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Printing, photography and photocopying industry - 330 entradas encontradas

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  • Printing, photography and photocopying industry

1979

CIS 80-1285 Gunnarsson E., Söderberg I.
Visual display work in newspaper printing offices - Visual ergonomics inventory
Arbete vid textskärmar på tidningsföretag - En synergonomisk inventering [en sueco]
Contents of this report: development of computer-assisted tasks and consequences of the introduction of this technology; work presenting eye strain; layout of workplaces and work organisation; visual stress and eye disturbances (legibility of characters); distance and angle of vision; work spectacles and vision tests (poor adaptation for bifocal lens wearers); duration of work at terminal and work breaks (recommendations of the Swedish Board for Occupational Safety and Health).
Undersökningsrapport 1979:21, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1979. 39p. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 80-859 Magelli C., Vezzali N., Coccheri S.
Risk factors in the present-day graphics industry
I fattori di rischio nella moderna industria grafica [en italiano]
After a brief outline of printing techniques the chief hazards are described: noise, solvents (inks, cleaning cylinders, evaporation after printing), chemicals, dust, lead (no longer as important a hazard as in the past), microclimate, work organisation, accidents (printing press, chain-type sheet feeder). Proposals to improve the work environment and work organisation are made: typesetting, lithography, printing, binding.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, July-Aug. 1979, Vol.66, No.4, p.355-380. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 80-763 Veulemans H., Van Vlem E., Janssens H., Masschelein R.
Exposure to toluene and urinary hippuric acid excretion in a group of heliorotogravure printing workers.
The influence of a number of factors possibly affecting the relation between urinary hippuric acid excretion and the exposure level to toluene was studied in rotogravure printers. After 4h and 8h from the onset of exposure, the hippuric acid excretion rates (mg/min) were in better agreement with the average toluene air concentrations than either the urinary metabolite concentrations (mg/l) alone or corrected for urine density. Apart from differences in exposure level, a substantial proportion of the interindividual variability in hippuric acid excretion could be explained by differences in work load (and consequently in lung clearance for toluene) during exposure. Skin absorption of toluene is probably another factor influencing metabolite excretion. In agreement with previous findings, the hippuric acid excretion rate apparently does not depend on the time of urine sampling during exposure, provided that at least 4h have elapsed from the onset.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 1979, Vol.44, No.2, p.99-107. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 80-489 Jensen M., Roed-Petersen J.
Itching erythema among post office workers caused by a photocopying machine with wet toner.
Reports of irritation of the eyes and skin from several Danish post offices all led to suspicion of the photocopying machines used, especially when exposed to direct sunlight and ventilation was not sufficient. The composition of the toner was not known, and it was not possible to ascribe the symptoms to specific chemicals.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1979, Vol.5, No.6, p.389-391. 1 ref.

CIS 80-488 Dooms-Goossens A., Boyden B., Ceuterick A., Degreff H.
Dimethylthiourea, an unexpected hazard for textile workers.
The case is reported of a 24-year-old woman working as a fabric cutter who reacted to dimethylthiourea, an ancillary component of the diazo-sensitised paper used for copying cutting patterns, with conjunctivitis and erythematous itching dermatitis of the eyelids, nasal mucous membranes, and the corners of the mouth. Her dermatitis disappeared when she left the clothing industry.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1979, Vol.5, No.6, p.367-370. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 80-396 Carlsson L.
Light and lighting conditions for work at CRT terminals in newspaper printing works
Ljus och belysningskrav vid arbete med textskärmar på tidningsföretag [en sueco]
Report based on numerous workplace studies (composition and correction of texts and advertisements, editing at the terminal). Contents: definition of lighting terms; data concerning the workposts studied; problems linked to tasks, terminal workplace equipment, working environment and lighting; measurements taken (lighting distribution and location of luminaires, luminance measurement, subjective assessment of lighting conditions, tests to obtain optimum lighting of manuscript-holder); recommendations and proposals for daylight workplace lighting (vertical adjustable Venetian blinds), workplace design and layout (situation in relation to windows, choice of colours, etc.), general and local lighting (many examples); advice and checklists for new projects.
Tidningarnas arbetsmiljökommitté, Box 45136, 103 25 Stockholm, Sweden, 1979. 75p. Illus. 32 ref. Price: Swe-cr.29.85.

CIS 80-548 Koninck A.
Hazards of printing machines in the book trade
Les risques dus aux machines à imprimer dans l'industrie du livre. [en francés]
Communication to the Regional Joint Technical Committee for the Chemical Industry (Comité technique régional des industries chimiques), Lille, France. Brief statistical data; review of the principal hazards of photogravure rotary printing machines and preventive measures adopted within the industry or by the machine manufacturers. The hazards (toluene exposure, static electricity, nips, fire, explosions) are due to: solvents in inks, handling paper rolls, cylinders on the machines or when removed, auxiliary equipment, recovery of used solvents.
Prévention et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 1979, No.121, p.23-31. Illus.

