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Laundries and dry cleaning - 123 entries found

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CIS 12-0125 Seldén A.I., Ahlborg G
Cancer morbidity in Swedish dry-cleaners and laundry workers: Historically prospective cohort study
The objective of this study was to examine the possible associations between carcinogenic risks to humans and occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (PER). A Swedish cohort of over 10,000 dry-cleaning and laundry workers assembled in 1984 was followed up for new cases of cancer by matching with the Swedish cancer register from 1985 to 2006 and the results were compared with expected frequencies derived from national reference data. Findings are discussed. Overall, there was no clear association between PER exposure and subsequent cancer morbidity among these workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2011, Vol.84, No.4, p.435-443. 42 ref.
Cancer_morbidity_in_Swedish_dry-cleaners_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0674 Calvert G.M., Ruder A.M., Petersen M.R.
Mortality and end-stage renal disease incidence among dry cleaning workers
Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a known animal carcinogen and probable human carcinogen. Dry cleaning exposures, particularly PCE, are also associated with renal toxicity. The objective was to follow-up a cohort of dry cleaners to evaluate mortality and assess end-stage renal disease (ESRD) morbidity. This study adds eight years of mortality follow-up for 1704 dry cleaning workers in four United States cities. Employees eligible for inclusion worked for ≥1 year before 1960 in a shop using PCE as the primary solvent. Life table analyses for mortality and ESRD morbidity were conducted. Only employees alive on 1 January 1977 were included in ESRD analyses. Overall cancer deaths were in significant excess in this cohort (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 1.22). Oesophageal, lung and tongue cancers had significant excesses of deaths. Oesophageal cancer risk was highest among those employed in a PCE-using shop for ≥5 years with ≥20 years' latency since first such employment. Deaths from non-malignant underlying diseases of the stomach and duodenum were in significant excess. Hypertensive ESRD morbidity was significantly elevated in the entire cohort (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.98), and among workers employed only in PCE-using dry cleaning shops for ≥5 years.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.68, No.10, p.709-716. 37 ref.

CIS 11-0175 Bastide J.C.
Laundry services - One out of eighteen workers is the victim of an occupational accident
Blanchisserie - Un salarié sur dix-huit accidenté du travail [in French]
In France in 2008, there were 5583 workers employed in laundry services, among which 311 were victims of occupational accidents involving a loss of work time. This article presents a summary of the statistics of occupational accidents in this sector.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.50. Illus.
Blanchisserie.pdf [in French]


CIS 10-0697 Gérardin F., Subra I., Jannot J., Blachère V., Oury V., Guillemot M.
Production of phosgene and other compounds during photocatalytic degradation of perchloroethylene at dry cleaners
Production de phosgène et autres composés lors de la dégradation photocatalytique du perchloroéthylène dans les pressings [in French]
Perchloroethylene remains the solvent most commonly used at dry cleaners due to its advantageous physical chemical properties and its neutrality with respect to most textiles. Vapour collection systems is currently still the preferred solution for controlling operator exposure in this sector. However, a new generation of photocatalytic purifiers has recently appeared on the market. This technology is based on the principle of oxidizing compounds by a radical process. In the case of perchloroethylene, photocatalytic degradation leads to formation of extremely toxic compounds such as phosgene, trichloroacetyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride and hydrochloric acid. Identified during laboratory experiments, these substances were also measured in significant quantities at a commercial dry cleaner. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2010, No.220, p.43-51. Illus. 14 ref.
ND_2335-220-10.pdf [in French]


CIS 08-1352 Wilson S., Tyers C.
Health and Safety Executive
An evaluation of the local authority programme joint authorisation pilot project: Transfer of enforcement responsibilities in the motor vehicle repair and dry-cleaning sectors
During 2006, HSE ran a pilot project which involved handing over inspection responsibilities from HSE in two industrial sectors, motor vehicle repair and dry-cleaning, to a City Council. This report examines the effect of this project. It consists of two parts: firstly, an assessment of the way in which the pilot programme was delivered, the way in which inspectors were supported, the challenges they faced and the successes they experienced; a second part consists of an impact evaluation and a costs and benefits analysis, which investigates the extent to which the service resulted in a cost-effective improvement of outcomes. Overall, the pilot project demonstrated that given some training, local authority labour inspectors were capable of taking on inspection tasks that until now were enforced by the HSE.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 77p. [in English]

