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1978

CIS 79-257 Davis S.C., Balzer J.L., Raymond M.A.
An industrial hygiene program for a surface mining operation.
An industrial hygiene (IH) programme in a multinational corporation operating mainly in the USA and engaged principally in mining, oil and gas exploration, development and production (including ocean shipping) is described. The programme covers all mine development stages (pre-exploration, exploration, planning and development, production, post-production) and is intended to develop purchase and design specifications to minimise occupational health hazards, review engineering plans and specifications for legal compliance and adherence to IH principles, establish a functional IH programme (engineering controls and tests, sampling systems for contaminants, personal protective equipment, medical surveillance, and training), communicate with government agencies to clarify regulations, conduct testing and obtain approval for compliance with the Toxic Substances Control Act, and develop and operate a data management system to organise and correlate employee exposures, medical records and chemical inventories.
American Mining Congress Journal, May 1978, Vol.64, No.5, p.47-50. Illus.

CIS 78-1443
Health and Safety Executive, London.
Report by the Health and Safety Commission on the hazards of conventional sources of energy
Definitions: in this report "energy" means all sources of energy including coal, gas, oil and water power; "power production" means the use of energy sources to produce electricity. Contents: the energy industry: relative scale and accident performance (more than 50 fatal accidents in a typical year, as compared to 450 in all industries and 170 in the construction industry); role of the industries and of the Health and Safety Commission and advisory committees; legislative control and enforcement; the energy industry and its occupational hazards; coal extraction (open-cast and underground); oil and gas extraction; hydro-electric power; fuel preparation and storage; electricity generation; flooding; tip slides; emergency plans (LPG, chlorine, oil); heavy metals and other pollutants, etc.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1978. 30p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: £1.00.

1977

CIS 79-549
Department of Trade, London.
Marine activities - Guide to the responsibilities of government departments and agencies.
The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 has been extended to cover the occupational safety of those engaged in the exploitation of offshore oil and gas resources in the United Kingdom Continental Shelf. This booklet directs the reader to the government departments responsible for the various aspects of safety at sea. It is in 3 sections: shipping, offshore oil and gas exploration and exploitation, and other subjects (fisheries, etc.). Each section contains a list of the subjects covered, in alphabetical order, giving a reference to the government department with primary responsibility, and these are listed with addresses. The bibliography is in the main a list of the relevant legislation.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1977. 48p. 45 ref. Price: £1.00.

CIS 78-954 Šamardin B.M.
Aetiology of occupational chronic bronchitis in oil shale industry workers
Ob ėtiologii hroničeskogo professional'nogo bronhita u rabočih slancevoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Results of a statistical analysis of 437 cases of chronic bronchitis observed in miners (270), in oil shale workers (140) and in boiler workers (27). The frequency of chronic bronchitis cases depended on the nature and concentration of mixed dust, toxic gases and on the climatic conditions to which the workers were exposed. It is recommended that chronic bronchitis should be included in the list of compensable occupational diseases.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1977, No.8, p.18-20. 9 ref.

CIS 78-533 Vologdin Ja.I., Kartašev G.I.
Safety techniques in petroleum and gas industry plant construction
Tehnika bezopasnosti pri stroitel'stve ob"ektov neftjanoj i gazovoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Contents of this manual, which covers the construction of industrial plant and buildings, storage tanks, and oil and gas pipelines: organisation of occupational safety and health, and workers' welfare; electrical safety; lifting and handling equipment; loading, unloading and transport of materials; preparatory work; earthmoving (trench shoring, work in winter, etc.); building construction (ladders, scaffolding, etc.); welding and cutting; erection and assembly of engineering plant and equipment; laying of oil and gas pipelines; development work. Appendices: model permit-to-work form; list of hazardous operations; first-aid rules; miscellaneous safety standards.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tret'jakovskij per. 1/19, 103633 Moskva K-12, USSR, 1977. 280p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: Rbl.1.11.

CIS 78-542
Kommunaldepartementet, Oslo, 24 June 1977.
Provisional regulations concerning occupational safety and health and the working environment in prospecting for and exploiting offshore petroleum deposits
Midlertidig forskrifter om arbeidervern og arbeidsmiljø m.v. i forbindelse med undersøkelse etter og utnyttelse av undersjøiske petroleumsforekomster [en noruego]
Contents of the regulations (entry into force: 1 July 1977): scope; definitions; obligations of the undertaking; establishment of an occupational safety and health committee for every installation where more than 20 workers are employed; right of safety officer to order stoppage of dangerous work; minimum age (18 years); pre-employment medical examination; hours of work (limit of 12h a day, 36h a week); vacation and other leave; overtime; breaks; approval of working hours; enforcement of regulations.
Norsk Lovtidend, Avd. I, 6 July 1977, No.21, p.708-712.

