Metalworking industry - 770 entradas encontradas
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Collective labour agreement on the improvement of working conditions
Convenção coletiva de melhorla des condições de trabalho [en portugués]
Collective labour agreement on the improvement of working conditions in sectors using presses and similar equipment, plastic injection molding machines and electroplating equipment in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Sindicato dos trabalhadores metalúrgicos de São Paulo e Mogi das Cruzes, Palácio do Trabalhador, rua Galvão Bueno 782, CEP 01506-000, Bairro da Liberdade, São Paulo, Brazil, 2011, 62p. Illus. 7 ref.
Convenção_coletiva_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en portugués]
Gerardo Ribeiro M., dos Reis Pedreira Filho W., Riederer E.E.
Qualitative evaluation of chemical hazards - Basic guidance for controlling exposures to chemicals in foundries
Avaliação qualitativa de riscos químicos - Orientações básicas para o controle da exposição a produtos químicos em fundições [en portugués]
The purpose of this publication is to help foundries to improve their practices with respect to the storage, handling and identification of chemicals. It offers a qualitative approach to assessing chemical risks, determine control measures, and implement and evaluate the proposed improvements. This approach allows estimating the expected exposure in specific situations and proposes control techniques appropriate for each case.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2011. 93p. Illus. 18 ref.
Avaliação_qualitativa_de_riscos_químicos_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en portugués]
Influencing attitudes and behaviours
Pour influencer les attitudes et les comportements [en francés]
This article presents the highlights and main findings after 18 months of a programme carried out in a metalworking plant in Quebec, Canada, taking into account human factors and psychology for influencing safety attitudes and behaviours. The programme had a highly successful outcome, one of the notable results being a 92% lower accident frequency rate.
Travail et santé, Dec. 2011, Vol.27, No.4, p.24-27. Illus. 3 ref.
Pour_influencer_les_attitudes_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en francés]
Mikulski M.A., Hartley P.G., Sprince N.L., Sanderson W.T., Lourens S., Worden N.E., Wang K., Fuortes L.J.
Risk and significance of chest radiograph and pulmonary function abnormalities in an elderly cohort of former nuclear weapons workers
The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence and risk factors for International Labour Organization radiographic abnormalities, and assess relationship of these abnormalities with spirometry results in former Department of Energy nuclear weapons workers. Participants were offered chest x-ray (CXR) and lung function testing. Three occupational medicine physicians read CXRs. Forty-five (5.9%) of 757 screened workers were found to have isolated parenchymal abnormalities on CXR and this rate is higher than that in many Department of Energy studies. Parenchymal and pleural abnormalities were found in 19 (2.5%) and 37 (4.9%) workers, respectively, and these rates are lower than those in other Department of Energy (DoE) studies to date. Lung function impairment was associated with radiographic abnormalities. This study found an elevated rate of parenchymal abnormalities compared to other DoE populations but the effect of age or other causes could not be ruled out.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.53, No.9, p.1046-1053. 43 ref.
Risk_and_significance_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]
Design of premises - New era in metallic framework
Conception des locaux - Changement d'ère dans la charpente métallique [en francés]
This article presents the new workshop of a French metallic framework manufacturer, four times the surface area of the previous premises. The layout was planned while keeping focused on employees' working conditions.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2011, No.722, p.36-38. Illus.
Conception_des_locaux_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en francés]
Van Dyke M.V., Martyny J.W., Mroz M.M., Silveira L.J., Strand M., Cragle D.L., Tankersley W.G., Wells S.M., Newman L.S., Maier L.A.
Exposure and genetics increase risk of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease in the nuclear weapons industry
Beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are caused by exposure to beryllium with susceptibility affected by at least one well-studied genetic host factor, a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPß chain (DPßE69). The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between DPßE69 and exposure in BeS and CBD. 181 current and former workers from a nuclear weapons production facility were enrolled in a case-control study including 35 individuals with BeS and 19 with CBD. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by PCR-SSP. Beryllium exposures were assessed through worker interviews and industrial hygiene assessment of work tasks. Multivariate models showed a sixfold (odds ratio (OR) 6.06) increased odds for BeS and CBD combined among DPßE69 carriers and a fourfold (OR 3.98) increased odds for those exposed over an assigned lifetime-weighted average exposure of 0.1 ¿g/m3. Those with both risk factors had higher increased odds (OR 24.1). DPßE69 carriage and high exposure to beryllium appear to contribute individually to the development of BeS and CBD. Among workers at a beryllium-using facility, the magnitude of risk associated with either elevated beryllium exposure or carriage of DPßE69 alone appears to be similar.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2011, Vol.68, No.11, p.842-848. 39 ref.
Exposure_and_genetics_increase_risk_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Lee M.S., Magari S., Christiani D.C.
Cardiac autonomic dysfunction from occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAH exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart-rate variability in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Continuous 24 h monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre- and postshift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Findings provide evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.68, No.7, p.474-478. Illus. 40 ref.
