Power generation and distribution - 305 entradas encontradas
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Ruppert F., Ettemeyer A.
Hazardous substances: an information challenge
Gefahrstoffe als Wissensanforderung [en alemán]
Perception of danger and risk posed by substances encountered in a nuclear power plant was determined by questionnaires and interviews. Even though safety organisation in the plant was found to be of a high level, most of the workers rely on their sensory ability to recognise harmful and dangerous substances rather than on the information they would obtain on these substances by reading warning notices.
Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 1988, Vol.32, No.3, p.118-127. Illus. 21 ref.
Conclusions of this evaluation: (1) there is no convincing evidence that vanadium is an essential element for man; (2) there is a dose-response relationship between the concentration of vanadium in air and its irritant effects (rhinitis, bronchitis, eczematous dermatitis); (3) vanadium may be embryotoxic and gonadotoxic.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1988. 170p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 19.00.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Work on gas lines [Federal Republic of Germany]
Arbeiten an Gasleitungen [en alemán]
These safety rules apply to work on lines carrying gases (except oxygen, acetylene and air). Subjects covered: employer's responsibility, personal protective equipment, preliminary measures before work on a line begins, protection against electrical (spark) hazards, measures to be taken in case of leaks, fire protection. In an annex: rules of application and comments.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Apr. 1988. 12 + 27p.
Electrical power installation safety - A reference manual
Tehnika bezopasnosti v ėlektroėnergetičeskih ustanovkah: Spravočnoe posobie [en ruso]
Contents of this reference manual designed for engineers and technicians employed by electric power generating and distributing facilities and design institutions, safety inspectors and engineers, and college students: general aspects (terms and definitions, classification of premises, permissible levels of contact voltage and of current travelling through the body, alphabetic and numeric identification and colour coding of busbars in electrical installations, switchgear busbar arrangement, protection of mains of up to and over 1000V); safe operation of electrical installations; protective equipment, safety clothing and tools (use and testing of protective equipment; electrical tools, electrical hand lamps, ladders and climbers; glass filters for safety goggles and face shields used in electric welding, etc.); earthing and earthing to neutral; protection against exposure to electromagnetic fields; instructions on first aid measures to be taken in case of an accident during electric power equipment operation and maintenance.
Izdatel'stvo Ėnergoatomizdat, šljuzovaja nab. 10, 113114 Moskva, USSR, 1987. 400p. Illus. Price: SUR 1.90.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Nuclear power stations [Federal Republic of Germany]
Kernkraftwerke [en alemán]
These safety regulations for nuclear power stations deal with: workplace design, exhaust devices, alarm and communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, decontamination provisions, escape and rescue, leak detectors, fire and explosion protection, incidents, employee qualifications, personal radiation protection. Supplement: rules of implementation.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1987. 12 + 26p.
Resolution 87/C 328/01 of the European Communities and of the representatives of the governments of the Member States, on the continuation and implementation of a European Community policy and action programme on the environment (1987-1992) [CEC]
Résolution 87/C 328/01 du Conseil des communautés européennes et des représentants des gouvernements des états membres concernant la poursuite et la réalisation d'une politique et d'un programme d'action des C.E. en matière d'environnement (1987-1992) [CCE] [en francés]
This Resolution defines the priority areas within which Community action must concentrate. Within the section devoted to the prevention and control of pollution, there are separate paragraphs on the control of chemical substances and preparations, and on the prevention of industrial accidents. In the appendix there are more detailed descriptions of proposed actions on chemical products, biotechnology, noise and nuclear safety.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 7 Dec. 1987, No.C 328, p.1-44.
Hall A.N., Hall S.F., Nixon W.
The Chernobyl accident
The accident at the Chernobyl (USSR) nuclear power plant is described. Discussed are the reactors and plant design, the accident chronology, and the dispersion of activity and its radiological consequences. The summary and conclusions show the design shortcomings and changes to be made.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Aug. 1987, No.076, p.22-29. Illus. 3 ref.
