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Water and sanitation services - 62 entries found

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CIS 12-0229 Richard P.
Sewage systems - Risky work
Réseaux d'assainissement - Des interventions à risques [in French]
Extension and renovation of sewage systems involve hazards, for which prevention requires hazard evaluation, safety and health plans, continuous monitoring of workplace atmospheres, training and the use of personal protective equipment.
Prévention BTP, Sept. 2011, No.145, p.36-37. Illus.
Réseaux_d'assainissement_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]


CIS 12-0293
Noble Denton BOMEL Limited, Health and Safety Executive
Update to mapping health and safety standards in the UK waste industry
This report describes an update to a previous study on the nature of the United Kingdom waste industry and its safety and health standards. Employment figures were updated and it is estimated that around 176,000 workers were employed in waste and recycling services in 2005/06. This employment figure was combined with updated accident numbers to reveal that the overall accident rate for workers in the waste industry has been decreasing. High risk areas appeared to have remained relatively constant over a ten-year period. Industries providing general public services and sewage/refuse disposal remained significant. Handling sprains, trips and "struck-by" accidents were the most prolific types of accident. Occupations most likely to be involved in accidents were those related to refuse handling and driver jobs, and individuals were likely to have been collecting or handling refuse when they had the accident.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. viii, 72p. Illus. 9 ref.
Update_to_mapping_health_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0212 Peto J., Rake C., Gilham C., Hatch J.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational, domestic and environmental mesothelioma risks in Britain
There are just over 2100 people diagnosed with mesothelioma in the United Kingdom each year with about five times as many cases in men as in women In this study, more than 600 patients with mesothelioma and 1400 healthy people were interviewed to examine United Kingdom rates of the disease linked to different occupations. It was calculated that men born in the 1940s who worked as carpenters for more than 10 years before they reached the age of 30 have a lifetime risk for mesothelioma of about one in 17. For plumbers, electricians and decorators born in the same decade who worked in their trade for more than 10 years before they reached the age of 30, the risk is one in 50 and for other construction workers one in 125. For every case of mesothelioma, asbestos also causes about one case of lung cancer so the overall risk of asbestos related cancer for this particular group of carpenters is about one in 10. The risk was also increased in other industries and the study showed that two-thirds of all British men and one quarter of women had worked in jobs involving potential asbestos exposure at some time in their lives. There was also a small increased risk in those who had lived with someone who had been exposed to asbestos. The risk of mesothelioma for the rest of the United Kingdom population who haven't experienced these occupational exposures is about one in 1000. These apparently-unexposed cases account for 60 per cent of all mesotheliomas in women and 15 per cent in men. This is higher than the overall rate in women in most other countries, suggesting that many of these unexplained cases were caused by unrecognized environmental asbestos exposures which occurred in certain situations because of the widespread use of asbestos during the 1960s and 1970s.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, x, 63p. Illus. 46 ref.
Occupational_domestic_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]


CIS 08-859 Bondéelle A., Ravallec C.
Water distribution and treatment work - Seeing clearly through muddy waters
Métiers de l'eau et de l'assainissement - Voir clair en eaux troubles [in French]
This collection of articles on occupations in water distribution and treatment discusses the risks to which workers in this sector are exposed, namely: physical workload; work in isolation; work in confined atmospheres; work in confined spaces; biological hazards; toxic and explosive gases; road hazards. It comments the measures adopted by two French enterprises involved in water distribution and treatment, the specific problems faced by small enterprises operating in this sector and the collaborations set up between the regional health insurance institution and representatives of the sector in a French region.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2008, No.682, p.18-31. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 10-0156 OSH-WIND Philippines
This training manual on the ILO WIND (Work improvement in Neighbourhood Development) aimed at agrarian communities in the Philippines contains a variety of information, education and communication materials, including flipcharts, comic strips, posters, booklets and presentations. Originally aimed at rice farmers, the programme has been extended to include other crops (banana, coconut and sugarcane).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. Binder containing a collection of documents. Approx. 140 p. Illus.


CIS 06-29 Naso M.
Beware of the dog. Utility workers need training and knowledge to avoid canine attacks
Utility workers encounter hundreds of dogs each month and are often attacked. Dog bites can cause severe physical and emotional damage. Good training and information can help reduce these incidents. This article provides basic guidance on avoiding attacks from dogs and on what to do if bitten by a dog.
Safety and Health, Sep. 2005, Vol.172, No.3, p.52-55. Illus. 2 ref.