Cardiac_autonomic_dysfunction_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [en inglés]
Occupational contact dermatitis among mechanics
Dermites de contact professionnelles chez les mécaniciens [en francés]
Occupational skin diseases found among mechanics are mostly irritation or allergic contact dermatitis. The main chemical irritants include solvents, hydraulic fluids, waste engine oil, scouring agents, fuels, detergents, together with physical irritation factors. The main allergens include biocides, rubber additives, metals and plastics. Etiological diagnosis is based on allergy tests with special series and with products encountered at the workplace. Collective prevention involves all means available to reduce exposure. The type of glove used should be suited to the composition of the various products handled. Medical prevention involves avoiding skin contact with irritants as much as possible, and totally avoiding skin contact with allergens. These diseases are considered occupational in nature according to several lists of compensable occupational diseases in France, depending on the chemicals found in the products used in occupational settings.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2011, No.127, p.487-502. Illus. 91 ref.
Dermites_de_contact_chez_les_mécaniciens_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en francés]
Hung P.C., Cheng S.F., Liou S.H., Tsai S.W.
Biological monitoring of low-level 2-butoxyethanol exposure in decal transfer workers in bicycle manufacturing factories
In this study, exposures to 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE) in decal transfer workers in the Taiwan bicycle manufacturing industry were investigated. 80 workers in two bicycle factories completed a questionnaire. NIOSH method 1403 was adopted for air sampling and analysis of 2-BE. Pre-work and post-work urine samples were also collected for determination of total 2-butoxyacetic acid (BAA) after hydrolysis. Haemoglobin tests were performed using an automated haemoglobin analysis system. The 31 decal transfer workers whose hands were in direct contact with a dilute aqueous solution of 2-BE, were exposed to an average of 1.7 ppm of 2-BE in air. Correlation of 2-BE in air and postshift urinary BAA levels (after hydrolysis) was poor. Postshift total BAA levels in urine on Monday and Friday (446.8 and 619.4 mg/g creatinine) were around 223% and 310% of the ACGIH proposed Biological Exposure Index. Higher levels of total BAA were observed in the urine of subjects exposed to low-level 2-BE in air, presumably because of direct dermal contact. The mean pre-shift BAA on Friday was significantly higher than that on Monday, implying that the more days of exposures, the higher the accumulation. Since accumulation occurred with low-level exposure to 2-BE, it is recommended that urine samples be collected at the end of the working week.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.68, No.10, p.777-782. Illus. 36 ref.
Yamaguchi-Sekino S., Ojima J., Sekino M., Hojo M., Saito H., Okuno T.
Measuring exposed magnetic fields of welders in working time
The assessment of the electromagnetic field exposure of welders is of great importance, especially in shielded-arc welding which uses relatively strong electric currents of up to several hundred amperes. This study measured the magnetic field exposure level of welders during their work. A 3-axis Hall magnetometer was attached to the subjects' wrists in order to place the sensor probe as close as possible to the magnetic source. Data was acquired every 5s. The maximum exposed field was 0.35-3.35 mT and the average value per day was 0.04-0.12 mT. Finite element analyses of human hand tissue were conducted for electromagnetic field dosimetry. Magnetic fields associated with grinders, air hammers and electromagnetic drills were also measured, but were found to be much lower than those generated during the welding process.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.274-279. Illus. 20 ref.
Measuring.pdf [en inglés]
Donoghue A.M., Frisch N., Ison M., Walpole G., Capil R., Curl C., Di Corleto R., Hanna B., Robson R., Viljoen D.
Occupational asthma in the aluminium smelters of Australia and New Zealand: 1991-2006
The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of occupational asthma in the seven aluminium smelters of Australia and New Zealand from 1991 to 2006. Incidence and exposure data were collected by survey from the smelters prospectively during the study period. The incidence of occupational asthma across all smelters combined was highest in 1992 at 9.46/1,000/year, declining to 0.36/1,000/year in 2006; a 96.2% reduction. The incidence of occupational asthma was correlated with geometric mean total fluoride concentration, measured as personal samples from employees undertaking anode changing. The control of exposures, respiratory protection and pre-placement medical assessments undertaken during the study period seem to have contributed to the substantial decline in occupational asthma incidence.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.224-231. Illus. 18 ref.
Schoonover T., Conroy L., Lacey S., Plavka J.
Personal exposure to metal fume, NO2, and O3 among production welders and non-welders
The objective of this study was to characterize personal exposures to welding-related metals and gases for production welders and non-welders in a large manufacturing facility. Welding fume metals and irritant gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and ozone (O3) were sampled for 38 workers. Personal exposure air samples for welding fume metals were collected on open-face cassettes and nitrogen dioxide and ozone exposure samples were collected with diffusive passive samplers. Samples were analyzed for metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and welding fume metal exposure concentrations were defined as the sum of welding-related metals mass per volume of air sampled. Welding fume metal exposures were highly variable among similar types of welding while NO2 and O3 exposure were less variable. Welding fume metal exposures were significantly higher (474 μg/m3) for welders than non-welders (60 μg/m3). Welders were exposed to higher concentrations NO2 and O3 than non-welders but the differences were not statistically significant. Welding fume metal exposure concentrations for welders performing gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) were higher than welders performing gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Non-welders experienced exposures similar to GTAW welders despite a curtain wall barrier separating welding and non-welding work areas.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.49, No.1, p.63-72. 44 ref.
Personal_exposure_to_metal_fume.pdf [en inglés]
Bronze and lighting ornaments - Chiselling away safely
Lustrerie-bronze - Ciseler en toute sécurité [en francés]
Clocks, candelabras, andirons, chandeliers and other objects in bronze, brass or cast iron from French ministries and embassies are renovated in the Paris workshop of the National furniture service. This article describes the tasks carried out in this workshop, together with the prevention of occupational safety and health hazards.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.42-44. Illus.
