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- Antifertility and prenatal effects
Proceedings of the US-Finnish joint symposium on occupational safety and health and the third annual NIOSH scientific symposium
23 (of a total of 47) of the papers presented at this joint US-Finnish symposium (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, Oct. 1980) are reproduced in 5 sections entitled: general aspects of occupational health; neurotoxicology; reproductive effects; safety; epidemiology.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1981, Vol.7, No.4, p.166. 438 ref.
Kirwin C.J., LeBlanc J.V., Thomas W.C., Haworth S.R., Kirby P.E., Thilagar A., Bowman J.T., Brusick D.J.
Evaluation of the genetic activity of industrially produced carbon black
The genetic activity of a commercially produced oil furnace black, containing 294ppm polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, was evaluated using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test, sister chromatid exchange test in CHO cells, mouse lymphoma test, cell transformation assay, and assay for genetic effects in Drosophila melanogaster. Limited cellular toxicity was exhibited but no significant genetic activity was found.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, June 1981, Vol.7, No.6, p.973-989. 39 ref.
Stern R.M., Thomsen E., Larsen H.
Origin of mutagenicity of welding fumes in S. typhimurium
The histidine revertant Salmonella microsome test of Ames was used, quantitatively, to determine the origin and extent of mutagenicity in response to exposure to welding fumes. Dose-response experiments and factorial design studies showed that the mutagenic activity was due to the presence of soluble hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). A rate of 65±15 revertants per plate and µg Cr(VI) was found for all fumes produced by the MIG welding of stainless steel. A reduced rate was found for manual metal arc welding fumes. The presence of other metals in low oxidation states reduced the amount of Cr(VI) present and caused an accompanying decrease of the revertant rate per unit fumes mass.
The Danish Welding Institute, Park Allé 345, 2600 Glostrup, Křbenhavn, Denmark, 1981. 57p. Illus. 71 ref.
Nelson J., MacKinnon E.A., Mower H.F., Wong L.
Mutagenicity of N-nitroso derivatives of carbofuran and its toxic metabolites
In the Ames assay method the nitroso derivatives of carbofuran (CF), 3-hydroxycarbofuran (HCF) and 3-ketocarbofuran (KCF) all gave a mutation ratio of 45 at 5µg per plate Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 100. All three nitroso derivatives also produced chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Nitroso derivatives of CF and HCF induced large numbers of sister chromatid exchanges in the same cells.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1981, Vol.7, No.3-4, p.519-531. Illus. 21 ref.
Horvat Dj., Račić J., Rozgaj R.
Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in V79 cells of Chinese hamsters exposed to heavy metals
Učestalost izmjena kromatida sestara u V79 stanica kineskog hrčka nakon izloženosti teškim metalima [en serbocroata]
The sister chromatid exchange (SCE) method was used to investigate the mutagenic effect of heavy metals (Pb++, MN++, Ni++, Cd++). In vitro experiments with Chinese hamster V79 cells showed that Pb and Ni did not cause any significant change in SCE values, whereas exposure to Mn and Cd increased the number of changes; in particular, Cd had a marked mutagenic effect, doubling the number of exchanges after 2-h cell incubation.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1981, Vol.32, No.2, p.147-156. Illus. 26 ref.
Nordenson I., Sweins A., Dahlgren E., Beckman L.
A study of chromosomal aberrations in miners exposed to diesel exhausts
Cultured lymphocytes from a group of 14 miners 20-57 years of age, exposed underground to exhaust from diesel engines were examined for chromosome aberrations and compared with those of a control group of 15 office and construction workers. 5 members of each group were moderate smokers. No increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations was observed in the miners. The frequency of aberrations, both gaps and breaks, was found to be associated with smoking.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.14-17. 7 ref.
Ehrenberg L., Hällström T., Osterman-Golkar S.
Criteria document for threshold limit values: Ethylene oxide
Kriteriedokument för gränsvärden - Etylenoxid [en sueco]
This literature survey presents evidence for the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of ethylene oxide (EO) in all groups of organisms from bacteria to mammals. Experimental and epidemiologic data show that a linear dose-dependent relationship exists for induction of mutation and tumours by EO and that there is no no-effect threshold. A reaction-kinetic and pharmaco-kinetic model was used to estimate that 6 tumours/year would result from 40h/week exposure of 1,000 persons at 1ppm. Epidemiologic studies of two occupationally exposed populations confirmed the order of magnitude of this estimate.
