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  • Metalworking industry

1978

CIS 78-1423 Lappalainen K., Heikkilä P.
Cutting fluids and workplace hygiene problems
Leikuunesteet ja niistä aiheutuvat ongelmat työpaikoilla [en finlandés]
Skärvätskor och arbetshygieniska problem på arbetsplatserna [en sueco]
Considerations on the use, composition and harmful properties of cutting fluids (oils, emulsions and synthetic fluids) and on occupational hygiene rules and measures to be observed in metalworking and machining shops. Results of a survey carried out in 15 Finnish plants where 23-26% of the exposed workers had skin disorders; bacteriological research on microorganisms which develop in these fluids; and results of measurements of exposure of machine tool operators to oil mist. Recommendations for improved industrial hygiene: enclosure of machines; local exhaust ventilation of oil mist; protective clothing and personal hygiene; elimination of waste oil; superintendence, supply and periodic inspection of cutting fluids. CIS has only the Swedish-language version.
Ehkäise tapaturmia - Förebygg olycksfall, 1978, No.2, p.14-21. Ilus. 17 ref.

CIS 78-1037 Oosterom N.C.
Nitrosamines in cutting fluids
Nitrosaminen in boor- en snijvloeistoffen [en holandés]
Cutting fluids generally contain additives (e.g. bactericides) that can cause dermatitis. Recent research has revealed nitrosamines in these fluids, due possibly to reaction between secondary or tertiary amines and nitrites or nitrogen oxides. Nitrosamines (the commonest is diethanolnitrosamine) are suspected to be carcinogenic. Preventive measures are enumerated: local exhaust of oil mist (rather than wearing of respirator), protective clothing, personal hygiene, isolation of machine-tools for which cutting fluids are used, skin protection by amine-free barrier creams.
De veiligheid, Apr. 1978, Vol.54, No.4, p.163-164. 8 ref.

CIS 78-1119
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, 1 Apr. 1978.
Welding, cutting and similar operations
Schweissen, Schneiden und verwandte Arbeitsverfahren [en alemán]
These safety regulations apply to welding, cutting, brazing, heating, hardening, metallising and other metalworking processes involving the use of gas/oxygen or gas/compressed air mixtures, to similar processes using electric power, and to thermit welding. General provisions respecting minimum age for admission to employment, employment of women, personal protective equipment, ventilation, work in confined spaces, fire and explosion hazards, hazardous work in or on tanks. Special provisions concerning gas and oxygen installations and gas welding, arc welding materials and operations, safe working methods for resistance welding, welding under water or in compressed air, and safety measures for thermit welding. Annex: information sheet on the prevention of acetylene container explosions, more detailed rules for application of the regulations, and comments.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 27 + 21p. Illus. Price: DM.2.65.

CIS 78-629 Gear-hobbing machines.
Gear hobbers cut and generate worm, spur and spiral gears on a high production basis. Most accidents occur during hob cutter changes, machine adjustments, and jam clearing. Types of machines are described and manual and automatic loading procedures, clearing jams, safeguards, general procedures and operating rules are discussed.
National Safety News, Data Sheet 362, 1978 Revision, National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago. Chicago, USA, Jan. 1978. Vol.117, No.1, p.63-65. Illus. 5 ref.

1977

CIS 79-735 N-Nitrosodiethanolamine in synthetic cutting fluids - A part-per-hundred impurity.
N-Nitrosodiethanolamine (NDE) was found to be present in a concentration of 0.02-3% in several brands of synthetic cutting fluids. Its identity was confirmed by 3 independent techniques, which are described. NDE has been shown to produce liver tumours in rats. It is expected that most cutting fluids that contain triethanolamine or diethanolamine and nitrite as additives will be contaminated with NDE, and screening of all brands of synthetic cutting fluids is recommended.
Science, Apr. 1977, Vol.196, No.4285, p.70-71. 20 ref.