Lustrerie-bronze.pdf [en francés]
Cagno E., Micheli G.J.L., Perotti S.
Identification of OHS-related factors and interactions among those and OHS performance in SMEs
This literature survey was undertaken to identify OSH-related factors in SMEs in Italy. Interactions among these factors were then examined and tested against accident data for SMEs in the metalworking industry of an Italian province. This allowed improvements in the understanding of the root causes of many accidents.
Safety Science, Feb. 2011, Vol.49, No.2, p.216-225. Illus. 46 ref.
Prevención de la sensibilización y la enfermedad por exposición al berilio
Preventing sensitization and disease from beryllium exposure [en inglés]
Workers exposed to particles, fumes, mists or solutions from beryllium-containing materials may develop beryllium sensitization or chronic beryllium disease, a potentially-disabling or even fatal respiratory disease. This booklet provides guidance on preventing sensitization and disease from beryllium exposure. Contents: background; beryllium sensitization; diseases (berylliosis, cancer); medical surveillance; workplace surveys; case studies; current exposure limits; conclusions; recommendations.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Feb. 2011. PDF document. 18p. 34 ref.
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-107/EN.pdf [en inglés]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-107/ES.pdf [en español]
Gilbert Y., Veillette M., Meriaux A., Lavoie J., Cormier Y., Duchaine C.
Metalworking fluid-related aerosols in machining plants
This study evaluates airborne microorganisms and aerosols from soluble metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the working environment. Air quality parameters (endotoxin levels, culturable airborne microorganisms, fluid mist, inhalable dust and air exchange rates) were evaluated at 44 sites in 25 shops in Quebec, Canada. Microorganism concentrations were also measured in MWF. Most workplaces respected the recommended maximum values for fluid mist and showed low concentrations of airborne endotoxin, culturable microorganisms and inhalable dust despite fluid contamination, even when air exchange rates were below the recommendations. Airborne Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes was recovered from many sites at significant concentrations. Possible health-associated risks from exposure to this microorganism need to be further investigated.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2010, Vol.7, No.5, p.280-289. Illus. 56 ref.
Metalworking_fluid-related_aerosols.pdf [en inglés]
Stefaniak A.B., Harvey C.J., Bukowski V.C., Leonard S.S.
Comparison of free radical generation by pre- and post-sintered cemented carbide particles
Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may occur in response to cellular contact with metal particles. Generation of ROS by cobalt and/or tungsten carbide is implicated in causing hard metal lung disease (HMD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In this study, ROS generation and particle properties that influence radical generation were assessed for three sizes of tungsten, tungsten carbide, cobalt, admixture (tungsten carbide and cobalt powders), spray dryer, and post-sintered chamfer grinder powders using chemical (H2O2plus phosphate-buffered saline, artificial lung surfactant, or artificial sweat) and cellular reaction systems. For a given material, on a mass basis, hydroxyl (OH) generation generally increased as particle size decreased; however, on a surface area basis, radical generation levels were more, but not completely, similar. Chamfer grinder powder, polycrystalline aggregates of tungsten carbide in a metallic cobalt matrix, generated the highest levels of OH radicals. Radical generation was not dependent on the masses of metals; rather, it involved surface-chemistry-mediated reactions that were limited to a biologically active fraction of the total available surface area of each material. Improved understanding of particle surface chemistry elucidated the importance of biologically active surface area in generation of ROS by particle mixtures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2010, Vol.7, No.1, p.23-34. Illus. 56 ref.
Comparison_of_free_radical_generation.pdf [en inglés]
Massari S., Bianchi A.R., Binazzi A., Branchi C., di Marzio D., Marinaccio A., Scano P., Scarselli A., Iavicoli S.
Occupational cancer registry: The ISPESL experience
Il registro dei tumori di sospetta origine professionale: l'esperienza dell'ISPESL [en italiano]
In Italy, legislation governing the collection of data on occupational cancer cases has been recently updated. The data collected by the Italian Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL) has been recoded to match the new requirements. For the period 1994-2007, 1042 cases of occupational cancer were notified to the ISPESL, mainly regarding men. The most frequent cancer sites were the lung, pleura and nasal cavity. The most affected activity sectors were basic metals and the metal industry, construction, and health care and social services. The most represented carcinogenic agents were asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and silica.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-June 2010, Vol.6, No.1/2, p.43-59. Illus. 51 ref.
Vincent R., Catani J., Créau Y., Frocaut A.M., Good A., Goutet P., Hou A., Leray F., André-Lesage M.A., Soyez A.
Occupational exposure to beryllium in French enterprises. Evaluation of the level of atmospheric exposure and surface contamination
Exposition professionnelle au béryllium dans les entreprises françaises. Evaluation des niveaux d'exposition atmosphérique et de contamination surfacique [en francés]
A beryllium occupational exposure evaluation survey was conducted in France from 2004 to 2006. Air and surface samples were collected from 95 enterprises involved in 37 different sectors. Findings show that atmospheric concentrations of beryllium often exceed the French recommended limit of 2μ/m3. Activities and sectors with the highest exposures are the metalworking and electronic component manufacturing industries. Surface contamination levels are also important and frequently exceed the threshold limits proposed by various bodies. In view of these findings, preventive measures including the substitution of beryllium, sound process management, surface decontamination and appropriate medical supervision should be implemented.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2010, No.220, p.53-62. Illus. 30 ref.
