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  • Surface treatment

1992

CIS 93-254 Prescott E., Netterstrřm B., Faber J., Hegedüs L., Suadicani P., Christensen J.M.
Effect of occupational exposure to cobalt blue dyes on the thyroid volume and function of female plate painters
The effect of industrial cobalt exposure on thyroid volume and function was determined for 61 female plate painters exposed to cobalt blue dyes in two Danish porcelain factories and 48 unexposed referents. Thyroid volume was determined by ultrasonography. The cobalt blue dyes were used in one of two forms, cobalt aluminate (insoluble) and cobalt-zinc silicate (semisoluble). Only the subjects exposed to semisoluble cobalt had a significantly increased urinary cobalt content (1.17µg.mmol-1 versus 0.13µg.mmol-1, p<0.0001). These subjects also had increased levels of serum thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4I) (p=0.0001 and 0.0029, respectively) unaltered serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and marginally reduced 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), whereas thyroid volume tended to be lower (p=0.14). The group exposed to insoluble cobalt did not differ significantly in any thyroid-related parameters. No correlation between urinary cobalt and FT4I or thyroid volume was found. The study demonstrates an effect of cobalt on thyroid hormone metabolism.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.18, No.2, p.101-104. 17 ref.

CIS 93-239 Damstra R.J., van Vloten W.A., van Ginkel C.J.W.
Allergic contact dermatitis from the preservative 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (1,2-BIT; Proxel®): A case report, its prevalence in those occupationally at risk and in the general dermatological population, and its relationship to allergy to its analogue Kathon® CG
Occupational contact allergy to 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (1,b-BIT, Proxel®) is analysed. This compound is widely used in industry as a preservative in water-based solutions such as pastes, paints and cutting oils. The optimal concentration for patch testing proved to be 0.4g/L (0.04%) in water. In 4 out of 17 patients (23%) at occupational risk (painters, paper-hangers), contact allergy to 1,2-BIT was found. Of 556 consecutive dermatological patients without clear occupational risk, 10 (1.8%) showed positive patch tests to 1,2-BIT; in 3 patients 1,2-BIT contact allergy was related to domestic paper-hanging. Although the chemical structure of 1,2-BIT shows some analogy with the preservative Kathon® CG true cross-sensitivity was found to be unlikely.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1992, Vol.27, No.2, p.105-109. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 92-923 Peltier A., Guillemin C., Gendre J.C., Stempfer J.C., Pellé-Duporté D., Schmitt J.P.
Study of the solubility of lead compounds used in glazing workshops
Etude de la solubilité des composés du plomb utilisés dans les ateliers d'émaillage [en francés]
This document assesses the state of research into the toxicity of industrial products containing lead compounds (lead silicates or "lead frits" as used in ceramic glazes, for example). Present findings are insufficient for any significant conclusions regarding the danger of these products. It is possible, however, to envisage the development of a large-scale toxicological study.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.146, Note No.1870-146-92, p.43-50. Illus. 14 ref.

1991

CIS 97-1298 Lista de control para la industria de tratamiento de superficies
Checklista för ytbehandlingsindustrin [en sueco]
Esta lista de control con fines de seguridad está destinada a la industria de tratamiento de superficies e incluye 94 puntos sobre los siguientes temas: entrada de existencias y lugares de almacenamiento; tratamiento por lotes; pulimentado; ventilación; manipulación de piezas independientes; plantas de purificación; desengrasado con la ayuda de solventes; otras cuestiones.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Suecia, 1991. 10p.

CIS 95-2093 Pińa-Calva A., Madrigal-Bujaidar E., Fuentes M.V., Neria P., Perez-Lucio C., Velez-Zamora N.M.
Incremento de la frecuencia de aberraciones cromosómicas entre los pintores de vagones de trenes
Increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in railroad car painters [en inglés]
Estudio realizado en México en 25 pintores de vagones de trenes y 25 controles.
Archives of Environmental Health, nov.-déc. 1991, Vol.46, No.6, p.335-339. 38 ref. ###

CIS 94-1997 Borsdorf H., Will W., Zober A.
Chronic hydrocyanic acid and cyanide intoxications due to electroplating operations?
Chronische Blausäure- und Cyanidvergiftungen durch Galvanikarbeiten? [en alemán]
After one month of exposure to potassium cyanide and hydrocyanic acid during electroplating operations, a worker developed dyspnoea, nausea, vertigo, dizziness and irregular heartbeat. He was diagnosed as suffering from chronic hydrocyanic acid poisoning. The literature was studied to verify the diagnosis and its relation to electroplating work. The clinical symptoms agreed with cases reported in the literature. Extremely unfavourable conditions during electroplating combined with smoking and ingestion of cyanide-containing food may produce chronic hydrocyanide poisoning.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Jan. 1991, Vol.26, No.1, p.12-16. 19 ref.