CIS 79-812 Parvi V.
Occupational status, working conditions and morbidity among employees in the engineering industry.
This academic dissertation is a summary of a report on part of the METELI project (CIS 78-2021). A sample of 902 workers in various jobs (foundries, heavy and precision engineering) was studied by questionnaire or medical examination. The emphasis was on the relation between musculoskeletal diseases or mental stress and working conditions. Low morbidity was related to high occupational status. Stress symptoms, illness absenteeism and premature chronic disability were most common in employees having the most hazards and stress factors. There were no diseases typical of any category of workers. Diseases of the locomotor system can be attributed to working conditions, especially for blue-collar workers.
Acta Universitatis Tamperensis, Publications of the Medical Faculty 12, Tampere, Finland, 1977, Ser. A, Vol.90. 27p. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 79-811 Manninen O.
Environmental factors and employees' discomfort in three machine industry plants.
This document is a summary of 7 reports in the METELI project (CIS 78-2021). The study consisted of dust, noise, lighting, thermal conditions, chemicals contacted, and air pollutants measured in the workplaces of 4750 manual and office workers, and the questionnaire concerned the degree of discomfort. Four discomfort indexes were computed from (1) the first three factors, (2) thermal conditions, (3) discomfort due to contact with chemicals and (4) pollutants in the breathing zone. Many of the conditions measured were enough to produce discomfort. The employees ratings of discomfort complemented and confirmed the objective measurements.
Kansanterveystieteen julkaisuja M 32/37, Tampereen yliopiston kansanterveystieteen laitos, Tampere, Finland, 1977. 47p. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 79-48 Altermatt C.
Bronchopulmonary disease due to cemented carbide dust
Broncho-pneumopathies causées par les poussières de métaux durs. [en francés]
MD thesis. The author describes the process of sintering metal powders and the various stages in the production of cemented carbides, and refers to the high dust levels in workplaces where cases of diffuse interstitial fibrosis were found among the workers (mixtures of powders used, machining of parts before sintering, grinding of cemented carbide tools). In chapter 3 she reviews (with reference to the literature) the bronchopulmonary diseases linked to exposure to cemented carbide dust (irritative trachaeo-bronchial syndrome observed in 10-40% of the exposed subjects, and diffuse pulmonary fibrosis secondary to the syndrome observed in 0.6-2.5% of the exposed subjects). Other chapters are devoted to: animal experiments, results of anatomopathological studies and pathogenesis of fibrosis due to cemented carbides. The author presents a hitherto unpublished case study of a powder metallurgy worker employed for 4 years in the powder mixing department, and compares the data in this case with those relating to other workers similarly employed. Considerations follow on health engineering techniques which can be adapted to a given workpost, preventive medicine techniques at pre-employment and recruitment medical examinations and periodic check-ups, and medico-legal aspects of bronchopulmonary disease, with reference to pertinent French legislation.
Université Louis Pasteur, Faculté de médecine de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France, 1977. 135p. 55 ref.

CIS 79-47 Huez D.
Pneumoconiosis due to cemented carbide dust - Role of cobalt - Importance of preventive measures
Pneumoconioses aux poussières de métaux durs - Rôle du cobalt - Importance de la prévention. [en francés]
MD thesis. Contents: general considerations on powder metallurgy; survey of recent literature concerning pneumoconiosis due to cemented carbides; clinical picture; state of the art in France; considerations on aetiology and pathogenesis (role of various ingredients in the dust, especially cobalt); report on a survey carried out by the author in a French plant manufacturing cemented carbides (dust levels, clinical features of 28 new cases, individual workpost surveys with particular emphasis on dust levels and progressive stages of the disease); definite proposals for technical and medical prevention; legislative and juridical problems related to this type of pneumoconiosis. The author concludes with general considerations on the recognition of this condition as a statutory occupational disease and the importance of worker information and awareness, and on preventive measures.
Université François Rabelais, Faculté de médecine de Tours, Tours, France, 1977. 194p. 60 ref.

CIS 79-210
Metal Trades Committee, International Labour Organisation, Genève.
Conclusions (No.82) concerning safety, health and working environment in the metal trades.
Conclusions (n°82) concernant la sécurité, l'hygiène et le milieu de travail dans les industries mécaniques. [en francés]
These conclusions, adopted by the ILO Metal Trades Committee at its 10th Session (Geneva, 20-28 Apr. 1977) concern: hazards; research; prevention action; legislation; consultation between governments and employers' and workers' organisations; information for management, supervisors and workers; ratification of the ILO Guarding of Machinery Convention 1963 (No.119) and Recommendation No.118; chemical hazards; worker information; identification, transport, handling and use of harmful substances; the ILO-sponsored international warning system for rapid dissemination of information on occupational hazards; the ILO International Programme for the Improvement of Working Conditions and the Working Environment (PIACT); statistics; safety and health training; protection of workers against harmful dusts, fumes, gases, fibres, vapours, heat, humidity, noise, vibration, radiation, carcinogens; psychological tension and psychosomatic disorders; plant safety and health services; joint or tripartite consultations; international action.
Official Bulletin - Bulletin officiel, Vol.LXI, Series A, No.1, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1978. p.57-60.