CIS 08-654 Fransman W., Huizer D., Tuerk J., Kromhout H.
Inhalation and dermal exposure to eight antineoplastic drugs in an industrial laundry facility
The objective of the study was to quantify dermal and inhalation exposure to antineoplastic drugs in a Dutch industrial laundry servicing a hospital and to test the efficiency of the washing procedure for removing these drugs. During four workdays, dermal and inhalation exposure to eight frequently-used antineoplastic drugs were measured for all persons involved in handling unwashed laundry. Furtherore, 10x10cm sections were cut before and after the washing procedure from 15 bedsheets that were collected in hospitals of patients who were treated with one of the selected antineoplastic drugs. No detectable levels of any of the antineoplastic drugs were found on workers' skin of hands or in any of the air samples. Only four out of the 15 bedsheets were contaminated with detectable levels of antineoplastic drugs before the washing procedure. After the pre-washing and after the complete washing procedure, no detectable levels of any of the drugs were found.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.396-403. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 08-645 Poirot P., Lecler M.T., Galland B., Hubert-Pelle G., Nicot T., Grosjean J.
Profiles of perchloroethylene exposure in dry cleaning services
Profils d'exposition au perchloroéthylène dans le secteur du nettoyage à sec [in French]
This article describes the current situation with respect to the concentrations of perchloroethylene to which workers of dry cleaning services are exposed. Average exposure ranges between 25 and 60ppm in industrial dry cleaning services and approximately 10ppm in retail services. The use of direct reading instruments such as photoionization detectors which can be carried by workers enabled the highlighting of multiple exposure peaks of up to 1000ppm, especially when opening machine hatches or performing special operations on the equipment. Overall, 80% of exposure profiles feature at least one peak equal to or greater than 100ppm during one minute or more, with a clear prevalence in industrial dry cleaning services. Other findings are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.43-58. Illus. 32 ref.$File/ND2280.pdf [in French]


CIS 08-1146 Reducing worker exposure to perchloroethylene (PERC) in dry cleaning
This guide provides information on the health hazards and current regulations, as well as recommendations on methods for reducing worker exposures to perchloroethylene (PERC). It also provides information on training, personal protective equipment, and some of the new technologies available in the dry cleaning industry. Contents: health hazards on prolonged exposure (mild neurotoxic effects, namely dizziness, loss of coordination; loss of memory, visual perception, and reaction time; redness and blistering of the skin after prolonged dermal contact); PERC exposure; current regulations and recommendations; machine design and maintenance; ventilation; personal protective equipment, work practices and training; PERC air monitoring; OSHA assistance services; case studies. Appendices include recommended maintenance schedules for dry cleaning machines and the international chemical safety card for tetrachloroethylene.
Publications U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 2005. 25p. Illus. [in English]


CIS 06-355 Groves W.A., Achutan C.
Laboratory and field evaluation of a SAW microsensor array for measuring perchloroethylene in breath
This article describes the laboratory and field performance evaluation of a small portable instrument for the rapid analysis of perchloroethylene in breath based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. Results of the laboratory evaluation indicated excellent agreement between the SAW array, a portable gas chromatograph (GC) and a reference analytical method. Field performance was evaluated at a commercial dry-cleaning operation by comparing prototype instrument results for breath samples with those of the GC. Linear regression analysis showed excellent agreement between prototype instrument and portable GC breath sample results. Results demonstrate the field capabilities of SAW microsensor arrays for rapid analysis of organic vapours in breath.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2004, Vol.1, No.12, p.779-788. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 05-196 Uribe Llopis P., Barbero del Palacio P., Bernat Jiménez A., Rodríguez de la Pinta M.L., Cruzet Fernández F.
Preventive action aimed at limiting noise in a hospital laundry
Acción preventiva correctora del ruido en una lavandería hospitalaria [in Spanish]
This article describes the preventive actions that were undertaken in a hospital laundry to lower the noise level below the intervention level 1 specified in Royal Decree 1316/1989 (CIS 91-287). The intervention involved insulating the two industrial dryers that generated high noise levels in all work zones. Noise level measurements were carried out before and after the fitting of the insulating enclosure. Results indicate that an important decrease in noise level was achieved, down to values that do not represent a risk to workers.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Mar. 2004, Vol.L, No.194, p.37-42. Illus. 9 ref.


