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Public and government services - 114 entries found

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CIS 12-0201 Kenborg L., Lassen C.F., Lander F., Olsen J.H.
Parkinson's disease among gardeners exposed to pesticides - A Danish cohort study
Several studies have found positive associations between exposure to pesticides and Parkinson's disease. Considering that Danish gardeners have had frequent, intensive exposure to pesticides, the aim of this study was to investigate their risk for Parkinson's disease. The cohort was comprised of 3124 male gardeners. Hospital register data were used for a primary diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and to calculate standardized hospitalization rate ratios (SHR) for this disease among gardeners compared to the general Danish population. Furthermore, data from the Danish Cancer Registry were used to calculate standardized incidence rate ratios (SIR) for smoking-related cancers among gardeners and the general population. The SHR for Parkinson's disease among gardeners was close to that of the general population (1.14). The SIR for smoking-related cancers did not differ from that of the general population. The results indicate a weak dose-related association between exposure to pesticides and risk for Parkinson's disease.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Jan. 2012, Vol.38, No.1, p.65-69. 35 ref.
Parkinson's_disease_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]


CIS 11-0441 Jackson S., Agius R., Bridger R., Richards P.
Occupational stress and the outcome of basic military training
Military training has a high dropout rate but the role of occupational stress is not known. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational stress and outcome of training. Occupational stress in 476 army recruits was measured in Week 4 of 23 weeks of basic military training, using previously identified risk factors for lack of success in training and outcome of training. Using stepwise logistic regression, occupational stress levels as measured at Week 4 were significant predictors of outcome in training. Psychological scale scores predicted 85% of those who were asked to leave.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.253-258. 29 ref.

CIS 11-0214 Lemarié J.
Bronze and lighting ornaments - Chiselling away safely
Lustrerie-bronze - Ciseler en toute sécurité [in French]
Clocks, candelabras, andirons, chandeliers and other objects in bronze, brass or cast iron from French ministries and embassies are renovated in the Paris workshop of the National furniture service. This article describes the tasks carried out in this workshop, together with the prevention of occupational safety and health hazards.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.42-44. Illus.
Lustrerie-bronze.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0117 Carlier A.
Arborists - Happiness is in the tree
Grimpeurs-élagueurs - Le bonheur est dans l'arbre [in French]
This richly-illustrated article describes the work of arborists employed by the City of Paris. Topics addressed: harnesses; anchoring devices; aerial baskets; protective clothing; helmets; earmuffs; chain saws; night work; work organization.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2011, No.715, p.2-13. Illus.
Grimpeurs-élagueurs.pdf [in French]


CIS 11-0331 Rehkopf D.H., Kuper H., Marmot M.G.
Discrepancy between objective and subjective measures of job stress and sickness absence
The aim of this study was to examine possible differences in the association of externally and self-assessed measures of work environment with sickness absence. The study population included 6997 middle-aged men and women from the Whitehall II cohort, whose work characteristics were examined at baseline (1985-1988) through both an external evaluation and self-report, with a follow-up of up to 13 years of sickness absence reporting from administrative records. The primary exposure of interest was the discrepancy between measures of work stress for fast job pace, conflicting demands and decision latitude. External measures of job characteristics were more strongly associated with higher rates of sickness absence compared with self-assessed measures, for both lower frequency of fast work pace and lower conflicting demands. Individuals who self-reported higher frequencies of fast work pace and conflicting demands than were reported through external assessment had higher rates of short-term sickness absence. There was no difference in rates of sickness absence found for decision latitude. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.36, No.6, p.449-457. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 11-0330 Netterstrøm B., Blønd M., Nielsen M., Rugulies R., Eskelinen L.
Development of depressive symptoms and depression during organizational change - A two-year follow-up study of civil servants
In 2007, Denmark went through a major reorganization, where most of its 275 municipalities and 14 counties merged into larger units. This study aimed to examine the development of depressive symptoms and incident depression among employees affected by this organizational change. A total of 685 civil servants employed in the administration of five municipalities and two counties participated in the study. They answered a postal questionnaire eight months prior to and 16 months after the reorganization regarding working conditions, psychosocial work environment factors, and depressive symptoms, based on the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). During the follow-up period in 2006-2008, 295 employees had experienced a merger with other workplaces (hereafter the merger group), 259 had got a new job (the new job group), and 131 who experienced no change in workplace served as the control group. The three groups were compared for mean score of MDI and incident cases of depression using general linear models and logistic regression analyses. After adjustment of the MDI for age, occupation, supervisor function and department at baseline in 2006, no significant differences in increase in MDI were found between the groups. The incidence of depression in the merger group was not significantly higher than the control group.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.36, No.6, p.445-448. 21 ref.