CIS 80-572 Lortie M., Foret J., Teiger C., Laville A.
Circadian rhythms and behaviour of permanent nightworkers.
Study of rest/activity rhythms of 13 rotary printers on permanent nightshift (average experience 15.5 years). They reported during 1 week the hours of their sleep onset and of their meals, and their subjective appreciation of tiredness and mood. The average sleep duration (7.84h) can be compared with that of day workers and is fairly longer than the duration of day sleep of shiftworkers when they are on nightshift. This long sleep can be attributed to the early bedtime (around 05.00h) and an adjustment of biological rhythms to the schedule inversion. Other evidence (naps, meal time) supports the hypothesis of a physiological adjustment. The fragility of this adjustment is underlined.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 1979, Vol.44, No.1, p.1-11. 25 ref.

CIS 80-250 Supplement to safety requirements for three-roller printing ink mills.
This supplement, approved 9 Jan. 1979, is intended to clarify the sections of American Standard ANSI B177.1-1975 (CIS 76-858) concerning nip-point guards on 3-roller printing ink mills during the wash-up operation. It also assigns responsibility to the employer and operator for the provision and use of a nip-point guard. Examples of typical guards are illustrated.
ANSI B177.1a-1979, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 1979. 3p. Illus. Price: US-$2.25.

CIS 79-2054 Farmer D.
Industry survey: Printing.
This article gives a roundup of the occupational hazards encountered in the printing industry and refers to available guidance for safe working methods. Some statistics on accidents, and their causes, in printing works are followed by considerations on: machinery, fire and noise hazards; preventive measures (nip bars, interlock guards, inching devices; noise control).
Health and Safety at Work, Aug. 1979, p.22-24. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 79-2098 Saari J., Lahtela J.
Working conditions and accidents in the metalworking and printing industries
Arbetsförhållanden och olycksfall i metallprodukt- och grafisk industri [en sueco]
Report of a study undertaken to develop an accident theory for determining a theoretical basis for preventive measures. The study, which was designed especially to determine the interferences occurring in the information exchange between the worker and his environment, was carried out in 7 metalworking plants and 10 printing shops. All reported accidents and workplace situations were analysed over a 6-month period. During this time 130 accidents occurred in the metalworking plants and 54 in the printing shops. From all of these plants every sixth job was selected for job analysis. The development of new methods for evaluating the information exchange at the workplace requires further study of the working environment.
Report 9, Tampere University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Labor Protection, Tampere, Finland, 1979. 19p. 5 ref.

CIS 79-1649 Malten K.E., Bende W.J.M.
2-Hydroxyethyl - methacrylate and di- and tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate - Contact sensitizers in a photoprepolymer printing plate procedure.
The platemaking process is described. Five workers developed allergic contact dermatitis in spite of previous testing of the photoprepolymer mixture for contact sensitisation by the manufacturer. The cases are contrasted with another department where no dermatological problems occurred, and differences in working conditions and methods are pointed out. Preventive measures (working methods limiting exposure) are proposed. A list of 25 acrylic compounds that have caused sensitisation reactions is given, with references.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1979, Vol.5, No.4, p.214-220. Illus. 24 ref.

1978

CIS 79-1068 McCann M.
Needed: A closer look at arts and crafts.
This article reviews the occupational health (OH) problems of arts and craft workers in the USA, a growing body of workers totalling some 780,000 painters and sculptors, photolithography workers, art teachers, silk screen painters, commercial artists, stained glass window creators, etc. These are usually home workers, unorganised and uninformed about health precautions, and work very long hours (46% for more than 40h a week), often exposing themselves and their dependants to chemicals. Local exhaust ventilation is expensive for individual artists. An Art Hazards Information Center has been set up in the USA. Aspects covered include: benzene aplastic anaemia hazard in photolithography; toxic art materials used in silkscreening; lead, zinc chloride flux and silver nitrate hazards for stained glass window artists; woodworking hazards; suggested guidelines; information on personal protective equipment; insufficient warning on labels; role of OSHA Office of Toxic Substances; need for legislation requiring labelling describing specific health effects, toxicity rating, precautions and first aid instructions (materials at present sold without warning labels include asbestos, lead, uranium oxide, benzidine-type dyes, cadmium compounds and materials containing silica).
Job Safety and Health, Dec. 1978, Vol.6, No.8, p.20-23. Illus.

