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Funeral services - 25 entries found

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CIS 11-0430 Constans Aubert A., Solans Lampurlanés X
Funeral services: Occupational exposure to biological agents
Servicios funerarios: exposición laboral a agentes biológicos [in Spanish]
This information note describes the various activities within the framework of funeral services as well as their associated hazards. It lists the infectious diseases to which workers of these services may be exposed, together with the causative agent and mode of transmission, and provides a set of preventive measures to minimize exposure.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 8 ref.
NTP_858.pdf [in Spanish]


CIS 09-353 Occupational hazards of work in cemeteries
Risques professionnels liés au travail dans les cimetières [in French]
Working in cemeteries is often physically difficult and involves exposure to various hazards depending on the type of job. This article describes the occupational hazards encountered in this work environment. Topics addressed: chemical hazards (exposure to herbicides); physical workload; workers' well-being amenities; biological hazards (Lyme's disease, Weil's disease); psychosocial hazards.
Prevent Focus, Sep. 2008, No.7, p.16-17. Illus.


CIS 06-850 Guez-Chailloux M., Puymeral P., Le Bâcle C.
Thanatopraxy: State of the practice and occupational hazards
La thanatopraxie: état des pratiques et risques professionnels [in French]
There are approximately 1000 thanatopraxy (embalming) practitioners in France. Exposures vary as a function of the state of the body and the premises in which the treatment takes place. This article provides a review of the profession and identifies occupational hazards. Contents: historical review and current state of the occupation; regulations; occupational tasks and conditions of work; occupational hazards (biological, chemical, organizational and psychosocial hazards); preventive measures (safety training, ventilation, skin and respiratory protection, safe work practices).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2005, No.104, p.449-469. 57 ref.$File/TC105.pdf [in French]


CIS 04-651 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Pellerin E., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Funeral service industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie des services funéraires [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of funeral service workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-650 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 42p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]


CIS 03-934
Health and Safety Executive
Safe working and the prevention of infection in the mortuary and post-mortem room
This guidance updates the 1991 edition (see CIS 92-326) on safe working practices and the prevention of infections in mortuaries and post-mortem rooms. It includes the requirements under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (MHSWR) 1999 (see CIS 02-1507) and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) 2002. Contents: introduction; definition of health and safety management; risk assessment; mortuary facilities and building accommodation; body reception; safe working practices in the mortuary and post-mortem room; post-mortem examinations; visitors and observers in the mortuary and post-mortem examination room; cleaning and decontamination; waste disposal; information, training, instruction and supervision; health surveillance and immunization; checking what has been done. Appendices include: health and safety law; disinfectants and disinfection; infection control notification sheet; packaging, labelling and transport of specimens.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2003. iv, 52p. 61 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 03-705 Funeral services
Funerarias [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in funeral services and the main corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; psychosocial and organizational factors; other risk factors; legislation; risk assessment methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2003. 43p. Illus. 29 ref. [in Spanish]


CIS 99-960 Controlling formaldehyde exposures during embalming
Topics: formaldehyde; data sheet; embalming; exhaust hoods; exhaust ventilation; health hazards; limitation of exposure; local exhaust; threshold limit values.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Oct. 1998. 2p. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 99-521 Maloney S.R., Phillips C.A., Mills A.
Mercury in the hair of crematoria workers
Topics: atomic absorption spectrometry; mercury; case-control study; determination in hair; funeral services.
Lancet, 14 Nov. 1998, Vol.352, No.9140, p.1602. 4 ref.

CIS 99-305 Gershon R.R.M., Vlahov D., Escamilla-Cejudo J.A., Badawi M., McDiarmid M., Karkashian C., Grimes M., Comstock G.W.
Tuberculosis risk in funeral home employees
Results of this study of 864 funeral home employees indicate that embalming personnel may be at increased risk of tuberculosis infection compared with non-embalming employees. Embalmers should undergo annual tuberculin testing and receive initial training on tuberculosis prevention. Topics: embalming; funeral services; job-exposure relation; length of exposure; questionnaire survey; respirators; risk factors; tuberculin test; tuberculosis; ventilation.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1998, Vol.40, No.5, p.497-503. 33 ref.


CIS 98-167 Calmus M.L., Zardi P., Kapitaniak B.
Study of the physical workload of marble tombstone installers
Etude de la charge physique du poste de poseur de marbre funéraire [in French]
Topics: funeral services; marble; measurement of load on joints; motion study; muscular work; physical fatigue; physical workload; pulse rate.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1997, Vol.37, No.3, p.273-286. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 96-2170 Bennet J.S., Feigley C.E., Underhill D.W., Drane W., Payne T.A., Stewart P.A., Herrick R.F., Utterback D.F., Hayes R.B.
Estimating the contribution of individual work tasks to room concentration: Method applied to embalming
An approach for estimating emission rates from continuous concentration data was applied to formaldehyde measurements during 25 embalmings. Exposure evaluation of individual work tasks contributing to the formaldehyde concentration in the workroom was analyzed by means of a mathematical model. The largest contributions were found for specific embalming tasks. The ranking and characterization of these emissions may be used to identify those work tasks that require the application of control measures and the determination of exposure limits most likely to be exceeded.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1996, Vol.57, No.7, p.599-609. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 96-1376 Hornung R.W., Herrick R.F., Stewart P.A., Utterback D.F., Feigley C.E., Wall D.K., Douthit D.E., Hayes R.B.
An experimental design approach to retrospective exposure assessment
An experimental design approach was used to estimate historical exposures to formaldehyde in a mortality study of embalmers. Exposures were estimated as a function of formaldehyde solution concentration, air exchange rate, and autopsied versus intact body. Results of the model predictions were validated against published measurements and against field samples taken in several funeral homes. The overall accuracy of the predictions was comparable to the variation found in replicate measurements of identical embalming procedures. The model has potential for use in epidemiologic studies or to predict reduction in occupational exposures following the introduction of control measures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.251-256. 18 ref.