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, Sekretariat Vsesojuznogo central'nogo soveta professional'nyj sojuzov
Approval of a standard list of strenuous, hazardous, very strenuous and very hazardous jobs for which supplemental payments to workers on account of working conditions may be established in the electric and nuclear power industries [USSR]
Ob utverždenii tipovyh perečnej rabot s tjaželymi i vrednymi, osobo tjaželymi i osobo vrednymi uslovijami truda, na kotoryh mogut ustanavlivat'sja doplaty rabočim za uslovija truda na predprijatijah ėlektroėnergetičeskoj promyšlennosti i atomnoj ėnergetiki [en ruso]
This decision of 3 Nov. 1986 ratifies the given lists and replaces the lists established by decisions No.354/35 of 20 Dec. 1972 and No.366/20 of 26 Oct. 1977. The 67 tasks or operations listed include: servicing of operating and control equipment in thermal power stations (especially boilers, turbines and coal-grinding machinery); manual preparation and charging of chemical reagents; chemical purification and desalting of water for boilers, heat-transfer systems and evaporators; regeneration of filters with acids, bases and salts; work at height in the maintenance of electric transmission lines and substation equipment; cleaning of hot boilers; servicing and maintenance of mercury rectifiers; servicing of measuring equipment and control systems in nuclear power stations; sampling and analysis of radioactive materials; servicing of heat-transfer equipment operating with radioactive steam.
Bjulleten' - Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, 1987, No.4, p.3-7.
Health and Safety Commission
Standards of training in safe gas installation
The code of practice is intended to provide practical guidance on the legal requirements. Covered are: status of the code; other documents; legislation; scope; standards of training and their elements; sources of information; summary of legislation; suggested course contents for a training programme.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1987. 11p. Price: GBP 4.50.
García Carballeira O., Pol Arias A., Cabo Sanmartín L.C.
Análisis de la accidentabilidad en un centro mineroeléctrico/Análisis de la accidentabilidad en un centro mineroeléctrico
This article describes the accidents occurring between 1982 and 1984 in a combined lignite mine and thermal power station in La Coruña, Spain. The accidents are analysed according to department, type of accident, location of injury, occupational group, age and years of working experience of the victims, and time of accident. Appended are numerous tables showing the results of the investigation.
Prevención, Apr.-June 1987, No.100, p.36-43. Illus. 7 ref.
To save our lives is our duty
Poster published to promote the safety and health measures and the prevention of accidents in the energy sector in Pakistan.
All Pakistan Federation of Trade Unions, Bakhtiar Labour Hall, Nisbet Road, Lahore, Pakistan, 1987. 1p.
Warning equipment for criticality accidents
Equipement de signalisation des accidents de criticité [en francés]
This international standard is applicable to equipment intended to detect ionizing radiation from, and provide warning of, a criticality accident in a nuclear power plant. It is intended to limit the probability of serious radiation exposure to personnel by providing immediate detection and alarm initiation. This standard prescribes general requirements and provides acceptable criteria for warning equipment for critical accidents. It specifies, for the equipment described, general characteristics, operating characteristics, electrical, mechanical and environmental characteristics, test procedures and documentation.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st edition, 1987. 37p.
Chevalier A., Luce D., Blanc C., Goldberg M.
Sickness absence at the French National Electric and Gas Company
The certified sickness absence was studied for 12 months and was described according to the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees. The principal factors affecting absence are sex, job, and salary. The high percentage of absent women was explained by neither the type of occupation nor family status. Respiratory diseases, accidents, and musculoskeletal and psychiatric disorders were the leading diagnostic categories. Indices of severity, duration, and frequency were calculated and compared between groups. The duration of absence increased with the severity of the medical cause of absence and with the patient's age.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1987, Vol.44, No.2, p.101-110. Illus. 22 ref.
Sokol R.L., Rudnev A.A.
Safety of welding operations during power station equipment installation
Bezopasnost' svaročnyh rabot pri montaže oborudovanija ėlektrostancij [en ruso]
This book is designed for line engineers, technicians and workers engaged in welding operations during the installation of power station equipment. Contents: types of welding operations and their organisation in power station construction; welding safety (manual arc welding, manual gas-shielded welding, automated and semi-automated gas-shielded-arc welding, plasma metal cutting); gas-flame metal-working safety (organisation of gas and oxygen supply, properties of gases and liquids used in gas metal cutting, gas cylinder storage and transportation, oxygen recipient safety, portable and fixed acetylene generators, gas welding and cutting); electrical safety in the welding and electric thermal treatment of metals (general aspects, factors determining the severity of electric shock, technical protection arrangements used in electrical installations); non-destructive testing safety (radiographic testing, X-ray machine safety, ultrasonic testing, liquid-penetrant testing, welded joint leak-tightness testing).
Izdatel'stvo Ėnergoatomizdat, šljuzovaja nab. 10, 113114 Moskva, USSR, 1986. 64p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: SUR 0.25.