CIS 78-576 Panov G.E., Artamonov V.S., Sorokin N.A.
Ergonomic assessment of work posture on drilling derricks
Ocenka ėrgonomičnosti rabočih poz buril'ščika [en ruso]
Results of cinematographic studies of arduous work with a view to preventing accidents to the locomotor apparatus and improving the ergonomic features of drilling equipment: static load on the dorsal muscles, 71-277kg/cm; muscular force required to operate the band brake of the draw works, 30kg; etc. Methods recommended: controls of the draw works and the cathead actuating the drilling tongues, located in the immediate reach of the driller; control desks for the drilling machinery laid out for optimum visibility; satisfactory link between driller and monkey boy; limitation of brake lever rotation; reduction of the effort required to operate the brake lever to 5kg.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Mar. 1977, No.3, p.49.

CIS 78-288 Summary of occupational injuries and illnesses in the petroleum industry.
This compilation of statistics was prepared to comply with U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration recordkeeping requirements; data for 131 companies employing 417,000 workers are included. The injury and illness incidence and death rates for 1976 were lower than those for 1975. Tables report numbers of injuries and illnesses for all functions, and for exploration and production, gas processing, drilling, chemicals, refining, marketing, pipeline work, research and development, engineering and general service, miscellaneous. The procedures for reporting the data are explained.
American Petroleum Institute, 2101 L Street, Northwest Washington, D.C. 20037, USA, May 1977. 25p.

CIS 78-229 Kuyntjes E.E.
Offshore safety - Occupational hazards and prevention in oil and gas recovery in the North Sea
Off-shore-veiligheid - Arbeidsrisico's en de preventie bij off-shore-werkzaamheden voor olie- en gaswinning op de Noordzee [en holandés]
Review in the light of Dutch experience: economic aspects of offshore drilling; built-in safety in design of equipment; analysis of hazards and personal protection; work conditions in the North Sea (cold climate, high winds, low water temperature, fog, darkness; noise; work-rest schedule); living conditions on a drilling platform; safety measures (distribution of instructions to all personnel; organisation; warning notices; firefighting and telecommunications equipment); medical service; diving work; lifting by crane under rough sea conditions; possibilities of increasing safety.
De veiligheid, Mar. 1977, Vol.53, No.3, p.95-102. Illus.

CIS 78-85 Postlethwaite B.C.
Noise control on offshore installations.
After an introduction briefly describing offshore oil production installations, the reasons for noise control are presented and relevant United Kingdom regulations summarised, with details of noise limits for offshore structures expected to be imposed by the Department of Energy. General aspects of noise control are reviewed: platform layout including quiet areas, living accommodation, isolation systems, noise limits for machinery, etc. The results of 2 recent measurement surveys of existing operational platforms in the North Sea are reported. Sources of noise are identified and remedies suggested.
Noise Control - Vibration and Insulation, Aug./Sep. 1977, Vol.8, No.7, p.231-234. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 77-2054 The Offshore Installations (Life-saving Appliances) Regulations 1977.
These Regulations, dated 16 Mar. 1977 (entry into force: 1 June 1977), were made under the Mineral Workings (Offshore Installations) Act 1971 and the Petroleum and Submarine Pipe-lines Act 1975. They require the provision of life buoys, life jackets, means for descending into the water, survival craft, general alarm and public address systems, and the keeping and display of plans of life-saving appliances. Other provisions concern: contents of first-aid boxes, inspection of life-saving appliances, duties of offshore installation owners and managers, civil liability, penalties, etc.
Statutory Instruments, No.486/1977. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1977. 7p. Price: £0.25.

CIS 77-1297 Lighting for petroleum and chemical plants.
This report outlines established lighting practices in these industries, defines the work tasks requiring good visibility and makes a number of recommendations. Data is tabulated on: recommended lighting levels (according to area of activity and type of operation) for production requirements and workers' comfort; type of luminaire for safe illumination in different categories of areas with explosion hazard; lighting levels satisfying safety requirements.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Apr. 1977, Vol.6, No.3, p.184-192. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 77-914 Lightfoot F.K.
Flame arresters - Insure their protection.
Flame arresters and their use are described. Proper installation, preventive maintenance and testing equipment are discussed. The safety precautions, equipment needed, field test procedure, an alternate method, necessity for testing and checking, and the seller's warranty are detailed.
Professional Safety, Feb. 1977, Vol.22, No.2, p.44-47. Illus. 3 ref.