PR_45-220.pdf [en francés]
Baumeister T., Weistenhöfer W., Drexler H., Kütting B.
Health inequalities according to plant size - Comparison of small- and medium-sized enterprises
The objective of this study was to assess enterprise size-related differences based on self-reported working conditions and their influence on perceived symptoms at workplace. A total of 799 metal workers involved in wet work from nine small-sized enterprises (SEs) and ten medium-sized enterprises (MEs) German metal working plants were interviewed in 2007/2008. Workers in SEs complained more often of hand eczema (20.2% versus 13.8%) whereas workers in MEs more frequently reported breathing problems (4.2% versus 0.9%). Work safety was higher in MEs. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2010, Vol.52, No.8, p.807-812. 21 ref.
Bailey R.L., Thomas C.A., Deubner D.C., Kent M.S., Kreiss K., Schuler C.R.
Evaluation of a preventive program to reduce sensitization at a beryllium metal, oxide, and alloy production plant
This study evaluated a workplace preventive programme's effectiveness, emphasizing skin and respiratory protection, workplace cleanliness and beryllium migration control in lowering beryllium sensitization. Sensitization prevalence and incidence rates were compared for workers hired before and after the programme using available cross sectional and longitudinal surveillance data. Sensitization prevalence was 8.9% for the pre-programme group and 2.1% for the programme group. The sensitization incidence rate was 3.7/1000 person-months for the pre-programme group and 1.7/1000 person-months for the programme group. After making adjustments for potential selection and information bias, sensitization prevalence for the pre-programme group was 3.8 times higher than for the programme group. The sensitization incidence rate ratio comparing the pre-programme group to the programme group was 1.6. It is concluded that the preventive programme reduced the prevalence of but did not eliminate beryllium sensitization.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.52, No.5, p.505-512. 17 ref.
De Palma G., Manini P., Sarnico M., Molinari S., Apostoli P.
Biological monitoring of tungsten (and cobalt) in workers of a hard metal alloy industry
To evaluate a combined biomonitoring approach based on both cobalt and tungsten determination in workers of the hard metal alloy sector, 55 workers from a factory producing cutting tools for carpentry were enrolled. Combined workroom air and biological monitoring of both cobalt and tungsten relied on inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry determinations. Metals were determined on plasma, blood and urine samples. Urine samples from 34 unexposed subjects were also analysed. Tungsten was determined in every collected sample. Workers showed significantly higher urinary tungsten levels than controls (pre-shift values of 4.12 vs 0.06 μg/L on average). Both airborne and biological levels of tungsten prevailed among workers involved in wet-grinding activities. The element was excreted at higher urinary levels than cobalt and showed lower circulating (blood, plasma) concentrations. Exposure-dose relationships were apparent for tungsten biomarkers. The results may contribute to the development of biomarkers of exposure to tungsten.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.173-181. Illus. 34 ref.
Bondéelle A., Brasseur G., Richez J.P
Welding work - Engraving safety and health in the metal
Travaux de soudage - Graver la prévention dans le métal [en francés]
Contents of this collection of articles on occupational safety and health in welding operations: overview; main hazards encountered during welding operations; medical supervision of welders and brazing workers; examples of occupational safety and health measures in boilermaking, sheet metal working and ironwork enterprises; activities of a French regional occupational safety and health service; presentation of a DVD on safety and health in arc welding.
Travail et sécurité, May 2010, No.706, p.16-31. Illus. 21 ref.
Food and metalworking industries: Antislip flooring
Agroalimentaire et industries métallurgiques: revêtement des sols antidérapants [en francés]
Fall accidents caused by slips represent approximately 10% of all occupational accidents, which confirms the importance of suitable flooring. This article reviews the main points to consider when selecting flooring, particularly in the food and metalworking industries, two sectors which are strongly affected by slips: standards and regulations; studies on slip resistance; factors influencing floor slipperiness; factors influencing the risk of falls; flooring selection. A table summarizing the properties of various types of flooring for use in the food and metalworking industries is included.
Prevent Focus, Mar. 2010, p.14-17. Illus.
Li Q., Morikawa Y., Sakurai M., Nakamura K., Miura K., Ishizaki M., Kido T., Naruse Y., Suwazono Y., Nakagawa H.
Occupational class and incidence rates of cardiovascular events in middle aged men in Japan
This study investigated whether occupational class affects the incidence of cardiovascular events among Japanese factory workers. The evaluation involved 1794 male workers aged 40-59, including 632 non-manual and 1162 manual workers, employed in a metal products factory in Japan. The hazard ratios of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiovascular events (combined stroke, MI and sudden cardiac death) for manual workers were compared with non-manual workers as estimated by the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Findings are discussed. The study did not reveal significant occupational class inequalities in the rate of cardiovascular events, contradicting the findings of studies from other industrialized countries.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.324-330. 25 ref.
Marchand D., Giguère D.
Risks of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in the automobile services sector - Exploratory study
Les risques de troubles musculo-squelettiques aux membres supérieurs dans le secteur des services à l'automobile - Etude exploratoire [en francés]
In the automobile maintenance and repair sector, upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are responsible for longer absences and higher costs than in many other workplaces. Tool weights and postures required for their use are among the potential factors in the incidence of these MSDs. However, the physical constraints imposed on mechanics, painters and car body repairers by the use of their tools are still poorly evaluated, and therefore poorly understood. In this study, 10 tasks considered to risk causing upper limb MSDs were analyzed. It involved 46 observation sessions with the participation of 35 workers in 12 workshops and garages. Each task studied was found to have its own upper limb MSD risk profile. The report presents the main problems observed, as well as the approaches recommended or applied by some of the workers.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. ix, 103p. Illus. 44 ref. Price: CAD 12.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-645.pdf [en francés]
Burlet-Vienney D., Jocelyn S., Daigle R., Massé S.