Regulations on the technical exploitation of electrical units of power plants and occupational safety regulations on the exploitation of electrical units of power plants [USSR]
Pravila tehničeskoj ėkspluatacii ėlektroustanovok potrebitelej i pravila tehniki bezopasnosti pri ėkspluatacii ėlektroustanovok potrebitelej [en ruso]
Contents of Part 1 (technical aspects): scope of regulations; tasks and qualifications of personnel; operation and repair of electrical systems; documentation; specific types of equipment (overhead power lines, transformers, motors, etc.); annexes (criteria for testing, protection of units above and below 1000V). Contents of Part 2 (safety): scope; organisational and technical safety measures; working safely with specific types of equipment; temporary transfer of personnel to facilities where they do not normally work; annexes (Ministry of Health Order concerning medical examinations, procedures for accident investigation, classification of personnel groups by risk, log books and forms, first aid, protective equipment).
Ėnergoatomizdat, šluzovaja nab. 10, 113114 Moskva, USSR, 1986. 4th edition. 424p. Illus. Appendices. Price: SUR 1.60.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Thermal power stations and heating plants [Federal Republic of Germany]
Wärmekraftwerke und Heizwerke [en alemán]
Safety regulations in the Federal Republic of Germany for thermal power stations and steam heating plants with a thermal output exceeding 10MW.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Apr. 1986. 20+19p. Price: DM.1.60.
The accident at Chernobyl and the medical response
Presentation of the facts surrounding the explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear plant (Ukrainian SSR, USSR) on 26 April 1986. Coverage: circumstances of the accident (starting with a steam explosion that killed 2 workers); the initial medical response; medical care of patients who had been severely exposed (bone marrow transplants); studies of 6 sample clinical cases (all of them alive 39 days after the explosion); evacuation of neighbouring populations; plans for long-term epidemiologic follow-up.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 1 Aug. 1986, Vol.256, No.5, p.609-612. 11 ref.
Risk assessment for hazardous installations
This report examines the techniques that can be used to assess the significance of risk in quantitative terms and compares how these techniques are used in practice in the nuclear industry with the way they are used in those parts of the process industry that can be classified as having a major hazard potential. The report concentrates on the practices in Germany (Fed.Rep.), the United Kingdom and France. Some additional comments are made on the practices adopted in the Netherlands and Denmark.
Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford, OX3 0BW, United Kingdom, 1986. 279p. Illus. Bibl. Appendices. Price: US$45.00.
Törnqvist S., Norell S., Ahlbom A., Knave B.
Cancer in the electric power industry
A cohort study of 3358 power linesmen and 6703 power station operators in Sweden showed no significant excess risk of leukaemia or brain cancer. There was a tendency towards an excess risk of cancer of the urinary organs in both groups.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1986, Vol.43, No.3, p.212-213. 17 ref.
Directiva de la Comisión de 11 de julio de 1985 que adapta al progreso técnico la Directiva del Consejo 84/535/EEC sobre la aproximación de las leyes de los Estados Miembros relativa al nivel de potencia de sonido permisible de los generadores eléctricos [Comunidad Europea]
Commission Directive of 11 July 1985 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 84/536/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the permissible sound power level of power generators [European Communities] [en inglés]
Dir. de la Commission du 11.7.85 portant adaptation au progrès technique de la dir. 84/536/CEE du Conseil, concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives au niveau de puissance acoustique admissible des groupes électrogènes de puissance [Communautés européennes] [en francés]
Esta Directiva modifica el Anexo I de la Directiva 84/536/EEC (CIS 95-1198). En el sumario: descripción de la técnica; directiva; generadores eléctricos; generación de energía eléctrica; Comunidad Europea; medida del nivel de ruido; nivel de ruido; niveles permisibles.
Journal officiel des Communautés européennes - Official Journal of the European Communities, 30 ago. 1985, n°L 233, p.18-19.
Nordenson I., Hansson Mild K., Östman U., Ljungberg H.
Chromosomal aberrations in 400 kV substation workers
Kromosomförändringar hos 400 kV-ställverksarbetare [en sueco]
Data are presented on 38 employees of electric power companies. 19 of the subjects worked with the repair and maintenance of circuit breakers and disconnectors in 400kV substations and the other 19 served as controls and were only exposed to normal environmental electromagnetic fields. Coded blood samples were sent to a laboratory for determination of the rate of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), and cells with micronuclei (MN). Compared to the control group the exposed men displayed a significant increase in CA and cells with MN. No increase was found in the frequency of SCE. Since in vitro studies of lymphocytes exposed to transient electric currents (spark discharges) produced similar results, the increase in chromosomal damage in substation workers may be associated with exposure to transient electric currents during work.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 22p. Illus. 12 ref.