CIS 10-0531 Tsai F.J., Chan C.C.
Occupational stress and burnout of judges and procurators
The Chinese versions of the job content questionnaire (JCQ), the Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (ERI) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) were administered to examine occupational stress and personal, work-related and client-related burnout among 211 judicial officers, comprising 87 judges and 98 procurators, in Taiwan. Logistic regression was applied to determine the association between burnout and occupational stress among judges and procurators, adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, marriage, number of children, work experience and working hours). The judicial officers with average age of 36.84 years and work experience of 8.57 years had high averaging scores of job control (70.31), psychological demand (32.23), effort (18.98), reward (48.37), and overcommitment (17.04) as well as personal (49.97), work-related (51.36) and client-related (43.57) burnout. The high psychological demand, effort and overcommitment were significantly associated with both personal and work-related burnout, while the low workplace social support was significantly associated with client-related burnout among the judicial officers. The judges had a significantly higher risk of client-related burnout than the procurators.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.133-142. 21 ref.


CIS 12-0109 Think about health and safety - What elected members of local authorities need to know
Aimed at elected members of local authorities, this booklet explains what is occupational safety and health (OSH) and what are their OSH responsibilities. Topics addressed: administrative and legal aspects; cost of accidents and ill-health; compliance and penalties.
Institution of Occupational Safety and Health, The Grange, Highfield Drive, Wigston, Leicestershire, LE18 1NN, United Kingdom, 2009. 17p. 6 ref.
Think_about_health_and_safety_What_elected_members_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 09-1416 Merecz D., Drabek M., Mościcka A.
Aggression at the workplace - Psychological consequences of abusive encounter with coworkers and clients
The aim of the study was to evaluate the consequences of workplace aggression from coworkers and the public among nurses and public service workers in a Polish locality. Data on violent incidents, burnout, physical health, mental health and work satisfaction were obtained by means of questionnaires and subjected to multiple regression models. It was found that employees experiencing workplace aggression were less satisfied with work, showed symptoms of burnout and their general health was poorer. The effect of aggression by coworkers was stronger than that by the public. Aggression from the public usually resulted in compassion of peers, and it was perceived as the organizational problem that should be solved, while dealing with an aggressive co-worker was usually perceived as the employee's own problem, resulting in isolation and a sense of unfairness.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.3, p.243-260. 25 ref.

CIS 09-1391 Elovainio M., Ferrie J.E., Singh-Manoux A., Gimeno D., De Vogli R., Shipley M.J., Vahtera J., Brunner E.J., Marmot M.G., Kivimäki M.
Cumulative exposure to high-strain and active jobs as predictors of cognitive function: The Whitehall II study
A high-strain job (a combination of high job demands and low job control) is expected to increase the risk of health problems, whereas an active job (high demands and high control) can be hypothesised to be associated with a greater capacity to learn. This study tested associations between high-strain and active jobs and cognitive function using data on 4146 civil servants (2989 men and 1157 women) in the United Kingdom, aged 35-55 years at baseline. Cumulative exposure to both high-strain and active jobs was assessed at various points in time (1985-1988, 1989-1990 and 1991-1993). Cognitive performance was assessed in 1997-1999 and 2003-2004 using several tests. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that associations between high-strain or active jobs and cognition are mostly explained by socioeconomic position.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.32-37. 36 ref.

CIS 09-1020 Bonde J.P., Munch-Hansen T., Agerbo E., Suadicani P., Wieclaw J., Westergaard-Nielsen N.
Job strain and ischemic heart disease: A prospective study using a new approach for exposure assessment
This cohort study analyzed the association between psychosocial workload and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), using a new approach allocating measures of psychosocial load to individuals based on their estimated average exposure levels. Subjects consisted of 18,258 Danish public service workers in 1106 work units (79% women) who responded to a questionnaire at baseline and were who were followed during the period 2002 to 2007, during which 101 were admitted to a hospital due to IHD. Neither job strain nor general job dissatisfaction was found to be a determinant of IHD risk among this Danish population of predominantly female public service workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.51, No.6, p.732-738. 42 ref.

CIS 09-1069 Lahelma E., Laaksonen M., Aittomäki A.
Occupational class inequalities in health across employment sectors: The contribution of working conditions
This study examined occupational class inequalities in health within four employment sectors (health care, education, social welfare and administration) and the contribution of working conditions to these inequalities. In each of the years 2000, 2001 and 2002, 8960 employees (80% women) of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60 years, received a mailed questionnaire (overall response rate for the three years 67%) on their state of health, physical and mental workload, job demands and job control. The socioeconomic indicator was occupational social class. Inequality indices were calculated by means of logistic regression analyses. Inequalities in physical health were found within each employment sector. Physical workload was the main explanation for these inequalities, but its contribution varied between the sectors. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.185-190. 33 ref.