Safeguarding of hydraulic power press brakes
Sécurisation des presses plieuses hydrauliques [en francés]
This guide addresses means available for safeguarding hydraulic power press brakes, mainly against the risk of operators being caught up and crushed between the dies. It emphasizes two recently-developed protection techniques: light curtains and laser beam devices, and is aimed at all persons involved in decisions relating to the safeguarding of hydraulic press brakes. The first part presents basic safeguarding concepts together with the vocabulary related to hydraulic power press brakes. The next part defines the production variables that need to be taken into account when selecting the most suitable safeguarding methods. Various means of safeguarding the front, rear and lateral zones are then explained.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. 32p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RF-634.pdf [en francés]
Kütting B., Uter W., Baumeister T., Schaller B., Weistenhöfer W., Drexler H.
Non-invasive bioengineering methods in an intervention study in 1020 male metal workers: Results and implications for occupational dermatology
Measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as an indicator of skin barrier function and colorimetry for quantifying erythema have been recommended for monitoring persons at risk of occupational hand dermatitis. A sample of 1020 male metal workers was enrolled, among which 800 participants were followed up for one year. TEWL results and colorimetry were used as effectiveness outcomes of four interventions (skin care, skin protection, both combined and control group). Findings are discussed. It is concluded that dermatological examinations at the workplace cannot be replaced by bioengineering techniques, primarily because of difficulties in achieving standardized measurement conditions.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2010, Vol.62, No.5, p.272-278. Illus. 35 ref.
MacCarthy A., Bunch K.J., Fear N.T, King J.C., Vincent T.J., Murphy M.F.
Paternal occupation and retinoblastoma: A case-control study based on data for Great Britain 1962-1999
The objective of this study was to examine the association between paternal occupational exposures and retinoblastoma using birth registration data for cases from the National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT) and controls from the general population of Great Britain. It was conducted in the form of a case-control study of paternal occupational data for 1318 cases of retinoblastoma, born and diagnosed between 1962 and 1999, and 1318 controls matched on sex, date of birth and birth registration sub-district. Paternal occupations at birth were grouped according to inferred exposure using an occupational exposure classification scheme. A conditional (matched) case-control analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for each paternal occupational exposure group. For non-heritable retinoblastoma, a statistically significant increased risk was found with father's definite occupational exposure to oil mists in metal working (OR 1.85). No statistically significant associations were observed for other exposure groups.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.66, No.10, p.644-649. 22 ref.
Rodriguez M., Adebayo A., Brueck S.E., Ramsey J.
Evaluation of employees' exposures to welding fumes and powder paint dust during metal furniture manufacturing
In 2007, NIOSH received a confidential employee request for a health hazard evaluation at a metal furniture manufacturing plant. Employees were concerned about exposure to welding fumes and dust from powder painting and grinding operations. During the initial site visit, NIOSH staff met with management and employee representatives, toured the facility, observed work processes and existing engineering controls, observed the use of PPE and interviewed 10 employees. Bulk samples of powder paint were collected for particle sizing and to check for silica and asbestos content. Two of the 10 employees interviewed reported symptoms not related to exposures in the workplace. They described episodic transient shortness of breath that lasted a few minutes and also affected members of their families who were not employees of the plant. Their condition did not improve when they were away from work. Two other employees reported eye and throat irritation. The remaining six employees reported no symptoms. A second survey was conducted to evaluate exposures to welding fumes. No specific cause was identified and threshold limit values were mostly within acceptable levels. A number of recommendations were made concerning the use of paints that do not contain triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC), use of welding wire that does not contain manganese, ventilation, personal protection, engineering controls and information of personnel.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Jan. 2009. viii, 45p. Illus. 5 ref.
HETA_2007-0199-3075.pdf [en inglés]
Alén Cordero C., Muñoz Sanz J.L.
Measurement of machinery safety level: European framework for product control - Particular case: Spanish framework for market surveillance
This article reviews the concept of safety in European industry, particularly in the mechanical engineering and machinery sectors. It also highlights the importance of ensuring a consistent level of machinery safety within the European Union, by setting up the appropriate framework and procedures. Finally, it discusses market surveillance activities for machinery, at both the European and Spanish levels.
Safety Science, Dec. 2009, Vol.47, No.10, p.1285-1296. Illus. 32 ref.
Quansah R., Jaakkola J.J.K
Paternal and maternal exposure to welding fumes and metal dusts or fumes and adverse pregnancy outcomes
This study assessed whether paternal exposure prior to conception and maternal exposure during pregnancy to welding fumes (WF) and metal dusts or fumes (MD/F) increase the risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight, and small-for-gestational age. The study population was selected from The Finnish Prenatal Environment and Health Study of 2,568 newborns and included 1,670 women who worked during pregnancy of which 68 were exposed to WF and/or to MD/F. Findings show that maternal exposure to WF or MD/F during pregnancy reduces fetal growth and suggest that paternal exposure to WF increases the risk of preterm delivery and small-for-gestational age.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.529-537. 35 ref.