CIS 78-1880 Dupuis B., Raschke H.D.
Reduction of noise during grinding of sheet metal and sheet metal structures
Lärmminderung beim Schleifen von Blech und Blechkonstruktionen [en alemán]
The composition of grinding noise depends on the type of drive, the tool and the workpiece. Possibilities of reducing noise by modifying work methods or use of an alternatve method are set out. Measures involving the workpiece include laying it on a solid support, use of permanent magnets, use of plastic matting and immersion in water. Measures involving the tool relate to: grain size and hardness of the wheel binder, modification of design incorporating absorbing layers (plastic-impregnated fibres). Analysis of possibilities of modifying high-speed drives, especially that of the fan wheel, are analysed. A large place is given to discussion of the machine and economic aspects.
Bänder, Bleche, Rohre, 1977, No.6, p.272-276. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 78-1682 Lahaye D., Roosels D., Viaene J., Eylenbosch W.J.
An epidemic of occupational disease in a metalworking plant
Une épidémie de maladie professionnelle dans une fabrique de pièces d'automobiles. [en francés]
Translation of: Een epidemie van beroepziekten in een metaalverwerkend bedrijf. Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, Amstelveen, Pays-Bas, 3 Mar. 1976, Vol.54, No.5, p.142-147. Illus. 6 ref. (CIS 77-488). Article describing an outbreak of occupational disease in a Belgian metalworking plant, affecting 265 workers (33% of the total workforce). The symptoms were skin rash and general feeling of fatigue. The aetiology was difficult to ascertain because of the absence of specific symptoms, and several disease hazards were present in the plant. Approaches to the problem, and the limitations imposed on systematic investigation are set out (basic data; nature of the plant; course of the outbreak; inventory of potentially harmful factors; medical and technical aspects; follow-up; discussion). Socio-economic aspects and adequacy of compensation under the Belgian occupational sickness insurance scheme are discussed.
Traduction INRS 38 A-77, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1977. 23p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 78-1753 André M.
Safety training in a metalworking plant
La formation à la sécurité dans une entreprise métallurgique. [en francés]
This communication to the Regional Joint Technical Committee for the Metal Industry (Lille, France) reports a safety training programme instituted in a wide strip cold rolling mill. It comprises flow charts showing the action taken at recruitment (pretraining and adaptation), training (engineers, supervisors, technicians), and safety campaigns. As a result of the programme , the rate of severe accidents fell from 3.32 to 1.8 between Dec. 1974 and Dec. 1977.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 19 Oct. 1977. 7p. Gratis.

CIS 78-1615 Kijeńska D.
Determination of mineral oil mists
Metoda oznaczania mgły olejów mineralnych [en polonés]
Description of a spectrophotometric method for determination in air of the mineral oils in cutting fluids used for machining of metals, based on specific absorption of infrared radiation by the hydrocarbons. Details are given on apparatus, reagents and solvents (carbon tetrachloride), aerosol sampling, preparation of calibration scale and curve, spectrophotometric determination and evaluation of results.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1977, Vol.20, No.94, p.209-218. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 78-1422 Health and safety guide for fabricated structural metal products industry.
This booklet describes safe practices which facilitate compliance with U.S. safety and health regulations. Contents: health and safety guidelines (general philosophy, programmes, employee training, hazards in the industry, power tools, machine guarding, fire prevention, environmental controls, sprinkler systems); frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces, emergency exits, personal protective equipment sanitation, medical and first aid, fire protection, compressed air equipment, materials handling and storage, welding and cutting, electrical safety); recordkeeping requirements; check lists; information sources.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-100, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Oct. 1977. 89p. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 78-1421 Balocco L.
Accident prevention at the preliminary stages of sheet-metal working or in small-scale undertakings
La prevenzione degli infortuni nella lavorazione preliminare o artigianale della lamiera [en italiano]
Roundup of recommended measures to prevent the hand and other injuries often sustained in sheet-metal working: care, maintenance and proper use of hand tools (hammers, sledge-hammers, magnetic handling devices and suction pads, hand shears, electric and pneumatic tools) precautions to be observed in work with power shearing machines or rolling machines for metal forming, and in handling and disposal of scrap and waste metal; personal protective equipment (protective gloves, etc.); machine guarding (review of current legislation, fixed and moving guards, photoelectric guards, guarding of nips).
Rivista di meccanica, Dec. 1977, No.656, p.91-100. Illus.

CIS 78-957 Beljaev N.D.
Ventilation and dust control on straightening and cutting-off machines
Obespylivajuščaja ventiljacija pravil'no-otreznyh stankov [en ruso]
Description of an exhaust system for dust (especially iron oxides) formed during unrolling of wire-bar coils, during entry of the wire bar into the guide cone, and during straightening in the rotary drum of the machine. Laboratory studies permitted the choice of enclosure design for the straightening drum, and of the local exhaust system incorporating a cyclone and filter dust collector. Technical data are given on the exhaust system and collection efficacy.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Sep. 1977, No.9, p.22-24. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 78-1126 Cutting oils, emulsions, and drawing compounds.
Industrial uses; types of cutting oils; health hazards (skin disorders, sensitisation, irritation, chloracne (folliculitis from chlorinated aromatic organic compounds), oil dermatitis, skin infections, premalignant skin lesions, pneumonitis). Protective measures (personal hygiene, protective equipment and clothing, training and inspection, first aid for cuts and abrasions); selection of cutting oils; filtration and disinfection of cutting oils and fluids; splash guards and covers; fire hazards; housekeeping.
Data Sheet 501, Revision A, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 5p. Illus.