CIS 79-479 Guide to good practice for the safe handling of diazo compounds.
This guide is issued so that agreed rules with a view to controlling the hazards in handling diazo chemicals may be adopted in photocopying and that chemical manufacturers supplying the reprographic industry may achieve uniformity of methods of packaging and labelling acceptable to, and understood by, users. Definitions are followed by sections devoted to: nature and degree of hazard (light sensitivity, flammability when exposed to heat, possible formation of explosive vapour/air mixtures); safe practice recommendations and precautions; transport. Appendices: chemical structure of diazo compounds; a practical method of assessing degree of hazard; methods of determining the propagation of decomposition, once initiated; list of diazo compounds preferably held in diluted form; list of substances which may effectively reduce hazard when used as diluents; diazo compounds which are considered to be safe in storage without diluent admixture.
Drawing Office Material Manufacturers and Dealers Association (DOMMDA), 52-55 Carnaby Street, London W1V 1PF, United Kingdom, 1978. 23p. Illus. Price: £1.25.

CIS 79-555 Recommendations for work at cathode ray terminals
Aanbevelingen voor het werken aan beeldschermen [en holandés]
These are official recommendations from the Dutch Cathode Ray Terminal Work Study Commission (Central Bureau-Studiecommissie Bediening Beeldschermaparatur), concerning: exposure to ionising radiation (which is within international exposure limits for terminals used in the Dutch graphic industry); work posture and ergonomic terminal design (table and seat height, forearm angle, angle of vision, etc.); lighting and measures against reflective glare; legibility of displayed texts and those to be copied, screen luminance (optimum values for good contrast); periodic examinations of operators' visual function; rational work layout to prevent visual fatigue (limitation to 2h continuous work at terminal, etc.); functional lighting of colour of workplace; ergonomic keyboard design, etc.
Grafia, 5 Oct. 1978, Vol.24, No.19, p.469-470. Illus.

CIS 79-242 Soma R., Confortini C., Peruzzo G.F., Maddalon G., Alessio L.
Occupational exposure to printing ink aerosols - An environmental hygiene study
Esposizione professionale ad aerosoli di inchiostri da stampa - Indagine igienico ambientale [en italiano]
Aerosols of ink with a mineral oil content are produced during the operation of rotary printing presses. This study covers the rotary print section of a large Italian newspaper. The oils were separated qualitatively and quantitatively from the other ink components. The mean quantity of oil in the atmosphere was 4mg/m3, below the U.S. TLV. Granulometric analysis by phase contrast microscopy showed the respirable fraction to comprise about 5% of the airborne particles.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1978, Vol.69, No.4, p.507-513. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 79-250 Chatenet Y.
Photographers' working environment and occupational diseases
A propos des postes de travail et de la pathologie professionnelle des photographes [en francés]
MD thesis. An introduction consisting of historical background material and a chapter containing technical data on black-and-white and colour photography are followed by a study of workposts and working conditions in small photographic laboratories and in larger, more sophisticated mechanised laboratories. The author considers sources of contamination (before film processing and when using chemicals and other materials) and studies the occupational diseases to which photographic workers are exposed (mainly dermatoses - 10 case studies are given -, poisoning due to the vast number of photographic processing chemicals used (listed in an appendix with their synonyms, chemical formulae, trade names, etc.), damage to the eyes and respiratory tract, postural disorders, physical injuries due to accidents, electric shock, etc.). Other aspects considered include: occupational hygiene, medical prevention, personal protective equipment, statutory compensation covering occupational accidents and diseases, and cases where there is no provision in French law for entitlement to compensation.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unités d'enseignement et de recherche des sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1978. 194p. 93 ref.

CIS 79-241
GOST 12.2.031-78, State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet standartov), Moskva, 18 Apr. 1978.
Printing machinery and equipment - Safety rules
Oborudovanie poligrafičeskoe - Trebovanija bezopasnosti [en ruso]
This standard (entry into force: 1 Jan. 1980) lays down safety specifications to be met by machinery and equipment used in printing, plate-making and binding establishments: general rules for intrinsic safety at the design stage (machine guarding, emergency stop devices (layout and electrical interlocking with other controls), maximum effort required to operate pedals, electronic guards, 2-hand controls, etc.); special rules for typesetting, stereotyping, printing and binding; enforcement of the rules (compliance tests, periodic checks).
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, Moskva D-557, USSR, 1978. 9p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 78-1956 Malten K.E., Van der Meer-Roosen C.H., Seutter E.
Nyloprint-sensitive patients react to N,N'-methylenebis acrylamide.
The principles and hazards of photopolymer printing methods are described. 2 cases of occupational contact sensitisation to a component present on the Nyloprint photopolymer printing plate are reported. The product, which contains an acrylamide group, could not be identified chemically. Both patients showed group-specific reactions to N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. A series of questions is listed with a view to preventing contact between the worker and the photopolymer mixture on the plate.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1978, Vol.4, No.4, p.214-222. 19 ref.

CIS 78-1925 Allen R.J., Wadden R.A., Ross E.D.
Characterization of potential indoor sources of ozone.
Domestic electrostatic air cleaners, 2 photocopy machines, 2 electric typewriters and a portable electrostatic air cleaner were tested for potential ozone generation. Ozone emission from photocopying machines was 48-158µg per copy, giving rise to atmospheric ozone concentrations of up to 396µg/m3 (0.202ppm) in poorly ventilated premises. Days when outside concentrations are greater than 98µg/m3 (0.05ppm) are of particular concern. Maintenance of machines reduced ozone production to below detectable levels.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1978, Vol.39, No.6, p.466-471. 12 ref.