Sauni R., Pääkkönen R., Virtema P., Jäntti V., Kähönen M., Toppila E., Pyykkö I., Uitti J.
Vibration-induced white finger syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome among Finnish metal workers
The purpose of this study was to estimate the cumulative exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) and the prevalence of clinically diagnosed cases of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a population of Finnish metal workers. A questionnaire on vibration exposure at the workplace and symptoms of the upper extremities was sent to a sample of 530 metalworkers' union members. Those reporting VWF or CTS symptoms were also invited to take part in clinical examinations. Their cumulative lifelong exposure to HAV was evaluated. The incidences VWF and CTS were 8.4% and 4.2% respectively, suggesting that VWF is under-diagnosed in Finland. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.445-453. Illus. 31 ref.
d'Errico A., Pasian S., Baratti A., Zanelli R., Alfonzo S., Gilardi L., Beatrice F., Bena A., Costa G.
A case-control study on occupational risk factors for sino-nasal cancer
The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of sinonasal epithelial cancer, with emphasis on metalworking industries. Between 1996 and 2000, incident cases were collected from cancer registry of the Piedmont region of Italy. A questionnaire on occupational history, completed by 113 cases and 336 hospital controls, was used to assign exposure to occupational hazards. Data were subjected to unconditional logistic regression analyses. The risk of adenocarcinoma was significantly related to exposure to wood dust (odds ratio OR 58.6), leather dust (OR 32.8) and organic solvents (OR 4.3), while ever-exposure to welding fumes (OR 3.7) and arsenic (OR 4.4) significantly increased the risk for squamous cell carcinoma. For each of these hazards, significant dose-response relationships were found. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2009, Vol.66, No.7, p.448-455. 40 ref.
Barrière immatérielle [en francés]
Whenever operators need to act frequently thereby exposing them to hazards, electronic guards may be preferable to certain types of mechanical guards. This article describes various types of electronic guards (with vertical or horizontal positioning) together with their areas of application, with the illustrated example of a press brake.
Prévention BTP, Sep. 2009, No.121, p.22-23. Illus.
Mirabelli M.C, Zock J.P., Bircher A.J., Jarvis D., Keidel D., Kromhout H., Norbäck D., Olivieri M., Plana E., Radon K, Schindler C, Schmid-Grendelmeier P., Torén K., Villani S., Kogevinas M
Metalworking exposures and persistent skin symptoms in the ECRHS II and SAPALDIA 2 cohorts
This analysis was conducted to assess the associations between metalworking exposures and current and persistent skin symptoms among male and female participants in two population-based epidemiologic studies in Europe: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II (ECRHS II) and the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults 2 (SAPALDIA 2). Each participant completed interviewer-administered questionnaires to provide information about symptoms and exposures related to selected occupations, including metalworking, during the follow-up periods. The associations between skin symptoms and the frequency of metalworking exposures among 676 ECRHS II/SAPALDIA 2 respondents were analysed. Current skin symptoms were reported by 10% of metalworkers and were associated with frequent use of oil-based metalworking fluids and organic solvent/degreasing. The findings justify assessing strategies for reducing the frequency of metal-related exposures.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2009, Vol.60, No.5, p.256-263. 20 ref.
Mearns K., Yule S.
The role of national culture in determining safety performance: Challenges for the global oil and gas industry
This article addresses the issue of occupational safety and how the process of globalization can potentially influence the beliefs and behaviour of disparate national workforces working across the globe for the same multi-national company. It reviews published literature on cross-cultural differences in attitudes, perceptions and beliefs regarding safety and presents the findings of a study examining the relationship between cultural value dimensions, safety climate and risk-taking behaviour in workforce members of a multi-national engineering organization operating in six countries. The results suggest that perceived management commitment to safety and the effectiveness of safety measures exert more impact on workforce behaviour and accident rates than national cultural values.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.777-785. 34 ref.
David C., Boucher D., Laffaire J.B., Peyret P., Duquenne P., Brugnot C.
Monitoring microbiological flora in grease bacterial degradation fountains
Suivi de la flore microbiologique des fontaines de biodégradation des graisses [en francés]
Grease bacterial degradation fountains consist of a tank containing a surfactant inoculated with a mixture of bacteria. Monitoring the microbiological flora of several fountains for one year allowed assessing the biological hazards. Bacteria quantification gave a concentration of 3.4 x105 CFU/mL. Microorganism identification revealed the presence of moulds and numerous bacterial species different from those initially seeded in the fountains. These microorganisms could originate from the working atmosphere or the personnel. A number of prevention measures are recommended, based on the potential risks of the identified germs and the type of exposure when using the tanks.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2009, No.214, p.25-35. Illus. 8ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view/0C0F8EF2715B742AC12575910046CD6C/$File/nd2304.pdf [en francés]
Metalworking fluids - Allergens, exposure, and skin and respiratory effects
It is estimated that 20,000 workers in Finland are occupationally exposed to metalworking fluids. Many studies have addressed the adverse skin and respiratory effects of these fluids. Despite the general improvements in occupational hygiene over the last decades, the health effects seem not to have disappeared. Worldwide, exposed workers still suffer from contact dermatoses and respiratory symptoms. This thesis reviews studies carried out in Finland during 2002-2005 on respiratory and skin exposure to specific components of metalworking fluids. It also examines skin and respiratory symptoms in a cross-sectional study among machinist and office workers of 64 companies.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2009. 106p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 22.95.