CIS 04-403 Gobba F., Righi E., Fantuzzi G., Roccatto L., Predieri G., Aggazzotti G.
Perchloroethylene in alveolar air, blood, and urine as biological indices of low-level exposure
The reliability of biological indices for monitoring perchlorethylene (PCE) exposure was studied at low environmental concentrations. Environmental monitoring was performed by personal sampling and biological monitoring by measuring PCE in alveolar air (PCE-Alv), blood (PCE-B) and urine (PCE-U) in 26 low-exposed dry-cleaners. Correlation coefficients between environmental PCE and PCE-B, PCE-Alv and PCE-U were 0.94, 0.81 and 0.67 respectively. A high correlation was also found among biological indices, with values of 0.96 between PCE-B and PCE-Alv, 0.95 between PCE-B and PCE-U, and 0.87 between PCE-Alv and PCE-U. The biological indices proved sensitive enough for biological monitoring of low exposure to PCE. Furthermore, PCE-Alv offers some advantages because it correlated better with exposure and is analytically simpler.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.45, No.11, p.1152-1157. Illus. 29 ref.


CIS 07-677
Health and Safety Executive
Selection and safe use of spotting solvents in textile and clothing industries
This information note provides practical step-by step guidance on how to select spotting solvents and prevent risks to the health and safety of persons who use them. Topics covered: definition of spotting solvents; health effects due to exposure; legal requirements; four steps to selecting a solvent; measures to control exposure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2002. 4p. 17 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-89 Travier N., Gridley G., De Roos A.J., Plato N., Moradi T., Boffetta P.
Cancer incidence of dry cleaning, laundry and ironing workers in Sweden
This study investigated the risk of cancer among dry cleaners, launderers and pressers in Sweden. The Swedish Cancer Register III contains nationwide data on cancer incidence between 1971 and 1989, by occupation and industry of employment, as reported in the 1960 and 1970 censuses. Dry cleaners, launderers and pressers were compared with the rest of the employed population using multivariable regression models and standardized incidence ratios. It was found that dry cleaners, launderers and pressers in both censuses showed an increased risk of Hodgkin's disease (relative risk RR=2.69), an elevated risk of leukaemia among women (RR=2.53), and increased risks of stomach (RR=1.80) and laryngeal (RR=2.42) cancer among men. The results of the analyses of launderers and dry cleaners as a separate occupational group reflected those of the whole exposure group, while pressers showed an elevated lung cancer risk (RR=1.67).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.28, No.5, p.341-348. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 03-1679 Nurminen E., Malmivaara A., Ilmarinen J., Ylöstalo P., Mutanen P., Ahonen G., Aro T.
Effectiveness of a worksite exercise program with respect to perceived work ability and sick leaves among women with physical work
260 women (average age: 40 years) engaged in physically demanding laundry work were individually randomized into an intervention (N=133) and a control (N=127) group. The intervention group participated in weekly group exercise sessions at the workplace during eight months. Work ability was assessed by means of questionnaires at 3, 8, 12 and 15 months. Both the intervention and the control subjects were rated on their physical capacity from a physiotherapist. At 12 months, the proportion of workers with good or excellent work ability index increased more in the intervention group than in the control group. However, this difference was not statistically significant. There were furthermore no statistically significant differences between the two groups as regards job satisfaction or sickness absenteeism. It appears that a weekly physical activity programme at the worksite improves only slightly the work ability of women with physically demanding work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2002, vol.28, No.2, p.85-93.Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 02-1329 Ewers L.M., Ruder A.M., Petersen M.R., Earnest G.S., Goldenhar L.M.
Effects of retrofit emission controls and work practices on perchloroethylene exposures in small dry-cleaning shops
An evaluation of technological development for reducing workers' tetrachloroethylene exposures in dry-cleaning shops. The interventions were either the addition of a refrigerated condenser or a closed-loop carbon adsorber. The effectiveness was judged using three types of measurements: (1) full-shift, personal breathing zone, air monitoring, (2) next-morning, end-exhaled worker breath concentrations of tetrachloroethylene and (3) differences in the end-exhaled breath concentrations before and after opening the dry-cleaning machine door.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2002, Vol.17, No.2, p.112-120. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 02-1328 Earnest G.S., Ewers L.M., Ruder A.M., Petersen M.R., Kovein R.J.
An evaluation of retrofit engineering control interventions to reduce perchloroethylene exposures in commercial dry-cleaning shops
Evaluation of technical developments to reduce workers' exposures to tetrachloroethylene in existing dry-cleaning machines. In one shop a refrigerated condenser was installed on a machine to reduce the air temperature, improve vapour recovery and lower exposures. In a second shop, a carbon adsorber was retrofitted on a machine to adsorb residual tetrachloroethylene. Peak operator exposures during loading and unloading were reduced by 60% in the first shop and 92% in the second.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2002, Vol.17, No.2, p.104-111. Illus. 17 ref.