CIS 09-971 Munch-Hansen T., Wieclaw J., Agerbo E., Westergaard-Nielsen N., Rosenkilde M., Bonde J.P.
Sickness absence and workplace levels of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions at public service workplaces
The objective of this study was to examine the impact of psychosocial work conditions on sickness absence. Participants were 13,437 public services employees in a region of Denmark. Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was rated on a scale from 0 to 10. Analysis of variance was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence in three groups with different levels of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions. Sickness absence was 30.8% lower in the most satisfied group (11.7 days/year) than in the least satisfied group (16.9 days/year). It is concluded that satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions has a strong and independent impact on sickness absence.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.52, No.2, p.153-161. Illus. 32 ref.


CIS 09-734 Wynn P., Low A.
The effect of social deprivation on local authority sickness absence rates
The objective of this study was to establish whether there is a relationship between regional rates of social deprivation and the frequencies of sickness absence and early retirement on health grounds among local government employees in the United Kingdom. The relationships between local authority employee sickness absence rates for 2001-2002 and various regional social deprivation indices for 2004 were evaluated using multiple regression models. A significant proportion of variation in sickness absence and ill-health retirement rates were found to be associated with regional levels of deprivation. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.263-267. 17 ref.

CIS 09-731 Lau B.
Effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment in employees in a Norwegian municipality: A cross-sectional study
The aim of this study was to validate a Norwegian version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERI-Q). A total of 1803 employees in a medium-sized Norwegian municipality replied to the ERI-Q, and health-related variables such as self-reported general health, psychological distress, musculoskeletal complaints, and work-related burnout were examined. Findings are discussed. Satisfactory psychometric properties were found for most of the latent factors in the ERI-Q. The findings also indicate that it may be fruitful to explore health conditions among employees with different combinations of effort-reward and overcommitment.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Apr. 2008, Vol.3, No.9, 11p. Illus. 30 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-291 Suoyrjö H., Hinkka K., Oksanen T., Kivimäki M., Klaukka T., Pentti J., Vahtera J.
Effects of multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation for chronic back or neck pain: A register-linkage study of sickness absences and analgesic purchases in an occupational cohort
To determine the effects of multidisciplinary in-patient rehabilitation for chronic back or neck pain on sickness absences and analgesic purchases, a prospective study was conducted in 10 towns in Finland. Participants were 34,838 local government employees, and included 418 participants in rehabilitation for chronic back pain and 195 participants in rehabilitation for chronic neck pain between 1994 and 2002. The rate of very long (>21 days) sickness absence among the chronic back pain rehabilitees was 3.03-fold compared to the non-rehabilitees in the year before rehabilitation. This ratio declined to 1.88 three years after rehabilitation. No further decline in the rate of very long sickness absence was observed in the subsequent years. For chronic neck pain rehabilitees, no evidence of the effectiveness of rehabilitation on sickness absence was found. In relation to consumption of analgesics, the mean rate of defined daily doses declined among the back and neck pain rehabilitees after rehabilitation compared to the non-rehabilitees.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.179-184. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 08-892 Yoshioka E., Saijo Y., Fukui T., Kawaharada M., Kishi R.
Association between duration of daily visual display terminal work and insomnia among local government clerks in Japan
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between the duration of daily visual display terminal work and sleep disturbances. A total of 2417 Japanese local government office workers (2030 men and 387 women) were investigated. Sleep disturbances were evaluated using the Athens Insomnia Scale. Visual display terminal work of 6h or more per day was significantly associated with insomnia (odds ratio 1.62) and in particular, caused problems with total sleep duration and sleepiness during the day, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, n°2, p.148-156. 25 ref.


CIS 08-1097 Crosthwaite D.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in public sector construction procurement
This study was concerned with examining health and safety issues in public sector construction procurement in the United Kingdom. Data were collected by means of postal questionnaires. The overall approach followed two distinct stages: a survey of public sector clients and a survey of private sector suppliers. While the findings indicate that the majority of public clients surveyed generally followed the guidelines set out in the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 (see CIS 95-13), there is more that could be done to adopt best practices.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 47p. 4 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-734 Hughes E.L., Parkes K.R.
Work hours and well-being: The roles of work-time control and work-family interference
This study examined the relationship between work hours and well-being. Questionnaire data from 292 female employees in two United Kingdom public sector organizations were analysed. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that, after controlling for demographic variables, neuroticism and job demands, work-family interference mediated the effect of work hours on family satisfaction. It was also found that work-time control moderated the relationship between work hours and work-family interference. These findings show that longer work hours are not necessarily associated with higher work-family interference, and hence with poor recovery and impaired well-being. Instead, having a degree of control over work hours moderates the first causal link in this process. Thus, the provision by employers of some flexibility and control over work hours may help to reduce the potential negative impact of long work hours on employees.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2007, Vol.21, No.3, p.264-278. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 07-1498 Kouvonen A., Kivimäki M., Väänänen A., Heponiemi T., Elovainio M., Ala-Mursula L., Virtanen M., Pentti J., Linna A., Vahtera J.
Job strain and adverse health behaviors: The Finnish public sector study
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between job strain and smoking, heavy drinking, obesity and physical inactivity. Subjects included 34,058 female and 8154 male public sector employees in Finland. Data were collected by means of postal questionnaires. Regression models showed that high job strain and passive jobs were associated with 1.3 to 1.4 times higher odds of having three or more adverse health behaviours. Among men, low job control was associated with a 1.3-fold likelihood of having three or more adverse health behaviours, while among women active jobs were associated with a 1.2-fold likelihood of having three or more adverse behaviours. High demands were associated with a higher likelihood of co-occurrence of one to two adverse behaviours among women. It is concluded that adverse job conditions may increase the likelihood of co-occurring health risk behaviours. Reducing work stress by increasing job control and decreasing psychological demands might help efforts to promote healthy lifestyles.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2007, Vol.49, No.1, p.68-74. 31 ref.