CIS 93-2013 Luna Mendaza P.
Tratamientos electrolíticos: riesgos higiénicos
Contents of this information note on electrolytic treatment: basic concepts (electropolishing, electrolytic metal coating, anodising); health hazards; risks factors, including current density, temperature, acidity and agitation of the electrolytic bath; preventive measures, involving local exhaust and personal protective equipment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, C/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 93-1539 Welch L.S., Plotkin E., Schrader S.
Indirect fertility analysis in painters exposed to ethylene glycol ethers: Sensitivity and specificity
Semen analysis has proven useful in the clinical diagnosis of infertility and is the most widely used method of monitoring the effects of occupational exposure on male fertility. Collection and analysis of semen samples in a field setting, however, is not always feasible. Techniques of monitoring male worker fertility using questionnaires to avoid some of the difficulties of semen analysis have been developed. These methods compare the rate of observed births for wives of workers with expected birth rates derived either from U.S. fertility tables or from unexposed workers. The present study compares the sensitivity of this questionnaire method with that of semen analysis in an evaluation of reproductive function in men exposed to ethylene glycol ethers. The reproductive function of 74 married painters exposed to ethylene glycol ethers was compared with that of 51 married controls employed at a shipyard. The groups differed in sperm count, but the questionnaire method showed no effect of exposure on fertility. This analysis suggests that the questionnaire assessment of fertility is less sensitive than semen analysis as a screening tool for male reproductive function.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.20, No.2, p.229-240. 27 ref.

CIS 93-521
Alberta Painters and Decorators Association
Awareness of chronic painters syndrome
The Alberta Painters and Decorators Association conducted a questionnaire survey in 1991 to determine the awareness among painters and decorators of the hazards of their trade. The respondents (n=260) comprised 145 employers and 100 individual painters. The questionnaire prompted respondents to volunteer their information needs and to recommend methods of delivery. Other questions related to motivational factors in inducing painters to use the information and to change their behaviour. Based on the survey results, the most important topics to the respondents were: health hazards of paints and solvents; how chemicals are absorbed into the body; health and safety legislation about the painting trade. It was found that health professionals would be the most trusted source of information.
Alberta Occupational Health and Safety, Heritage Grant Program, 10709 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, 1991. 13p. + 2p.

CIS 93-597 Verma D.K., Shaw D.S.
An evaluation of airborne nickel, zinc, and lead exposure at hot dip galvanizing plants
Industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at three hot dip galvanising plants to determine occupational exposure to nickel, zinc, and lead. All three plants employed the "dry process" and used 2% nickel, by weight, in their zinc baths. A total of 32 personal and area air samples were taken. The air samples were analysed for nickel, zinc, and lead. Some samples were also analysed for various species of nickel (i.e., metallic, soluble, and oxidic). The airborne concentrations observed for nickel and its three species, zinc, and lead at the three plants were all well below the current and proposed threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1991, Vol.52, No.12, p.511-515. 15 ref.

CIS 92-1924
Centro de Experimentación y Seguridad Vial (MAPFRE, Avila, Spain)
Seguridad e higiene en talleres de repintado de automóviles
The importance of prevention, including personal protection measures, for workers who perform painting in automobile repair shops is discussed. Explosions and fires, and contamination by substances hazardous to health are identified as major hazards in painting areas. To this effect, preventive measures are recommended. In particular, the following prevention methods against fires and explosions are recommended: reduction of the inflammation sources and availability of fire-fighting equipment. Safety signs as a constant reminder of the hazards and the use of personal protective equipment are discussed.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 1991, No.44, p.15-21. Illus.

CIS 92-914 Demers R.Y., Markell B.L., Wabeke R.
Peripheral vibratory sense deficits in solvent-exposed painters
Peripheral neuropathy, as exhibited by the decrease in vibratory sense, is believed to be one of the manifestations of the peripheral nervous effects of solvent exposure. A solvent-exposed group of commercial painters (n=28) was compared with a nonexposed group of boilermakers (n=20) for differences in vibrotactile sensitivity. Differences in vibrotactile measurements of upper and lower extremities were compared between the two groups. Painters had lower vibration perception in all four extremities with statistically significant differences noted in four of seven analytical categories. Findings from this study suggest there are significant vibration perception differences between the studied painters and boilermakers and these differences are likely to be associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.33, No.10, p.1051-1054. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 92-503 Safety and health measures for electrostatic painting - Report of the Research and Study Committee
Seiden tosō sagyō ni okeru anzen eisei taisaku. Chōsa kenkyū i-inkai hōkokusho [en japonés]
This report details major risks involved in electrostatic painting, particularly electric shock, fire, explosion and poisoning risks, and recommends standards for safety and health measures. It also provides detailed recommendations on countermeasures against static electricity, a major cause of fire and explosion accidents. The report offers 3 sets of standards "Safety and Health Standards for Facilities", "Safety and Health Standards for Work" and "Standards for Checking and Maintaining Facilities." These standards include specific measures and accident examples and related matters to make the document a comprehensive guidebook for safety and health control in electrostatic painting work. The document is very useful not only for workplaces where electrostatic painting is currently used, but for those planning to introduce the process as well.
Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1 Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, Mar. 1991. 244p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 92-568
Royal Society of Chemistry
Long-term neurotoxic effects of paint solvents
This report reviews available epidemiological studies on exposure to paint solvents and discusses the claim that long-term occupational exposure to such solvents induces the development of a chronic cerebral disease. It is concluded that painters are exposed to a variety of solvents in vapour and liquid form as well as to a variety of other paint ingredients and contaminants such as lead and cadmium pigments. White spirit is the main solvent implicated in reports of adverse effects on painters. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that the existence of a chronic pre-senile dementia due to cumulative exposure to paint solvents cannot be ruled out.
Commission of the European Communities, Bâtiment Jean Monnet, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1991. 35p. 47 ref.