CIS 02-1341 Verma Y., Rana S.V.S.
Biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrol pump workers and dry cleaners
Exposure to benzene was monitored in service station employees and dry cleaners in Meerut City (India) by measuring the phenol content in urine samples taken from them. The influence of three factors was determined, namely alcohol consumption, smoking and food habits (vegetarians and non-vegetarians). While smoking and food habits had little effect on phenol excretion, it was found that alcohol-consuming subjects excreted more phenol. It is concluded that alcohol can alter the susceptibility of humans to benzene toxicity by affecting its metabolism.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.330-333. 29 ref.

CIS 02-290 Jo W.K., Kim S.H.
Worker exposure to aromatic volatile organic compounds in dry cleaning stores
Results of a study of workers' exposure to aromatic compounds and tetrachloroethylene, contained in four different commercial solvents. For benzene and toluene, there was no significant difference among the indoor air concentrations of the four products. For ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene, the air concentrations were significantly higher in stores using 3 of these solvents than in those using a mixture of tetrachloroethylene. Similar results were obtained in breath concentrations measured prior to and immediately after work. The results indicate that dry cleaning workers working with aromatic compounds have higher exposures than those working with tetrachloroethylene. No difference was observed in the health effects of these exposures.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.466-471. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 01-839 Ruder A.M., Ward E.M., Brown D.P.
Mortality in dry-cleaning workers: An update
A cohort consisting of 1,708 dry-cleaning workers in four areas of the United States known to have been exposed to perchloroethylene (PCE) for at least 1 year prior to 1960 was followed up. Many workers had also been exposed to Stoddard solvent, a petroleum-based dry-cleaning solvent. Vital status was updated through 1996. The cohort had excess cancer mortality (271 deaths, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 1.25). Elevated SMRs for tongue, bladder, oesophagus, intestine, lung and cervical cancer, pneumonia, and diseases of the stomach and duodenum were statistically significant. The current study confirms findings of prior updates and other studies that dry-cleaning workers have excess cancer mortality. Although important lifestyle and socio-economic risk factors exist for both cervical and oesophageal cancer mortality, excesses of these sites in the PCE-only subcohort and among workers with longer duration of PCE exposure suggest an association with PCE exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.39, No.2, p.121-132. 56 ref.


CIS 03-825 Guidelines for solvent management in dry-cleaning
These guidelines provide recommendations on the work practices and control strategies for the use of perchloroethylene (PCE) as a solvent in dry-cleaning. Contents: physical and chemical properties and health hazards of PCE; legal requirements (precautions and measures to be taken, permissible exposure levels, medical examinations); description of the dry-cleaning process; work practices (PCE storage, machine operation, loading and unloading, solvent charging or transfer, spillage handling procedures, first-aid measures, personal protective appliances, prohibition of consumption of food and drink); spotting; maintenance of dry-cleaning machine; PCE monitoring in air; control strategies (substitution, process isolation, ventilation, modern dry-cleaning machine technology, solvent usage management). Appendices include: diagrams of dry-cleaning processes and of ventilation systems; log for solvent usage management.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, Jan. 2000. i, 17p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 00-671
Health and Safety Executive
Drycleaners - Are you in control?
This booklet covers the issue of safety and health in dry cleaning shops and offers guidance for preventing or reducing these risks. A check list allows readers to verify their level of understanding of these hazards. The main hazards present in this field of activity include: explosions of pressure vessels as a result of faulty pressure systems; proliferation of bacteria (giving rise to legionnaire's disease) in cases of inappropriate or insufficient treatment of cooling towers; inhalation of solvent vapours, and particularly of perchloroethylene, spills of reactive chemicals on the skin and in the eyes; injuries caused by the lifting of loads and repetitive movements; miscarriage.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2000. 11p. Illus. 5 ref.


CIS 03-708 Dry cleaning
Tintorerías [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in dry cleaning and corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 37p. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 99-917 Verplanke A.J.W., Leummens M.H.L., Herber R.F.M.
Occupational exposure to tetrachloroethene and its effects on the kidneys
The effects of tetrachloroethylene (TCE) exposure on the kidneys were investigated in 82 exposed and 19 nonexposed workers from four dry-cleaning shops. The mean inhaled amount of TCE in the exposed group was 8.4mg/m3, corresponding to a mean 8-hour time-weighted average exposure of 7.9mg/m3. A chronic dose index (CDI) was estimated from data on the current TCE dose and the occupational history of individual subjects. The mean CDI in the exposed group was 400 months x mg/m3. Effects on the tubules were assessed with the parameters N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, β-galactosidase, alanine aminopeptidase, and retinol-binding protein (RBP) in urine. Early effects on the glomeruli were monitored with the parameter albumin in urine. Total protein in urine was determined for the general assessment of effects on the glomeruli and tubules. The tubular parameter RBP was increased in the exposed group compared with the nonexposed group. In conclusion, occupational exposure to TCE may cause a minor effect on the tubular RBP at exposure levels below the Dutch occupational exposure limit (240mg/m3). Topics: tetrachloroethylene; beta-galactosidase; aminopeptidase; determination in urine; dry cleaning; enzymological tests; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; limitation of exposure; renal dysfunction; urinary metabolites.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.41, No.1, p.11-16. 24 ref.