CIS 05-479 Borel P., Giudicelli M.C., Klarsy D., Liégeois J.M.
Study of heart rate measurements during accelerated search for leaks in sewers
Etude cardiofréquencemétrique des recherches accélérées de fuites dans le travail en égout [in French]
This study was carried out at the request of the occupational hygiene committee of a large water supply utility in the Paris region, who sought clarification on the strenuousness of the task of accelerated search for leaks in sewers during continuous working days. This task consists of walking within the sewage system according to a pre-established itinerary. The study was carried out by means of heart rate measurements among seven volunteers aged between 30 and 51 years. It was found that the relative cardiac strain was above 20% in six of the nine measurements, of which two were above 30%. Results show that this activity may cause heart strain, although possibilities for improvement through ergonomic or working procedure changes appear limited.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.4, p.465-471. Illus. 1 ref.


CIS 07-256 International health and safety seminar 2003
Séminaire international prévention - sécurité 2003 [in French]
Materials distributed to the participants of an occupational safety and health training programme given by an international water distribution company in Paris, France, on 20-21 November 2003. Contents includes: the text of the ILO Code of Practice on the Recording and Notification of Occupational Accidents and Diseases; a questionnaire for the pre-qualification of contractors; and the text of a Norwegian standard on the evaluation of health, safety and environmental management systems used by contractors.
Compagnie Générale des Eaux - Véolia Water, Département Prévention et Sécurité, 52 rue d'Anjou, 75384 Paris Cedex 08, France, 2003. Binder with approx. 270p (English + French)

CIS 03-1435
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of HSC's ACOP and Guidance "Legionnaires disease: Control of legionella bacteria in water systems" (L8)
This report presents the findings of a research study of industry's views of the Health and Safety Commission's Approved Code of Practice and Guidance entitled "Legionnaires' disease: Control of legionella bacteria in water systems", which was published in 2000. Questionnaires were sent to approximately 6000 individuals and enterprises resulting in 979 responses. Most respondents found the guidance to be easy to understand, although 18% of enforcement officers found the document difficult to understand. The layout was found to be easy to follow with only 6% of respondents rating the document either "difficult" or "very difficult" to read.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 104p. Price: GBP 20.00. [in English]

CIS 03-691 Challenges and opportunities facing public utilities
Les défis à relever et les tendances à saisir par les services publics de distribution [in French]
Los retos y oportunidades que se plantean a los servicios públicos [in Spanish]
This report was presented for discussion at a tripartite meeting on challenges and opportunities facing public utilities. It reviews some of the continuing trends concerning the sector's employment and social issues and considers the role of multinational enterprises in the sector and the impact of mergers and acquisitions. Renewable energy and sustainable development are also key challenges that open up opportunities for governments, employers and workers. The case of water utilities is also specifically examined, as this sector embarks on the path that electricity and gas have already started. A chapter is devoted to occupational safety and health in this sector. Finally, the report reflects on the importance of social dialogue in a rapidly globalizing industry.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. v, 79p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: CHF 17.50. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]


CIS 99-2070 Arvanitidou M., Constantinidis T.C., Doutsos J., Mandraveli K., Katsouyannopoulos V.
Occupational hepatitis B virus infection in sewage workers
In this cross-sectional study the employees of a Greek sewage company were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers - HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc - to determine the prevalence of HBV infection, assess the risk of exposed sewage workers becoming infected, and to evaluate the necessity for appropriate vaccination. The overall prevalence of HBV markers was 43.9%, and 6.6% of the employees were HBsAg carriers. The prevalence of past and current infection was significantly associated with exposure to sewage, with age, and with educational level, but only exposure to sewage was independently associated with positivity for HBV infection. Workers exposed to sewage should therefore be considered for vaccination against hepatitis B. Topics: antibodies; cross-sectional study; determination in blood; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; immunization; infectious hepatitis; sanitation services; sewage; vaccination; work in sewers.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1998, Vol.89, No.5, p.437-444. 11 ref.

CIS 99-1905 Salano R., Copello F.
Epidemiologic study of a group of workers employed on maintenance of sewage network and waste water treatment plants
Studio epidemiologico su un gruppo di operatori addetti alla manutenzione della rete fognaria e degli impianti di depurazione delle acque reflue urbane [in Italian]
The results of a study on occupational risks of a group of sewage workers in Genoa, Italy, are reported. The subjects were divided into three subgroups according to job characteristics. A questionnaire on individual symptoms, clinical examinations, blood and respiratory tests were administered. The relative risk of alterations in respiratory function (both instrumental and clinical findings) was increased among water treatment workers. Average platelet count in workers exposed to sewage appeared to be significantly reduced compared to non-exposed subjects although both were within normal limits. There was no evidence of an increased prevalence of positive A hepatitis markers in the exposed workers. Topics: case-control study; epidemiologic study; functional respiratory disorders; haematological changes; health hazards; risk factors; sanitation services; sewage treatment; symptoms; water treatment; work in sewers.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1998, Vol.89, No.5, p.393-403. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 99-1352
Health and Safety Executive
The control of legionellosis in hot and cold water systems
Topics: biocides; chlorine dioxide; infection control; ionization; legionellosis; piping; public water supply; storage tanks; temperature control; water heaters; water treatment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 4p. 17 ref.