CIS 78-1742 Schmidt L., Schmidt A.
Printing and paper industry
Druck und Papier [en alemán]
This loose-leaf folder contains all the safety regulations in force in the Fed.Rep. of Germany concerning the design, construction, installation and use of machines, materials and production equipment for the printing and paper industries (in particular the 1968 Act respecting technical equipment in industry, and the safety regulations issued by the Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations). The 5th updating supplement comprises lists of standards and regulations, lists of TLVs and texts concerning test markings, electrical installations where there is an explosion hazard, guarding of presses, silos and hoppers, and reproduces directives of the Council of the European Communities concerning safety marking in workplaces. The texts of Convention 119 and Recommendation 118 of the International Labour Organisation are also reproduced, together with extracts from the Model Code of Safety Regulations prepared by the ILO.
Band 1, Schriftenreihe Maschinenschutz, Deutscher Frachschriften-Verlag, Felsenstrasse 23, 6200 Wiesbaden-Dotzheim, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 5th supplement, Feb. 1978. Vol.1, complete: 1400p. Price: DM.79.00

1977

CIS 79-1607 Moss C.E., Murray W.E., Parr W.H., Messite J., Karches G.J.
A report on electromagnetic radiation surveys of video display terminals.
This survey of a newspaper printing plant was undertaken to evaluate the hazards of the different types and models of CRT display terminals. Low energy X-rays, gamma, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, radiofrequency and microwave radiation are produced. The instruments used for the measurements, including luminance, and the terminals are described. A literature review and findings of a previous survey are given to complete the information on the subject. All results agree that the radiation levels produced do not appear capable of presenting an ocular radiation hazard. Cataract and eyestrain causes are in doubt.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-129, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Dec. 1977. 20p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 79-254 Training for health and safety.
An introduction on the cost of occupational accidents and diseases and the role of the Printing and Publishing Industry Training Board is followed by sections devoted to: the Health and Safety at Work Act, 1974 (CIS 74-2099); drafting a company health and safety policy (safety organisation, hazard control, industrial hygiene, inspection, training); assessing safety training needs (induction, job or skill training, management training, including safety specialists); training specific groups of employees; hazard spotting and accident prevention; motivation through involvement; monitoring performance and record-keeping; safety representatives; legislation; safety committees. A model plan for action is given (synoptic table). Appendices: sources of advice and assistance; courses, reading material and films on health and safety; list of regulations, notification forms and registers of equipment, required to be kept or displayed by companies.
Training Guide 6, Printing and Publishing Industry Training Board, Merit House, Edgware Road, London NW9 5AG, United Kingdom, Mar. 1977. 52p. Illus. 120 ref.

CIS 78-1740 Safety requirements for printing ink vertical post mixers.
This safety standard lays down requirements for safety devices and operating procedures for vertical post mixers used in the manufacture of printing inks. Definitions are followed by sections devoted to: mixer guarding; power transmission equipment and mixer safety switches for nonturnable and turnable mixers; general safety procedures and requirements; safety methods for washing out mixers; housekeeping; employer's responsibilities; instructions for personnel (no unbuttoned cuffs, loose clothing, ties, long hair, etc.).
ANSI B177.2-1977, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 8 Aug. 1977. 7p. Price: US-$3.00.

CIS 78-1748 Dibié J., Hébert R., Ravier C., Smagghe G., Targowla D., Vicente P., Fillassier G.
Photography
La photographie. [en francés]
The first part of this article covers technical aspects of photographic processes; this is followed by a round-up of the hazards encountered in black-and-white and colour photographic processes (hazard of skin or respiratory irradiation or eye damage due to the chemicals used), in photoengraving for intaglio printing (noise of graining process, silicosis hazard in pumicing of plates, chemical hazards, ultraviolet radiation during exposure to light of sensitised plates), in infrared and ultraviolet photography and in the use of ionising radiation. Brief review of pertinent French legislation.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 1977, Vol.17, No.67, p.41-78. 39 ref.

CIS 78-935 Three-knife flatbed trimmers.
Industrial uses; description (hand-feed trimmers, semi-automatic feed trimmers); hazards (repeat stroke, cutter clamp pressure, etc.); precautions (guards and trip devices; strict supervision; use of fully automatic models); maintenance; locking devices when guards are raised for adjustment or maintenance.
Data Sheet 505, Revision B, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 4p. Illus.

CIS 78-1159 Employee health and safety in the lithographic printing industry
This booklet describes the hazards common in the industry and methods of avoiding them, under the following heads: mechanical hazards and preventive measures (guarding of nip points, personal protective measures, lockout devices, materials handling and storage); fire prevention; chemical hazards (organic solvents, platemaking chemicals, ink and oil mists, gases and fumes); noise and hearing protection; and light hazards (ultraviolet and infrared radiation).
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-223, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Aug. 1977. 69p. Illus.