CIS 78-1125 Health and safety guide for metal furniture and mattress manufacturers.
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet describes safe practices, encouraging compliance with U.S. health and safety regulations. Contents: health and safety programme; employee training; general information for manufaturers of this type of furniture for office and household use; occupational health and environment control; control of exposure to hazardous substances; frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces; the standard guard rail and toeboard, fixed industrial stairs, portable ladders, fixed ladders; exits and exit markings; paints; orgnic solvents; cotton dust; chromic acid); noise; hazardous materials; spray painting; personal protective equipment; fire protection; medical and first aid; compressed air equipment; materials handling and storage; machinery and machine guarding; hand and portable powered tools; welding, cutting, and brazing; the National Electrical Code, etc.; recordkeeping; checklists; information sources.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-101, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Aug. 1977. 78p. Illus.

CIS 78-1165 Good practices for employees - Auto body repair shops.
This little, well-illustrated booklet contains advice on housekeeping, welding, grinding, hydraulic jacks and lifts, hand tools, air contaminants, epoxy plastics, solvents, spray painting, transfer of flammable liquids, noise, glazing, radiator repair, precautions with fuel tanks, personal protective equipment, fire safety, and first aid.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-229, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Aug. 1977. 34p. Illus.

CIS 78-1124 Health and safety guide - Tool, die and precision machining industry.
Illustrated by instructive drawings, this booklet describes safe practices, helping to correct some of the more frequently encountered violations of safety and health standards. Chief contents: guidelines (health and safety programme, employee training, housekeeping, machine guarding, power tools, environmental control); the industry and its hazards; frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces, exits, harmful materials, noise, personal protective equipment, sanitation, medical and first aid, fire protection, compressed air, materials handling, welding, cutting and brazing, electrical safety); recordkeeping; check lists; information sources.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-198, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1977. 69p. Illus.

CIS 78-1139 Health and safety guide for construction and related machinery manufacturers.
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet describes safe practices, encouraging compliance with U.S. health and safety regulations. Chief contents: health and safety programme; general information on manufacturers of this type of machinery; occupational health and environmental control; frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces; exits and exit markings; carbon monoxide; caustics, solvents and other chemicals, welding and other hot work operations; fire protection; ventilation; noise); hazardous materials; spray painting; personal protective equipment; sanitation; medical and first aid; compressed air equipment; materials handling and storage; machinery and machine guarding; hand and portable powered tools; welding, cutting, and brazing; the National Electrical Code; recordkeeping, etc.; checklist, and information sources.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-103, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Aug. 1977. 98p. Illus.

CIS 78-932 Kramar I.
Accidents with presses
Nesreče pri stiskalnicah [en esloveno]
Overview of accident hazards (illustrated by accidents which actually occurred) on presses, in metalworking shops and description of appropriate preventive methods: e.g. scotching of safety 2-hand controls by operators (remedy: control buttons protected by a metal sheath so that the press can be operated correctly but there is no possibility of scotching the safety device); provisional guard protectors providing only unilateral guarding of the tool; wearing of safety goggles for protection against splashes of oils or emulsions; coordination of work between the press operator and the maintenance mechanic; use of tongs for manipulation of workpiece; contribution of tool design to press operators' safety; workpiece feeding devices; correct methods for lifting weights, etc.
Delo in varnost, 1977, Vol.22, No.1, p.17-20; No.3., p.103-106; No.4, p.159-160; No.5, p.202-205. Illus.

CIS 78-630 Metal squaring shears.
Areas of hazard; employer's responsibility; criteria for equipment selection; equipment evaluation (compliance with American National Standard B11.4); stroke control mechanism; stop control; mode selector switch; point-of-operation safeguarding (awareness barrier and guards at front and rear of machine; warning signs; pedal switch; hand slots on table to avoid injury from weight of stock, etc.); safe manufacturing procedures; operator training; maintenance.
Data Sheet 328, Revision A (Extensive), National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 60611, USA, 1977. 4p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 78-628 Senkel D.
An example of modern safety engineering: Safety controls for power presses in the metalworking industry
Ein Beispiel moderner Sicherheitstechnik: Sicherheitssteuerung für kraftbetriebene Pressen der Metallbearbeitung [en alemán]
A system of electrical safety controls for power presses is described, with schematic diagrams of the working components, control circuits and auxiliary brake. Description of how the system works; diagram showing the various operational stages and the behaviour of each component (switches, contact-makers, contact-breakers, relays, etc.) in the case of 2-hand controls. A selector switch provides for choice between 5 operational modes. Review of possible human errors or mechanical failure.
Sicherheitsingenieur, June 1977, Vol.8, No.6, p.30-33. Illus.

CIS 78-836 Schreiber H.
Occupational health and safety in the use of lubricants and coolants
Arbeitsschutz beim Einsatz von Schmier- und Kühlmitteln [en alemán]
This book gives information for improvement of occupational hygiene and technical prevention methods in the use of oils, emulsions, cutting fluids and greases, especially in the metalworking industry. Aspects dealt with: development of these materials; emission of harmful substances from machinery (especially oil mist); occupational health requirements; determination of atmospheric pollution; design of machine enclosures with exhaust hoods, especially machine tools (examples of calculations); removal of air contaminants; prevention of slips and falls.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1977. 176p. Illus. 73 ref. Price: M.6.30.