1976

CIS 91-1759
Ministry of Labour, Health, Social Welfare and Population Planning
Oil and Gas (Safety in Drilling and Production) Regulations, 1974 [Pakistan]
Contents of these Regulations issued under the authority of the Mines Act, 1923: notification of changes in the status of a well or field and of accidents and incidents; management and supervision of drilling operations; appointment of a Welfare and Safety Officer in all drilling operations employing more than 250 workers; safety requirements of workplaces and drilling equipment; prime movers; blow-out prevention; transport by pipelines; heaters and treaters; well-head tanks; gas compressors; offshore operations; fire precautions and firefighting equipment; personal protective equipment (including breathing apparatus and safety belts). In the appendix: sample reporting forms.
Gazette of Pakistan, 9 Jan. 1976, Part II, p.35-94.

CIS 78-1447 Lawley H.G.
Size up plant hazards this way.
This article proposes a method for searching systematically for every conceivable deviation from the norm involving potential hazards in hydrocarbon processing plants. The technique is based on a checklist of guide words for generation of deviations (possible causes; process deviation; possible consequences - hazard, operating problem or trivial incident). The article considers: principles of the method; cause and effect; planning the study, procedure, analysis, evaluation of problems, action to be taken, study team work and leadership; mandatory checks and continuous studies. Example: operability and hazard study of a proposed ethylene oxide feed system for batch reactors (tables, with checklist of guide words, causes, consequences, action, and diagram).
Hydrocarbon Processing, Imperial Chemical Industries, Petrochemicals Division, Safety and Loss Prevention Group, Wilton, Middlesborough, Cleveland TS6 8JE, United Kingdom, 1976. 9p. Illus. 2 ref. Gratis. Offprint from London, United Kingdom, Apr. 1976, Vol.55, No.4, p.247.

CIS 78-230 Safe well stimulation by acidizing.
This data sheet describes methods and hazards of injecting acid solutions under pressure into predominantly carbonate formations, to dissolve some of the carbonate, thereby increasing the permeability of the formation and increasing the flow capacity of the well. Sections are devoted to: acidising methods; toxicity of inhibitors mixed with acids; characteristics of hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, acetic acid, formic acid, hydrogen sulfide; list of 14 rules for safe acidising procedures; personal protective equipment; first aid (deluge showers, etc.); dealing with acid spills.
Data Sheet 634, Revision A (Extensive), National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1976. 3p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 77-1819 Ševčenko N.F., Arnopolin A.G., Mel'nik G.I., Begali S.V., Alekseenko L.I.
Explosion-proof electrical equipment for the petroleum and gas industries
Vzryvozaščiščennoe ėlektrooborudovanie dlja neftjanoj i gazovoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Contents of this practical handbook: classification and labelling of explosion-proof electrical equipment of Soviet manufacture; asynchronous and synchonous electric motors, electric valve actuators and pump sets; starting and regulating gear, electric control and signal elements; measurement and monitoring equipment; automation devices; lighting equipment; advice on assembly and use of electrical equipment designed for explosive atmospheres.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tret'jakovskij proezd 1/19, 193633 Moskva K-12, USSR, 1976. 183p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: Rbl.0.58.

CIS 77-1444 Kartašev G.I.
Occupational hygiene in petroleum and natural gas industry plant construction
Proizvodstvennaja sanitarija pri stroitel'stve ob"ektov neftjanoj i gazovoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Contents: construction site layout requirements; housing of workers and sanitary facilities; protection against weather; protection against parasitic and infectious diseases; protection of health in desert conditions; protection against dust; protection of the respiratory tract and eyes; storage of toxic substances; arc welding; anticorrosion techniques; ventilation; protection against noise and vibration; radiation protection. A list of Soviet standards and regulations for drilling rigs and oil and natural gas pipelines is appended, together with minimum illumination levels; minimum contents of a construction site first-aid kit; list of occupations for which periodical medical examinations are required; list of protective equipment, etc.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tret'jakovskij per.1/19, 103633 Moskva K-12, USSR, 1976. 95p. Illus. Price: Rbl.O.17.

CIS 77-1451 Nabieva G.V.
Occupational disease in oil rig workers
Professional'naja patologija rabočih, zanjatyh bureniem neftjanyh skvažin [en ruso]
Results of medical examinations in 622 oil rig workers, of whom 133 were suffering from diseases of the upper limb (autonomic polyneuritis, periarthritis of the shoulder and shoulder-blade, humeral epicondylitis, osteochondrosis of the cervical spine). The frequency and severity of these conditions was directly proportional to length of service and exposure to adverse working conditions (inclement weather, arduous physical work with wrenches, exposure to vibration from winch brake handle). Measures recommended: weather protection of derricks, mechanisation of jobs requiring heavy muscular effort.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1976, No.8, p.22-24.