CIS 98-260 Dupressoir C.
Flammable hazards in sewerage systems: Safety procedures when opening access covers
Topics: confined spaces; explosion hazards; explosive atmospheres; fire hazards; leakage; protection against outbursts of gas; safe working methods; sanitation services; sources of ignition; work in sewers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 1997, Vol.13, No.4, p.375-379. 16 ref.


CIS 97-667 Göttlich E.
Studies on the atmospheric concentrations of fungi in waste treatment plants
Untersuchungen zur Pilzbelastung der Luft an Arbeitsplätzen in Betrieben zur Abfallbehandlung [in German]
In this study the atmospheric concentration of colony forming units (CFU) of fungi was determined at 5 garbage composting plants, 2 garbage incineration plants and 3 sanitary landfills in Germany. Both personal and stationary air samples were collected and evaluated. Concentrations ranging from 500 to 10,000,000 CFU/m3 air were obtained. Aspergillus and Penicillium moulds as well as fungus spores were found in most plants. Aspergillus fumigatus occurred in concentrations ranging from 1000 to 50,000 CFU/m3 air. Most of the fungi (80%) were found on respirable dust particles.
Erich Schmidt Verlag GmbH & Co., Genthiner Str.30 G, 10785 Berlin, Germany, 1996. 244p. Illus. 243 ref. Price: DEM 58.00.

CIS 96-1331 Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Schachter E.N., Kern J., Pavicic D., Budak A.
Airway function and respiratory symptoms in sanitation workers
A study of 81 municipal sanitation workers (street cleaners and garbage collectors) in Zagreb, Croatia revealed higher prevalences of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms than in a group of 65 controls. Lung-function testing demonstrated diminished forced vital capacity and 1-second forced expiratory volume among the sanitation workers. Results suggest that sanitation workers, particularly those with long periods of work exposure, may develop acute and/or chronic respiratory symptoms and decreases in lung function. Recommended health precautions include suitable protective clothing and a medical surveillance programme.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1996, Vol.38, No.5, p.522-527. 27 ref.


CIS 96-1482 Götz M.
Safe leakage testing of underground ducts
Sicherheitstechnische Aspekte bei der Dichtheitsprüfung erdverlegter Kanäle [in German]
Sewers need to be inspected at regular intervals for the presence of leaks. The conventional methods that are applied for such inspections are outlined. They use compressed water or compressed air. The safety requirements which need to be observed in Germany for performing the inspections are summarized. A new unit for detecting leaks in underground sewers is introduced. It operates with compressed air and accommodates both the shut-off and leak detection equipment. The leak is located with the help of sound reflection. In comparison with the outlined conventional methods the new method is safer and less expensive.
Tiefbau, Sep. 1995, Vol.107, No.9, p.628-630, 633-634, 636, 638-640. Illus.

CIS 96-1088 Flemming H.C.
Biofouling and biocorrosion - Effects of undesired biofilms
Biofouling und Biokorrosion - die Folgen unerwünschter Biofilme [in German]
Microorganisms are capable of growing on the surface of various kinds of equipment and materials. For example, microbial layers called biofilms have been found on heat exchanger surfaces, in dental equipment, on electronic controls and in water conduits. They may interfere with processes such as heat exchange and filtering processes and be the cause of infections such as legionellosis. They can contribute to corrosion. About 20% of all corrosion damage to metals and building materials is attributed to biofilms. The mechanism of microbial corrosion is explained.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, Nov. 1995, Vol.67, No.11, p.1425-1430. Illus. 12 ref.