CIS 07-1071 Patel D., Easmon C., Seed P., Dow C., Snashall D.
Morbidity in expatriates - A prospective cohort study
This study was performed to assess the incidence of health events in an expatriate group and to evaluate factors affecting this incidence. A cohort of 2020 Foreign and Commonwealth Office staff and partners living abroad were followed-up over one year. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire and subjected to statistical evaluation. The incidence of health events was 21%. Trauma (incidence 5%), musculoskeletal disorders (incidence 4%) and infectious disease (incidence 3%) were the principal causes of morbidity. The incidence of psychological disorders was low (1%). Employees were at increased risk of morbidity compared to partners, with a higher incidence of health events (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.4) and psychological disorders (IRR 5.9). Moreover, unaccompanied employees were at increased risk of health events (IRR 1.3), and of traumatic injury (IRR 2.3) compared to accompanied employees.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.56, p.345-352. 24 ref.

CIS 07-928 Hazards of confined spaces for municipalities and the construction industry
Contents of this booklet on the prevention of hazards during work in confined spaces, with a focus on municipalities and the construction industry: definition of confined space; hazardous atmospheres (toxic gases, explosive gases, oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor atmospheres); mechanical, physical and electrical hazards; confined space entry programme. It includes short descriptions of accidents specific to municipalities and the construction industry.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2nd ed., 2006. ii, 20p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 07-993 Bilgel N., Aytac S., Bayram N.
Bullying in Turkish white-collar workers
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying among white-collar workers and to evaluate its effect on health. A questionnaire survey was carried out among full-time government employees in the health, education and security sectors in Turkey. Bullying was assessed using a 20-item inventory. A total of 944 participants responded (response rate 79%). Among respondents, 55% reported experiencing bullying in the previous year and 47% had witnessed the bullying of others. The bully was most likely to be a superior. Sixty per cent of victims had tried to take action against bullying, but most were dissatisfied with the outcome. There were significant differences in anxiety, depression, job-induced stress and support at work scores between those reporting bullying and those not reporting bullying at work.
Occupational Medicine, June 2006, Vol.56, No.4, p.226-231. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 07-825 Bianchi P.
Occupational safety among territorial public sector employees
Sécurité au travail dans la fonction publique territoriale [in French]
Topics addressed in this article on occupational safety in the public sector in France: regulations; roles of joint technical committees and hygiene and health committees; role of occupational and preventive medicine.
Face au risque, Oct. 2006, No.426, p.17-19. Illus.

CIS 07-586 Marmot A.F., Eley J., Stafford M., Stansfeld S.A., Warwick E., Marmot M.G.
Building health: An epidemiological study of "sick building syndrome" in the Whitehall II study
Sick building syndrome (SBS) is described as a group of symptoms attributed to the physical environment of specific buildings. This study explores the relative roles of the physical and psychosocial work environment in explaining SBS. Cross-sectional data on the physical environment of a selection of buildings were added to an ongoing health survey of office-based civil servants in the United Kingdom. A self-report questionnaire was used to capture 10 symptoms of SBS and psychosocial work stress. In total, 4052 participants aged 42-62 years working in 44 buildings were included in this study. Findings are discussed. Only psychosocial work characteristics and control over the physical environment were independently associated with symptoms in the multivariate analysis. The physical environment of office buildings appears less important than the psychosocial work environment in explaining differences in the prevalence of SBS symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.63, No.4, p.283-289. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 07-138 Gallet A.M., Sasso M.O.
Prevention of occupational hazards. Methodological guide for public sector health and social services institutions
Prévenir les risques professionnels. Guide méthodologique à destination des établissements du secteur public sanitaire et social [in French]
This guide to the prevention of occupational hazards in public sector health and social services institutions proposes several methodological points of reference together with examples of types of occupational safety and health projects that may be considered for implementation. Topics covered: specifics of hospital environments that need to be taken into account when implementing the project; preparation of the approach; examples of projects already undertaken in health care institutions; example of a project implementation procedure.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Sep. 2006. 36p. 42 ref. [in French]