CIS 96-252 Korczynski R.E.
Formaldehyde exposure in the funeral industry
An assessment of formaldehyde exposure was conducted at 36 embalmings in 18 funeral chapels in Manitoba, Canada. The occupational exposure limit is defined by the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value-ceiling of 0.37mg/m3 (0.3ppm). Personal exposures of embalmers during an intact body preparation (<1 hour) ranged from 0.12 to 5.64mg/m3. During an autopsy preparation (<2 hours>), exposures ranged from 0.11 to 4.13mg/m3. Concentration for area samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.37mg/m3. Health effects identified by some embalmers included irritation of the mucous membranes and chest tightness. Most embalmers are immunized with the hepatitis B vaccine. Universal precautions against infectious agents were not strictly adhered to in most embalmings. An upgrading of engineering controls, improved work practices, and use of personal protective equipment was required in the majority of chapels.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1994, Vol.9, No.8, p.575-579. 29 ref.


CIS 94-246 Stewart P.A., Herrick R.F., Feigley C.E., Utterback D.F., Hornung R., Mahar H., Hayes R., Douthit D.E., Blair A.
Study design for assessing exposures of embalmers for a case-control study - Part I. Monitoring results
To quantify exposure levels for a study of embalmers, a series of embalmings was performed using an experimental design to determine the effect of certain work parameters on the concentration of airborne contaminants. Personal exposures and area concentrations of formaldehyde, methanol, phenol, and particulates were measured during 25 embalmings while controlling the level of ventilation, the concentration of embalming solution, and the type of case (autopsy or intact body). In addition, bischloromethyl ether (BCME) and selected microorganisms were measured during a few embalmings. Personal formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.31 to 8.72ppm for full-period exposures (51-121min). Methanol levels ranged from 0.54 to 21.83 ppm. Particulate mass concentrations were low, and measurable phenol levels were observed in only 40% of procedures. Airborne microorganisms were also found to be at low levels and no BCME was detected. Ventilation played the most important role out of the three controlled variables.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1992, Vol.7, No.8, p.532-540. Illus. 35 ref.


CIS 92-326
Health and Safety Commission
Safe working and the prevention of infection in the mortuary and post-mortem room
This guidance supercedes that given in the Code of Practice for the prevention of infection in clinical laboratories and post-mortem rooms: the Howie Code, first published in 1978. Contents: duties of employers and employees under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974; identification and assessment of risk; mortuary accommodation and engineering services; body storage and reception and arrangements for viewing; post-mortem examination (safety standards, supervision of safety procedures, staff training, protective clothing, preparing the examination room, safe working practices, waste disposal); model rules for staff and visitors. Appendices include: labelling, transport and reception of specimens; training pathology technicians; safe use of disinfectants and disinfection.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. v, 36p. 42 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 92-319 Beck-Sagué C.M., Jarvis W.R., Fruehling J.A., Ott C.E., Higgins M.T., Bates F.L.
Universal precautions and mortuary practitioners: Influence on practices and risk of occupationally acquired infection
Embalming, the most common funeral practice in North America, may expose the embalmer to infectious diseases and blood. 860 morticians in the US and Canada were surveyed in 1988 to estimate the incidence of self-reported occupational contact with blood and infectious disease, assess morticians' knowledge of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), determine their adherence to universal precautions, and identify predictors of practices designed to reduce risk of occupational exposure to infections. Of 539 (63%) respondents, 212 (39%) reported needle-stick injuries in the past 12 months, and 15 (3%) reported percutaneous exposures to HIV-contaminated blood. Those rating the risk of occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection as very high or high (194/539 [36%]) were more likely to decline funerals of bodies with antemortem diagnosis of AIDS (59/194 [30%]) and/or to charge more for such funerals (133/194 [69%]) than those who rated the risk as low to moderate (31/345 [9%], 174/345 [51%]).
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.33, No.8, p.874-878. Illus. 22 ref.