Cummings K.J., Boylstein R.J., Cox-Ganser J.
Report on respiratory and dermal conditions among machine shop workers
In 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a confidential Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) request from workers of a machine shop, reporting recurrent pneumonias, asthma and other respiratory symptoms as well as rashes and skin irritation that they related to the metalworking fluid (MWF). NIOSH investigators conducted telephone interviews with workers, treating physicians, company management and safety officials, and the director of the company's referral occupational health clinic. They reviewed medical records and environmental monitoring conducted by the company. They also conducted microbiological tests on samples of MWF collected from the machine shop. The investigators found that workers' symptoms and diagnoses were consistent with those associated with exposure to MWF. Workers in the machine shop reported not receiving training on the health hazards of MWF and not being provided respiratory protection; furthermore, they are not included in a medical surveillance program. As a result of this investigation, NIOSH made a number of recommendations with respect to training, exposure surveillance, ventilation, and supply of personal protective equipment.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. v, 52p. Illus. 19 ref.
HETA_2007-0263-3069.pdf [en inglés]
Malo J.L., Gautrin D., Maghni K., Martin J.
Bronchial irritation syndrome - From epidemiological monitoring to the mechanisms
Le syndrome d'irritation bronchique - De la surveillance épidémiologique aux mécanismes [en francés]
Bronchial irritation syndrome is a form of occupational asthma that manifests itself following exposure to a high concentration or to several low exposures to a non-specific irritant. The worker then develops respiratory symptoms suggestive of asthma that can lead to a permanent functional disorder. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors and characteristics of bronchial irritation among workers having been exposed to irritants. It involved 115 workers newly hired between 1995 and 2004 in a metalworking industry, who were followed several times over a period of a few years by means of pulmonary function tests and questionnaires, in particular on their possible accidental exposure to chlorine. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. vii, 38p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-574.pdf [en francés]
Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Suuronen K., Jolanki R.
Analysis of allergens in metalworking fluids
The objective of this study was to gain information about skin sensitizers in metalworking fluids (MWFs), and to compare it with the information provided in safety data sheets (SDSs). A total of 17 samples of MWFs concentrates were analyzed for skin sensitizers known or suspected to be used in MWFs. Of the MWFs, 15 contained 6-39% of alkanolamines, mostly monoethanolamine and triethanolamine. Formaldehyde was detected in all MWFs, at concentrations ranging between 0.002% and 1.3%. Benzisothiazolinone and octylisothiazolinone were detected in one fluid each. Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate was detected in nine MWFs, the highest concentration being 0.09%. Resin acids of colophonium were detected in seven MWFs in concentrations ranging from 0.41% to 3.8%. On the whole, the allergens analyzed were poorly declared in the SDSs. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2008, Vol.59, No.5, p.261-267. 22 ref.
Aalto-Korte K., Suuronen K., Kuuliala O., Jolanki R.
Contact allergy to 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole and phenyl-α-naphtylamine, allergens in industrial greases and lubricant oils - Contact allergy to water-insoluble greases is uncommon but needs to be considered in some workers
Components of industrial lubricants seldom cause allergic contact dermatitis. This study describes the cases of two patients with allergic reactions to 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole contained in metalworking lubricants and a case of allergy to phenyl-α-naphtylamine in grease.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.93-96. 21 ref.
Nuernberg A.M., Boyce P.D., Cavallari J.M., Fang S.C., Eisen E.A., Christiani D.C.
Urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG concentrations in boilermakers with welding exposure
To investigate the association of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) with DNA damage and oxidative stress in boilermakers exposed to welding fumes, 41 workers were monitored over 24 hours during which baseline, post-shift, bedtime, and next morning urine samples were collected. Blood samples were also collected pre-shift and the following morning. Twenty-two unexposed workers participated as controls. Linear regression was used to model changes in u-8-isoprostane and u-8-OHdG. Acute welding fume exposure was found to be associated with a post-shift blunting of systemic inflammation, as measured by 8-isoprostane, in chronically exposed workers. The level of oxidative DNA damage as measured by 8-OHdG was less clear.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.182-189. Illus. 35 ref.
Hamaguchi T., Omae K., Takebayashi T., Kikuchi Y., Yoshioka N., Nishiwaki Y., Tanaka A., Hirata M., Taguchi O., Chonan T.
Exposure to hardly soluble indium compounds in ITO production and recycling plants is a new risk for interstitial lung damage
The objective of this case-control study was to identify the effects of indium on the lung and to assess possible dose-response relationships. It involved 93 male indium-exposed and 93 male non-exposed workers from four indium and tin oxide manufacturing and recycling plants. Indium in serum (In-S) was determined as a biomarker of exposure. Geometric means of In-S were 8.25ng/ml in the exposed workers and 0.25ng/ml in the non-exposed workers. The maximum concentration of In-S was 116.9ng/ml. Data on respiratory symptoms and job histories were obtained by means of questionnaires. Participants were also subjected to spirometry, high-resolution computerised tomography (HRCT) of the chest, serum KL-6, serum SP-A, serum SP-D and serum CRP. Serum biomarkers and HRCT indicate that exposure to hardly-soluble indium compound dust may represent a risk for interstitial lung damage. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.65, No.1, p.51-55. Illus. 24 ref.
