were 0.4 and 0.1 x 106/m3, respectively, while exposures to rod-shaped bacteria, endotoxins and dust were low. The symptoms most often reported were unusual tiredness (24%), headache (22%), cough (15%), and irritation in eyes and nose (10 and 17%). The results suggest that acute work-related nose irritation is associated with exposure to bacteria. Exposure to rod-shaped bacteria is also associated with nose irritation and unusual tiredness. Finally, it is likely that cough is associated with fungal spores.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.253-260. Illus. 23 ref.
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