Janovič A.N., Borščenko L.I.
Safety in the operation of gas pipelines
Tehnika bezopasnosti pri ėkspluatacii magistral'nyh gazoprovodov [en ruso]
This manual is intended for the training of workers engaged in the operation of gas pipelines, compressors, gas distributors and gas storage tanks. Contents: general issues in labour protection; fundamentals of labour legislation; industrial accidents and occupational diseases; organisation of labour protection; occupational hygiene; measures for improvement of working conditions; collective protection and personal protective equipment; basic properties and safe use of natural gas and other dangerous and harmful substances; general safety requirements; technical requirements for compressors and pipelines; electrical safety; fire protection.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tret'jakovskij pr.1/19, 103633 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 256p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.75.
Katjušin Ė.A., Mitenkov F.M., Kondranenkov Ju.D.
Radiographic monitoring of welded joints in the heat exchangers of power plants
Radiacionnyj kontrol' svarnyh soedinenij teploobmennyh apparatov AĖU [en ruso]
This guide covers the radiographic monitoring of heat exchangers in the power plants developed between 1978 and 1984. Contents: quality and reliability of nuclear plant heat exchangers (types of heat exchangers, types of joints in heat exchangers, typical defects of welded joints), radiographic methods of monitoring of welded joints (reliability and scope of monitoring, classification and physical background of radiographic methods of monitoring, sources of ionising radiation for radiographic monitoring; methods of radioscopy and radioisotope radiography); instruments (x-ray and gamma-ray equipment); organisation of inspection (requirements covering working methods, special features of work in laboratories and in the field, radiation protection, technical and economic efficiency of radiographic inspection of welded joints).
Ėnergoatomizdat, šljuzovaja nab. 10, 113114 Moskva, USSR, 1985, 81p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: Rbl.0.35.
Sultanovič A.I., Hačukaev Ė.M., Polomošnov A.K.
Electrostatic factors in working with open flames on gas pipelines
Ėlektrostatičeskie faktory pri ognevyh rabotah na gazoprovodah [en ruso]
Gas pipelines are blocked off by spherical rubber plugs when cutting or welding operations are to be performed. When the plugs are withdrawn at the end of the operation, detonation frequently occurs when gas mixes with the residual air in the pipe. Laboratory experiments with a section of typical piping showed that electrostatic fields of 1kV can be produced by withdrawal of a plug. At the observed surface charge density of 0.0006C/cm2, this is sufficient to produce a discharge with an energy above the minimum ignition energy of a gas-air mixture. Electrostatic charging could be reduced to safe levels by reducing the diameter of the tube through which the plug is retrieved and by wetting the space around the plug. Because thunderstorms can strongly ionise the atmosphere and produce substantial electrostatic charges even at high relative humidity, cutting and welding work on pipelines should be avoided in stormy weather.
Gazovaja Promyšlennost, Mar. 1985, No.3, p.32-33. Illus.
Radioprotection in the nuclear power plants of Electricité de France
La radioprotection dans les centrales nucléaires d'Electricité de France [en francés]
Methods and results of radioprotection in the generating stations of the French national electric company (EDF): collective dosimetry and comparison with foreign practice; personal dosimetry; exposure as a function of the operating status of the plant, the source of exposure, the activity during which exposure occurred and the actual employer of the exposed person (some tasks are performed by workers who are not EDF employees); ways of reducing exposure at certain points (chemistry of the primary circuit, cold shut-down, condition of the surfaces of the steam generators, use of special equipment, zircaloy fuel elements, systematic integration of radioprotection in plant operations. Statistical studies show a correlation between total exposure and an index of reactor activity. The costs of radioprotection are also mentioned.
Radioprotection, 1985, Vol.20, No.3, p.285-298.
Sources of information on nuclear and energy-related activities
This data sheet provides the names and addresses of several research institutions and specialised libraries in the USA where information on the safe design, construction and operation of electric power plants in general and of nuclear power plants in particular can be obtained.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 5p. Illus.