CIS 90-946 Holness D.L., Nethercott J.R.
Health status of funeral service workers exposed to formaldehyde
A study of 84 funeral service workers and 38 control subjects in Toronto, Canada, revealed that the embalmers reported chronic bronchitis, dyspnoea, and nasal, eye, and skin irritation more frequently than controls. Apprentices reported symptoms and exhibited signs of irritation more frequently than experienced embalmers, but both of these groups were more affected than the inactive embalmers or the controls. Airborne formaldehyde levels were 0.36ppm during 22 embalming procedures. General ventilation was shown to lower the levels significantly. No significant change in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, FEF50 or FEF75 was demonstrated with formaldehyde exposure nor were the baseline lung function results significantly different from the controls. Based on patch testing, 4% and 10% were sensitive to formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, respectively, whereas none of the controls exhibited positive reactions.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1989, Vol.44, No.4, p.222-228. 46 ref.

CIS 89-2075 AIDS precautions - Embalming and morgues
Précautions relatives au SIDA - Embaumement et morgues [in French]
Data sheet from a series of 10 on AIDS-related hazards and prevention in the workplace. Contents: safe embalming procedures.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 1p. Illus.

CIS 89-2074 AIDS precautions - Embalming and morgues
Précautions relatives au SIDA - Embaumement et morgues [in French]
Data sheet from a series of 10 on AIDS-related hazards and prevention in the workplace. Contents: transfer of deceased; embalming preparation; cleanup and disposal.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 1p.


CIS 90-477 Nethercott J.R., Holness D.L.
Contact dermatitis in funeral service workers
Eighty-four funeral service workers and 38 control workers were evaluated for the presence of skin disease by history, clinical examination and patch tests with formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. No relationship between either personal or family history of cutaneous or respiratory manifestations of atopy and clinical parameters of cutaneous disease or patch test results was found. Cutaneous disease was reported in apprentices, active embalmers and inactive embalmers in decreasing order of frequency. Positive patch test reactions to formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde were found in 4% and 7% of the exposed workers respectively, but in none of the controls. Although exposure to glutaraldehyde was less frequent, the prevalence of positive patch test reactions did not differ. This may suggest that glutaraldehyde poses a greater practical risk of cutaneous sensitisation in this trade than formaldehyde.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1988, Vol.18, No.5, p.263-267. 27 ref.


CIS 92-334 Workplace prevention and management of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus infections (HIV) - Interim guidelines for funeral directors
Part of a series of infection control guidelines to prevent the transmission of AIDS virus (HIV) infection in the community, in institutions and in other workplaces. A definition of AIDS, its cause, symptoms, transmission, risk activities, exposure tests, treatment, preventive measures and education are briefly explained. Recommended procedures for transfer of deceased from place of death, preparation for embalming, embalming, and clean-up and disposal are described in detail as well as management of possible workplace exposure to AIDS.
Manitoba Workplace Safety and Health Division, Suite 1000, 330 St. Mary Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3C 3Z5, Canada, 1987. 22p. 22 ref.


CIS 85-236 Levine R.J., DalCorso R.D., Blunden P.B., Battigelli M.C.
The effects of occupational exposure on the respiratory health of West Virginia morticians
Standardised respiratory disease questionnaires and pulmonary function tests were administered to 90 white male morticians. Detailed occupational histories including estimates of the number of bodies personally embalmed were also obtained. The pulmonary function of the morticians compared favourably with that of residential groups in other parts of the US. Relatively high exposure to formaldehyde in morticians was not associated with chronic bronchitis or pulmonary function deficits, indicating that long-term intermittent exposure exerts no meaningful chronic effect on respiratory health.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1984, Vol.26, No.2, p.91-98. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 84-1903 Williams T.M., Levine R.J., Blunden P.B.
Exposure of embalmers to formaldehyde and other chemicals
Surveys were conducted in 7 funeral homes in the USA. Personal and area sampling revealed TWA concentrations of formaldehyde ranging from 0.3 during the embalming of intact bodies to 0.9ppm in the case of autopsied bodies. Concentrations of other airborne chemicals (isopropanol, isopentane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, benzene) and particulates were negligible.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1984, Vol.45, No.3, p.172-176. Illus. 12 ref.


CIS 78-1997 Berris B., Feinman S.V., Richardson B., Wrobel D.W., Sinclair J.C.
Hepatitis in undertakers.
106 undertakers were studied. The percentage who gave a past history of hepatitis was no greater than that of controls. There was a non-significant difference in the number with blood that was positive for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. While undertakers appear to be in a low-risk occupation as regards hepatitis, it is suggested that there may be an increased risk of exposure in undertakers who do not wear gloves, and this practice is therefore recommended.
Journal of the American Medical Association, July 1978, Vol.240, No.2, p.138-139. 11 ref.


CIS 76-770 Kerfoot E.J., Mooney T.F.
Formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde study in funeral homes.
This study was undertaken to determine the effect of formaldehyde on embalmers. Ventilation (noise, location, amount of air change) in funeral homes was inadequate in some respects. When the ventilation worked effectively, formaldehyde concentrations were below the threshold limit value of 2ppm; however, workers suffered from the irritating action of the compound. The paraformaldehyde powders contained a respirable fraction that might cause damage to the alveolar walls. It also appears that becoming accustomed to the vapour may be later detrimental to health.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1975, Vol.36, No..7, p.533-537. 13 ref.