CIS 04-141 Wojucki J., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Gierasimiuk J., Konarska M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in laundries - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w pralniach - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in laundries is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1998. 17+32p. 40+3 ref.

CIS 99-571 Onofrj M., Thomas A., Paci C., Rotilio D.
Optic neuritis with residual tunnel vision in perchloroethylene toxicity
Case report of a dry cleaning worker with severe bilateral optic neuritis and high concentrations of perchloroethylene and metabolites in the blood and of chloroform in urine. Although environmental concentrations of perchloroethylene were within normal limits, there was a five-fold increase in vapours emitted when ironing dry-cleaned fabrics. Results suggest that inhalation of perchloroethylene vapours was the cause of this ocular nerve toxicity. Topics: blindness; tetrachloroethylene; case study; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in urine; dry cleaning; hemianopia; optic neuritis; short-term exposure; visual function disorders.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, Oct. 1998, Vol.36, No.6, p.603-607. Illus. 18 ref.


CIS 01-200 Control of exposure to perchloroethylene in commercial drycleaning (ventilation)
Perchloroethylene (PERC) (synonym: tetrachloroethylene) is the most commonly used dry-cleaning solvent. It can enter the body through respiratory and dermal exposure. This information sheet describes the ventilation systems used to control worker exposure and ensure thermal comfort. These include: local exhaust ventilation which captures the vapour at or near its source of release (reduces the vapour reaching the breathing zone and minimizes vapour dilution); general ventilation which dilutes the background levels of PERC; emergency ventilation which should be available to control solvent vapours in case of spills or leaks (see also CIS 01-197, CIS 01-198 and CIS 01-199).
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Oct. 1997. 4p. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 01-199 Control of exposure to perchloroethylene in commercial drycleaning (machine design)
Perchloroethylene (PERC) (synonym: tetrachloroethylene) is the most commonly used dry-cleaning solvent. It can enter the body through respiratory and dermal exposure. Reduction of perchloroethylene exposure in commercial dry-cleaning can be achieved by machine design. The characteristics of the five generations of dry-cleaning machines used in the U.S. are described. Important design features to consider when purchasing new equipment are mentioned. Advantages and limitations of retrofitting of a refrigerated condenser or a carbon absorber are explained and other machine features that help reducing occupational exposure to PERC are listed (see also CIS 01-197, CIS 01-198 and CIS 01-200).
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Oct. 1997. 4p. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 01-198 Control of exposure to perchloroethylene in commercial drycleaning (substitution)
Perchloroethylene (PERC) (synonym: tetrachloroethylene) is the most commonly used dry-cleaning solvent. It can enter the body through respiratory and dermal exposure. This information sheet gives guidance for the reduction of perchloroethylene exposure in commercial dry-cleaning by substitution. Alternatives to perchlorethylene are: wet cleaning, hydrocarbon solvents and liquid carbon dioxide. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique are described (see also CIS 01-197, CIS 01-199 and CIS 01-200).
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Oct. 1997. 4p. 1 ref.

CIS 01-197 Control of exposure to perchloroethylene in commercial drycleaning
Perchloroethylene (PERC) (synonym: tetrachloroethylene) is the most commonly used dry-cleaning solvent. It can enter the body through respiratory and dermal exposure. This information sheet gives guidance for the reduction of perchloroethylene exposure in commercial dry-cleaning. Main measures are: substitution by wet cleaning and petroleum-based solvents; isolation of dry-cleaning machines from other work areas; machine design (machines with refrigerated condenser and carbon absorber to reduce exposure during machine loading and un loading); proper maintenance of the machines; ventilation systems; good working practices (see also CIS 01-198, CIS 01-199 and CIS 01-200).
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Oct. 1997. 3p. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 99-1973 Vaughan T.L., Stewart P.A., Davis S., Thomas D.B.
Work in dry cleaning and the incidence of cancer of the oral cavity, larynx and oesophagus
In two population-based control studies, slight increases in risk were found for oesophageal, laryngeal and tongue cancer among dry cleaning workers potentially exposed to tetrachloroethylene. While these findings could be explained by chance, they are consistent with previous reports. It is suggested that previous studies of dry cleaners that did not control for alcohol and cigarette use may have underestimated the relative risks of such cancers. Topics: alcoholism; cancer; tetrachloroethylene; case-control study; dry cleaning; laryngeal cancer; oesophageal carcinoma; oral cancer; smoking; tongue diseases.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1997, Vol.54, No.9, p.692-695. 20 ref.