CIS 78-555 Malten K.E.
Letterflex photoprepolymer sensitization in newspaper printers due to pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) and 3-mercaptopropionic acid.
The Letterflex urethane photoprepolymer mixture contains 8 components. The substances mentioned in the title gave positive reactions in 5 patients with contact allergic dermatitis. Two systems (one semi-, one fully automatic) used are described; precautions in the handling of these chemicals are recommended, above all with reference to the soiling of the back of the carrier plate, even of the fully automatic system, by the uncured mixture, which then spreads to workers' hands.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1977, Vol.3, No.5, p.257-262. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 78-474 Emmett E.A.
Contact dermatitis from polyfunctional acrylic monomers.
Report on 5 of 26 men formulating radiation drying printing ink, who developed eczematous dermatitis. Positive patch tests were obtained with pentaerythritol triacrylate and trimethylolpropane triacrylate. All cases showed cross-sensitisation to dipentaerythritol pentaacrylate. One employee appeared to have developed irritant dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1977, Vol.3, No.5, p.245-248. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 78-554 Čiževskij I.M.
Occupational safety and health manual for the printing industry
Ohrana truda v poligrafii [en ruso]
Contents of this handbook: legislation, responsibilities, inspection; organisation of occupational safety and health services; analysis of conditions of work and accident causes; microclimate and air pollution control; ventilation, heating; protection against ionising radiation; noise and vibration control; daylight and artificial lighting; workplace design; safety engineering (development or choice of safe processes, ergonomic design and built-in safety of machinery, guards and other protective devices, electrical safety, elimination of static electricity, protection against electromagnetic fields, safety of pressure vessels, manual and mechanical handling); fire hazards, fire prevention and fire fighting methods.
Izdatel'stvo "Kniga", ul. Neždanovoj 8-10, Moskva K-9, USSR, 1977. 288p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: Rbl.1.03.

CIS 78-421 Övrum P., Hultengren M., Lindqvist T.
Exposure and uptake of toluene in man in a photogravure printing industry - Personal air sampling, direct reading physical instruments and biological sampling
Exposition för toluen och upptag i kroppen vid arbete i ett djuptryckeri - Personburen provtagning, direktvisande instrument och biologisk provtagning [en sueco]
There was no appreciable difference between exposure determined by personal air sampling or stationary direct-reading instruments. Toluene uptake could be estimated by alveolar air sampling during and after exposure, but there was no correlation with the concentration in inspired air. There was a correlation between concentrations in alveolar air and in blood. Uptake was enough to cause a risk of central nervous system disturbances. No change was observed in daily toluene uptake with time in percent of a given amount. Measurements of alveolar air concentrations during, and not after, exposure are recommended.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1977:4, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1977. 36p. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 78-178 Funes-Cravioto F., Kolmodin-Hedman B., Lindsten J., Nordenskjöld M., Zapata-Gayon C., Lambert B., Norberg E., Olin R., Swensson Å.
Chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchange in workers in chemical laboratories and a rotoprinting factory and in children of women laboratory workers.
Cultured lymphocytes from 73 chemical and printing industry workers had a significantly increased frequency of chromatid and isochromatid breaks compared with controls. A similar increase was found in 14 children of 11 women who had worked in laboratories during pregnancy. There was a significant relation between age and aberration frequency in the children. The frequency of sister-chromatid exchange was significantly increased in 12 technicians performing hormone analysis and in 4 children of 2 women technicians.
Lancet, 13 Aug. 1977, Vol.2, No.8033, p.322-325. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 78-131 Calas E., Castelain P.Y., Raulot-Lapointe H., Ducos P., Cavelier C., Duprat P., Poitou P.
Allergic contact dermatitis to a photopolymerizable resin used in printing.
The Letterflex process, a new development in newspaper printing, is described. Analysis of the resin yielded 2% additives (benzophenone and di-tert-butyl-p-cresol) and the main constituents (1) a polyene derived from tolylene diisocyanate and an alkyl either derivative of a polyol, and (2) a polythiol ester composed of pentaerythritol and mercaptopropionic acid. 12 of the 15 workers handling the resin had skin lesions. Patch tests and biopsies showed the polythiol to act as a skin sensitiser, confirmed by animal experiments.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1977, Vol.3, No.4, p.186-194. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 77-1647 Emmett E.A., Kominsky J.R.
Allergic contact dermatitis from ultraviolet cured inks.
Report on clinical features and results of patch tests in 8 men employed in the manufacture of ultraviolet-cured inks who developed allergic contact dermatitis, predominantly on exposed areas. They were sensitive to one or several of trimethylolpropane triacrylate, 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate, pentaerythritol triacrylate, and epoxy acrylate oligomers. It is not established whether multiple reactions were due to cross-sensitisation or concomitant exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1977, Vol.19, No.2, p.113-115. 12 ref.