CIS 07-229 Laaksonen M., Rahkonen O., Martikainen P., Lahelma E.
Associations of psychosocial working conditions with self-rated general health and mental health among municipal employees
The objective of this study was to examine associations between various occupational psychological factors and self-rated general health and mental health. Data were collected through a postal survey addressed to middle-aged employees of the city of Helsinki. A total of 5,829 responses were received (response rate 67%). All working conditions studied were strongly associated with both general and mental health but the associations weakened after various adjustments. Of the two organizational fairness measures considered, procedural fairness remained independently associated with both health outcomes. The associations between working conditions and different outcomes also depended strongly on occupational class.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2006, Vol.79, No.3, p.205-212. 47 ref.


CIS 12-0108 Think about health and safety - Supporting Westminster MPs in their constituencies
Aimed at members of parliament, this booklet explains what is occupational safety and health (OSH) and what are the MPs OSH responsibilities, both in parliament and in their constituencies. Topics addressed: administrative and legal aspects; personal safety and violence; fire and electricity; lifting and carrying; working with computers; occupational stress; road hazards; slips, trips and falls; hazardous substances; noise.
Institution of Occupational Safety and Health, The Grange, Highfield Drive, Wigston, Leicestershire, LE18 1NN, United Kingdom, Dec. 2005. 20p. Illus. 4 ref.
Think_about_health_and_safety_Supporting_Westminster_MPs_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 06-497 Mayhew C., McCarthy P.
Occupational violence/bullying in public service organisations
In this study, data on occupational violence and bullying were collected by means of face-to-face interviews with workers involved in juvenile detention, health care, tertiary education and public housing. Items included the number of bullying events experienced during the previous 12 months, characteristics of the alleged perpetrators, perceptions of higher-risk locations and situations, and suggested strategies for prevention. Findings are discussed and several recommendations are proposed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2005, Vol.21, No.1, p.33-42. 48 ref.

CIS 05-498 Tasho W., Jordan J., Robertson I.
Health and Safety Executive
Case study: Establishing the business case for investing in stress prevention activities and evaluating their impact on sickness absence levels
This case study describes the processes and interventions introduced by a local authority in the United Kingdom (Somerset County Council) to improve the well-being and the quality of working life of their employees, in particular to reduce levels of workplace stress and sickness absence within the organisation. The approach used primarily involved conducting a series of interviews with key personnel in the human resources and other relevant departments, including social services. Through this case study, it was possible to highlight the relationship between well-being and the quality of working life on one hand, and sickness absenteeism on the other.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. xii, 57p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 05-264 Alhemood A. M., Genaidy A. M., Shell R., Gunn M., Shoaf C.
Towards a model of safety climate measurement
In this study, a survey instrument was developed to measure safety climate. A review of the scientific literature and consultation with an expert panel were used to determine the survey's input variables. Next, the survey was administered to employees of the City of Cincinnati Department of Public Works, first as a pilot study to 15 employees, then as a full-scale study to all 229 employees. The psychometric integrity of the survey was assessed according to validity, reliability and utility criteria. Results are presented and discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.303-318. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 05-494 Head J., Stansfeld S.A., Siegrist J.
The psychosocial work environment and alcohol dependence: A prospective study
The aim of this study was to examine whether a stressful psychosocial work environment predicts alcohol dependence. Alcohol dependence of participants in a cohort of London-based civil servants examined in 1985-88 was measured in 1991-93 using the CAGE questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was measured by responses to questions on the job demand-support-control model and on the model of effort-reward imbalance. It was found that a stressful psychosocial work environment in terms of effort-reward imbalance was a risk factor for alcohol dependence in men. Among women, low decision latitude was related to alcohol dependence to some extent, but alcohol dependence among women was more prevalent in higher occupational grades.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.61, No.3, p.219-224. 30 ref.

CIS 05-271
Health and Safety Commission
HELA national picture 2004 - Health and safety in local authority enforced sectors
This document presents statistics of health and safety in local authority (HELA) enforced sectors during 2003-2004. Contents: summary; fatal and non-fatal injuries; occupational diseases; targets for improvement; occupational accidents and diseases in several key sectors; occupational accidents and diseases by region; inspection and enforcement activities; comparison of injury risk with inspection activity.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 2004. 38p. lllus. [in English]


CIS 05-89 Pepper L., Messinger M., Weinberg J., Campbell R.
Downsizing and health at the United States Department of Energy
Downsizing and reorganization not only affect workers who lose their jobs, but even workers who retain their jobs are affected in negative ways. The present study measured how downsizing was accomplished at five Department of Energy facilities by evaluating communication with workers, perceived fairness of the process and job characteristics, and how each of these was associated with worker health and well-being. The researchers collected quantitative data using structured surveys and captured qualitative data using interviews, focus groups, and open-ended survey responses. Employees who felt that the downsizing process was fair and that communication was open and honest reported fewer symptoms, lower survivor syndrome and more job security than their counterparts. Also, employees who were less immediately impacted by downsizing reported fewer symptoms than those who were more directly involved.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.44, No.5, p.481-491. 21 ref.