CIS 99-1968 Doyle P., Roman E., Beral V., Brookes M.
Spontaneous abortion in dry cleaning workers potentially exposed to perchloroethylene
In a retrospective study of women who were currently or previously employed in dry cleaning or laundry units where perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) was used, reproductive characteristics were similar to expectations. Examination of exposure at the time of pregnancy, however, showed that the rate of spontaneous abortion varied according to the type of work the women did during pregnancy or in the three months before conception. Women who worked in dry cleaning at the time of their pregnancy or in the three months before and who described themselves as operators were about half again as likely to report that their pregnancy ended in a spontaneous abortion than women who described themselves as non-operators. Topics: abortion; tetrachloroethylene; cohort study; dry cleaning; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; laundering.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1997, Vol.54, No.12, p.848-853. 16 ref.

CIS 98-1637 Control of health and safety hazards in commercial drycleaners - Chemical exposures, fire hazards and ergonomic risk factors
Topics: cancer; tetrachloroethylene; hydrofluoric acid; trichloroethylene; determination in air; dry cleaning; ergonomic evaluation; ergonomics; exposure evaluation; fire protection; flammable substances; harmful substances; health engineering; ketones; limitation of exposure; local exhaust; machinery; occupational health survey; preventive maintenance; repetitive work; report; respirators; safety by design; solvent naphtha; solvents; USA; ventilation; work posture.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Publications Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Dec. 1997. xi, 75p. Illus. 94 ref.

CIS 98-1377 Walker J.T., Burnett C.A., Lalich N.R., Sesito J.P., Halperin W.E.
Cancer mortality among laundry and dry cleaning workers
Topics: cancer; carcinogens; tetrachloroethylene; chlorinated hydrocarbons; dry cleaning; epidemiologic study; laryngeal cancer; laundries; lung cancer; mortality; oesophageal carcinoma; organic solvents; race-linked differences; sex-linked differences; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1997, Vol.32, No.6, p.614-619. 45 ref.

CIS 97-1990 Gobba E., et al.
Environmental and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to perchloroethylene in dry cleaning shops
Il monitoraggio ambientale e biologico dell'esposizione occupazionale a percloroetilene nelle lavanderie a secco [in Italian]
Personal air sampling for perchloroethylene (PCE) (tetrachloroethylene) among 106 workers in 78 dry cleaning shops revealed that average exposure was about 30% of the current threshold limit value. However, exposure exceeded this limit in 12 workers. Measurement of urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and urinary excretion of unmodified perchloroethylene (PCE-U) showed that PCE-U levels were correlated to exposure in both low and heavily exposed workers; levels of TCA were correlated only in heavily exposed workers. Urinary excretion of PCE-U appears to be a reliable indicator of exposure among these workers.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1997, Vol.88, No.1, p.24-36. Illus. 34 ref.


CIS 97-122 Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics Society of Western France - Meetings of 24 and 25 November 1994
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'ouest - Séances des 24 et 25 novembre 1994 [in French]
Main subjects dealt with in papers presented at the 24-25 Nov 1994 meeting of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France: lipoatrophy of lower extremities due to repetitive strain injuries; health hazards of cleaning staff: musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, in particular occupational dermatitis, and carpal-tunnel syndrome; asthma due to bisulfites in a laundry; use of pesticides in banana plantations.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.219-231.


CIS 99-1989
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Dry cleaning, some chlorinated solvents and other industrial chemicals
Topics: carcinogenic effects; acrolein; vinyl acetate; tetrachloroethylene; benzofuran; chloral hydrate; crotonaldehyde; fluoroethylene; chloral; trichloroacetic acid; trichloroethylene; dichloroacetic acid; 1,2,3-trichloropropane; furfural; furan; chlorinated hydrocarbons; chloropropenes; criteria document; dry cleaning; epidemiologic study; genetic effects; IARC; literature survey; solvents; WHO.
IARC Press, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1995. iv, 551p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 90.00.