CIS 96-1885 Jager E., Rüden H., Zeschmar-Lahl B.
Composting facilities. Second Communication: Airborne microorganisms at different workplaces in composting plants
Kompostierungsanlagen. 2. Mitteilung: Aerogene Keimbelastung an verschiedenen Arbeitsbereichen von Kompostierungsanlagen [in German]
Measurements in Germany of microbial pollution in the air of workplaces in 2 garbage composting plants revealed the following: the highest number concentrations of bacteria and moulds and the largest respirable dust fraction were observed during garbage comminution, turning and mixing. These findings are in agreement with published results of similar measurements in composting plants in other countries. Full enclosure of the garbage shredders and automation of garbage turning and mixing are recommended to avoid harmful levels of bacteria and mould in these workplaces.
Zentralblatt für Hygiene und Umweltmedizin, 1994, Vol.196, No.4, p.367-379. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 96-1099 Stalder K., Verkoyen C.
Health hazards in municipal waste disposal
Gesundheitsrisiken bei der Entsorgung kommunaler Abfälle [in German]
Proceedings of a symposium on the biological hazards of garbage composting (held in Göttingen, Germany, 28-29 June 1993). Subjects covered: composting methods applied today; emission of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli during garbage composting; viruses such as Herpes simplex and Coxsackie-B in the air of garbage composting plants; emission of moulds and thermophilic actinomycetes by garbage composting plants; frequently occurring fungi in garbage composting plants; health hazards such as infection and sensitization by allergens in garbage composting plants.
Verlag Die Werkstatt, Lotzestrasse 24a, 37083 Göttingen, Germany, Apr. 1994. 217p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 30.00.

CIS 94-2108 Hayes M., Cooper R.A.
Cryptosporidiosis. Hidden in name and nature
The nature of the human diarrhoeal disease cryptosporidiosis is explained along with the need for health education among workers. Cryptosporidiosis is caused by ingestion of oocysts of a protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum; the parasite is predominantly waterborne, but may also be transmitted from animals and other people. Since no effective vaccine is yet available and oocysts are resistant to traditional methods of water sanitation and to many disinfectants, all workers in environments subject to faecal pollution (workers in close contact with animals, water sanitation personnel) should be advised of the risks.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 1994, Vol.12, No.8, p.16-20. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 94-1958 Guide for safety with underground services
This guide outlines the dangers associated with work near underground services and gives advice on how to reduce these dangers. Contents: dangers of electricity cables, gas pipes, liquid petroleum services, oil pipelines, water pipes, sewers and telecommunication cables; safe systems of work; plans; cable and pipe locating devices; safe digging practices; safe systems of work for trenchless methods; new housing developments; installation of new services near existing services; demolition sites. Appendices include legislation and first aid.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, May 1994. 70p. Illus. 11 ref.


CIS 97-1564 Kumagai S., et al.
Estimation of asbestos exposure among workers repairing asbestos cement pipes used for conduits
Sekimen semento kan (suidōkan) no shūyen sagyō ni tomonau sekimen bakuro [in Japanese]
Asbestos cement pipes (ACPs) account for 16.2% of all conduits in Japan, although their production was suspended in 1985. When such a conduit is damaged, workers cut off the damaged conduit using a high-speed disk cutter and replace it with a new conduit. This operation develops a cloud of asbestos-containing dust. To establish typical working conditions, an experienced worker cut an ACP in a hole dug in the ground. Dust was sampled at several points both inside and outside the hole. A self-administered questionnaire survey was then conducted among 1,048 men doing conduit repair work. The concentration of asbestos fibres >5µm with 3:1 aspect ratio ranged from 48 to 170 fibres/mL (92 fibres/mL on average) inside and 1.7 to 15 fibres/mL outside the hole. The concentration inside the hole exceeded the ceiling limit (10 fibres/mL) recommended in Japan. A concentration of 92 fibres/mL is equivalent to 0.96 fibres/mL as an 8-h TWA. The number of subjects with experience of cutting ACPs was 849, and their average length of service was 14.2yr. The time spent cutting ACPs was estimated to average 17 d/yr. Only 18.1% of the subjects used respiratory protection. If these workers worked 17 d/yr in cutting ACPs for 14yr and were exposed to 1 fibre/mL of asbestos per day, the life-time excess mortality rate of both lung cancer and mesothelioma could be as high as 30/100,000 (OSHA model).
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, May 1993, Vol.35, No.3, p.178-187. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 94-1769 Ohlendorf R.
Risk of hepatitis A infection in sewer maintenance and sewage purification plant workers
Hepatitis-A Infektionsrisiko bei Kanalunterhaltungs- und Kläranlagenarbeitern [in German]
Sanitation workers exposed to sewage were subjected to serological examinations to determine the presence of anti-HAV-IgG. All 15 sewer maintenance workers and all 27 employees of a sewage treatment plant of a German municipality were included. Sewer maintenance workers with more than five years of exposure were found to be HAV-positive while among the group with less than five years seniority, only one was HAV-positive. Of the employees of the sewage treatment plant, all with more than 11 years of exposure were HAV-positive and all those with less than five years seniority were HAV-negative.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, July 1993, Vol.28, No.7, p.305-307. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 94-606 Kumagai S., Kurumatani N., Nakachi S., Nakagiri S., Hara K.
Occupational dust exposure and prevalence of respiratory symptoms among conduit repair workers
Suidōkyoku shokuin no funjin bakuro jōkyō to kokyūkishō jōshū soritsu [in Japanese]
Workers engaged in the repair of city water supply conduits are exposed to dust during excavation and the cutting of pavement and pipe. To quantify this exposure and its consequences, ambient dust levels were measured at 20 conduit repair sites in two cities; the concentration and composition of dust was compared with samples collected in 10 offices of the water supply authorities. Questionnaires concerning respiratory symptoms were then distributed to the conduit repair workers and office workers of 119 municipal water supply authorities. The mean dust concentration in conduit repair was 0.91mg/m3, or 4.6 times higher than the level in offices. X-ray analysis showed that soil was the main component, while in offices it was tobacco smoke. Among smokers, the prevalence of cough and phlegm was higher among conduit workers than in clerical or engineering staff; among non- and ex-smokers the difference was not significant.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Nov. 1993, Vol.35, No.6, p.540-549. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 94-594
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Occupational health in waste disposal services - Papers presented at a conference in Dortmund, Germany, on 3 and 4 November 1992
Arbeitsschutz in der Abfallwirtschaft - Vorträge der Fachtagung am 3. und 4. November 1992 in Dortmund [in German]
Subjects addressed at this conference: the Waste Disposal Act in Germany and its effects on waste treatment and disposal methods; health protection during collection, handling, transport, storage, and treatment of waste and recycling material; disposal of hazardous waste; exposure to and protection from harmful substances.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. 261p. Illus. Price: DEM 40.00.