CIS 05-249 Hristov Z., Tomev L., Kircheva D., Daskalova N., Mihailova T., Ivanova V., Naidenova Z.
Work stress in the context of transition - A case study of three public sectors in Bulgaria
This publication examines work-related stress in three public sectors in Bulgaria (education, health care and public administration) in the context of political and economic transition. Explores work-related stress factors, symptoms and effects of stress and the strategy of trade unions in work stress prevention. It is a pilot effort of trade unions in Central and Eastern Europe to raise public awareness and to develop a trade union response to stress at the workplace. Stress at work has long been a neglected area of policy intervention in most transition countries. This study helps to broaden understanding on this important issue, and to stimulate governments and the social partners to look at the complex web of interaction between work-related stress and contributing factors stemming from the economic and political environment, and to find a coordinated policy response to it. The results presented are specific to Bulgaria and to the three sectors studied, but the methodology is applicable to other countries.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. x, 106p. Illus. 20 ref. [in English]

CIS 05-121 Nouaigui H., Hajaij K., Ben Mansour H., Kahouach L., Ben Laiba M.
Prevention of occupational hazards in the public sector: Current situation and future prospects
La prévention des risques professionnels dans le secteur public: situation et perspectives d'avenir [in French]
Contents of this special feature on occupational hazards among public sector employees in Tunisia: occupational hazards by activity (office work, hospitals, laboratories, high-school vocational training workshops, forestry and agriculture, diving work, drivers, public enterprise maintenance workers, municipal cleaners and sewage workers); overview of Tunisian occupational accident and disease statistics; prevention of occupational accidents and diseases in Tunisia (legislative and regulatory framework, occupational safety and health organization).
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Apr. 2003, No.25, p.2-9. Illus.

CIS 03-691 Challenges and opportunities facing public utilities
Les défis à relever et les tendances à saisir par les services publics de distribution [in French]
Los retos y oportunidades que se plantean a los servicios públicos [in Spanish]
This report was presented for discussion at a tripartite meeting on challenges and opportunities facing public utilities. It reviews some of the continuing trends concerning the sector's employment and social issues and considers the role of multinational enterprises in the sector and the impact of mergers and acquisitions. Renewable energy and sustainable development are also key challenges that open up opportunities for governments, employers and workers. The case of water utilities is also specifically examined, as this sector embarks on the path that electricity and gas have already started. A chapter is devoted to occupational safety and health in this sector. Finally, the report reflects on the importance of social dialogue in a rapidly globalizing industry.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. v, 79p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: CHF 17.50. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]

CIS 03-994 Vartia M.
Workplace bullying - A study on the work environment, well-being and health
This study (published as a thesis in the Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki), examines the prevalence of bullying, the risks of bullying in the work environment, bullying strategies, as well as differences between men and women in facing workplace bullying in various organizational settings, with an emphasis on the situation in Finland. Cross-sectional questionnaire surveys were carried out among 949 municipal employees and 1870 prison workers as well as longitudinal surveys over two years on 5432 hospital employees. Bullying was most common in prisons (prevalence 20.1%), followed by municipal institutions (10.1%) and hospitals (5.0%). Bullying correlates with a poor social and managerial climate and with violence among prison inmates. Prolonged bullying was associated with increased incidence of depression (OR 4.81) and cardiovascular disease (OR 2.31). Differences between the sexes were small, with men and women perceiving bullying equally often. Female victims were usually bullied by their co-workers, whereas male victims reported being equally often bullied by supervisors or managers and co-workers.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2003. 68p. Illus. 120 ref. Price: EUR 18.00. [in English]