CIS 77-1402 Safronova N.A.
Protective clothing and footwear for workers in the chemical and petrochemical industries and in oil refineries
Specodežda i specobuv' dlja rabotnikov himičeskoj, neftepererabatyvajuščej i neftehimičeskoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Contents of this handbook: materials used in the manufacture of protective clothing and footwear; types of protective clothing and footwear (protective clothing against humidity, acids, mineral oils and greases, organic solvents, dust, heat, etc.; boots and ankle-boots in impermeable materials (acid and grease proof), in dielectric and antistatic materials, etc.); protective gloves, barrier creams, skin detergents, safety helmets; care and maintenance, supply and use of personal protective equipment.
Izdatel'stvo "Himija", ul. Stromynka 13, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1976. 152p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: Rbl.0.49.

CIS 77-845 Tepljakov A.S., Sibilev M.S.
Occupational safety and health manual for the petrochemical and petroleum processing industries - New and amended rules, regulations and instructions
Spravočnik po ohrane truda i tehnike bezopasnosti v neftepererabatyvajuščej i neftehimičeskoj promyšlennosti - Novye i peresmotrennye pravila, normativy i instrukcii [en ruso]
Compendium of Soviet regulations and standards, supplementing the manual abstracted as CIS 74-1156 : recent legislation on safe work in petroleum and natural gas processing plants; precautions with pyrophoric compounds; standards for the design of heating and ventilation systems; design and operation of production plants for ethylene, ethanol and synthetic rubber; safety, health and fire protection in the production of carbon black; protection against static electricity; safe work with gas scrubbers and dust collectors; repair work; work in confined spaces; explosion safety and sealing of compressors and pumps; storage tanks for flammable and explosive gases.
Izdatel'stvo "Himija", ul. Stromynka 13, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1976. 456p. Price: Rbl.2.20.

CIS 77-625 Sultanovič A.I.
Electrical safety in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants
Ėlektrobezopasnost' na neftepererabatyvajuščih i neftehimičeskih zavodah [en ruso]
Contents: electrical hazards and effect of electric current on the human body; specific features of electrical installations in refineries and petrochemical plant; safety measures (inaccessibility of conducting elements, earthing or connection to neutral, protective relays, isolating transformers, circuit-breaker interlocks, use of safe voltage, protective equipment for hot work, etc.); safety in work on electrical plant and machinery; first aid and resuscitation; explosive atmospheres (classification); design of explosion-proof electrical equipment; fire safety, elimination of static charges and lightning protection.
Izdatel'stvo "Himija", Stromynka 13, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1976. 160p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: Rbl.0.30.

CIS 76-1771 Shepherd F.G.G., Proctor D.M.
Medicine and the North Sea - Emergencies for the general practitioner. Hospital support in off-shore emergencies.
In the first of these 2 articles (p.50-52), F.G.G. Shepherd describes a local team of general practitioners in Aberdeen (Scotland) providing a service for the oil companies in the area, and shows some of the types of cases that have to be dealt with and problems of communication and transport encountered. In the second article (p.53-56), D.M. Proctor describes the role and needs of a hospital surgical team providing support in off-shore emergencies on rigs and ships in the North Sea: organisation, equipment, transportation of patients. No consideration is given to problems of handling patients under pressure.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, 2 Apr. 1976, Vol.26, No.2, p.50-56. 1 ref.

CIS 76-1134 The North Sea.
The National Health Service does not have responsibility for medical care outside Great Britain, and thus the care of the crews of the rigs, pipelaying barges and support ships has to be organised by the companies concerned. A system of medical auxiliaries (medics) developed at Great Yarmouth (Norfolk) is described. After training in accident nursing, they first work as assistants to an experienced medic before taking on a single-handed assignment. They are backed by 8 doctors on shore. The doctors also provide an occupational health service, including pre-employment medical examinations. The closest medical supervision is given to divers, and over 9 years the group has accumulated detailed records of 2,500 divers and is undertaking several long-term research projects. Present results suggest that bone necrosis is likely only in divers working below 60m, the critical factor being the number of compression/decompression cycles. Saturation diving may be safer than a series of shorter dives.
British Medical Journal, 20 Mar. 1976, Vol.1, No.6011, p.705-706. Illus.

1975

CIS 76-1779 Combaz M.
Constitutional inaptitude or conditional aptitude for shift work - Chronic tetany or spasmophilia
Inaptitude constitutionnelle ou aptitude conditionnelle au travail posté: la tétanie chronique ou spasmophilie. [en francés]
General considerations on shift work are followed by a brief survey of previous literature on the subject. The author describes a clinical survey he carried out over a period of more than 4 years in 1,200 shift workers (mostly working in 3 continuous 8h shifts) and 1,200 day workers, in a petroleum refinery and adjoining research centre. One element common to the workers experiencing difficulty in adjusting to shift work was noted: a constitutional tendency to spasmophilia (tetany) distinguished by neuromuscular hyperexcitability evidenced by Chvostek's sign and by cerebral lability with depressive tendencies. Careful screening in pre-employment examinations should eliminate maladjusted persons of this kind from shift work, while possible decompensation in known spasmophilic subjects can be prevented by oral administration of vitamin D and calcium.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Oct.-Nov. 1975, Vol.36, No.10-11, p.585-592. 18 ref.