CIS 99-314 Jost M., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A.
Prevention of occupational diseases in the laundries of health care institutions
Berufskrankheitenverhütung in Wäschereien des Gesundheitswesens [in German]
Prévention des maladies professionnelles dans les buanderies des établissements sanitaires [in French]
Topics: biological hazards; harmful substances; health hazards; hospitals; infection control; infectious diseases; laundries; manual lifting; medical supervision; protective clothing; safe layout; vaccination; ventilation; welfare facilities.
SUVA, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Jan. 1995. 20p. 10 ref.

CIS 96-2139 The dry-cleaning worker
L'employé(e) de pressing [in French]
Contents of this occupational data sheet devoted to dry-cleaning workers: definition; characteristics of the occupation; description of activities: equipment, products handled, hand movements and postures; risks and stresses of the job (connected with lighting, the thermal environment and toxic substances); occupational diseases and accidents; prevention of hazards (collective, personal); regulations applicable in France; particular health conditions to watch. Final remarks: particular attention must be paid to the products used, in light of the provisions of the Montreal Protocol on chlorinated hydrocarbons.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1995, Vol.35, No.1. Insert.

CIS 96-1718 Cleaning, laundries and dry cleaning
Rengøringsvirksomheder, vaskerier og renserier [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in the cleaning, laundry and dry cleaning sectors in Denmark. This sector can be divided into cleaning, which is the main part, and other areas which include window-cleaning, chimney-sweeping, disinfection and pest control and laundries. Cleaning also includes cleaning carried out in other industrial sectors. The main working environment problems are: strain injuries, skin diseases and psychological stress. Other problems are respiratory diseases and accidents. There also seems to be an excess risk of complications of pregnancy. In smaller areas within this sector there are special problems: in laundries there are more cases of hearing damage, monotonous work and early retirement; in dry cleaning exposure to chemicals is higher and liver cancer and brain injuries are more common; chimney-sweepers are exposed to chemicals and have a higher risk of contracting cancer, non-allergic respiratory diseases and ischaemic heart disease.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 78p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.

CIS 96-788 Moschandreas D.J., O'Dea D.S.
Measurement of perchloroethylene indoor air levels caused by fugitive emissions from unvented dry-to-dry dry cleaning units
The large emissions of perchloroethylene (PERC), a potential carcinogen, from dry cleaning establishments led the fabricare industry to redesign dry cleaning machines. State-of-the-art facilities now employ nonvented self-contained machines that do not emit vapours directly to the outside air. However, fugitive emissions in indoor environments continue to be emitted from these new machines. An indoor air quality study was conducted in six Chicago, Illinois, dry cleaning establishments that use nonvented self-contained machines. PERC concentrations were investigated by collecting 46 air samples with 150mg charcoal tubes and subsequently conducting gas chromatograph analysis. Indoor PERC concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 52.3ppm. A relationship was developed between the weight of clothes cleaned and the emission rate of each facility. This relationship may be used to estimate PERC indoor air concentrations in other facilities.
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, Feb. 1995, Vol.45, p.111-115. Illus. 11 ref.


CIS 95-2109
Länderausschuss für Immissionsschutz LAI
Requirements concerning the use of hydrocarbons as solvents in dry-cleaning establishments
Anforderungen beim Einsatz von Kohlenwasserstofflösemitteln (KWL) in Chemischreinigungen [in German]
Chlorofluorohydrocarbons, the use of which has been banned in Germany since 1 January 1995, have been replaced in dry-cleaning establishments by aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with 10-12 carbon atoms. Fire- and explosion-prevention measures to be taken by establishments using these hydrocarbons as solvents are outlined. In addition, limitations on the emission of solvents and the disposal of the waste products such as contaminated filters are addressed. The regulations which dry cleaning plants in Germany must comply with are outlined.
Erich Schmidt Verlag GmbH & Co., Berlin, Germany, 1994. 39p. Illus.

CIS 95-694 Cavalleri A.
Associazione Lombarda di Medicina del Lavoro e Igiene Industriale
Dry-cleaning establishments: Re-evaluation of the risk due to solvents
Lavanderie a secco: rivalutazione del rischio da solventi [in Italian]
A collection of five articles: Technology of industrial and small-scale laundries (Marraccini P., Cornaggia N., Saretto G.). Environmental monitoring of exposure to perchloroethylene (Ghittori S., Fiorentino M.L.). Exposure to perchloroethylene in the indoor environment (Aggazzotti G., Fantuzzi G., Righi E.). Critical evaluation of internal dose indicators in occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (Imbriani M.). Evidence for the carcinogenicity of some organochlorine solvents (Forni A.). Toxic effects and health monitoring of occupational exposure to perchloroethylene in dry-cleaning establishments (Cavalleri A., Gobba F.).
Fondazione Clinica del Lavoro, Via P. Azzario 19, 27100 Pavia, Italy, 1994. 94p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: ITL 25,000.