CIS 92-203 Hunting K.L., Matanoski G.M., Larson M., Wolford R.
Solvent exposure and the risk of slips, trips, and falls among painters
This study evaluated risk factors for injurious and non-injurious slips, trips, and falls (STFs) among painters and investigated the hypothesis that exposure to solvents influenced the risk of such accidents. Exposure to potentially hazardous environmental conditions was significantly related to the occurrence of STFs during a week. Low solvent exposure during a week significantly increased the occurrence of slips, trips, and falls compared to no exposure. Moderate and high weekly exposure were not associated with increased risk, however. Week-to-week variability in the amount of solvent exposure was a strong positive predictor of STFs. Further analysis showed that both increases and decreases in solvent exposure between the preceding 2 weeks and the week of the STF were positively related to the risk of such events. The strongest effect was observed for exposure increases over the preceding 2 weeks. The results suggest that solvent exposure variability may increase accident risk, and possible explanations are explored.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1991, Vol.20, No.3, p.353-370. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 92-183 Brown S.K., Angelopoulos M.
Evaluation of erosion release and suppression of asbestos fibers from asbestos building products
Test methods have been developed to measure the release of asbestos fibres from the surface of a range of asbestos building products when subjected to an airstream (air erosion) or to light brush contact (brush erosion). The tests allowed discrimination of differences in fibre release from the products and assessment of the effectiveness of encapsulants in suppressing fibre release. Application of "good" encapsulants (by using tough binders and optimum application rates) reduced fibre release to very low or nondetectable levels for all products tested.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1991, Vol.52, No.9, p.363-371. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 92-232 Wadden R.A., Hawkins J.L., Scheff P.A., Franke J.E.
Characterization of emission factors related to source activity for trichloroethylene degreasing and chrome plating processes
Four metal surface treatment processes were evaluated at an automotive parts fabrication plant during production conditions. The evaluation provides examples of how to estimate process emission factors from activity and air concentration data. The processes were open and enclosed tank degreasing with trichloroethylene (TCE), chromium conversion coating, and chromium electroplating. Area concentrations of TCE and chromium (Cr) were monitored, and source activities at each process were recorded. The emission factors obtained from regression analysis of the emission rate and activity data were 16.9g TCE/basket of parts for the open top degreaser; 1.0g TCE/1000 parts for the enclosed degreaser; 1.48-1.64mg Cr/1000 parts processed in the hot CrO3/HNO3 tank for the chrome conversion coating; and 5.35-9.17mg Cr/rack of parts for chrome electroplating. The factors were also used to determine the efficiency of collection for the local exhaust systems serving each process.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1991, Vol.52, No.9, p.349-356. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 92-126 Myslak Z.W., Bolt H.M., Brockmann W.
Tumors of the urinary bladder in painters: A case-control study
In a case-control study, 403 male patients with a diagnosis of "bladder tumour" and (as controls) 426 patients suffering from prostate disease were investigated. Past employment as a painter was associated with an excess risk of bladder tumour. The relative risk of bladder tumour estimated for painters was 2.76. The possible role of benzidine-based azo dyes (or azo dyes based on substituted benzidines) as a carcinogenic risk factor for painters is discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1991, Vol.19, No.6, p.705-713. 57 ref.

CIS 92-86
Institutet för Vatten- och Luftvĺrdsforskning
The environment and surface treatment in baths
Miljön vid ytbehandling i bad [en sueco]
Training manual. Surface treatment processes involving immersion in baths include cleaning, pickling, chemical transformation and coating. Part 1 of this guide for enterprises is a checklist covering the physical plant, operations and personnel of a surface treatment facility. Part 2 provides explanations of each point on the checklist. Part 3 contains background information on physical, chemical and mechanical hazards to the health and safety of workers, and on the environmental consequences of improper operation of surface treatment facilities.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 345, 641 23 Katrineholm, Sweden, 1991. Approx. 120p. Illus.