CIS 94-14
Labour Inspectorate (Arbeidsinspectie)
Work with contaminated soil (including soil clean up) [Netherlands]
Werken met verontreinigde grond, inclusief bodemsanering [in Dutch]
This directive (an update of CIS 91-1066) contains guidelines for safe working practices for persons working with soil or groundwater and who, as a result of this work, may be exposed to contamination. Attention is given to: risk of exposure to hazardous substances (inhalation, uptake through the skin, oral uptake); risk and fire hazards; classification of substances in separate risk categories; responsibilities of the employer; health and safety measures; legal provisions. In the appendix a list of commonly encountered toxic substances is presented, with corresponding toxicity classification, lethal doses, indication of carcinogenicity, etc.
SDU Uitgeverij Plantijnstraat, Afdeling Verkoop Publikaties Arbeidsinspectie, Postbus 20014, 2500 EA Den Haag, Netherlands, 2nd ed., 1993. 45p. Illus. 10 ref.


CIS 95-345 Göttlich E., Bardtke D.
Germ emissions by waste treatment
Keimemissionen bei der Müllverarbeitung [in German]
The results of bacteria and mould counts in the air of waste composting plants are summarized. Bacteria of the groups salmonella, pseudomonas and staphylococcus and moulds of the types aspergillus, penicillium and thermophilic actinomycetes were found in pathogenic concentrations. For thermophilic actinomycetes a concentration of 3.8 x 107 colonies/m3 was found at some workplaces. This high amount is known to have caused allergic alveolitis in agricultural workers. Bacterial counts reached 106 colonies/m3. This number is far above the threshold limit concentration of 103 colonies/m3.
Entsorgungs-Technik, Dec. 1991, Vol.3, No.6, p.32-35. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 92-1488 Guide for employees
Safe work practices and relevant regulations pertaining to solid waste workers are described in this booklet given to new employees. Working conditions, job benefits, and career information are also covered.
Department of the City Clerk, Information and Communication Services Division, Toronto, Ontario M5H 2N2, Canada, 1991. 52p.


CIS 92-1370 Altmeyer N., Abadia G., Schmitt S., Leprince A.
Microbiological risks and work in waste water purification plants
Risques microbiologiques et travail dans les stations d'épuration des eaux usées [in French]
The risk of infection with work in water purification plants (biological treatment) is the subject of numerous investigations. While the theoretical risk may be disturbing, the actual risk may be less clear, as shown by this literature survey, based on observations made by a group of industrial physicians. The principles of waste water treatment are first explained, followed by a description of the microbiological risks in biological-treatment purification plants: theoretical risks, routes of contamination, actual risks (digestive, respiratory and skin diseases, leptospirosis, sewer workers' syndrome). A summary of the data collected is presented, along with preventive measures concerning all types of risks found in purification plants. An annex shows a medical follow-up sheet.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.373-388. Illus. 100 ref.