CIS 78-831 Vlasov A.F.
Safe work with metalworking machine-tools
Bezopasnost' pri rabote na metallorežuščih stankah [en ruso]
Contents of this practical handbook: hazards facing machine-tool operators (cutting tools, transmission elements, continuous chips, etc.); hazard evaluation and prevention measures (workplace layout, safety by design); protective devices and controls (examples of guards on lathes and milling and grinding machines, grinding-wheel guards with exhaust device, chucking devices, swarf removal, chip-breaker design); design and construction of exhaust equipment for grinding, milling and drilling machines. Appendix: relevant Soviet standards; examples of exhaust ventilation.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", 1-j Basmannyj per. 3, 107885 Moskva B-78, USSR, 1977. 120p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: Rbl.0.43.

CIS 78-456 Abbritti G., Losito G., Colangeli C., Proietti G.P.
A little known source of lead poisoning - Artisanal production of rasps and files
Una fonte poco conosciuta di saturnismo: la produzione artigianale di raspe e lime [en italiano]
Study in 72 workers engaged in cutting rasps and files by hand. Signs of increased lead absoprtion were found in 25 of them and of lead poisoning in 35. The production process is described. The rasp or file is placed on a lead block during working in order to protect the surface that has already been cut. This wears down the surface of the lead block, causing its release onto the worker and into the atmosphere.
Lavoro umano, Mar. 1977, Vol.29, No.2, p.33-42. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 78-527 Lacore J.P.
Fiche technique de sécurité 17, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14.
Milling machines
Fraiseuses - Machines à fraiser. [en francés]
This technical data sheet, intended for top and middle management, foremen and supervisors, should be read in conjunction with the "General annex to the technical data sheets on machine tools" abstracted in this issue of CIS Abstracts. Contents: general specifications (machines covered by the data sheet and their classification, description and technical data, French regulations and standards); articles and conditions of sale for purchase of machinery of this type; rules for installation; hazards during operation; safety measures (against hazards from the worm drive, main drive and other moving parts, projected particles, and milling machine parts other than the tool itself or the work spindle); maintenance and checks. Table of typical hazards and counter-measures.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1977, No.89, Note No.1076-89-77, p.399-418. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 78-434 Zingmark P.A., Rappe C.
Formation of N-nitrosodiethanolamine from a grinding fluid under simulated gastric conditions
Etude par simulation de la formation de N-nitrosodiéthanolamine dans l'estomac à partir des fluides de meulage. [en francés]
Translation of: Formation of N-nitrosodiethanolamine from a grinding fluid under simulated gastric conditions. Ambio, Stockholm, Sweden, 1976. Vol.5, No.2, p.80-81. Illus. 17 ref. (CIS 76-1371). Nitroso amines are carcinogenic and they can be formed by reaction of amines and nitrites which are used as additives in industrial oils. A grinding fluid containing triethanolamine, sodium nitrite, water and fluorescein dye was kept at 37°C for 1h in buffer solutions at different gastric pH values. At pH 2, 1ml of fluid gave 13mg nitrosodiethanolamine, determined by gas chromatography. This amount is about 1,000 times the amount found in certain foods. The results at pH 3 and 3.5 are inconclusive. Although the compound is a weaker carcinogen than diethylnitrosamine, workers must be protected against mists of oils containing amines and nitrites.
Traduction INRS 21 B-77, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1977. 9p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 78-431 Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to tungsten and cemented tungsten carbide.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to tungsten and cemented tungsten carbide. Occupational exposure shall be controlled so that there is no exposure to concentrations greater than 5mg insoluble tungsten/m3; 1mg soluble tungsten/m3; 0.1mg/m3 cemented tungsten carbide containing more than 2% cobalt, measured as cobalt; and 15µg/m3 cemented tungsten carbide containing more than 0.3% nickel, determined as nickel, all as time-weighted average concentrations for up to a 10h workshift in a 40h workweek. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protective equipment and clothing, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and recordkeeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the heads: biological effects of exposure, environmental data and engineering controls, development of standard, research needs. Procedures for sampling and analysis in air are detailed and useful additional information is given in appendices.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-127, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1977. 174p. Illus. 108 ref.

CIS 78-520 Good work practices for electroplaters
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet aims to assist in providing a safe and healthy workplace by describing safe work practices. Aspects covered include: precleaning (hazards in use of solvents; tank cleanout); safety considerations in degreasing operations; cold cleaning operations (diphase type); caustic cleaning (tank recharging); electrocleaning; pickling; nickel, copper, chrome, zinc, iron and lead plating; dangerous chemicals (acids, alkalis, cyanide salts, chromic acid); proper storage of chemicals; personal protective equipment.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-201, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, June 1977. 32p. Illus.