CIS 76-1512 Kulikov A.V., Rybak M.B.
Means and systems of prevention of emergencies in undertakings
Sredstva i sistemy predupreždenija avarijnyh situacij na predprijatijah [en ruso]
Description of some new safety, signalling and automatic shutoff systems for petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants: remote level indicators obviating manual level gauging of petroleum products; gas sampling and analysis equipment to replace manual sampling; exhaust systems for gas leaks from glands; automatic transfer of petroleum products to tank wagons. Four control circuits for gas distribution and shutoff valves are reproduced. Recommendations on application of automatic safety systems to reforming plants.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, May 1975, No.5, p.43-44. Illus.

CIS 76-1155 The problem of hyperbaric rescue in the North Sea and its possible solutions.
Divers working in the North Sea often have to live in an ambient pressure equivalent to the working depth (up to 200m), and decompression may take as long as a week. This pamphlet considers the problems arising in the event of accident or illness under these circumstances. Consideration is given to the factors influencing the doctor's decision, on his arrival on the rig, whether to decompress the patient, perform surgery in the pressure chamber, or transfer him ashore under pressure. Requirements for the portable pressure chamber used for transfer, a suitable helicopter, the onshore hyperbaric complex, and the doctor and medical attendant ("rig medic"), are dealt with. Of the 3 options, early transfer of the injured diver to shore may often be best, and it is this aspect that is treated in the greatest detail.
Society of Underwater Technology, 1 Birdcage Walk, London S.W.1H 9JJ, United Kingdom, Sep. 1975. 3p.

CIS 76-1160 Mihajlov A.
Ergonomic aspects of the working conditions (noise and microclimate) in compressor rooms
Ergonomski aspekti uslova rada u kompresorskim stanicama sa osvrtom na buku i mikroklimatske uslove [en serbocroata]
Results of an ergonomic survey in the compressor rooms of 2 Yugoslav petroleum refineries. Measurements taken at different points show that the noise levels and effective temperatures to which the personnel is exposed exceed the tolerable limits. The results make it possible to adapt the design of compressors to the requirements of occupational hygiene.
Sigurnost u rudnicima, 1975, Vol.10, No.2, p.67-71. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 76-615 Sibilev M.S., Svistunov N.P., Aksenov M.S.
Reference manual for fire safety and fire protection in the chemical industry, the petroleum processing industry and petrochemical industries
Spravočnik po požarnoj bezopasnosti i protivopožarnoj zaščite na predprijatijah himičeskoj, neftepererabatyvajuščej i neftehimičeskoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Contents: general fire safety rules (extracts from the Soviet regulations on the organisation of fire fighting); fire safety in research, planning and operation of plants and premises for the processing and storage of flammable liquids; rules, standards and recommendations concerning fire fighting.
Izdatel'stvo "Himija", Stromynka 13, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1975. 455p. Illus. Price: Rbl.2.04.

CIS 76-685 Melling T.H.
Noise on offshore platforms.
The differences between offshore and land-based installations when it comes to noise and noise control are discussed, and results are given of noise measurements on a typical offshore drilling rig. The procedure to be followed in evaluating noise problems and performing noise calculations at the design stage of an offshore platform is described in general terms.
Noise Control and Vibration Reduction, July 1975, Vol.6, No.7, p.205-209. Illus.