CIS 91-1723 Chriske H.W., Abdo R., Richrath R., Braumann S.
Hepatitis B infection hazard among sewer and sewage plant workers
Hepatitis-B-Infektionsgefährdung bei Kanal- und Klärwerksarbeitern [in German]
A higher number of persons (24) with hepatitis B virus infection was found among 93 sewer maintenance workers than among hospital personnel. Of 84 workers in sewage treatment plants 11 were found to be infected. The high infection rate among sewer maintenance workers is blamed on contact with infectious waste water and sewage sludge and on the high rate of hand injuries. It is recommended to duly inform this specific category of workers of the hazards they have to face and to offer them hepatitis B vaccination.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Oct. 1990, Vol.25, No.10, p.475-477. 7 ref.


CIS 01-479 Health and safety in municipal water purification plants
Hygiène et sécurité dans les stations d'épuration des collectivités locales [in French]
Guidance document to prevention measures in water purification plants. The nature of work (operations and maintenance) performed in these plants is outlined. The principal hazards are specified: hazards during normal operations and during maintenance work (falls and slips, hazards caused by moving machinery and equipment, fire and explosion risks, exposure to corrosive and/or toxic substances, noise and odours, electrical hazards, risks of infection). The three main approaches to prevention are given: safety by design, collective protection, personal protection. General recommendations: provision of information; institution of preventive measures (against mechanical hazards, hazards of falls and slips, fires and explosions, infections and exposures to toxic substances, hazards of maintenance) and provision of personal protective equipment. Special recommendations: prohibition of access for the public; minimum dimensions of passageways; requirements for work locales (lighting, hygiene, changing rooms, laboratories); specifications for manholes, hatches and other openings, passageways, staircases, ladders, basins etc.; general external lighting; protection against noise; heating, air-conditioning and ventilation; electrical safety. An overview of relevant French legislation is given. In annex: examples of recent safety and health related work in French water purification plants, with prices and work details.
Direction de l'Eau et de la Prévention des Pollutions et des Risques, Mission Administrative de Neuilly, Régisseur d'Avances et de Recettes, 14, blvd. du Général Leclerc, 92524 Neuilly sur Seine Cedex, France, 1989. 55p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: FRF 150.00.

CIS 91-1066 Work with contaminated soil (including soil clean up) [Netherlands]
Werken met verontreinigde grond, inclusief bodemsanering [in Dutch]
This directive contains guidelines for safe working practices for persons working with soil or groundwater and who, as a result of this work, may be exposed to contamination. Attention is given to: risk of exposure to hazardous substances (inhalation, uptake through the skin, oral uptake); risk and fire hazards; classification of substances in separate risk groups; responsibilities of the employer; health and safety measures; legal provisions. In the appendix: list of commonly encountered toxic substances, with corresponding toxicity classification, lethal doses, indication of carcinogenicity, etc.
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 4th ed., 1989. 31p. Illus.


CIS 91-1473 Kanevskij M.Š.
Occupational safety and health in sanitary engineering operations: Training manual for vocational schools
Ohrana truda pri proizvodstve sanitarno-tehničeskih rabot [in Russian]
Contents of this training manual: generalities (OSH regulations in the USSR, rules and guidelines, industrial sanitation and hygiene, improvement of working conditions, personal protective equipment, education and training); safety on construction sites; safety of electric welding and electric hand tools; safety of other types of tools; gas welding and cutting of metals; safe methods of assembly of indoor pipelines for central heating systems and of space heating, water heating, gas supply and waste-water disposal systems, testing of pipelines; safety measures for assembly of central heating boiler stations and pumping plants; safe methods for assembly of outdoor pipelines; safety requirements for working in blank-manufacturing shops; safety of transport and rigging operations; safety requirements for storage of materials, blanks and equipment; fire safety for civil engineering and erection works.
Izdatel'stvo Strojizdat, Kaljaevskaja ul. 23a, 101442 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 96p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: SUR 0.10.