CIS 91-1936 Petersen R., Sabroe S.
Irritative symptoms and exposure to mineral wool
In a cross-sectional study undertaken in 1981, the prevalence of irritative symptoms was investigated among 2,654 Danish construction workers working with mineral wool. An evaluation was undertaken between exposure level (measured by hours of exposure to mineral wool per month) and prevalence of symptoms. With greater exposure to mineral wool, there was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of irritative symptoms from the eyes, the skin, and the upper respiratory tract. Among construction workers working with mineral wool 160-180 hours per month, two-thirds had these symptoms once a week or oftener. The occurrence was 2-3 times higher compared with the construction workers not working with mineral wool. The relationship between exposure to mineral wool and skin and mucous membrane symptoms may be explained by the irritative action of the fibres that are given off during insulation work.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1991, Vol.20, No.1, p.113-122. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 91-1534 Ribak J., Lilis R., Suzuki Y., Penner L., Selikoff I.J.
Death certificate categorisation of malignant pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma in a cohort of asbestos insulation workers
Accuracy of diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma (pleural and peritoneal) was studied in a cohort of asbestos insulation workers in the United States and Canada. Initial clinical diagnosis, clinical diagnosis at death and death certificate diagnosis were compared with the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma ascertained by full data review at the Division of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York. In both groups the death certificate diagnosis was somewhat less frequently accurate than clinical diagnosis at death. Knowledge of the patients' occupational history by the attending physician and its relation to accuracy of diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is considered.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1991, Vol.41, No.3, p.137-139. 12 ref.

1990

CIS 93-1549 Seidman H., Selikoff I.J.
Decline in death rates among asbestos insulation workers 1967-1986 associated with diminution of work exposure to asbestos
The entire membership of the International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Asbestos Workers on 1 Jan. 1967 (17,800 men) was enrolled in a prospective study of their mortality. Comparison of the data for the periods 1967-72, 1973-79 and 1980-86, during which asbestos exposure declined, showed a corresponding decrease in mortality. There was little time lag between the fall in exposure and the fall in mortality, even among workers exposed for 20 years or more. However, there was no decline in death rates for pleural mesothelioma, and mortality due to peritoneal mesothelioma did not fall among those with 45 years of exposure or more.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 21 Nov. 1990, Vol.609, p.300-318. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 92-879 Bethwaite P.B., Pearce N., Fraser J.
Cancer risks in painters - Study based on the New Zealand Cancer Registry
A series of case-control studies of painters, based on the New Zealand Cancer Registry, is presented. The studies concerned 19,904 male patients registered for the period 1980-84 who were aged 20 or over at the time of registration. For each cancer site studied, the registrants for all other cancer sites formed the control group. Three cancer sites were associated with work as a painter, namely, bladder tumours (odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.00-2.31), kidney and other urothelial tumours (OR 1.45, 95%, CI 0.85-2.50), and multiple myeloma (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.05-3.65). Risks for multiple myeloma were greater among car or spray painters and signwriters (OR 2.81) compared with construction and general painters (OR 1.80). No increased risk was found for leukaemia or for respiratory, biliary, skin, or gastrointestinal cancers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1990, Vol.47, No.11, p.742-746. 50 ref.

CIS 92-540 Maschewsky W.
Neurotoxic effects of substances occurring at the workplace
Nervenschäden durch Arbeitsstoffe [en alemán]
The occupationally induced diseases of the nervous system and their symptoms are listed in a table. The most important groups of substances with neurotoxic effects, such as heavy metals, pesticides and organic solvents, are specified. Thirteen industrial branches are mentioned in which exposure to neurotoxic substances may occur, including the chemical industry, the metal-working, automobile and printing industries and agriculture and horticulture. The reasons why occupational neurotoxic effects usually remain undetected or are misdiagnosed and the available tests for their detection are presented.
WSI Mitteilungen, 1990, Vol.43, No.12, p.762-769. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 92-538 Tabuchi T., Yoshida T., Hirata M.
Urinary hippuric acid levels of persons exposed to toluene in paper calendering plants
Kami tsuyadashi kakō rōdōsha ni okeru toruen bakuro ni yoru nyōchū banyōsan [en japonés]
In the calendering of papers, organic solvents, mainly toluene, are massively used in paints and adhesives. Personal exposure to toluene and urinary hippuric acid concentration (HA) were measured among exposed workers in a small-size calendering factory (study I). Toluene exposure ranged from 164 to 263ppm and the level of HA ranged from 4967 to 9759mg/g Creatine (mg/gCn). HA was also measured among 205 workers in 22 calendering factories in Osaka prefecture (study II). The level of HA was the highest in vinyl resin painting workers (mean: 2658mg/gCn), followed by laminate coating workers, press workers, miscellaneous exposed workers and clerks. The maximal level of toluene exposure in vinyl resin painting was estimated to be 325ppm on the basis of the HA level. Since the values of HA in 8 press workers (47%), 5 miscellaneous exposed workers (21%) and 12 clerks (55%) were beyond the range for nonexposed persons (709mg/gCn). The air in the calendering factories must have been generally contaminated by toluene.
Proceedings of the Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Edition of Industrial Health, Sep. 1990, No.28, p.25-31. 12 ref.