CIS 77-1616 Triebig G., Schaller K.H., Erzigkeit H., Valentin H.
Biochemical and psychological studies in persons with long-term exposure to trichloroethylene with reference to exposure-free intervals
Biochemische Untersuchungen und psychologische Studien an chronisch Trichloräthylen-belasteten Personen unter Berücksichtigung expositionsfreier Intervalle [en alemán]
Examination of 8 persons who were occupationally exposed to about 50ppm (260mg/m3) trichloroethylene (the TLV in the Fed.Rep. of Germany) in a printing shop is reported. The purpose of the psychological examinations was to clarify mental function changes correspnding to a "psycho-organic syndrome". In spite of proved incorporation of solvent, no signs of CNS changes were found. Biochemical analysis showed large interindividual variations of trichloroethylene, trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid levels in blood and urine and a fall in concentrations after exposure-free intervals. The level of 250mg trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid per gram of creatinine, under discussion as an acceptable biological TLV in occupational medicine, was exceeded in all cases. It is proposed to increase it to 300-350mg total metabolites per gram of creatinine. The results are compared with other reports.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 28 Jan. 1977, Vol.38, No.3, p.149-162. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 77-1456 Calas E., Castelain P.Y., Raulot-Lapointe H., Cavelier C., Ducos P., Dupart P., Gaudin R., Limasset J.C., Marignac B., Poitou P.
Sensitisation eczema due to allergic effect of a resin used in the printing trade
Eczémas de sensibilisation à une résine utilisée en imprimerie. [en francés]
On the rotary presses used for printing major daily newspapers, the metal plates are more and more frequently replaced by flexible stereos of photopolymerisable resins. Cases of eczema have been observed with a process of this type (Letterflex process). A field investigation completed by clinical examinations incriminated one of the resin components, pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate). Experiments made with guinea-pigs confirmed the highly allergenic character of this product. Preventive measures: automation of plate preparation process and handling of the resin; installation of efficient local exhaust ventilation; personal hygiene; use of frequently disposable gloves.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1977, No.87, Note No.1060-87-77, p.219-224. 6 ref.

1976

CIS 78-1741 Mahe-Bigotte A.
Resins used in printing: intolerance phenomena and prevention
Les résines d'imprimerie: phénomènes d'intolérance et prévention. [en francés]
MD thesis. The use of light-sensitive plastic resin plates on rotary presses has given rise to interolerance to plastics among operators. A general section on the main printing techniques, eczema and irritative dermatitis, and plastic resins, is followed by a report on an occupational health survey at a large newspaper printers employing the letterflex process: machines and mode of operation, nature of the resin and allergological study. A polythiol in the resin was found to be responsible for the allergy. 17 cases of skin and respiratory intolerance are presented, and similar phenomena were sought in other printing shops and using other procedures (Nyloprint, acrylics, polyurethanes). The symptoms were controlled by prevention measures: push-pull ventilation, maintenance of constant temperature and humidity in the workshop, use of protective gloves and barrier creams, showers after work.
Faculté de médecine de Marseille, Marseille, France, 1976, p.85. Illus. 84 ref.

CIS 77-1160 Schmidt L., Schmidt A.
Printing and paper industry
Druck und Papier [en alemán]
This loose-leaf folder contains all the safety regulations in force in the Fed. Rep. of Germany concerning the design, construction, installation and use of machines, materials and production equipment for the printing and paper industries (in particular the 1968 Act respecting technical equipment in industry, and the safety regulations issued by the Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations). The 4th updating supplement comprises texts concerning eye protection, eccentric presses, pressure jet apparatus, industrial trucks, electropolishing, health protection of workers employed in electroplating, plastics converting, paint drying ovens, noise control, TLVs, epoxy resins, polyesters and vinyl chloride. The texts of Convention 119 and Recommendation 118 of the International Labour Organisation are also reproduced, together with extracts from the Model Code of Safety Regulations prepared by the ILO.
Band 1, Schriftenreihe Maschinenschutz, Deutscher Fachschriften-Verlag, Felsenstrasse 23, 6200 Wiesbaden-Dotzheim, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 4th supplement, Nov. 1976, Vol.1, whole book: 1350p. Price: DM.79.00.