Contamination of aqueous metalworking fluids and prevention of biological hazards
Contamination des fluides de coupe aqueux et prévention des risques biologiques [en francés]
Cutting fluids are used in metalworking processes. Various diseases, often associated with cutting fluid constituents, have been observed among exposed users. Cutting fluids are colonized by microorganisms, potentially giving rise to a biological hazard for operators. This article describes in detail the mechanisms of microorganism proliferation, lists the main biological agents identified in the fluids and reports their possible implication in pathologies observed in operators. Finally, maintenance and prevention measures are recommended for controlling biological proliferation in metalworking fluids.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2008, No.211, p.31-43. Illus. 45 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202290/$File/ND2290.pdf [en francés]
Hagberg M., Burström L., Lundström R., Nilsson T.
Incidence of Raynaud's phenomenon in relation to hand-arm vibration exposure among male workers at an engineering plant: A cohort study
The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) in relation to hand-arm vibration exposure in a cohort consisting of male office and manual workers. The baseline population consisted of 94 office and 147 manual workers at an engineering plant. RP was assessed at baseline and at follow up (at 5, 10 and 15 years). The retrospective and prospective incidence rates of RP were 16 and 14 respectively per 1000 exposure years among exposed workers, and 2.4 and 5.0 respectively per 1000 years among unexposed workers. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that the EU directive on an action value for hand-arm vibration of 2.5m/s2 is not too low; rather, they suggest that employers should take on actions even at exposure values of 1m/s2.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, June 2008, Vol.3, No.13, p.1-6. Illus. 16 ref.
Worthington puts wellness to work
This article describes the wellness promotion efforts of a steel processing enterprise employing around 8000 workers at 68 sites within the United States and in 10 other countries. At their headquarters, the company operates a gym, a medical centre and a pharmacy. It offers a choice of health care plan options and the chance to participate in a voluntary wellness programme. Employees who voluntarily participate in the programme first undergo a health screening. Participation involves monetary benefits in health insurance costs. Moderate and high-risk employees must acquire two points per quarter to maintain their presence in the programme. To earn points, participants can choose from a variety of options, such as completing an online healthy living programme, participating in the company wellness challenge or joining a weight management or smoking cessation programme. The company employs a dietician, who is on hand to help employees evaluate their food choices, convert recipes into healthier versions and promote smoking cessation. Two full-time personal trainers at the company's fitness facilities help employees develop exercise plans. Other features of the programme are discussed.
Occupational Hazards, Apr. 2008, p.22-28. Illus.
Occupational safety and health manual - Electroplating industry
Manual de segurança e saúde no trabalho - Indústria galvânica [en portugués]
This manual covers the occupational safety and health aspects specific to the electroplating industry in Brazil. It is based on the results of a literature survey as well as a field study carried out in 65 enterprises by a multidisciplinary team. It specifies the hazards that are to be found within this industry and proposes preventive measures aimed at protecting the workers and improving productivity. Contents: typology of enterprises and risk factors; field studies; hazard prevention and action programmes; legal aspects.
Serviço Social da Indústria (SESI), Departamento Regional de São Paulo, Av. Paulista 1313, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 2007. 259p. Illus. 60 ref.
Manual_de_SST.pdf [en portugués]
Manganese and its compounds
Manganèse et ses composés [en francés]
Occupational exposures to manganese and its compounds are mainly encountered in the steel and smelting industries, as well as in welding. Other industries such as dry cell manufacture, glassworks, and the production of paints and pigments can give also rise to exposures, as can certain pesticides used in agriculture. Occupational exposure to manganese occurs almost exclusively through inhalation, with the lungs and the central nervous system being the main target organs. In cases of chronic exposure, neurological disorders and in particular perceptual-motor performance, constitute the main critical effect. Higher exposures (generally above 5mg/m3) give rise to Parkinson-like symptoms. The identification of groups of exposed workers is possible by means of determinations in blood or urine. Monitoring of manganese exposure rests mainly on atmospheric sampling. Acceptable occupational exposure levels are 0.050 and 0.200mg/m3 respectively for respirable and inhalable fractions. Replaces CIS 03-827.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 10p. 72 ref.
Kiesswetter E., Schäper M., Buchta M., Schaller K.H., Rossbach B., Scherhag H., Zschiesche W., Letzel S.
Longitudinal study on potential neurotoxic effects of aluminium: I. Assessment of exposure and neurobehavioural performance of Al welders in the train and truck construction industry over 4 years
This study examined the reliability of aluminium biomonitoring as indicator of individual long-term exposure, together with long-term changes of neurobehavioural performance among aluminium welders in relation to exposure. Data on aluminium exposure neurological behaviour were obtained over a period of four years from a group of aluminium welders and an unexposed age-matched control group. The measurements of exposure included total dust in air as well as aluminium in pre-shift and post-shift plasma and urine samples. Neurobehavioural methods comprised symptoms, verbal intelligence, logic thinking, psychomotor behaviour, memory and attention. Computer-aided tests from the Motor Performance Series (MLS) and the European Neurobehavioural Evaluation System (EURO-NES) were used. Data were examined with regression analysis. The aluminium welders who had been working in this profession for an average of 15 years showed no significantly increased symptom levels compared with the control group. Statistical analyses revealed neither a correlation between biomonitoring and performance variables nor a significant difference between exposed and control groups.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.41-67. Illus. 57 ref.
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