CIS 92-552 Bolla I., Gariboldi L.M., Gabrielli M., Baldo D., Romanelli A., Tuberti E., Magnani F.
Nasal diseases due to occupational exposure to chromium in the electroplating industry - Cytomorphological aspects
Rinopatia da esposizione professionale a cromo nell'industria galvanica - Aspetti citomorfologici [en italiano]
26 workers were studied (9 chrome-platers exposed to chromium dioxide and 17 workers exposed to metallic chromium dust) in order to investigate the macroscopic and cytological changes of the nasal mucosa due to exposure to water-soluble hexavalent chromium or to metallic chromium dust in the electroplating industry and the role of different valencies in the onset of nasal disease. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that hexavalent chromium, which is a strong oxidiser, induces more noticeable toxic effects on tissues and mucous membranes than do other compounds. The correlation between the degree of local toxic effects and the chemical state of chromium was demonstrated in both the macro- and the microscopic investigations and in particular in the cytological examinations: cases of atypia were found only in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium. Evidence of atypia raises the question of whether hexavalent chromium may act as a carcinogenic agent on the rhinosinusal mucosa. For this reason, the introduction of cytological nasal examination in health surveillance programmes for this category of workers acquires considerable importance. Sample collection from the nasal mucosa by brushing is the method of choice since it is simple, non-invasive and gives good diagnostic results.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1990, Vol.81, No.5, p.390-398. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 91-1555 Takahashi K., Okubo T.
A prospective cohort study of chromium plating workers in Japan
A prospective cohort study was carried out in 415 small-scale chrome-plating plants in Japan in order to examine the mortality of platers employed between 1970 and 1976. The cohort included 1,193 male metal platers divided into 626 chromium platers and 567 non-chromium platers. Both subgroups were followed from 1976 through December 1987. Among specific causes of death, only lung cancer was significantly higher for all platers, with age- and sex-specific SMRs for the Japanese population used for comparison. This significance, however, disappears when lung-cancer-related deaths are considered in either of the subgroups alone.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1990, Vol.45, No.2, p.107-111. 17 ref.

CIS 91-1062 Decree No. 90-53 of 12 January 1990...defining health and safety conditions and ventilation rates applicable to spraying and drying booths...using liquid paints, varnishes, powders or dry fibres [France]
Décret n°90-53 du 12 janv. 1990 ... définissant les conditions d'hygične et de sécurité et la vitesse de ventilation dans les cabines de projection, cabines et enceintes de séchage ... destinées ŕ l'emploi de peintures liquides, de vernis, de poudres ou de fibres sčches [France] [en francés]
Text of Decree No. 90-53 of 12 January 1990 (published in the Journal Officiel of 14 Jan. 1990), amending the provisions of Book II, Title III, Chapter III of the French Labour Code (Part two: Decrees in the Council of State) and defining health and safety conditions and minimal ventilation rates applicable to spraying booths, drying booths and combined spraying and drying booths using liquid paints, varnishes, powders or dry fibres.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 3rd Quarter 1990, No.140, Note No.1796-140-90, p.633-637.

CIS 91-1244 Rosén G., Fajerson L.
Test equipment for the determination of volatile components from newly painted surfaces
Försöksanläggning för bestämning av flyktiga komponenter frĺn ett nymĺlat lackskikt [en sueco]
Test equipment for studying the emission of volatile components from paints and lacquers was constructed. A substrate for the paint with dimensions of 102 x 400mm is placed in the test chamber. The temperature and humidity in the air and the air velocity can be adjusted and measured. The surface temperature of the paint and concentrations of volatile matter in the exhaust air can also be measured continuously. The equipment can dry a paint in a way that can be reproduced in terms of amount of applied paint, temperature and air velocity. However, there was relatively wide variation in the emission of solvents from a model paint.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 15p. Illus.

CIS 91-976
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Safety rules for the electrostatic spraying of flammable coating powders using stationary equipment (Electrostatic powder coating)
Sicherheitsregeln für elektrostatisches Versprühen von brennbaren Beschichtungspulvern mit ortsfesten Sprühanlagen (elektrostatisches Pulverbeschichten) [en alemán]
These safety rules replace those issued in Oct. 1971. Contents: scope and definitions; general requirements; design of installations; marking; general safety precautions; locales; ventilation; fire and explosion prevention; spray stands and booths; powder recovery equipment; air ducting; spray-guns; installations of stationary spray-guns; other electric equipment; grounding; operating instructions; inspection; coating of interior surfaces of hollow objects; cleaning; access to the booths; personal protective equipment; work in flammable atmospheres. In annexes: preventive measures against fires and explosions; lay-out of an anti-static perimeter around the spraying area; directives and regulations in Germany.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Oct. 1990. 37p. Illus.