IAEA safety codes and guides (NUSS) in the light of current safety issues - Proceedings of a symposium, Vienna, 29 October-2 November 1984
Les codes et guides de sûreté de l'AIEA (NUSS) à la lumière des problèmes actuels de sécurité - Compte rendu des travaux d'un colloque, Vienne, 29 octobre-2 novembre 1984 [en francés]
These proceedings reproduce the 59 papers presented at the symposium, all discussing the implementation of the NUSS codes and guides developed by the IAEA. The papers were presented in 9 sessions: NUSS objectives and results; the conduct of regulatory inspection and enforcement; probabilistic safety evaluation; the conduct of the safety review and assessment of design; accident consequences and emergency planning; regulatory inspection of quality assurance activities; safe operation of nuclear power plants; extreme external events (earthquakes, floods, extreme climatic conditions, airplane crashes, terrorism, etc.); interface aspects of NUSS. A panel discussion on the future development of the NUSS programme is included. A list of the 140 participants is appended.
International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 1985. 718p. Illus. Bibl. Price: Sch.1380.00.
Mattes L., Egyptien H.H.
Safety during work in emission desulfurising plants of thermal power stations
Sicherheit beim Einsatz von Rauchgasentschwefelungsanlagen in Wärmekraftwerken [en alemán]
Risk description and preventive measures necessary in the design, use and maintenance of emission desulfurising plants. After a survey of the relevant laws and exposure limits in effect in the Federal Republic of Germany, and of the methods used for the reduction of harmful substances in emissions, the article describes the procedures to be followed during the planning and design of such installations (particularly, access for inspection and maintenance) and the preventive measures to be taken during use (ventilation, work authorisation and entry into confined spaces, noxious dusts, use of harmful substances, sealing equipment, determination in air, respiratory equipment).
Sicherheitsingenieur, 1985, No.9, p.22-41. Illus. 4 ref.
Kastenberg W.E., Solomon K.A.
On the use of confidence levels in risk management
A framework for incorporating uncertainty in risk management is developed and applied to 2 aspects of decision making: meeting standards or safety goals and cost-benefit criteria. The framework is applied to several case studies and proposes that decisions be based on a level of confidence in addition to comparing best estimate or point values with standards or goals.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1985, Vol.10, Nos.2+3, special issue, p.263-278. 12 ref.
Directiva del Consejo del 17 de septiembre de 1984 para la armonización de las legislaciones de los Estados Miembros relativas al nivel de potencia acústica admisible de los grupos electrógenos de potencia [Comunidades Europeas]
Council Directive of 17 Sep. 1984 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the permissible sound power level of power generators [European Communities] [en inglés]
Directive du conseil du 17 sept. 1984 concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives au niveau de puissance acoustique admissible des groupes électrogènes de puissance [Communautés européennes] [en francés]
En los 5 años siguientes a la notificación de la Directiva (26 sept. 1984), el nivel de potencia acústica máximo admisible emitido por los generadores eléctricos deberá situarse en un valor de 102 dB(A)/1 pW (para los generadores de potencia eléctrica que no superen los 3kVA) y en 100 dB(A)/1 pW para otros generadores. La certificación de la inspección CEE será acordada por los organismos competentes de cada país. En anexo: método de medición del ruido aéreo emitido por los grupos electrógenos de potencia; modelo de formulario de cada tipo de grupo electrógeno que debe suministrarse para su inspección por la CEE; modelo de la marca indicadora del nivel de potencia acústica.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 19 nov. 1984, n°L 300, p.149-155. Ilus.
Gas - The Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1984 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations impose safety requirements on the installation and use of gas fittings for the purposes of protection against personal injury, fire, explosion or other damage arising from the use of gas supplied through pipes (mines and factories are excluded from the scope of the Regulations). Contents: geneal provisions concerning gas fittings; meter installations; installation pipes; gas appliances. Some provisions of the Gas Safety Regulations 1972 (see CIS 73-668) are amended.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London, SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1984. 20p. Price: GBP 2.70.
Gamberale F., Hallne U., Högström R.M., Knave B., Menckel E., Törnqvist S.
Health hazards of work in the production and distribution of electricity - Interim report 1: An in thetroduction to the "ELMILJÖ" in thevestigation
Hälsorisker i arbete vid elproduktion och eldistribution - Delrapport 1: En introduktion till ELMILJÖ-undersökningen [en sueco]
Presentation of a new Swedish research project concerning possible health effects of electromagnetic fields and spark discharges on exposed workers. Ca. 900 newly employed workers at different electrical powerplants will undergo health examinations, with particular attention paid to fertility and reproduction, the nervous system, subjective symptoms and haematology. The examinations will be carried out at different times over a 10 year period. A systematic measurement of the electric and magnetic fields and spark discharges will be carried out as well as an evaluation of relevant chemical factors. The work environment as a whole will be evaluated under controlled conditions. Results will be reported continuously over the period. The questionnaire forms which will be used in the study are appended.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 69p. Illus. 44 ref.