CIS 90-998 Schaffert E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise control by design XV. Control of sludge suction vehicle noise
Lärmarmkonstruieren XV - Lärmminderung an Saugfahrzeugen [in German]
This report is of a research project on noise reduction measures concerning sludge-suction vehicles used in street cleaning. The sound power of the vehicles was determined by different methods. Starting from comprehensive measurements, a ranking of the noise sources was performed, which is the foundation of the noise-reducing measures described. The measures presented in the report resulted in the reduction of the sound pressure level by 20-78dB(A). In addition, the A-weighted sound power could be reduced by 19dB(A).
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 101110, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 131p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 90-945 Faberé S., Schäcke G.
Organisation of preventive medical examinations for workers decontaminating soil and ground water on construction sites
Organisation arbeitsmedizinischer Vorsorgeuntersuchungen im Bereich schadstoffbelasteter Baustellen [in German]
Necessity and extent of medical examinations of workers decontaminating soil and ground water are determined by type and amount of pollutants present. Criteria for selecting the medical examinations required and intervals for follow-up examinations are provided. It is recommended to use occupational health certificates to document all information gathered for each worker.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1988, Vol.38, No.5, p.150-155. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 90-944 Ohse R., Schäcke G.
Medical check-up of workers decontaminating soil and ground water
Vorsorgeuntersuchungen bei Beschäftigten im Bereich der Boden- und Grundwassersanierung [in German]
The medical examinations required for workers decontaminating soil and ground water depend on the type and amount of environmental pollutants present at the work site. Based on the regulations of the ordinance on harmful substances (Federal Republic of Germany), effective 1 Oct. 1986, lists of required medical examinations have been compiled for 42 compounds or groups of compounds. Examples of these are provided.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1988, Vol.38, No.5, p.142-149. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 90-929 Lüdersdorf R., Schäcke G., Quantz D.
Determination of harmful substances during sanitation of contaminated soils
Messung gesundheitsschädlicher Stoffe bei der Sanierung kontaminierter Grundstücke [in German]
For selecting proper protection measures for soil decontamination workers the following steps are necessary: the chemical composition of soil samples must be determined; exposure to air pollutants during decontamination work must be assessed beforehand; when work has been started exposure to air pollutants must be monitored; personal and biological (e.g. blood, urine) samples have to be analysed.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1988, Vol.38, No.5, p.135-141. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 89-261 Shioda M.
Vibration problems of refuse disposal plants
Gomi-shori-shisetsu no shindō-mondai [in Japanese]
Description of a refuse collection and incineration plant. Typical levels and frequencies of noise/vibration at different points in the plant are presented, and sources are described. Modelling of conditions at the planning stage enables more effective noise/vibration control.
Journal of the INCE of Japan, Apr. 1988, Vol.12, No.2, p.33-37.


CIS 88-1930 Skorohodov B.P., Novikov V.N.
Safety rules in the exploitation of urban sewage and drainage systems
Pravila tehniki bezopasnosti pri ėkspluatacii gorodskih gidrotehničeskih sooruženij [in Russian]
Contents: general requirements for electrical and occupational safety in exploitation and repair of wastewater and drain pumping stations, underground collectors and galleries, embankments, slopes and other parts of urban sewage and drainage systems. The book is written for engineers and technicians engaged in the exploitation and repair of these systems.
Izdatel'stvo Strojizdat, Kaljaevskaja 2-3a, 101442 Moskva, USSR, 1986. 86p. Illus. 4 Appendices. Price: SUR 0.30.

CIS 88-21 Order No.1/1986 (III.20) OVH of the National Water Authority concerning occupational safety and health [Hungary]
Az Országos Vízügyi Hivatal elnökének 1/1986 (III.20) OVH számú rendelkezése a munkavédelemről [in Hungarian]
Order by the President of the Hungarian National Water Authority on the responsibilities of the Authority, and of its internal occupational safety and health organ, concerning the organisation of OSH prevention and training activities.
Magyar Közlöny, 1986, No.9, p.255-258.

CIS 87-220 Gros P., Mahieu J.C., Ulysse J.F.
Sewers - Safety and health of personnel
Les réseaux d'assainissement: hygiène et sécurité des personnels d'exploitation [in French]
This brochure is aimed in particular at management personnel. Aspects covered: an inventory of risks; safety by design during the planning of public works; main hygienic measures against the risk of infection; safety measures applicable to work organisation; collective and personal protective equipment; what to do after an accident.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 1986. 71p. Illus. 56 ref.

CIS 86-2063 Studer P.
Prevention of occupational accidents and diseases in water treatment
Unfallverhütung und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Wasseraufbereitung [in German]
Prevenzione infortuni e salvaguardia della salute nei lavori di rigenerazione dell'acqua [in Italian]
Prévention des accidents et des maladies professionnelles lors du traitement de l'eau [in French]
Review of water-treatment agents (chlorine and derivatives, bromine, ozone, adjuvants and additives). General safety rules for water-treatment facilities (areas for storage and dispensing of chemicals; operation of equipment; safe handling of chemicals, especially caustic ones; choice of personal protective equipment). In annexes: descriptions of accidents and tables giving properties of chemicals and safety instructions.
Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, case postale, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Sep. 1986. 48p. Illus. 24 ref.