Arbetarskyddsverket, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1981. 33p. 73 ref.
Watanabe T., Endo A., Sato K., Ohtsuki T., Miyasaka M., Koizumi A., Ikeda M.
Mutagenic potential of styrene in man
Cytogenetic changes and cell-cycle kinetics were examined in the cultured lymphocytes of 16 workers exposed to styrene in two polyester fabrication workshops, where the airborne styrene concentrations were 2-211ppm in one and 30ppm in the other. The exposed workers showed no incrase in chromosomal aberrations or sister-chromatid exchange frequencies when compared with a control group. A slight decrease in the mitotic index and a slight inhibition of cell growth were detected. No relation was found between cytogenetic findings and styrene exposure intensity as determined by air analysis, personal sampling, or urinalysis for metabolites.
Industrial Health, 1981, Vol.19, No.1, p.37-45. 36 ref.
Thiess A.M., Schwegler H., Fleig I., Stocker W.G.
Mutagenicity study of workers exposed to alkylene oxides (ethylene oxide/propylene oxide) and derivatives.
Mutagenicity studies were carried out on lymphocyte cultures. Workers were classified as having; exposure > 20 years; < 20 years; long-term exposure and an accident (ethylene oxide inhalation or skin contact); an accident with only brief exposure. Only workers exposed for more than 20 years showed a significant increase in the chromosome aberration rate.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1981, Vol.23, No.5, p.343-347. 26 ref.
Rannug U., Jenssen D., Ramel C., Eriksson K.E., Kringstad K.
Mutagenic effects of effluents from chlorine bleaching of pulp.
Bleaching effluents were obtained from 6 mills, mainly from the chlorination stage of the bleaching process. They were spot tested with Escherichia coli and tested quantitatively with Salmonella. Effluents from the chlorination and hypochlorite stages had mutagenic effects. The effect was reduced by a metabolising system. The mutagenic components are characterised.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Jan. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.33-47. Illus. 21 ref.
Levine R.J., Symons M.J., Balogh S.A., Milby T.H., Whorton M.D.
A method for monitoring the fertility of workers - 2. Validation of the method among workers exposed to dibromochloropropane.
For part 1 see CIS 81-464. The techniques developed were applied to 36 male pesticide manufacturing workers. 12 of them had severely depressed sperm counts related to occupational exposure. The standardised fertility ratio was significantly lower during the period at risk, and also than in other areas of the factory. Surveillance would have detected the loss of fertility in these workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1981, Vol.23, No.3, p.183-188. 4 ref.
Babajan Ė.A., Bagramjan S.B., Pogosjan A.S.
The effect of certain harmful chemicals involved in the production of molybdenum on the chromosomes of animals and man
Vlijanie nekotoryh himičeskih vrednostej proizvodstva molibdena na hromosomnyj apparat ėksperimental'nyh životnyh i ljudej [en ruso]
Study of the mutagenic effects of Mo and molybdenite, ammonium molybdate, molybdenum trioxide and butyl and ethyl xanthate as recorded in animals subjected to up to 4 times the TLV of Mo and molybdenite. Workers showed greater incidence of chromosomal aberrations after exposure to Mo and paramolybdate in concentrations either below the TLV or up to twice the TLV. It is recommended to adopt a TLV for ethyl xanthate in workplace air of 0.5mg/m3, and it is proposed to lower the TLV of Mo and molybdenite from 6mg/m3 to 0.6mg/m3, and that of butyl xanthate from 10mg/m3 to 1mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1980, No.9, p.33-36. 9 ref.
Anderson D., Richardson C.R., Weight T.M., Purchase I.F.H., Adams W.G.F.
Chromosomal analyses in vinyl chloride exposed workers. Results from analysis 18 and 42 months after an initial sampling
Subjects from a population of workers exposed to vinyl chloride, originally sampled in 1974, were sampled again 18 and 42 months after the initial study. At 18 months chromosome aberrations in 21 exposed workers showed an increase in comparison with 6 off-site controls. In the third sampling aberrations in 23 workers decreased by comparison with previous samples and had returned to the values observed in 8 on-site controls. The incidence of chromosome aberrations returned to control levels during the time at which levels of exposure were reduced to <5ppm.