CIS 07-246 Stress at work - A guide for safety reps
This booklet is aimed at the safety representatives of a large public service trade union in the United Kingdom. It contains guidance for preventing stress among workers. Contents: definition of stress; causes of stress; cost of stress to employers; legal aspects; cases of workers having received compensation for occupational stress or bullying at the place of work; stress prevention policy; hazard evaluation; support for stressed workers; post-traumatic stress disorder; rights of safety representatives. An appendix includes a sample questionnaire for a workplace stress survey.
UNISON, 1 Mabledon Place, London WC1H 9AJ, United Kingdom, Oct. 2002. 25p. 5 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1468 Shaw W.S., Feuerstein M., Lincoln A.E., Miller V.I., Wood P.M.
Ergonomic and psychosocial factors affect daily function in workers' compensation claimants with persistent upper extremity disorders
In this study on work-related upper extremity disorders (WRUFDs), participants were 165 government employees (127 female, 38 male) with an accepted workers' compensation claim (< 90 days from claim filing) who were unable to perform their normal work. Participants completed baseline measures of upper extremity functional limitation, symptoms, general health status, problem solving orientation, pain coping, and workplace factors. After controlling for pain and sex in a multiple regression analysis, greater functional limitation was further explained by upper extremity symptoms other than pain (sleep disturbance, numbness and tingling), symptoms in one or both hands, feeling overwhelmed by pain, low confidence in problem solving abilities, and higher ergonomic risk exposures at work. These results suggest that improving function in this population may require pain coping techniques and active problem solving to overcome functional barriers, together with a reduction of workplace ergonomic risk.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.606-615. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 02-1370 Trout D., Nimgade A., Mueller C., Hall R., Earnest G.S.
Health effects and occupational exposures among office workers near the World Trade Center disaster site
To evaluate health effects and occupational exposures three months after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) among a population of employees working close to the disaster site, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among government employees working near the WTC site in New York City (NYC) and a comparison group in Dallas, Texas. An industrial hygiene evaluation of the NYC workplace was conducted. Constitutional and mental health symptoms were reported more frequently among workers in NYC. Post-September 11 counseling services were utilized to a greater degree among workers in NYC, while utilization of other types of medical services did not differ significantly between the groups. No occupational exposures to substances at concentrations that would explain the reported constitutional symptoms were found. There is no evidence of ongoing hazardous exposure to airborne contaminants among the workers surveyed. Specific causes of reported constitutional health symptoms have not been determined.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.601-605. 11 ref.

CIS 02-1493 Head J., Martikainen P., Kumari M., Kuper H., Marmot M.
Health and Safety Executive
Work environment, alcohol consumption and ill-health - The Whitehall II study
The influences of the psychosocial work environment, change in work and alcohol consumption and dependence on health were studied in a cohort of 10,308 British civil servants. High job demands, low decision latitude and effort reward imbalance were related to increased incidence of coronary heart disease. Effort reward imbalance was related to increased incidence of diabetes in men. Adverse changes in work characteristics, particularly social support at work, predicted worsening of mental health for men and women. The effects of change in work characteristics on physical health and coronary heart disease were modest. Alcohol consumption was related to risk of accident absenteeism with an increased risk already evident at moderate levels of alcohol consumption.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 64p. Illus. 194 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 02-5 Royal Decree No.707/2002 of 19.7.2002 approving the Regulations on the special administrative procedures leading to the setting up of the Labour and Social Security Inspectorate and for the institution of corrective measures for non-compliance with measures of prevention of ocupational hazards within the scope of State administration [Spain]
Real Decreto 707/2002, de 19 de julio, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento sobre el procedimiento administrativo especial de actuación de la Inspección de Trabajo y Seguridad Social y para la imposición de medidas correctoras de incumplimientos en materia de prevención de riesgos laborales en el ámbito de la Administración General del Estado [España] [in Spanish]
This decree approves the regulations for the application of the provisions of Law No.31/1995 (see CIS 95-1921) to cases of non-compliance with OSH regulations in the Spanish public service. Contents: scope (public services, except for state-owned businesses and the military); initiation of proceedings; visits from the labour inspectorate; communication of corrective orders; immediate suspension of activities in case of imminent danger.
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 31 July 2002, Vol.342, No.182, p.28246-28248. [in Spanish]


CIS 02-1196
Health and Safety Commission
Health and safety in local authority enforced sectors - Section 18: HSC Guidance to local authorities
This document consists of the guidance issued by the Health and Safety Executive Local Authority Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA) aimed at local authorities. It explains their duties under Section 18 of the Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act 1974 (HSW, see CIS 74-2099). Contents: enforcement policy and procedures; prioritized planning; requirement to produce a service plan; requirement to undergo audit of the management system and develop an action plan; provision of a trained and competent inspectorate; requirements in respect to collaboration between local authorities to ensure consistency for organizations with multiple premises in different areas.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 26p.

CIS 02-1195
Health and Safety Commission
Health and safety in local authority enforced sectors - HELA Annual Report 2001
Annual report of the Health and Safety Executive Local Authority Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA) for 2001. It includes occupational safety and health statistics for the 1999-2000 period and local authority initiatives in response to the following strategic themes: raising the profile of occupational health; improving safety and health performance in key risk areas; developing safety and health aspects of the competitiveness and social equality programmes, increasing participation; improving openness and accountability; modernizing and simplifying the regulatory framework; ensuring compliance with regulations in line with the principles of proportionality, consistency, transparency and targeting on a risk-selected basis; improving the knowledge and understanding of safety and health through the provision of appropriate information and advice. Examples of prosecutions and fines and the management structure of the local authority safety and health unit are included.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 70p. lllus.