CIS 91-975
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Safety rules for the electrostatic spraying of flammable coating powders using manual equipment (Electrostatic powder coating)
Sicherheitsregeln für elektrostatisches Versprühen von brennbaren Beschichtungspulvern mit Handsprüheinrichtungen (elektrostatisches Pulverbeschichten) [en alemán]
These safety rules replace those issued in Oct. 1971. Contents: scope and definitions; general requirements; design of installations; marking; locales; ventilation; fire and explosion prevention; floors; spray stands and booths; powder recovery equipment; air ducting; spray-guns; other electric equipment; grounding; operating instructions; inspection; workplaces; coating of interior surfaces of hollow objects; cleaning; personal protective equipment; work in flammable atmospheres. In annexes: prevention of fires and explosions during spraying with flammable powders; lay-out of an anti-static perimeter around the spraying area; directives and regulations in Germany.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Oct. 1990. 36p. Illus.

CIS 91-974
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Safety rules for the electrostatic spraying of flammable liquids using stationary equipment (Electrostatic painting)
Sicherheitsregeln für elektrostatisches Versprühen von brennbaren flüssigen Beschichtungsstoffen mit ortsfesten Sprühanlagen (elektrostatisches Lackieren) [en alemán]
These safety rules replace in part those issued in Oct. 1979 (see CIS 80-1535). Contents: scope and definitions; design of stationary spraying installations; responsibility of manufacturers; marking; locales; ventilation (exposure limits); fire and explosion prevention; floors; spray stands and booths; air ducting; spray guns; installation of stationary spray-guns; electric equipment; operating instructions; training; workplaces; painting of interior surfaces of hollow objects; cleaning; access to the booths; personal protective equipment; inspection (pre-installation and periodical). In annexes: prevention of fires and explosions during spraying with flammable liquids; lay-out of an anti-static perimeter around the spraying area; directives and regulations in Germany.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Oct. 1990. 34p. Illus.

CIS 91-973
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Safety rules for the electrostatic spraying of flammable liquids using manual equipment (Electrostatic painting)
Sicherheitsregeln für elektrostatisches Versprühen von brennbaren flüssigen Beschichtungsstoffen mit Handsprüheinrichtungen (elektrostatisches Lackieren) [en alemán]
These safety rules replace in part those issued in Oct. 1979 (see CIS 80-1535). Contents: scope and definitions; design of manual spraying installations; responsibility of manufacturers; marking; locales; ventilation (exposure limits); fire and explosion prevention; floors; spray booths; air ducting; spray-guns; auxiliary equipment; electric equipment; grounding; operating instructions; training; workplaces; painting of interior surfaces of hollow objects; cleaning; personal protective equipment; work in flammable atmospheres; inspection. In annexes: prevention of fires and explosions during spraying with flammable liquids; lay-out of an anti-static perimeter around the spraying area; directives.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Oct. 1990. 33p. Illus.

CIS 91-902 Mahien J.C., Oury B., Boulet A.
Characteristics of the aerosol emissions of nickel plating baths
Caractéristiques de l'émission d'aérosols des bains de nickelage [en francés]
Atmospheric samples were taken near nickel plating tanks in order to determine pollution levels and ventilation efficiency. Contents: summary on nickel plating techniques; results of the measurements; characteristics of nickel salt aerosol emissions to be taken into account when installing exhaust devices on nickel plating tanks.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd Quarter 1990, No.139, Note No.1774-139-90, p.313-322. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 91-901 Héry M., Hubert G., Limasset J.C., Elcabache J.M.
Electroplating industry. Assessment of exposure to chromium and nickel
Industrie de la galvanisation - Evaluation de l'exposition atmosphérique au chrome et au nickel [en francés]
The purpose of this study, conducted in 9 electroplating plants, was to examine trends in exposure to harmful substances in light of the increasing presence of ventilation equipment and automation near the plating tanks. Air samples taken in the plants (particularly personal samples) generally indicate exposure levels well within the permitted levels. The actual reduction in air contamination due to the installation of a ventilation system in a hard chrome-plating plant is described.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd Quarter 1990, No.139, Note No.1773-139-90, p.303-311. 25 réf.

CIS 91-856 Hofer R.
"Powder instead of lacquer" - Safe electrostatic powder coating
"Pulver statt Lack" - Sicherheit beim elektrostatischen Pulverbeschichten [en alemán]
Powder coating involves exposure to harmful substances (cadmium and lead), noise, electricity and the risk of dust explosions. Available protective measures include silencing of equipment by design modification, exhaust ventilation of harmful substances, protection against static electricity by wearing insulating gloves and shoes and explosion-proof design. The regulations and directives addressing safety of powder coating in Austria and the Federal Republic of Germany are listed.
Sichere Arbeit, 1990, No.3, p.15-20. Illus.