Mutation Research, 1980, No.79, p.151-162. 13 ref.
Forni A., Sciamč A., Bertazzi P.A., Alessio L.
Chromosome and biochemical studies in women occupationally exposed to lead
Blood lead levels and erythrocyte protoporphyrin and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity of red blood cells were determined for 18 healthy females occupationally exposed to lead in the manufacture of electrical storage batteries and 12 female controls. Cytogenetic studies were performed on lymphocytes cultured for 2 and 3 days with phytohaemagglutinin. Significantly increased rates of metaphases with chromatid and chromosome aberrations, excluding gaps, were observed in the exposed vs. the control group at both culture times. The yield of abnormal metaphases was higher in the 3-day than in the 2-day cultures, in both exposed and control groups, but the difference was only moderately significant for controls and highly significant for those exposed. These results are consistent with those found for males.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1980, Vol.35, No.3, p.139-145. 13 ref.
Study of the embryotropic effects of electrostatic pulse fields
Sledování embryotropního účinku elektrostatického pulsního pole [en checo]
Experiments with pregnant mice exposed from days 1-17 of gestation to electrostatic pulse fields (amplitude 1000V, field gradient 285V/cm, pulse band 10µs, repeat frequency 300Hz). Variables studied: course of pregnancy, number of dead foetuses, condition of placenta and foetal membranes, size and weight of mature foetuses, and status of internal organs. It was found that electrostatic pulse fields have a harmful effect on embryo development, especially during the early stages.
Pracovní lékařství, Dec. 1980, Vol.32, No.10, p.334-338. 19 ref.
Delayed effects of benzene skin absorption in laboratory animals
Opasnost' vozniknovenija otdalennyh posledstvij u laboratornyh životnyh pri postuplenii benzola čerez kožu [en ruso]
Benzene application to the tail skin of rats (64 and 320 mg/kg) for 4 months produced changes in the morphological structure of the gonads in both males and females. Fertilisation potential in males and conception capacity in females were not impaired by prolonged skin absorption of benzene. Offspring of exposed animals were less viable than those of controls owing to lesions of certain organs.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1980, No.6, p.51-52. 11 réf.
Some notes on toxic substances and pregnancy
Quelques notes sur toxiques et grossesse. [en francés]
Brief data on the effects of certain industrial chemicals on reproductive function in women and on the health status of children. Substances dealt with: lead, mercury, cadmium, vanadium, carbon monoxide, benzene, carbon disulfide, methyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, dimethyl formamide, vinyl chloride, tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, pesticides (chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates), polyhalogenated biphenyls, anaesthetics, oestrogens, tobacco. Findings presented are those taken from animal experiments and from cases of occupational or non-occupational poisoning.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 4th quarter 1980, Vol.20, No.80, p.25-32.
Roščin A.V., Kazimov M.A.
Effects of vanadium on reproductive function of laboratory animals
O vlijanii vanadija na generativnuju funkciju ėksperimental'nyh žyvotnyh [en ruso]
In rats, pentavalent vanadium (V+5) causes functional morphological changes in the gonads following single or repeated administration. The changes are more marked when administration is continued throughout gestation. Reproduction in these animals is affected by spermatogenic disorders and results in reduced fertilisation capacity and increased embryo mortality. V+5 may be considered gonadotoxic and embryotoxic without any general toxic action.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1980, No.5, p.49-51. 3 ref.
Hunt V.R., Harkness W.
Occupational hazards to pregnant women in the collaborative perinatal project.
Statistical analysis of the data resulting from examination of 23,961 pregnancies in which 4,575 women reported exposure to hazardous work conditions, indicated that women with a work experience of pesticide exposure had the most adverse reproductive history. More foetal deaths and stillbirths, more premature low-weight babies with low 5min Apgar scores, and more neurological abnormalities at 1 year and low intelligence quotient at 4 years were observed in this group. Occupational exposure to heat, chemicals and heavy lifting was associated with adverse pregnancy and pregnancy outcome experience. Occupational exposure to ionising radiation and animals did not show comparable effects.
Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, Oct. 1980, p.377-391. 12 ref.
Erickson J.D., Cochran W.M., Anderson C.E.
Birth defects and parental occupation: preliminary results from metropolitan Atlanta.
The mothers of 1,100 babies with selected congenital defects were interviewed and the employment histories of the parents of 989 of these babies were coded using the occupation-industry classification scheme of the US Bureau of the Census. A comparison of the frequency of a particular occupation among parents of babies with one type of defect with the frequency among parents of those with other congenital malformations indicated that the nursing profession was more frequent than expected among mothers of babies with cleft lip, with or without cleft palate. There was also an excess of 'craftsmen' in the printing industry among mothers of babies with omphalocele and gastrochisis. The unusual associations observed in this study indicate directions for further research.
Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, Oct. 1980, p.53-67. 10 ref.
Infante P.F., Legator M.S.
Proceedings of a workshop on methodology for assessing reproductive hazards in the workplace.
At this workshop sponsored by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health (held at Washington, USA, 19-22 Apr. 1978) 29 papers were presented on topics including: case studies of agents associated with adverse effects on reproduction (alcohol, lead, vinyl chloride, anaesthetic gases, chloroprene, dibromochloropropane); standard in vitro and in vivo tests for the identification of mutagens and teratogens; short term methods for human surveillance of mutagens, including cytogenic studies and sperm assays; epidemiologic methods for detecting teratogens. Recommendations for future research were also made.
Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, Oct. 1980. 423p. Illus. Bibl.
Balogh T., Ungváry G., Tátrai E., Hudák A., Lőrincz M., Barcza G.
Experimental model for use in the study of malformations caused by interaction of chemicals and therapeutic drugs.
Pregnant rats were exposed to toluene at 3,600mg/m3 atmospheric concentration from day 10 to 13 of gestation. Acetylsalicyclic acid was administered at a dose of 500mg/kg on the 12th day of gestation. An increase in maternal toxicity and in mortality among mothers, a decrease in food consumption and weight gain and an increase in the liver-to-body weight ratio resulted in the treated group. Foetal toxicity increased. Foetal mortality, the incidence of sternum anomalies and extra ribs were higher, and the weight of foetuses decreased. Toluene alone, applied throughout organogenesis at the same concentration, was not teratogenic. The embryotoxic effects observed in this study resulted from overlapping metabolic pathways for the two chemicals: conjugation with glycine of benzoic acid, derived from toluene, to form hippuric acid, takes up the glycine which is also needed for conjugation of acetylsalicyclic acid. This results in enhanced levels of free acid in the maternal blood.
Research Institute for Labour Safety, National Institute of Occupational Health, Budapest, Hungary, 22-25 Sep. 1980, p.133-144. 24 ref.
Zitting A., Falck K., Skyttä E.
Mutagenicity of aerosols from the oxidative thermal decomposition of rigid polyurethane foam.
Besides known acute effects in case of fires, there are various occupational situations where polyurethanes are subjected to decomposing temperatures (cutting or welding, additives in foundry sands) giving rise to intermittent exposure. The aerosol fraction of the oxidative thermal decomposition products (700°C) of rigid polyurethane foam was collected on glass fiber filters and fractionated into ether-soluble neutral, acidic, and basic constituents and water-soluble compounds. The constituents showed mutagenic activity in a bacterial fluctuation test with Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 or Escherichia coli CM 891 as the tester strains. Several primary aromatic amines were detected in the aerosol, but no polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 1980, Vol.47, No.1, p.47-52. Illus. 26 ref.
Norppa H., Sorsa M., Vainio H., Gröhn P., Heinonen E., Holsti L., Nordman E.
Increased sister chromatid exchange frequencies in lumphocytes of nurses handling cytostatic drugs.
20 nurses in daily contact with cytostatic drugs (cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, adriamycin, cis-platinum(II) diamine dichloride) and 10 controls were studied. The oncology nurses had significantly higher sister chromatid exchange frequencies than the controls, and higher frequencies, although not significantly, than other nurses.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1980, Vol.6, No.4, p.299-301. 14 ref.
Haglund U., Lundberg I., Zech L.
Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Swedish paint industry workers.