Gamberale F., Knave B., Menckel E., Törnqvist S.
Health hazards of work in the production and distribution of electricity - Interim report 2: Work tasks and the work environment
Hälsorisker i arbete vid elproduktion och eldistribution - Delrapport 2: Arbetsuppgifter och arbetsmiljö [en sueco]
The second part of the Swedish research project concerning the possible health effects of exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields and spark discharges. In an initial assessment of the work environment in the production and distribution of electricity, the different work tasks of this sector were analysed and described in detail and divided into 15 types of work. Thereafter, potential health risk factors were identified. For each of the 15 types of work, an exposure profile describing exposure frequency was created for these health risks. Similar exposure profiles were created for each potential health risk for all types of work. Detailed descriptions for the 15 types of work as well as the exposure profiles are appended.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 78p. Illus.
Critical review of epidemiological studies on the relationship between various electromagnetic parameters and the incidence of cancer
This report reviews 10 papers addressing the existence of a relationship between exposure to very-low-frequency electromagnetic fields and the incidence of cancer. Although some of the studies had to be rejected because of methodological weaknesses, there was sufficient evidence of a possible link between leukaemia and exposure to electrical and magnetic fields to warrant further research.
Health and Safety Department of Hydro-Québec, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, May 1984. 27p.
Fastov L.M., Ognev A.N.
Determining safe distances in the use of flame-control devices
Opredelenie bezopasnyh rasstojanij pri primenenii plamezaščitnyh sredstv [en ruso]
Cutting an opening in a low-pressure gas pipeline with an oxy-acetylene torch can produce an open flame up to 2.5m long. If the escaping gas is directed into a funnel-shaped collector attached to a vertical stack, it can be flared outside the trench where cutting and welding operations normally take place, thus improving working conditions in the trench. To ensure that the flare itself does not endanger surrounding buildings, trees, equipment, etc., it must be kept at a safe distance from surrounding objects. Experiments with a full-scale model of a 300-dekaPascal pipeline and flare showed that the maximum flame length attained at any wind speed is 4.5m. At 6m from the flare, temperatures of only 50°C were measured at maximum flame length; thus 6m represents a safe distance, even for workers if no toxic combustion products are present.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Feb. 1984, No.2, p.44-45. Illus.
Paggiaro P.L., Gasparro V., Viegi G., Di Piede C., Silvano S.
Ventilatory function in a group of workers engaged in coal handling in a thermal power station
Funzione ventilatoria in un gruppo di operai di una centrale termoelettrica addetti all'approvvigionamento del carbone [en italiano]
Ventilatory function tests and chest x-rays were performed on 69 workers engaged in unloading and handling coal at a power station, and on 32 controls. There was a significant decrease in ventilatory function (FVC and FEV) among the 27 unloading workers, when compared with the controls. Chest x-rays revealed a moderate increase in abnormalities involving the interstitial tissues. Even a relatively brief period of exposure to coal dust can lead to a slight impairment of ventilatory function.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1984, Vol.75, No.5, p.399-403. Illus. 8 ref.
Levy B.S., Hoffman L., Gottsegen S.
Severe respiratory tract irritation occurred in at least 74 of 100 boilermakers after exposure to high levels of vanadium pentoxide welding fumes during oil-to-coal conversion of a power plant in Massachussetts (USA). Most frequent symptoms were productive cough, sore throat, dyspnoea on exertion and chest pain or discomfort. Exposure was caused mainly by carrying out welding work in unventilated confined spaces. Vanadium fume exposure levels varied from 0.05 to 5.3mg/m3. The OSHA exposure limit for V2O5 is 0.05mg/m3.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1984, Vol.26, No.8, p.567-570. 9 ref.
Novick M., Vasilachis de Gialdino I., Reinhold A.L., Pedace E., Basaldúa R., De Barbieri A.P.
Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Laborales (CEIL)
La normativa referida a calidad de vida y condiciones de trabajo en el proyecto Paraná Medio (Argentina)/La normativa referida a calidad de vida y condiciones de trabajo en el proyecto Paraná Medio (Argentina)
This report is the result of a 1982 agreement between the Argentinian Centre for Labour Studies and Investigations (CEIL) and the management of the project of exploitation of the Paraná river (construction of hydroelectric power stations, dams, reservoirs, implementation of irrigation projects, etc.). Contents: quality of life and working conditions during the project; definitions of quality of life and work and working conditions; occupational safety and health guidelines. A map of the region is appended.