CIS 95-2230 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances. Part 2: Particular requirements for tumbler dryers
Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues. Partie 2: Règles particulières pour les sèche-linge à tambour [in French]
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 4th ed., June 1993. 29p. Illus. ###

CIS 95-2229 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances. Part 2: Particular requirements for spin extractors
Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues. Partie 2: Règles particulières pour les essoreuses centrifuges [in French]
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 4th ed., June 1993. 29p. ###

CIS 95-2228 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances. Part 2: Particular requirements for washing machines
Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues. Partie 2: Règles particulières pour les machines à laver le linge [in French]
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 4th ed., June 1993. 41p. 5 ref. ###

CIS 95-2227 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances. Part 2: Particular requirements for electric irons
Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues. Partie 2: Règles particulières pour les fers à repasser électriques [in French]
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 4th ed., June 1993. 31p. ###

CIS 95-763 Wands S.E., Yassi A.
Modernization of a laundry processing plant - Is it really an improvement?
An ergonomics assessment was conducted in a modern, automated hospital-based laundry to investigate workers' complaints of musculoskeletal aches and pains and general fatigue. Numerous job stressors were identified including prolonged standing, excessive manual handling of transport units, non-adjustability of workstations, work pacing, awkward postures, lack of job rotation and excessive repetition of tasks. Problem areas within the laundry were identified and ergonomic solutions recommended. Other safety and health issues including noise and biological hazards are also discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, Dec. 1993, Vol.24, No.6. p.387-396. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 94-972 Matthies W., Krächter H.U.
Skin reactions to work clothing - What role does the washing procedure play?
Hautreaktionen auf Berufskleidung - Welche Rolle spielt das Waschverfahren? [in German]
The detergent residues in samples of cotton fabrics used for work clothing in hospitals were determined. Fabric samples were sent to 83 laundries. The pH of aqueous extracts of the washed samples was measured. Detergent residues were low in comparison to an optimized laundering method used as control and to laundering in household washing machines. The pH values were lower than in fabrics washed in household washing machines. Patch tests with the fabrics were applied to 50 volunteers, including atopic persons. The 24-hour tests during weather conditions which provoked strong sweating produced no skin reactions.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, July-Aug. 1993, Vol.41, No.4, p.137-144. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 94-926 Cleaning, laundries and dry cleaning sector
Rengøringsvirksomheder, vaskerier, renserier [in Danish]
Volume No.15 of a series of monographs covering the occupational safety and health in all sectors of Danish economy. It covers the sectors that deal with cleaning, with laundry and dry cleaning. The occupational safety and health problems in the cleaning sector are skin diseases, psychological stress and musculoskeletal diseases. In laundries noise, the thermal environment, heavy workload and monotonous work are the principal OSH problems. In the dry cleaning sector chemical hazards are important.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1993. 68p. 30 ref. Price: DKK 100.00.


CIS 93-868 Béguin-Desroziers C., Léopold C., Libert B., Velon R., Sandret N.
Study of working conditions in drycleaning
Les pressings: Etude des conditions de travail [in French]
Working conditions in dry-cleaning, an industry with many risk factors, were studied and the literature on the subject was reviewed. Main topics discussed: social and occupational characteristics of the industry; methodology of the study; description of workplaces and work stations; strains introduced by the work stations; toxicological hazards; medical surveillance and exposure assessment; hazards and their prevention (chronic exposure to solvents; acute exposure due to inhalation of solvents; accidental ingestion of harmful products; skin and eye burns).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.50, p.177-185. Illus. 63 ref.

CIS 93-231 Mutti A., Alinovi R., Bergamaschi E., Biagini C., Cavazzini S., Franchini I., Lauwerys R.R., Bernard A.M., Roels H., Gelpi E., Rosello J., Ramis I., Price R.G., Taylor S.A., De Broe M., Nuyts G.D., Stolte H., Fels L.M., Herbort C.
Nephropathies and exposure to perchloroethylene in dry-cleaners
In a collaborative European study, the renal effects of occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (PCE) were assessed by comparing markers of nephrotoxic effects in dry-cleaners and matched controls. Exposure was evaluated by measuring the solvent concentration in blood specimens and in air samples; urinary samples were also collected. Several renal disturbances were found among PCE-exposed workers compared with the controls. The findings indicate that solvent-exposed subjects, especially dry-cleaners, need to be monitored for the possible development of chronic renal diseases.
Lancet, 25 July 1992, Vol.340, No.8813, p.189-193. 29 ref.

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