CIS 02-1194
Health and Safety Commission
Health and safety in local authority enforced sectors - HELA National Picture 2001
This document presents an assessment of local authority (LA) work in enforcing occupational safety and health regulations during 2001. Contents: estimates of LA work on inspection and enforcement; statistics of workplace injuries reported to LAs during the period; targets for reducing rates of injury, ill-health and lost days of work; comparison of inspection activity with risks of injury; indicators of LA enforcement; occupational disease statistics.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 74p. lllus.

CIS 02-1193
Health and Safety Commission
Health and safety in local authority enforced sectors - HELA Strategic Plan 2001-04
This document describes the strategic plan of the Health and Safety Executive Local Authority Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA) for 2001-2004. It consists of four elements: effective management of the safety and health enforcement role of local authorities (LAs); compliance agenda which concentrates on key hazards; new focus of LA contributions to occupational health; full engagement of stakeholders including small firms.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. 12p.

CIS 02-972 Kivimäki M., Vahtera J., Ferrie J.E., Hemingway H., Pentti J.
Organisational downsizing and musculoskeletal problems in employees: A prospective study
764 municipal employees were studied before and after an organizational downsizing carried out between 1991 and 1993 in Finland. The outcome measures were self reports of severity and sites of musculoskeletal pain at the end of 1993 and medically certified musculoskeletal sickness absence for 1993-5. After adjustment for age, sex, and income, the odds ratio (OR) for severe musculoskeletal pain between major and minor downsizing and the corresponding rate ratios for musculoskeletal sickness absence were 2.59 and 5.50, respectively. The largest contribution from changes in work characteristics and health related behaviour to the association between downsizing and musculoskeletal problems was from increases in physical demands, particularly in women and low income employees. Additional contributory factors were skill restrictions (relative to musculoskeletal pain) and job insecurity. The results were little different when analyses were confined to initially healthy participants.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.58, No.12, p.811-817. 49 ref.

CIS 02-611 Freeman K., LaFleur B.J., Booth J., Doyle E.J., Pugh W.M.
Why federal agencies should estimate their long-term occupational injury and illness costs
The U.S. government's annual cost for compensating work-related injuries and illnesses incurred by its civilian labor force is approximately USD 2 billion. To control these costs, federal agencies rely primarily on annual or prevalence-based cost accounting to evaluate the effectiveness of injury prevention efforts. Since most of the annual bill is for the older, persistent and costlier cases, this approach may obscure recent safety trends and can lead to faulty assumptions. Workers' compensation costs in the US Navy were analysed using an incidence-based approach, which considers only new injuries and illnesses occurring in a given year and projects their likely course, duration, and long-term associated costs. It provides the truest measure of the costs of that year's operation. It promotes accountability and cost containment, and allows organizations to hold managers accountable for costs incurred specifically during their tenure.
Journal of Safety Research, Fall 2001, Vol.32, No.3, p.277-287. 27 ref.

CIS 01-1655 Alcouffe J., Boscher D., Brehier M., Faupin F., Fau-Prudhomot P., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y.
Descriptive study of occupational accidents having occurred in 1998 in 20 town halls in Ile-de-France
Etude descriptive des accidents du travail survenus en 1998 dans 20 mairies de l'Ile-de-France [in French]
To study occupational accidents (OAs) having occurred in town halls, an epidemiological survey was carried out in 20 town halls situated in the greater Paris region, with the objectives of describing the circumstances of the OA and its consequences on the victim, and defining preventive actions. Occupational physicians interviewed the victims of OAs having occurred during 1998 with the help of an anonymous standardized questionnaire. 186 questionnaires were collected, of which 176 were usable. Despite the very different jobs occupied by men and women, there were no significant sex-linked differences in the characteristics of the OAs. There were no fatal accidents. In 87% of the cases, the OA occurred when carrying out a normal task, for which the employee had the necessary experience and ample time. 71% of the OAs resulted in lost time. In conclusion, OAs do not seem very different from those of private sector SMEs in the same region.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.1, p.31-38. 10 ref.


CIS 02-620 Castriotta M., Roseo G.
Priorities and emerging needs in OSH research
Priorità ed esigenze emergenti nel settore della ricerca in tema di Salute e Sicurezza sul lavoro [in Italian]
The Italian Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza sul Lavoro (ISPESL) has finalized the results of an extensive data collection from both national and EU research establishments, government services and other sources with the aim of highlighting and classifying into precise thematic areas the current OSH situation in Italy. This document will also be used as the basis for future research plans in conjunction with the European Commission as well as the future OSH activities of a number national government services. A target is the optimization of resources and the avoidance of duplication. A list of Italian experts active in OSH is annexed.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2000, Vol.13, No.1, p.3-18.

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