Centro Interamericano de Administración del Trabajo, Apartado 3638, Lima 1, Peru, Mar. 1983. 91p. 26 ref.
Accident statistics - French National Electricity Board employees, 1983
Statistiques accidents - Agents EDF, 1983 [en francés]
Statistics for the whole of the French National Electricity Board, and for the following work sectors: energy distribution, hydroelectric power generation, thermal power generation, power transmission, equipment, research, other services. Principal data: overall data, fatal and non-fatal accidents at work and during commuting, frequency and severity of accidents. Data for 1983: fatal accidents at work: 10 (10 in 1982); accidents resulting in an absence of more than 1 day: 3231 out of a total number of 141,252 employees (3261 out of 139,301 in 1982); incidence rate: 14.90/million hours of work (15.40 in 1982); severity index: 0.44 (same as in 1981 and 1982); commuting accidents: 5 fatal (6 in 1982); non-fatal: 666 (644 in 1982). Analysis by causal agent, nature of work, factors favouring accidents, accident type, location and nature of injury, occupational class.
Electricité de France, 22-30 avenue Wagram, 75008 Paris, France, 1983. 86p. Illus.
Accident statistics - French National Electricity Board employees, 1982
Statistiques accidents - Agents EDF, 1982 [en francés]
Statistics for the whole of the French National Electricity Board, and for the following work sectors: energy distribution, hydroelectric power generation, thermal power generation, power transmission, equipment, research, other services. Principal data: overall data, fatal and non-fatal accidents at work and during commuting, frequency and severity of accidents. Data for 1982: fatal accidents at work: 10 (12 in 1981); accidents resulting in an absence of more than 1 day: 3261 out of a total number of 139,301 employees (3251 out of 130,086 in 1981); incidence rate: 15.40/million hours of work (15.83 in 1981); commuting accidents: 6 fatal (4 in 1981); non-fatal: 644 (645 in 1981). Analysis by causal agent, nature of work, factors favouring accidents, accident type, location and nature of injury, occupational class.
Electricité de France, 22-30 avenue Wagram, 75008 Paris, France, 1982. 84p. Illus.
Manz A., Berger J., Waltsgott H.
On the question of occupational cancer in gas industry workers - a cohort study
Zur Frage des Berufskrebses bei Beschäftigten der Gasindustrie - Cohortenstudie [en alemán]
A study of 5004 workers employed since 1900 in the coking plants of a large city. The cohorts consist of coke oven workers, technicians in other parts of the plant and in the distribution system, and administrative personnel. The report gives the definition and classification of the groups, causes of death, statistical methods, smoking habits of the workers, and a discussion of the results. Coke oven workers seem to have an elevated risk of cancer and elevated rates of death due to respiratory and bladder carcinomas. Tar constituents, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and beta-naphthylamine, are probably responsible. An elevated frequency of bladder carcinoma was also found among workers in the distribution system.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1983. 131p. Illus. 74 ref. Price: DM.22.50.
(Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Gaswerke [en alemán]
These safety rules apply to all factories and installations for gas generation and to distribution systems. Aspects covered: availability of respiratory protection equipment, explosion prevention (wall and ceiling openings, storage of flammable substances, ventilation), degassing of coal and petroleum (degassing equipment and burners), treatment of raw gas, storage and distribution of gas, treatment of ammonia water, treatment of benzene and distillation of oil.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Apr. 1983, 7p. Price: DM.0.70.
Computer-based safety training in action
A computer-aided instruction programmme which is used to train operators, mechanics and fuel handlers working in electric power plants in safe work practices is described. The course covers routine maintenance and work orders, personal protection and electrical hazards and is supported by safety meetings. Lost-time accidents and recordable injuries sustained by power plant workers trained in this programme decreased 80% in one year.
Occupational Hazards, Sep. 1983, Vol.45, No.9, p.54-57. Illus.
Parkinson D.K., Bromet E.J.
Correlates of mental health in nuclear and coal-fired power plant workers
104 workers from the Three Mile Island plant, 122 from another nuclear power plant, and 151 from 2 coal-fired generating plants were compared. Coal-fired plant workers were somewhat more symptomatic than nuclear plant workers. The coal-fired plant workers perceived less stress but more problems with workplace exposures. The Three Mile Island accident did not seem to leave long-term residual psychological difficulties in workers 2.5 years after the accident.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1983, Vol.9, No.4, p.341-345. 8 ref.