CIS 78-354 Resare D., Swensson A.
An inquiry concerning the health status among workers in the cemented carbide industry
Enkätundersökning av hälsotillstandet hos anställda i hardmetallindustri [en sueco]
In an inquiry among 2,203 workers in Swedish cemented carbide industry, coughing, chronic bronchitis and dyspnoea were reported in higher frequency in exposed groups than in control groups. Age and smoking habits had some influence on the frequencies but could not explain the differences between the exposed groups and the control groups.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1977:6, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1977. 19p.

CIS 78-519 Hesbert A., Darrigrand M.C., Lemonnier M., Cavelier C.
Study of microbial pollution of cutting fluids - Efficacy of a number of disinfectants on contaminating organisms
Etude de la pollution microbienne des fluides d'usinage - Efficacité d'une série de désinfectants sur les germes contaminants. [en francés]
Oil emulsions used as cutting fluids are particularly liable to massive microbial contamination, undesirable for technical and health reasons (oil acne, dermatosis hazard). The authors identified the contaminating bacteria (pseudomonadaceae, enterobateriaceae, etc.) and evaluated the action of 13 commercial disinfectants on them (effects on growth rate of a mixed culture of micro-organisms). With tests of this kind, efficient bactericidal products compatible with the chemical properties of a cutting fluid can be selected. However, some disinfectants (phenols and their derivatives, etc.) may cause skin irritation or sensitisation; hence the importance of not exceeding the required amount of disinfectant.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, June 1977, Vol.38, No.6, p.569-579. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 78-518 Hellman P.O.
Soapy water to replace hazardous cutting oils
Såpvatten ersätter farliga skäroljor [en sueco]
Brief description of an experiment conducted over 12 months in Swedish metalworking shops where soapy water was used instead of mineral oil as a cutting fluid. Results: no oil mist, no eczema. The risk of oxidation of machinery and workpieces is averted by the thin layer of soap which forms on the metal surfaces, and by regular cleaning. Cutting speeds of 400m/min are possible; the service life of the cutting tool remains unchanged. The cost of soap is one-third that of oil.
Arbetsmiljö, 1977, No.10, p.56. Illus.

CIS 78-209 Safety and health rules for employees in the drop forging industry.
Contents of this profusely illustrated booklet: safe working methods (protection of eyes, head, hands and feet, hearing protection, personal protective equipment, personal hygiene, manual lifting, ladders, good housekeeping, first aid); forge department (drop hammers, forging presses, upsetting machines, electrical upsetters, cold press work, furnaces, compressed air); grinding and polishing; die room and machine shop (electro discharge machining); material handling (steel yard workers, shearing and sawing of raw materials); mechanical handling (fork lift trucks, etc.); heat treatment department; fire precautions; corrosive substances; dangerous liquids.
National Association of Drop Forgers and Stampers, Grove Hill House, 245 Grove Lane, Hansworth, Birmingham B20 2HB, United Kingdom, 1977. 26p. Illus.

CIS 78-173 Rycroft R.J.G., Calnan C.D.
Relapse of chromate dermatitis from sheet metal - Chromate dermatitis from a boiler lining.
The first of these 2 articles describes a patient who had been sensitised many years previously by an entirely different source of chromate (when handling either cement and plaster or refractory bricks), whose hand eczema relapsed when handling galvanised sheet metal in his present work. The 2nd article describes chromate dermatitis in a mechanical fitter working inside boiler combustion chambers. A source of hexavalent chromium was the action of the heat and alkaline fuel ash on trivalent chrome ore in the refractory lining.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1977, Vol.3, No.4, p.177-180 and 198-200. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 78-34 Metal shapers.
Information on uses, hazards (body contact with moving parts; flying chips or scale; attempting to pick up objects between strokes of the ram), safeguards (enclosure of exposed gears, belts and pulleys; electrical safety; chip guard). Environment: antislip flooring, lighting, removal of waste and obstacles, Wearing of safety shoes and eye protection. Machining of parts on safer machines (metal planer, milling machine) whenever possible. Recommendations: gloves or loose or torn clothing should be not worn; chips should be removed with a brush, not by hand. Training requirements; inexperienced workers should not be allowed to operate these machines. Maintenance and verification.
Data Sheet 216, Revision A (Pars 19 and 26), National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 2p. 2 ref.