CIS 85-1657 Mohammed-Brahim B., Mokhtari L., Mokhtari Z.
Intestinal parasite infection among municipal cleaners in the city of Oran (Algeria)
Les parasitoses intestinales chez les travailleurs du service communal de nettoiement de la ville d'Oran [in French]
Comparative study involving 223 exposed workers and 230 controls. Findings: the prevalence of intestinal parasite infection is significantly higher among the exposed group than among the controls; infection is not significantly related to the nature of the work (sewer workers, loaders, sweepers) or to length of service. Infection rate for each parasite is higher among the exposed workers than among the controls.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.4, p.255-257. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 85-1443 Application of protective coatings for water pipes, valves, and fittings
Aspects covered in this data sheet: types and hazards of protective pipe coatings; personal protective equipment; abrasive blasting; tools and equipment used in application; transporting and applying hot coatings.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, Rev. 1984. 4p. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 85-859 Handling and storage of water transmission pipes and fittings
This data sheet outlines the procedures which should be followed to avoid accidents and property damage.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, Rev. 1984. 5p. Illus. Bibl.


CIS 85-855 Brežnev V.E., Treskunov V.M.
Labour protection in the operation of water supply and drainage systems
Ohrana truda pri ėkspluatacii sistem vodosnabženija i kanalizacii [in Russian]
Contents of this manual: general OSH issues (basic USSR labour law, standards and regulations, worker education, etc.); industrial hygiene; safety in the construction and operation of water supply and sewage systems; safety in the operation of water treatment plants and equipment which use highly toxic substances; safety in repair and maintenance work; first aid in accidents; fire safety.
Strojizdat, Kaljaevskaja 23a, 101442 Moskva, USSR, 1983. 279p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: Rbl.0.95.

CIS 85-65 Jones A.J., Banks W.
Noise reduction measures at a major pumping station
Description of the environmental acoustic problems generated by a water pumping station in a rural setting and the solutions used to reduce the noise produced by the 12 pumps in the station (acoustic enclosure).
Noise and Vibration Control, Sep. 1983, Vol.14, No.7, p.187-190. Illus.

CIS 84-1183 Klimmer F., Rutenfranz J., Rohmert W., Mainzer J.
Measurement of stress and workload connected with excavation work for power and water distribution
Belastungs- und Beanspruchungsmessungen bei Tätigkeiten im Tiefbau für die Energie- und Wasserversorgung [in German]
This evaluation involved 20 workers digging trenches for cables and pipelines: work description, types of trenches, working methods, analysis of stress (profile of work elements) and strain (recording of heart rate). Shovelling in narrow trenches was a special form of stress, and high energy expenditures and heart rates requiring relatively long periods of rest were observed. The highest heart rate (170-180min-1) was noted during cable laying.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1983, Vol.18, No.4, p.82-86. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 83-2054 Pereira da Silva E.
Occupational health conditions of garbage workers in São Paulo
Condições de saúde ocupacional dos lixeiros de São Paulo [in Portuguese]
A 5-year statistical analysis of the accident, occupational disease and absenteeism rates of garbage collectors in São Paulo, using street cleaners in the same city as a control group. Garbage collectors had accident rates 4-6 times higher than street cleaners. The highest relative incidence of disease was that of respiratory diseases (2.5 times higher) and skin infections (1.8 times higher). The average length of sickness was 12.5 days for the garbage collectors, against 8.4 days for the control group. Mortality rates and useful life extectancy rates were also examined.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-June 1983, Vol.11, No.42, p.30-35. Illus. 5 ref.


CIS 83-1745
Ministry for Environmental Protection and Water Supply (Ministerium für Umweltschutz und Wasserwirtschaft)
Water supply systems [German Democratic Republic]
Wasserversorgungsanlagen [in German]
This standard lays down safety requirements for the operation of water treatment and distribution systems. Sections are devoted to: cleaning, visibility, safety signs, prevention of drowning, access to reservoirs and wells, use of harmful substances, piping systems for liquids, installations for chlorine, ammonia and fluorides, noise and electricity. Also covered are safety and fire-prevention procedures: bad weather, operating instructions, permits to work (a model form is given in an appendix), prevention of unintentional water inflow when working in reservoirs, work on pressurised equipment, use of chemicals, checking tank and well atmospheres before entry. List of relevant regulations and standards in force in the German Democratic Republic.
Staatsverlag der DDR, Bereich Standardversand, Postfach 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, March 1981. 7p.

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