CIS 76-713 Gesell T.F.
Occupational radiation exposure due to 222Rn in natural gas and natural gas products.
The author identifies possible occupational exposure pathways to 222Rn and its daughters in the natural gas industry and reports on the results of his studies at 9 natural gas processing plants in the USA. The main conclusions of his survey are that while both internal and external exposures to the radiations from 222Rn and its short-lived daughters do occur, the magnitudes of these exposures are not serious. There appears to be a potential hazard of exposure to long-lived radon daughters built up on the internal surfaces of processing equipment (pumps) when such equipment is being dismantled for maintenance purposes.
Health Physics, Nov. 1975, Vol.29, No.5, p.681-687. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 76-570 O'Reilly R.J., Blatt G.
High-pressure injection injury - Potential hazard of "enhanced recovery".
Report of a newly recognised and previously unreported high-pressure injection injury associated with "enhanced recovery", a petroleum extraction technique designed to obtain oil from wells once considered depleted. It includes the use of seawater, steam or detergents under high pressure to force oil from the surrounding rock. The patient was at work on an oil rig, passing a hose for forced pumping of a well, when a small defect occurred in the hose, with injection at the base of the middle finger. The hose contained a mixture of mud, graphite and seawater at a pressure of 71kg/cm2. Description of the case, with discussion of the medical management of such situations.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 11 Aug. 1975, Vol.233, No.6, p.533-534. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 76-312 King R.
Major fire and explosion hazards in hydrocarbon processing plants.
Reference is made to a number of disasters caused by unconfined vapour cloud explosions involving large quantities of hydrocarbon gas or vapour mixed with air. The author considers in turn the factors which constitute the hazard inherent in hydrocarbon handling and processing plants and units (the hazard rating scale developed by the Dow Chemical Co. is discussed) and the special but not uncommon hazard presented by the sudden mixture of water with hot hydrocarbon liquid (or vice versa) resulting in the generation of steam and the development of considerable pressure surge.
Protection, Nov. 1975, Vol.12, No.9, p.11-14. 6 ref.

CIS 76-415 Gething J.
Tetramethyllead absorption: a report of human exposure to a high level of tetramethyllead.
Description of the accidental exposure of a chemical worker to a high concentration of tetramethyllead (TML) following the ejection of an autoclave valve. The worker was knocked unconscious to the floor and was covered with a mixture containing 30% TML. The resulting atmospheric lead contamination in the building was 95.7mg/m3 on the 1st floor and 376.5mg/m3 on the 2nd floor. The patient's biochemical findings are presented, discussed and compared with those of similar accidental exposures to tetraethyllead (TEL). The patient had high levels of urinary lead but no symptoms of lead poisoning; ALA levels were not significantly raised. The case described confirms that TML is less toxic to humans than TEL.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1975, Vol.32, No.4, p.329-333. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 75-1749 Frère J.J.
Conditions of work and life on board North Sea oil prospection vessels
Conditions de travail et de vie à bord d'un navire de travaux pétroliers en Mer du Nord. [en francés]
The author of this MD thesis worked as physician on board a vessel engaged in laying pipelines and other offshore operations involving the lifting and positioning of heavy components for the construction of oil rigs and platforms for petroleum prospection. Contents: conditions of work (general aspects: duration of tour of duty on board, daily hours of work, climatic conditions, noise, hazard of decks cluttered with equipment); specific problems affecting certain catergories of crew (deck hands, crane operators, welders, divers); safety problems (responsibilities, hazards, human aspects); conditions of life (crew accomodation, diet, leisure, alcohol, sexual problems, psychological aspects). The last chapter is devoted to the practitioner's point of view: sick bay and pharmaceutical equipment on board, transport of patients to shore facilities, types of consultations and other work confronting the physician.
Faculté de Médecine, Lille, France, 1975. 75p. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 75-1748 Philbert M., Frère J.J., Emmanueli X.
Conditions of work, life and medical care on board an offshore oil prospection vessel in the North Sea
Conditions de travail, de vie et d'exercice médical à bord d'une barge de travaux pétroliers en mer du Nord. [en francés]
This article highlights the exceptional environmental conditions (sea environment, latitude) which directly affect the working conditions of those employed on board: meteorological factors (cold, wind, long nights); acrobatic nature of certain operations which are particularly dangerous for land workers inadapted to the sea environment (e.g. welders, oil rig and pipeline personnel). The heterogeneity of the workforce, the physical and to an even greater extent the psychological isolation may constitute factors causing inadaptation among personnel attracted mainly by the high remuneration. In view of the great disparity among the ship's personnel, according to nationality and category of work performed, it would appear urgently necessary to draft legislation and adopt preventive measures to supervise and improve the recruitment methods and conditions of work, particularly of those employed on board these vessels who are not seafarers by occupation.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Mar. 1975, Vol.36, No.3, p.137-144. Illus. 5 ref.

1974

CIS 75-1513 Vervalin C.H.
Fire protection manual for hydrocarbon processing plants.
This manual has been written by an array of noted fire-protection authorities with experience in the industry. The first chapter contains about 90 detailed case histories of fires, explosions and detonations, indicating causes and remedies and drawing conclusions. The next chapters deal with the fundamentals of fire protection and fire-fighting materials, the various factors operative in explosions and detonations, and the dangers of static electricity and electrical installations. Fire-protection facilities in all types of hydrocarbon-processing plant and methods of fighting hydrocarbon fires are described. Further chapters are devoted to safe startup and shutdown procedures of process units, inspections and investigations and disaster planning. An appendix contains a list of specialised organisations and supplementary literature.
Gulf Publishing Company, Book Division, 3301 Allen Parkway, Houston 1, Texas 77001, USA, 2nd edition, 1974. 488p. Illus. 334 ref. Price: US-$35.00.