17 workers exposed to organic solvents and 17 matched controls were studied. There were no differences in the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and no correlation between xylene or toluene or total solvent exposure and SCE frequency. No differences were found in the 5 most exposed workers and their controls.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1980, Vol.6, NO.4, p.291-298. 35 ref.
Siou G., Sourdeix D., Doinel A.
Mutagenic effects of benzene - 2. Influence of castration on male mouse susceptibility to the mutagenic effects of benzene
Contribution ŕ la connaissance de l'effet mutagčne du benzčne - 2. Action de la castration sur la sensibilité de la souris mâle ŕ l'action mutagčne du benzčne. [en francés]
(For part 1, see CIS 80-1963). Benzene was administered orally to 8 groups of mice and a control group, including females, intact males, castrated males, and castrated males receiving testosterone. The sex-linked difference in sensitivity to benzene previously found disappered in the castrated males, and returned in those given testosterone subsequent to castration.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1980, No.101, Note No.1286-101-80, p.531-534. 12 ref.
Levine R.J., Symons M.J., Balogh S.A., Arndt D.M., Kaswandik N.T., Gentile J.W.
A method for monitoring the fertility of workers - 1. Method and pilot studies.
The essential feature of the method is its ability to distinguish the potential effects of occupational exposure from other factors affecting fertility. Information is collected primarily by questionnaire. Pilot studies at 2 small chemical plants are reported, and attempts to assess occupational effects on fertility from interviews or health records are reviewed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1980, Vol.22, No.12, p.781-791. Illus. 16 ref.
Mišonova V.N., Stepanova P.A., Zarudin V.V.
Disturbed pregnancy and childbirth in women exposed to low levels of metallic mercury vapour at the workplace
Osobennosti beremennosti i rodov ženščin, kontaktirujuščih s malymi koncentracijami parov metalličeskoj rtuti v proizvodstvennyh pomeščenijah [en ruso]
349 exposed women and 215 controls were studied. Placental changes seen in the exposed women varied with the length of exposure. There was a high proportion of low birth weights. The placenta presented functional and morphological insufficiency manifestations associated with compensation and adaptation mechanisms designed to protect the foetus. Immunological changes in the mother-foetus system were due to infiltration of small lymphocytes having lytic properties into the placental tissue. Foetal hypotrophy may be due both to placental insuffiency and immunological changes.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.21-23. 3 ref.
Tuscany R., Kliment V., Dvořák J.
Computerised method for detection of symmetrical chromosomal exchanges in persons exposed to radiation
Detekce symetrických výměn v chromozómovém obrazu osob s radiační zátěží s použitím počitače [en checo]
The analytical method, which was applied to 8 radiation-exposed subjects, is described. Continued observation of the persistence or evolution of reciprocal translocations of cytogenetic importance produced in somatic cells following exposure to radiation, opens up a promising approach to the detection of biological hazards.
Pracovní lékařství, Feb. 1980, Vol.32, No.2, p.58-63. Illus. 15 ref.
Mäki-Paakkanen J., Husgafvel-Pursiainen K., Kalliomäki P.L., Tuominen J., Sorsa M.
Toluene-exposed workers and chromosome aberrations.
Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 32 rotogravure workers with daily toluene exposure were studied for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Frequencies were not significantly different from those in 15 control subjects. There was a significant increase in sister chromatid exchanges in smokers of both groups as compared with non-smokers.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, July 1980, Vol.6, No.4, p.775-781. 9 ref.
Siou G., Conan L., Doinel A.
Contribution to the study of the mutagenic effects of benzene - 1. Influence of sexual maturity on the sensitivity of mice to the mutagenic effect of benzene
Contribution ŕ la connaissance de l'effet mutagčne du benzčne - 1. Influence de la maturité sexuelle sur la sensibilité de la souris ŕ l'action mutagčne du benzčne. [en francés]
The Schmid experimental method was applied to mice aged 21 days and 5 weeks, and adult mice. The results show that there is no difference in reaction between male and female mice at 21 days, but that from an age of 5 weeks male mice are approximately twice as sensitive as female mice to the mutagenic effect of benzene.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 3rd quarter 1980, No.100, Note No.1268-100-80, p.395-397. 13 ref.
Lloyd D.C., Purrott R.J., Prosser J.S., White A.D., Hesketh L.C., Priseman S.J., Lelliott D.J., Stimpson L.W.
Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis.
82 cytogenic examinations performed in 1979 are reviewed, bringing the total of this series up to 472. A brief description of each of the 1979 investigations, with physical and cytogenetic dose estimates is given. The 472 cases are divided into 4 exposure categories, and the types of aberrations found are analysed. The majority of cases originated in industrial radiography, in particular during theuse of iridium-192 for non-destructive testing. Acentric aberrations outnumbered dicentrics.
National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OS11 ORQ, United Kingdom, Feb. 1980. 22p. Price: Ł1.00.
Study of embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of Altax vulcanisation accelerator
Proučvane na riska ot embriotoksično i teratogenno dejstvie na vulkanizacionnija uskoritel Altaks [en búlgaro]
Research on rats and mice to determine the effects of dibenzothiazolyl disulfide (Altax) on the embryo. Administrations of 100mg/kg produced embryotoxic effects in rats and teratogenic effects in rats and mice, but more pronounced in the latter. Administrations of 10mg/kg had no effect.
Problemi na higienata, July 1980, Vol.5, p.83-91. 12 ref.
Watanabe T., Endo A., Kato Y., Shima S., Ikeda M.
Cytogenetics and cytokinetics of cultured lymphocytes from benzene-exposed workers.
Chromosome aberrations, sister-chromatid exchange frequencies and cell-cycle kinetics of cultured lymphocytes from benzene-exposed workers (40ppm for < 20 years) were examined. While no increase in the number of structural and numerical chromosome aberrations nor any changes in cell-cycle kinetics were observed, a slight decrease in the frequency of sister-chromatid exchanges was detected. This decrease may be a manifestation of the subtler effect of benzene on the DNA replication mechanism. Possible dose-effect relation in benzene-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1980, Vol.46, No.1, p.31-41. 26 ref.
Anesthetic gases as an occupational hazard - A review.
Aspects considered are: teratogenicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity (bacterial tests, animal tests, epidemiology); other organ effects (liver, kidneys, bone marrow, central and peripheral nervous systems), information on exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1980, Vol.6, No.2, p.85-93. 68 ref.
Stellman J.M., Epler G.
Reproductive health in the workplace - Scientific and policy considerations.
U.S. regulations on medical removal protection, pregnancy discrimination, and economic factors are reviewed. Scientific aspects considered, relating to both men and women, are: infertility, subfertility, vulnerability during pregnancy, effects after birth, lead, non-reproductive toxic effects, persons at risk. Conclusions: males and females are subject to adverse reproductive effects; chemicals causing such effects have other toxic effects; the probability of a fertile woman bearing a child after thirty is minimal, especially in the blue-collar social class; occupational health policies must have regard to all workers: fertile women should not be excluded from employment; social policy should be broadened to encompass child-bearing, employment, and workers' rights; protective measures should be combined with worker education and informed choice.
Toxic Substances Journal, Spring 1980, Vol.1, No.4, p.316-331. 55 ref.
Koudela K., Spazier K.
Effects of dimethylformamide on human peripheral lymphocytes
Vliv dimetylformamidu na lidské periferní lymfocyty [en checo]
Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes from the blood of 3 healthy volunteers indicated that dimethylformamide induces mutations in somatic cells. Dimethylformamide had a mutagenic activity 3-4 times lower than that of thio-TEPA, a mutagen used in cancer therapy. The chromosome aberrations caused by dimethylformamide are consistent with the type of lesions caused by chemical mutagens.
Československá hygiena, Nov. 1979, Vol.24, No.9, p.432-436. Illus. 10 ref.
Genetic damage in man caused by environmental agents.
Proceedings of a conference held in Oslo, Norway, in May 1977. Papers were read under the heads: inherited susceptibility; point mutations in man; chromosome damage; sister chromatid exchange; epidemiological approaches; biochemical methods for monitoring genetic damage; non-human test systems; antenatal diagnosis; cost of mutation. Industrial chemicals dealt with at some length are: vinyl chloride, benzene, arsenic, styrene, and TCDD.
Academic Press Inc, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10003, USA, July 1979. 524p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$27.00.
Fredga K., Dävring L., Sunner M., Bengtsson B.O., Elinder C.G., Sigtryggsson P., Berlin M.