CIS 78-241 Ribeaucourt M.
Safety in small automobile repair shops
La sécurité dans les petits ateliers de réparations automobiles [en francés]
Communication submitted to the National Joint Technical Committee for the Metal Trades (Lille, France), reviewing the hazards due to: type of premises, which are often old, cluttered up and untidy, with inadequate lighting and insufficient heating; installation and equipment (unsafe electrical installations; vehicle inspection pits: hazard of falling, fire and explosion hazards; vehicle inspection lifts); gas welding; use of compressed air; changing of tyres and wheels; charging batteries; engine testing; coachwork (painting, etc.); miscellaneous repair work. Safe working methods are proposed.
Prévention et sécurité du travail, 2nd quarter 1977, No.112, p.13-23. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 77-1893 Leblond H., Danière P., André G.
Noise in auto screw machining shops
Le bruit dans les ateliers de décolletage. [en francés]
Noise levels in auto screw machining shops, which often greatly exceed 95dBA, are chiefly due to noise from bar-feed tubes and automatic lathes, to the congestion and size of the premises and the acoustic conditions. The results of surveys in 7 shops are given, showing sound pressure levels measured and suggesting noise control possibilities by taking action to modify the above factors. This in-plant investigation was supplemented by a study of the efficacy of various methods for reducing noise in simulated conditions.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1977, No.88, Note No.1067-88-77, p.303-313. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 77-1838 Directives for guarding manually-operated or power-driven plate shears
Anvisningar om skyddsåtgärder vid manuellt och maskinellt drivna gradsaxar [en sueco]
Contents of these directives (entry into force: 1 July 1978): approval of various categories of plate shears; design and materials; ergonomics (noise control, vibration isolation, work posture); operational and maintenance instructions; rating plate; accident prevention (thick sheet-metal shears with 2-hand control and photoelectric guard; medium and thin sheet-metal shears with fixed guard; hand-or pedal-operated shears); periodic checks; fixing and adjustment of tools (locking device on the upper cutting arm, etc.); free space around the machine. Annexes: texts of directives for eccentric, hydraulic and pneumatic presses, 2-hand controls, photoelectric guards, moving guards and electric controls for pedal-operated presses.
Anvisningar nr 116, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 10026 Stockholm 34, Sweden, Jan. 1977. 38p. Illus. Price: Swe-Cr.8.60

CIS 77-2036 Notification No.2/1977 to issue directives for the use of coolants and other mineral oil-based products
Meddelelse nr. 2/1977 om retningslinier for anvendelse af køle-smøremidler m.m. samt andre olieprodukter af mineralsk orpindelse [en danés]
These directives (which repeal and replace Directive 11/1974-CIS 74-2019), apply to machining and forming oils and emulsions, and to dielectric fluids for spark machining. They point out the health hazards in using these products (and their additives), and require manufacturers to supply full information on their composition. Recommended safety measures: use only of products guaranteed by the manufacturer; choice of products releasing the least possible amount of fume and vapour; checking condition of product; personnel information of hazard; enclosure of machines and local exhaust ventilation; washing facilities at workpost; personal cleanliness and immediate washing of contaminated workclothes and underclothes.
M nr. 2/1977 Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbejdstilsynet), Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2400 København, Denmark, 31 Jan. 1977. 14p. Gratis.

CIS 77-1835 Press brakes.
This data sheet discusses the special features of press brakes, hazards arising from their operation and maintenance, and measures to be followed to avoid them. Definitions are followed by: technical data on mechanical and hydraulic press brakes and information on their operation and industrial uses; and sections on general purpose and special purpose press brakes (tooling, stroking controls, safeguarding, feeding, general- and special-purpose dies, piece parts).
Data Sheet 419, Revision B (Extensive), National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 7p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 77-799 Darrigrand M.C., Poitou M.P., Coirier A., Cavelier.
A disinfectant for cutting fluids - Bactericidal efficacy and allergenic potential
Un désinfectant pour fluides d'usinage - Efficacité antibactérienne et pouvoir allergisant [en francés]
The French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) studied a disinfectant for cutting oils widely used in France, Grotan BK, a product based on hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-S-triazine, classified in the category of substances releasing formaldehyde, in order to determine its efficiency as a bactericide and its harmful effects, if any, on workers' health. This data sheet describes the methods used and tabulates the results. Grotan BK was effective against all selected bacteria (Pseudomonadaceae, Micrococcaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae). Experiments with guinea pigs showed its sensitising potential in certain conditions favouring skin penetration.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1977, No.86, Note No. 1046-86-77, p.33-39. 17 ref.

CIS 77-520
Report II, Metal Trades Committee of the International Labour Organisation, Tenth Session - Geneva, 1977.
Safety, health and working environment in the metal trades: new appraoches.
La sécurité, l'hygiène et le milieu de travail dans les industries mécaniques: conceptions nouvelles. [en francés]
Report prepared as a background document for discussion of this item. A definition of the metal trades is followed by chapters devoted to: safety problems of the metal trades (machinery, plant, mechanical handling; transport; electricity; welding; gas-air mixtures; dust explosions; liquid oxygen; molten metal; molten nitrates; workplace; safety organisation); general health problems (ventilation; airborne pollution; heat; noise; vibration; stress); specific health problems (surface treatment of metals; pickling and descaling; degreasing; phosphating; chemical etching; electrolytic polishing; plastic coating of metal; galvanising; metal sprayng; electroplating; metal case-hardening; vitreous enamelling of metal; use of paints; welding and thermal cutting; adhesives and plastics; non-destructive testing; asbestos; toxic metals; monitoring and surveillance; ergonomics; shift work); recent trends in occupational safety and health (legislation; worldwide statistics on fatal occupational accidents, 1965-1974; occupational accident statistics for India, Singapore, Spain, United Kingdom, etc.); proposed points for discussion (information, training, safety engineering, medical supervision, joint consultation, international action).
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1977. 68p. Price: SF.12.50.