CIS 91-888 Delfosse M., Laureillard J.
Paint spray booths in automobile body shops: Determination of isocyanates and solvents. Conformity to booth specifications
Cabines de peinture dans la carrosserie automobile - Dosage des isocyanates et des solvants - Conformité des cabines [en francés]
This study included measurements of atmospheric pollution and air flow in 45 paint spray booths of 38 automobile body shops in France. A comparative analysis of the results of these measurements showed that booths with below-standard ventilation characteristics were subject to high levels of contamination, particularly by isocyanates, whereas those which came up to specifications were relatively free of isocyanate contamination. In order to have a good idea of the contamination levels due to the release of isocyanates, the amount of prepolymers with free isocyanate functions must be determined.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st Quarter 1990, No.138, Note No.1766-138-90, p.65-72. Illus. 6 ref. Annex.

CIS 91-552 Bauknecht H.
Surface treatment - The requirement of purity - Treatment of waste air from spray booths
Oberflächenbehandlungstechnik - Reinheitsgebot - Möglichkeiten der Abluftreinigung und Entsorgung bei Spritzkabinen [en alemán]
Two methods are outlined for cleaning waste air from spray booths. The 1st method takes off part of the waste air and passes it through an afterburner with heat recuperation. The 2nd method uses adsorption. Both methods are suitable for complying with emission standards effective in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1986.
Maschinenmarkt, 1990, Vol.96, No.30, p.54-56, 58. Illus.

CIS 91-453 Tornling G., Alexandersson R., Hedenstierna G., Plato N.
Decreased lung function and exposure to diisocyanates (HDI and HDI-BT) in car repair painters: observations on re-examination 6 years after initial study
36 car painters and 115 control persons participated in a follow-up investigation 6 years after the initial study, including measurement of lung function and estimation of exposure to diisocyanates. The mean exposure for the car painters was 0.0015mg/m3 hexamethylenediisocyanate (HID) and 0.09mg/m3 hexamethylenediisocyanate-biurettrimer (HID-BT), but frequently there were peak exposures exceeding 2.0mg/m3 HDI-BT for at least 30sec. Compared with smoking controls, the smoking car painters had greater yearly reduction in FVC (95 versus 38mL), FEV1 (61 versus 28mL), and VC (77 versus 30mL). The nonsmoking car painters showed no differences in lung volumes compared with their nonsmoking controls. The impairment correlated well with the frequency of high peak exposures to HDI-BT, but not with the mean exposure to diisocyanates.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.17, No.3, p.299-310. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 91-651 Bridge painting
This data sheet describes the hazards involved in bridge painting (falls, injuries due to excessive heat and cold, lead poisoning, eye injuries, electric shock) and precautions to be taken. The safe use of scaffolds and ladders is also discussed.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991, USA, 1990. 4p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 90-1419 Shop-priming of steel materials - Work with shop-primed steel materials [Norway]
Shop-priming av stĺlmaterialer - Bearbeiding av shop-primete stĺlmaterialer [en noruego]
New edition of this directive (effective 1 July 1980) applying to the shop-priming of steel materials, and to the importation and use of shop-primed steel. Contents: responsibilities; definition (shop-priming = application of a preliminary coat of paint on steel in order to avoid corrosion and damage); rules relating to the colours which must be used for shop-priming; maximum thickness of the primer film; safety measures for work with shop-primed steel materials (local exhausts, supply of fresh air, personal protective equipment). Information on the air pollutants produced during work with shop-primed steel materials and the associated health hazards is appended.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, New ed., Mar. 1990. 10p.

CIS 90-1097 High-pressure spray guns [Norway]
Hřytrykks sprřyteutstyr [en noruego]
New edition of these regulations issued under the Workers' Protection Act of 7 Dec. 1965 and entered into force on 15 June 1974. They concern airless high-pressure guns for spraying paint and antirust coatings and cover the duties of suppliers, employers and workers, legal implications, built-in safety features (foolproof operating valve, trigger guard, reinforced flexible tube, earthing of gun to avoid static electricity, etc.) and safe working methods (goggles, safety gloves, minimum age 18yrs, etc.).
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 6th ed. Mar. 1990. 4p.

CIS 90-1267 Hassine L., Hedkili A., Ben Salah N., Souilem J., Yacoub M.
Occupational lead poisoning among potters
Saturnisme professionnel chez les artisans potiers [en francés]
Eleven potters working in 3 pottery workshops were examined in order to find signs of lead poisoning caused by exposure to a lead-based varnish. The findings confirm biological exposure of all 11 potters, despite the poor clinical symptomatology. In conclusion, the authors emphasise the need for elementary prevention measures.
Journal de toxicologie clinique et expérimentale, Jan.-Feb. 1990, Vol.10, No.1, p.27-30. 5 ref.