Chromosome changes in workers exposed to motor fuels and exhaust gases
Kromosomförändringar hos arbetare exponerade för drivmedel och avgaser [en sueco]
Studies are reported in 12 drivers of diesel lorries, 12 drivers of petrol lorries, 12 motor vehicle inspectors, and 12 controls. There was a clear relation between smoking and chromosome changes. It was suspected that a working environment containing high concentrations of diesel fuel can cause an excess of chromosome breaks and of sister chromatid exchanges.
Rapport nr. 790320, Institutionerna för Genetik och Hygien, Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden, 1979, 62p. 28 ref. Price: Swe-kr.15.00.
Cytogenetic investigation of occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin.
Peripheral lymphocytes from 93 workers exposed to epichlorohydrin showed an increase in aberration rates compared with a control group. There were statistically significant differences in the incidence of chromatid breaks, severly damaged cells, and total abnormal cells.
Mutation Research, 1979, Vol.66, p.169-173. 9 ref.
Högstedt B., Hedner K., Mark-Vendel E., Mitelman F., Schütz A., Skerfving S.
Increased frequency of chromosome aberrations in workers exposed to styrene.
The incidence of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes was twice as high in 6 workers from a plant manufacturing polyester resin boats as in matched controls. In addition to styrene, the workers were exposed to phthalic acid anhydride, maleic acid anhydride, propylene glycol, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, a cobalt salt, and acetone. Styrene levels of the workroom air were 50-400mg/m3.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1979, Vol.5, No.4, p.333-335. 12 ref.
Holmberg P.C., Hernberg S.
Congenital defects and occupational factors - A comparison of different methodological approaches.
120 mothers known to have been exposed to organic solvents, with children having congential central nervous system defects (for previous case-control study see CIS 79-1685) were followed up by a conventional analysis of occupational factors, to determine whether this method would provide the same information as the more laboroious interview method used previously. A further 102 mothers of children with oral defects were included in the study. Information on mothers' work outside the home, social group, and occupation, was ineffective for the purpose of discerning causative occupational factors for these malformations. The information on exposure to organic solvents could only be obtained by thorough history taking and inquiries about possible exposures at work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1979, Vol.5, No.4, p.328-332. 6 ref.
Mitelman F., Nilsson P.G., Brandt L., Alimena G., Montuoro A., Dallapiccola B.
Chromosomes, leukaemia, and occupational exposure to leukaemogenic agents.
The study abstracted under CIS 80-459 was extended to a total of 156 patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL). Clonal chromosomal aberrations were significantly more common in exposed than non-exposed patients: 76% of exposed, 32% of non-exposed. 9 of the 12 patients with normal chromosomes were exposed to petroleum products or their combustion residues; 32 of 34 patients exposed to chemical solvents and insecticides had abnormal chromosomes. Possible causes of conflicting results with other studies are discussed. Prospective studies are in progress.
Lancet, 1 Dec. 1979, Vol.II, No.8153, p.1195-1196. 5 ref.
Lloyd D.C., Purrott R.J., Prosser J.S., White A.D., Dolphin G.W., Reeder E.J., Martin L.C., Priseman S.J., Gray S.A.
Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis - IX. A review of cases investigated: 1978.
63 cytogenic examinations performed in 1978 are reviewed, bringing the total of this series up to 390 (for reports 7 and 8, see CIS 79-427 and 79-1915). A brief description of each of the 1978 investigations, with physical and cytogenetic dose estimates, is given. The 390 cases are divided into 4 exposure categories, and the types of aberrations found are analysed. The majority of cases originated in industrial radiography, in particular during the use of iridium-192 for non-destructive testing. Acentric aberrations outnumbered dicentrics.
NRPB-R83, National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon, OX 11 ORQ, United Kingdom, Jan. 1979. 21p. Illus. Price: Ł1.00.
Liebeskind D., Bases R., Mendez F., Elequin F., Koenigsberg M.
Sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes after exposure to diagnostic ultrasound.