CIS 75-1461
Department of Energy, London.
Guidance on the design and construction of offshore installations.
Outlines factors to be taken into account in designing and building floating and fixed units for offshore mineral exploration and exploitation (at present these largely comprise offshore units concerned with oil and gas). Explanatory notes are followed by sections devoted to: environmental considerations; foundations; primary structure; secondary structure and fittings; materials; construction; equipment (noise and vibration control; ballasting; bilge pumping, dynamic positioning, mooring, platform elevation and descent, ventilation, heating, cooling, lighting, emergency power supply, etc.). Information on certification procedures and an index of standards and codes are appended.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1974. 86p. Illus. 90 ref. Price: £4.00.

CIS 75-1454
Ministry of Labour (Ministère du travail), Paris.
Special protective measures for divers
Mesures particulières de protection applicables aux scaphandriers. [en francés]
Brochure containing reprints of the following decrees and orders: Decree No.74-725 of 11 July 1974 (special provisions for protection and medical supervision in offshore worksites or establishments where work is performed by divers under pressures greater than the surrounding atmosphere); order of 30 Sep. 1974 (conditions and provisions applying to divers' skills, certificates of proficiency and vocational training); order of 1 Oct. 1974 (conditions to be observed in recompression chambers and instructions for their use); order of 2 Oct. 1974 (specifications for divers' outfits); order of 3 Oct. 1974 (diving tables mandatory in offshore worksites or establishments where diving operations are carried on); order of 4 Oct. 1974 (recommendations for medical practitioners responsible for the medical supervision referred to in Decree No.74-725 of 11 July 1974); order of 5 Oct. 1974 (model occupational identity card and diver's book).
Bulletin officiel du Ministère du travail, fascicule spécial No.74-48 bis, Paris, France, 1974. 230p. Price: FF.8.00.

CIS 75-1452
Department of Energy, London.
The Offshore Installations (Diving Operations) Regulations 1974.
Under these regulations, which came into force on 1 Jan. 1975, concession owners and installation owners, installation managers, masters of vessels and employers of divers must provide the necessary equipment for diving operations and follow specific procedures in this respect. Diving supervisors must be appointed to exercise immediate control of diving operations. Other provisions concern the keeping of logbooks, and require that divers shall be certified fit for diving and shall unless experienced only dive after instruction and under close supervision by another diver. Requirements are imposed for periodic testing and daily examination of diving equipment and for the provision of rescue services. There are 2 schedules, listing provisions to be contained in diving rules, and laying down specifications concerning compression chambers.
Statutory Instruments, 1974, No.1229. Dated 22 July 1974. H.M. Stationery Offfice, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom. 18p. Price: £0.15.

CIS 74-2051 Robinson T.R.
20-year mortality of tetraethyl lead workers.
This study compares the mortality experience over 20 years (1947-67) for 592 tetraethyl lead (TEL) workers and 660 non-TEL workers in a plant manufacturing TEL. The average annual crude death rates and age-adjusted death rates were similar for the 2 groups. There were no obvious peculiarities in the specific causes of death in either group. While recognising some deficiencies in the study, the conclusion is drawn that these TEL workers have shown no adverse experience in their mortality either overall or in specific disease categories.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1974, Vol.16, No.9, p.601-605. 7 ref.

CIS 74-1635 Thorpe J.J.
Epidemiologic survey of leukaemia in persons potentially exposed to benzene.
8 European affiliates of Exxon Corporation participated in this survey undertaken to study the relationship of leukaemia to benzene exposure. The results are presented and discussed in detail. It was established that the occurrence of leukaemia in a population working in a variety of petroleum and petrochemical operations, some of whom were exposed to low levels of benzene over a 10-year period, is not abnormal when compared to the incidence in the general population in the countries concerned. There is need for improved methods of recording and storing biological observations, job histories, occupational exposures and demographic data.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1974, Vol.16, No.6, p.375-382. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 74-1256 Diserens A.H.
Personal noise dosimetry in refinery and chemical plants.
Surveys made at several refineries and chemical plants show that dosimeter studies are a valuable part of a hearing conservation programme. Personal noise exposure determinations using the integrating dosimeter greatly reduce the time and effort which would be required by time and motion studies.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1974, Vol.16, No.4, p.255-257.