1976

CIS 91-417 Bertinuson J., Weinstein S.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Occupational health and safety - A manual for foundry workers
Topics treated in this training manual: foundry hazards in general; chemical, physical and safety hazards in foundries; hazard identification; medical screening; first aid; OSH legislation in the US. In the appendices: workplace standards; glossary; workers' compensation.
Labour Occupational Health Program, Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California at Berkeley, 2521 Channing Way, Berkeley CA 94720, USA, 1976. 105p. Illus.

CIS 78-1394 Maire Vigueur-Deschepper C.
Dermatosis in metalworking shops: 14 case studies in one plant
Les dermatoses dans la métallurgie (A propos de 14 cas dans une entreprise). [en francés]
MD thesis. The author reviews various types of dermatosis found in the metalworking industry (20% of reported cases in France), describes some processes involving the use of cutting fluids, and reports on 14 case studies observed in a plant manufacturing motorcar gear boxes and rear axle drives. Analysis of these cases highlights the problems encountered by plant physicians in arriving at a diagnosis and establishing the occupational nature of these skin disorders. The principal preventive measures are: automation; elimination of hazards from cutting fluids (composition, fluid supply and replenishment); workplace hygiene.
Université de Lille, Faculté de médecine, Lille, France, 1976. 99p. 81 ref.

CIS 78-931 Presses - Regulations
Presses - Textes réglementaires. [en francés]
This information sheet gives, in tabular form, references to relevant articles of the French Labour Code and other statutory instruments containing mandatory provisions (particularly those respecting occupational safety) concerning hot and cold metalworking presses. Also listed are safety devices, etc. recommended by French accident prevention institutions (which may be compulsory in certain cases), documentary material, certificates, rating plates, etc. which must be provided, mandatory safety measures, accessories, devices and guards.
Fascicule de documentation NF E 63-013, French Standards Association (Association française de normalisation), Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, May 1976. 5p. 2 ref.

CIS 78-339 General annex applying to the technical data sheets concerning machine tools
Annexe commune aux fiches techniques de sécurité relatives aux machines-outils. [en francés]
The French National Research and Safety Institute publishes regularly, in its "Cahiers de notes documentaires", technical data sheets on safety aspects of various machines (saws, surface planers, spindle moulders, lathes, grinding mills, milling machines, etc.). This general annex lists the French laws, regulations and other statutory instruments, and the recommendations and standards concerning these machines applicable in France. The list is followed by technical considerations (workplace layout and location of these machines; ergonomic workplace design; use of cutting fluids; electric, hydraulic and pneumatic equipment; sweep guards and guarding devices operating by electrical contact; stop buttons and emergency stop devices; maintenance; periodic checks).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1976, No.85, Note No.1032-85-76, p.495-508. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 78-435 Hundeiker M., Glossman V.
Oil keratosis and scrotal cancer in a lathe operator. How to prevent this occupational disease
Kératose des huiles et épithélioma du scrotum chez un tourneur. Comment prévenir l'apparition de cette maladie professionnelle. [en francés]
Translation of: Ölkeratosen und Skrotalkarzinom, eine vermeidbare Berufskrankheit des Metalldrehers. Berufsdermatosen, Aulendorf i. Württ., Germany (Fed.Rep.), Oct. 1975, Vol.23, No.5, p.174-178. Illus. 7 ref. (CIS 76-1959). Case report of a 39-year-old lathe operator who had suffered from oil acne 10 years earlier. After the change to a plant with better conditions of occupational hygiene, the disease healed completely in a short time. Some years later multiple carcinoma of the squamous epithelium developed from wart-like changes of the scrotum, which had at first been overlooked. This illustrates the need for periodic examinations and the importance of hygienic conditions in the plant.
Traduction INRS 71 B-76, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1976. 5p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 78-6 Castagna R.
Retention strength of magnetic lifting devices and limitations of their use from the occupational safety viewpoint
Sulla presa degli artigli magnetici e sulle limitazioni all'impiego per le esigenze della sicurezza del lavoro [en italiano]
This study was undertaken following several accidents due to falls of objects being lifted by lifting magnets (permanent magnet and direct current-operated). Contents: characteristics of magnetic action; forces acting on the object to be lifted; position of object (equilibrium); adherence force (slipping, safety factors for slipping, non-uniformity of contact pressures, oil on surfaces); effects of force of attraction (shape of lifted object, contact surfaces, sudden movements, knocks); safety rules (choice of magnets capable of lifting 3 times the weight of the object; use of magnets with a sufficiently large contact surface, etc.).
Securitas, May-June 1976, Vol.61, No.5-6, p.221-232. Illus.

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