Report on the effects of ultrasound on the incidence of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), a sensitive direct indicator of chromosome damage. Exposure to diagnostic levels of ultrasound increased the frequency of SCE in freshly isolated human lymphocytes as well as in a continuously growing human lymphoblast line. The in-vitro methods of blood treatment, staining and exposure to ultrasound (30min, 700 pulses per second) are described. Temporal average intensity is estimated to be as high as 5.0mW/cm2. The mechanism of SCE and the relationship between SCE frequency and mutagenic potential are discussed. The results confirm previous findings indicating that ultrasound can affect the DNA of animal cells, and suggest that ultrasound may not be entirely innocuous.
Science, 21 Sep. 1979, Vol.205, p.1273-1275. 19 ref.
Effects of fume particles from stainless steel welding on sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations in cultured chinese hamster cells.
The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations increased with the fume dose (particle concentration up to 200µg/ml). Particles from manual metal arc (MMA) welding were some 100 times more powerful than those from metal inert gas (MIG) welding. Chromium solubility was about 60 times higher in MMA fume particles than in MIG particles. The supernatant from the suspension of both fumes contained small amounts of manganese, nickel, iron and magnesium. Exposure to the supernatant increased the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It is suggested that dissolved hexavalent chromium may be involved in the cytotoxic effect of stainless steel welding fume.
Industrial Health, Mar. 1979, Vol.17, No.1, p.39-49. Illus. 16 ref.
Lawler S.D., Summersgill B.M., Clink H.M., McElwain T.J.
Chromosome, leukaemia, and occupational exposure to leukaemogenic agents.
This letter to the Editor reports that no correlation between chromosome findings in the bone marrow and the presence of acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia was seen in 67 patients, nor were there more non-random chromosomal abnormalities among patients exposed to leukaemogenic agents.
Lancet, Oct. 1979, Vol.2, No.8147, p.853-854.
Fleig I., Thiess A.M.
Chromosome tests in phthalonitrile-exposed workers
Chromosomenuntersuchungen bei Mitarbeitern mit Exposition gegenüber ortho-Phthalodinitril (o-PDN) [en alemán]
Description of the methods used, and results of analysis of chromosome changes in 20 workers exposed to phthalonitrile for periods varying between 2 and 24 years. No significant difference was observed between these results and those of a control group. The presence of chromosome exchanges in the group of exposed workers is mentioned.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, May 1979, Vol.29, No.5, p.127-129. 6 ref.
Klener V., Tuscany R., Novotná J., Ševc J., Thomas J.
Local lesions and chromosomal changes following irradiation from a cobalt source
Lokální poškození a změny v chromozómovém obrazu při ozáření z radiokobaltového zdroje [en checo]
Following contact with a 60Co source with an activity of 3kCi at a hospital, a fitter developed necrosis of the 2nd and 5th fingers of the hand, requiring amputation. Chromosome studies revealed 13 dicentrics, corresponding to a whole-body dose equivalent of 1.2-1.6Gy (120-160rad). The fall in the number of these chromosomes in the peripheral blood lymphocytes during the 28 months after the accident followed a similar course to that seen in other cases reported in the literature. Deviations from the Poisson distribution seen in certain blood cells confirmed the hypothesis of non-uniform radiation. The accident illustrates the great hazard of handling unsealed gamma radiation sources.
Pracovní lékařství, July 1979, Vol.31, No.6-7, p.230-234. Illus. 12 ref.
Haas J.F., Schottenfeld D.
Risks to the offspring from parental occupational exposures.
This article reviews relations between occupational exposure and pregnancy outcome in the case of vinyl chloride, chloroprene, benzene, anaesthetic gases, radiation and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. The best documented example of risks to the offspring appears to be increased abortion rates in female operating room personnel exposed to anaesthetic gases in the first trimester of pregnancy. Generally speaking, there is very little evidence of impaired pregnancy or hazards to offspring. Investigations should include smoking, alcohol and drug exposures among their criteria.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1979, Vol.21, No.9, p.607-613. 49 ref.
Central-nervous-system defects in children born to mothers exposed to organic solvents during pregnancy.
Exposure to noxious influences during pregnancy was analysed in mothers of children with congenital central-nervous-system defects and matched-pair controls. The number of mothers exposed to organic solvents during the first trimester of pregnancy was statistically significant. The commonest defect was anencephaly.
Lancet, 28 July 1979, Vol.2, No.8135, 177-179. 5 ref.
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