1989

CIS 91-1945 Fletcher B.
Spraying and the design of spray booths
Contents of this report: characteristics of different spray application methods; types of spray booths and their design parameters; booth ventilation design; importance of make-up air in ventilation systems; correct work methods.
Health and Safety Executive, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1989. 19p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 91-190 Triebig G.
Chronic encephalopathy due to organic solvents - a new occupational disease?
Die chronische Enzephalopathie durch organische Lösemittel - eine neue Berufskrankheit? [en alemán]
The high risk of toxic encephalopathy for solvent-exposed workers revealed by Danish, Swedish and Finnish epidemiological studies prompted a review of the situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Discussed are: clinical manifestations of chronic encephalopathy and new epidemiological findings concerning the frequency of occupational encephalopathy among painters in the Federal Republic of Germany. No elevated risk was found. The difference in the conclusions of the 2 studies might result from different recommended exposure levels and notification procedures. It should also be noted that the alcohol consumption factor has not been taken into account in the findings.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1989, Vol.39, No.6, p.158-162. 43 ref.

CIS 90-1974 Rosén G.
Visualisation methods and emission studies as aids in the control of exposure to airborne contaminants
In a woodworking factory, surface coating of wood was performed with acid-curing coatings. Two methods for visualising the spread of airborne contaminants (GridMap and PIMEX) were used in conjunction with technical modifications and better working methods to reduce exposure to solvents and formaldehyde. Both these methods proved useful for the investigation of the causes of exposure, illustrating the effects of different measures that were taken to reduce exposure levels. During the year when the experiments were carried out, exposure to solvents was halved. Exposure to formaldehyde was also reduced, but not to the same extent. This thesis also includes a study of the emission of volatile components using a device that was built specially for that purpose.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 38p. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 90-2012
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Electroplating
Contents of this safety guide on electroplating: identification of processes (solutions used with different kinds of metals, anodising, pre-treatments, buffing and polishing); health hazards (exposure routes; acute and chronic effects of exposure to chromic acid, nickel solutions, cyanide solutions, arsine; problems associated with alkali cleaning and acid dipping); prevention and control measures; first aid. In the appendix: cyanide poisoning (symptoms, rescue, first aid, professional care, contents of an emergency kit).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Dec. 1989. 22p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: AUD 4.95.

CIS 90-1567 Finkelstein M.M.
Analysis of mortality patterns and workers' compensation awards among asbestos insulation workers in Ontario
Mortality and workers' compensation patterns were studied among 1,064 Ontario asbestos insulation workers. A proportional mortality analysis of 153 asbestos worker deaths found increased mortality from malignant diseases (65 deaths observed; 35.1 expected), cancers of the lungs and pleura (32 deaths observed; 11.5 expected), peritoneal mesothelioma (4 deaths), and respiratory diseases (14 deaths observed; 7.9 expected). Despite the publicity given to asbestos-associated diseases, dependents of many men potentially eligible for workers' compensation awards have not received pensions because claims were not filed. These findings suggest that much occupationally related disease is not being recognised in Ontario.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1989, Vol.16, No.5, p.523-528. 4 ref.

CIS 90-1566 Lindberg E., Vesterberg O.
Urinary excretion of chromium in chromeplaters after discontinued exposure
In a previous study excretion of chromium in urine (U-Cr) in chromeplaters was proposed for biological monitoring of ongoing exposure. Published reports were found about the decline of U-Cr after discontinued exposure in welders working in chromium-alloyed stainless steel, but not in chromeplaters. In this study, half-times were calculated for ten chromeplaters over a weekend, and for 23 chromeplaters over 31 days of vacation. The results suggest that the excretion of chromium can be approximated to a two-compartment model. Estimated from the median values, an initial rapid phase with an assumed half time of 2-3 days is followed by a phase with a half time of approximately a month. Differences between the decline of U-Cr in chromeplaters and welders are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1989, Vol.16, No.5, p.485-492. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 90-1312 Philipps A.
Chemical hazards at electroplating processes
The plating and metal finishing industry uses a wide range of chemical substances many of which are recognised health hazards because of their toxic or corrosive nature. This report looks at a range of processes within the industry, highlights the potential problems in each case and recommends how they may be controlled. Examples are given of known incidents caused by failure to apply appropriate precautions.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1989. 13p. 5 ref.

CIS 90-570 Pisaniello D.L., Muriale L.
The use of isocyanate paints in auto refinishing - A survey of isocyanate exposures and related work practices in South Australia
A survey of 45 crash repair workshops where two-pack polyurethane spray paints are used has been carried out. Painters were interviewed using a combined health-work practice questionnaire. Monitoring for airborne isocyanate was undertaken in 14 spray shops. Health data from the questionnaire were compared with corresponding data for control groups of mechanics and industrial spray painters, not exposed to isocyanates. Compared with the other two groups, the isocyanate spray painters generally reported more respiratory and skin problems. Airborne isocyanate concentrations associated with various operations were monitored with both impinger and paper tape methods. A direct comparison of the two methods is presented.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.4, p.563-572. Illus. 22 ref.

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