Trend of occupational radiation exposure at nuclear power plants
24 nuclear power reactors are in operation in Japan. Trends were derived for 1970-1980 from annual statistical summaries. Individual exposure has been well controlled below the occupational dose limit (5rem/year). The collective dose has been increasing with plant age, and there is a noticeable difference in collective dose among reactor types. The proportion of outside personnel has been gradually increasing. In 1980, 89% of workers and 93% of the total collective dose were accounted for by such personnel. Maintenance and repair are the main causes of occupational exposure. To achieve as low a level of exposure as practicable, reactor and plant design, automation and remote control, and radiation protection training all require attention.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Mar. 1983, Vol.25, No.2, p.61-69. Illus. 18 ref.
Rom W.N., Lee J.
Energy alternatives: What are their possible health effects?
Aspects reviewed are: the nuclear fission cycle (radon daughter exposure, lung cancer, relative risks of various components of the cycle); the coal cycle (mortality of coal miners, pneumoconiosis, progressive massive fibrosis, bronchitis, emphysema, power plants, gasification, liquefaction); the oil-shale cycle, tar sands and geothermal cycles; nuclear fusion; solar energy.
Environmental Science and Technology, Mar. 1983, Vol.17, No.3, p.132A-144A. Illus. 129 ref.
Survey of cancer mortality among the staff of the French national electricity and gas boards
Enquête sur la mortalité par cancer parmi le personnel en activité à E.D.F.-G.D.F. [en francés]
This survey deals with the mortality rate of the male staff of these energy producing and distributing boards, with emphasis on deaths due to different kinds of cancer. The statistical analysis followed conventional epidemiologic methods. Its aim was to find out if this population could be considered as a random sample of the national population. Important differences were found, however, between expected rates of cancer deaths in the national population and among the staff. Differences were also found between sections of the boards. This raises difficulties in the definition of the control population during a survey on occupational cancers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.5, p.329-338. 32 ref.
Lauderdale J.F., Cole Johnson C.
An outbreak of acute fever among steam turbine condenser cleaners
10 of 12 men involved in the cleaning of a condenser clogged with fresh water sponge experienced an acute febrile illness. No chemicals and no respiratory protection were used during the operation. Possible causes considered were toxic agents released by sponge decay, Legionella pneumophila or other biohazards, immunologic response to sponge tissue, spicules or some other organism, but the ensuing studies could not identify a specific causative agent. It was recommended that workers involved in similar clean-up tasks wear supplied-air respirators until the nature of the hazard is known.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1983, Vol.44, No.3, p.156-160. Illus. 15 ref.
Noise produced by gas receiving stations in power plants - possibilities of noise reduction
Erőművi gázfogadó állomások zaja, a zajcsökkentés lehetőségei [en húngaro]
Derivation of mathematical equations to analyse the noise produced by pressure reducing valves in piping carrying natural gas into power plants. The noise, which reaches 140dB, is not only uncomfortable for both the workers in the power plant and the people living nearby but also exceeds legal noise limits. The measured noise reduction achieved by the use of different kinds of valves and by the use of sound insulation of the piping in a specific gas receiving station is discussed.
Munkavédelem, 1983, Vol.29, No.1-3, p.9-15. Illus. 8 ref.
Federation of industrial mutual accident insurance associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Work on gas lines
Arbeiten an Gasleitungen [en alemán]
These safety rules apply to work on lines carrying gases or gas mixtures (except oxygen, acetylene and air) and to their operation. Its provisions apply to: responsibility of the contractor, qualified personnel, personal protection, fire protection, preliminary measures before work on a line begins, protection against electrical (spark) hazards, checking for leaks and measures to be taken if any are found, lines for highly flammable gases, domestic installations. In an annex: rules of application and comments.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Apr. 1983. 8 + 20p. Price: DM.2.10.
Safety forum - new methods
Forum sécurité - des voies nouvelles [en francés]
Special issue which presents and sums up new safety suggestions put forward at the Prevention Forum held by EDF-GDF (French national electricity and gas board) from 17 to 19 Nov. 1982 in Paris (France). Discussions were centred on a better understanding of accident causes (agencies and human factors, methods of analysis), the evolution of protective equipment (personal and collective protection, building safety into plant and equipment), improvement of know-how (basic teaching, in-service training, information); improvement in methods and behaviour (preparation, performance and checking of tasks, motivation and methods to stimulate it).
Vigilance, Feb. 1983, No.67, p.1-30. Illus.
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