1973

CIS 00-1220 Ley del petróleo de 1930 enmendada en 1972 [Guyana]
Petroleum Act of 1930 as amended in 1972 [Guyana] [en inglés]
En el sumario: aprobación; petróleo; contenedores; descripción técnica; Guayana; manejo y almacenamiento; legislación; seguridad en el trabajo; sanciones; refino de petróleo; proceso de muestras; tanques de almacenamiento; medida de la temperatura; advertencias.
The Laws of Guyana, Government of Guyana, 1973, p.3-24. Ilus.

CIS 75-1788 Broussard G., Russo D.
Psychotechnical examination of oil refinery control panel operators
Indagine psicotecnica su operatori ai quadri di controllo in una raffineria di petrolio [en italiano]
Description and results of 2 batteries of tests carried out in 20 oil refinery employees supervising control panels. The monotony of this routine task caused mental fatigue and stress which might affect performance. Conative attention was altered and there was a decline in concentration during each shift. Remedial measures are recommended to maintain alertness (training and practice drills, noise and vibration control, adequate lighting, thermal comfort, precise assessment of aptitude at pre-employment examination, etc.).
Folia medica, Sep.-Oct. 1973, Vol.61, No.9-10, p.438-446. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 74-1456 Aspects of health and safety in oil development.
Proceedings of a symposium held in Lerwick, United Kingdom, on 17-18 Mar. 1973 covering the following subjects: medical hazards of oil exploration at sea (deep sea diving, medical management of diving); occupational health nursing (training, duties and care of nursing staff, relationship with factory inspectorate); noise, vibration and occupational hygiene; health, welfare and safety of fishermen in the North Sea littoral; deep sea trawling; general medical services in Shetland.
The Shetland Times Ltd., 77-79 Commercial Street, Lerwick ZE1 OAJ, Shetland, United Kingdom, 1973. 124p. 45 ref. Price: £1.75.

CIS 74-1257 Seebold J.C.
Process plant noise control.
Account of noise control methods in oil refineries, including the muffling of furnaces and quieting of fans, electric motors, valves, piping and flares. Discussion of the specification of minimum design features for noise control as part of the purchasing procedure.
Sound and Vibration, June 1973, Vol.7, No.6, p.16-19. Illus.

CIS 74-1156 Occupational safety and health manual for the petrochemical and petroleum processing industries
Spravočnik po ohrane truda i tehnike bezopasnosti v neftepererabatyvajuščej i neftehimičeskoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Compendium of texts of USSR regulations and standards. Contents; safety engineering (legal basis; occupational safety and health organisation; labour inspection; protection against fire and explosions; safety at the design and construction stages of petrochemical plants, and commencement of production; pressure apparatus; safety training of workers; notification and analysis of occupational accidents, cases of poisoning and diseases); occupational safety and health (industrial hygiene; threshold limits; medical surveillance of exposed workers; protective garments and personal protective equipment; hours of work and rest breaks; regulations concerning the employment of women and young persons; physical culture; protection against toxic gases, and rescue services).
Izdatel'stvo "Himija", ul. Stromynka 23, 107076 Moskva B-76, USSR, 1973. 2 vol., 454 and 439p. Price: Rbl.2.17 and 2.08.

CIS 74-236 Review of medical statistics, 1972.
A compilation of disability statistics received by Exxon Corporation from its affiliates. Numerous charts and diagrams indicate trends from geographical areas throughout the world: accident and sickness frequency, severity and disability rates; total time lost by employees. This is followed by comments of area representatives of Exxon Corporation's Medical Department (Europe, Latin America, N. America, Esso Eastern Region, Africa and Near East).
Medical Bulletin, Summer 1973, Vol.33, No.2, p.162-204. Illus.

CIS 74-235 Evan H.Z.
Comparing conditions of work by collective agreement analysis: a case study of the petroleum industry.
La comparaison des conditions de travail par l'analyse des conventions collectives. [en francés]
This study of the situation in the petroleum industry is based on a methodology adopted by the International Labour Office for analysing collective agreements. The method is described. There is a table showing the geographical distribution of the 112 agreements covered in the analysis. The topics which were investigated include: general conditions of work (hours of work, overtime, annual leave and sick leave, retirement benefits); wage structure; occupational safety and health, technological change and employment security; hiring practices; trade union rights; grievances and disputes; joint consultative machinery.
International Labour Review - Revue internationale du Travail - Revista internacional del trabajo, July 1973, Vol.108, No.1, p.63-81.

CIS 74-112 Dryden S.L., Judd S.H.
Must your new plant be too noisy?
It is estimated that noise control measures adopted at the design stage are 2 or 3 times less expensive than measures taken in existing plants. Methods of achieving acceptable noise levels in a crude oil unit are reviewed, typical design features are tabulated and means of checking and enforcing contractors' compliance with equipment specifications are proposed. The second part of the article deals with the protection of the community against plant noise.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1973, Vol.34, No.6, p.241-251. Illus.

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