CIS 77-859 Chalfine R.
Some photocopying techniques - Products used - Toxicology - Protection measures
A propos de certains procédés de reprographie - Produits utilisés - Toxicologie - Prévention. [en francés]
MD thesis dealing with the hazards associated with thermography, diazo copying and electrostatic copying. After a technical introduction, 3 cases of occupational disease are reported with a review of the few cases found in the literature (allergic skin conditions due especially to diethylaminobenzenediazonium chloride, and respiratory disturbances mainly due to ammonia). The small number of such cases contrasts with the large number of toxic products employed, and a long chapter is devoted to this. The techniques studied thus do not seem to present a great hazard for users. But whatever technique is used protective measures are necessary. These are based on the choice of premises and personnel, personal protection, and supervision of personnel and the workplace atmosphere. In view of the trend towards specialised photocopying units, acutely and chronically toxic substances should be subject to strict controls. The refusal of manufacturers to divulge the chemical composition of their products presents a serious problem.
Université de Paris-Sud, Faculté de médecine Paris-Sud, Paris, France, 1976. 87p. 18 ref.

CIS 77-758 Beurey J., Mougeolle J.M., Weber M.
Skin disorders due to acrylic resins in the printing industry
Accidents cutanés des résines acryliques dans l'imprimerie. [en francés]
Progress in printing technology has permitted lead to be replaced by photopolymer resins, which allow production of printing plates that can be used either in conventional rotary presses or the offset process. Adoption of the method in the printing shop of a large newspaper caused several cases of skin disorder among printing workers, in the form of bullous dermatitis, which are described, within two weeks. Allergological studies involved visiting the workshops, chemical identification of the resin responsible (tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), and experimental reproduction of the lesions. Use of tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate obviated these effects, as a study based on 300 allergy tests proved.
Annales de dermatologie et de syphiligraphie, 1976, Vol.103, No.4, p.423-430. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 77-858
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, July 1976.
Safety rules for screen process printing
Sicherheitsregeln für Siebdruckanlagen [en alemán]
These rules apply to the construction and equipment (rating plate, operating instructions, danger points, guards, controls, explosion protection) and use of screen process printing machines.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1976. 10p.

CIS 76-2048 Kingsley K.
Toxicologic and cancerogenic evaluation of chemicals used in the graphic arts industries.
This literature survey covers epidemiologic reports concerning elevated cancer incidence in the printing industry. In addition, a carcinogenic assessment was made of the chemicals found in surveys of the occupational environments of 25 printing and printing ink formulating companies. Many compounds and their toxicity are tabulated. The cancer risks of inks and dyes, solvents, and studies of personnel are discussd. Lead, ammonia and polymers are briefly discussed separately.
Clinical Toxicology, 1976, Vol.9, No.3, p.359-390. 197 ref.

1975

CIS 77-245 Occupational health rules for work with photopolymers in printing works
Skyddsåtgärder vid arbete med fotopolymeriserande substanser i tryckerier [en sueco]
Brief description of the principle of the photopolymer plastic plate used in printing, followed by comments on the attendant health hazards of exposure to allergens and rinsing agents such as sodium hydroxide (after hardening of the plate). These directives recommend: replacing of harmful substances by more innocuous ones; local exhaust ventilation at exposed workplaces; enclosure of pressurised water spray washing and fan drying installations; protection against ultraviolet radiation during contact-exposure of plate and negative; exclusion of hypersensitive persons from work with allergens; strict bodily hygiene; skin protection, wearing of personal protective clothing and gloves. Cleaning rags should be discarded after use; personnel should be warned against skin contact with allergens.
Meddelanden 1975:6, National Swedish Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 11 Feb. 1975. 6p. Gratis.

CIS 76-1967 Gribova I.A., Zorina L.A., Sorkina N.S.
Reticuloendothelial status of workers exposed to toluene
Sostojanie sistema krovi u rabočih, imejuščih kontakt s toluolom [en ruso]
Statistical analysis of some 8,000 examinations of peripheral blood samples over a period of 5 years in 396 workers exposed to toluene contained in photogravure inks. The toluene vapour concentrations were 10-30 times the Soviet TLV (50mg/m3). The effect of toluene on the blood is very different from that of benzene. Sternal puncture in 20 cases revealed evidence of erythropoietic and thrombopoietic disturbances. The haematological changes seen in the early years of exposure did not worsen subsequently.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1975, No.10, p.6-10. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 76-2047 Parisot S.
Hazards of wallpaper manufacture
Les risques dans la fabrication du papier peint. [en francés]
Communication submitted to the Regional Joint Technical Committee for the Chemical Industry (Lille, France). Analysis of hazards and their prevention at each manufacturing stage according to the procedure employed (traditional, photogravure or flexographic printing): storage of paper; preparation of inks (falling into the mixer; dragging of the upper limbs by the mixer rotor or the pigment grinder); placing the paper on the reel; printing (crushing by the rolls and gear train; cutting by the doctor blade); web slitting (cutting hazard); drying (falls from heights with closed dryer, and heat exposure with open dryer); reeling, packing and storage; miscellaneous operations (embossing, waste recovery). Sections are devoted to the poisoning hazards from solvent vapours in photogravure or flexographic printing and protection against fire and explosion hazards. The author stresses the seriousness of accidents caused by roll machines and the necessity of training and informing personnel.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 14 Oct. 1975. 21p. Illus. 5 ref. Gratis.

CIS 76-1314 Angerer J., Kassebart V., Szadkowski D., Lehnert G.
Chronic occupational exposure to solvents - III. A gas chromatographic method for the determination of hippuric acid in serum
Chronische Lösungsmittelbelastung am Arbeitsplatz - III. Eine gaschromatographische Methode zur Bestimmung von Hippursäure im Serum [en alemán]
The principle of the method is that serum hippuric acid together with the internal standard of 3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid are converted into the corresponding methyl esters with diazomethane and determined as such by gas chromatography. The detection limit of about 0.6mg hippuric acid in 1l serum permits determination in the serum of toluene-exposed workers as well as that of normal persons. The applicability of the method is demonstrated in 8 unexposed persons and in 98 toluene exposed workers from a printing shop. (Part I:CIS 2697-1973; Part II:CIS 74-0146).
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 2 May 1975, Vol.34, No.3, p.199-207. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 76-950 Kappenberger L., Bühlmann A.A.
Lung changes due to rare earth
Lungenveränderungen durch "Seltene Erden" [en alemán]
Description of 3 cases of reproduction photographers with over 30 years of exposure to arc lamp fumes: pathology, clinical data and laboratory test findings, respiratory function, radiological picture, anthropospectrometry. Chest radiographs showed milliary or linear opacities in the median fields. Case history, anthropospectrometry and, in one case, biopsy, confirmed the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis due to rare earths and thorium. The observations made show that this type of pneumoconiosis shows no definite disease progression and no serious functional deterioration.
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift - Journal suisse de médecine, 20 Dec. 1975, Vol.105, No.51, p.1799-1801. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 76-481 Gaydos J.C., Morrison A.S.
Study of abnormal laboratory findings in workers exposed to diazo developer chemicals.
Report on studies in 9 men at an Armed Forces Station in whom signs of liver disease (elevated serum bilirubin and relative eosinophilia, dark urine) were found on medical examination. The only common factor appeared to be work near a copying machine which used a diazo developing process involving phenolic compounds (hydroquinone and resorcinol had been reported to cause liver abnormalities) and several other substances. Study was extended to 4 further centres: the strongest association observed was between mixing the diazo developer powder and relative eosinophilia. The relationship appears to be confined to laboratory results as distinct from clinical illness, but its nature is unclear.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1975, Vol.17, No.8, p.502-505. 4 ref.

CIS 76-545 Prevention of occupational accidents and diseases in the printing industry
Prévention des accidents du travail et des maladies professionnelles dans les industries du livre. [en francés]
This brochure, made up of 15 separate sections in the form of unbound signatures, comprises a number of updated recommendations adopted in France by the National Joint Technical Committee for the Printing Industry, dealing with: general measures (mechanical hazards, falls, machine controls and signals, outdated equipment, poisoning hazards, etc.); measures to be taken in the use of certain machines (platen or cylinder letterpress machines; printing machines - offset; gravure; silk-screen printing; gold-leafing and blocking presses; punch presses; trimmers; shears; baling presses); poisoning hazards in gravure printing. Appendices: 2-hand controls, electronic guards, hazards due to solvents, safety instructions, list of relevant French legislation and regulations.
Edition INRS n°470, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Jan. 1975. 194p. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 76-544 Carmo A., Lopes M.E., Bidarra A., Correira M.
Prevention of occupational accidents and diseases in the graphic industry
Prevenção de acidentes de trabalho e doenças profissionais na indústria gráfica [en portugués]
Profusely illustrated manual intended for the use of safety officers in the printing industry. Contents: Part 1: occupational accidents (statistics, causes, Portuguese legislation); work environment; personal protection; guarding of machines and tools; electrical hazards; occupational diseases (poisoning, allergy, dermatitis, etc.) and role of the plant physician; fire protection; materials handling; safety committees; occupational hygiene; physical and nervous fatigue. Part 2: training of safety personnel (organisation of training courses, exercises, communication techniques, audio-visual methods, aptitudes required of safety personnel, formation of safety teams). Training material, model time-tables, and test questions are appended.
Imprensa Nacional de Angola, Luanda, Angola, 1975. 390p. Illus. 176 ref.

CIS 75-1763 Conynck G.
Safety and health in offset printing, metal, paper, paperboard
L'hygiène et la sécurité dans l'imprimerie offset, métal, papier, carton. [en francés]
This article describes the principle hazards of offset printing machines (crushing, shear) and the appropriate safety measures (wire mesh and other types of screens, guards, etc., 2-handed controls), hazards due to the nature of the material printed on (metal, paper, paperboard) and the precautions to be adopted, and the general hazard encountered in offset printing works (falls, materials handling accidents, environmental hazards - inadequate lighting, noise -, occupational diseases - benzene poisoning, dermatitis, hearing loss -, fire) and the corresponding preventive measures.
Prévention et sécurité du travail, 1st quarter 1975, No.103, p.23-31. Illus.

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