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USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Men's suits for protection against petroleum and petroleum products - Technical specifications
Kostjumy mužskie dlja zaščity ot nefti i nefteproduktov - Tehničeskie uslovija [en ruso]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1983) applies to suits consisting of jackets and trousers. Sections cover: types and basic sizes; specifications (materials, appearance, cutting and sewing requirements); acceptance tests and quality control; marking, packing, shipment and storage. Dry cleaning and washing instructions are appended.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 23 Feb.1982. 14p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.05.
This book describes the pattern of work offshore and the medical problems which it generates and it is designed to healp the doctor who has to provide medical care for the expanding offshore oil industry. Chapters cover: introduction (geological exploration, drilling, production, communications and transport, hazards); legal aspects of safety, health and welfare on the United Kingdom continental shelf; pre-employment and periodic medical examinations; provisions of back-up services; offshore medical care; special problems (harmful substances, obesity, dust, drilling mud, welding, noise and vibration, trauma, infestations, endemic diseases, psychological disturbances, drugs and alcohol, drowning, hypothermia); diving; catering and hygiene; dental problems; investigation of accidents.
Springer-Verlag, Postfach 10 51 60, Haberstrasse 7, D-6900 Heidelberg 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 208p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US-$.35.60.
Guidelines for safe maintenance practices in petroleum refineries
Aspects covered in Vol.1: criteria for authorising maintenance; case histories of accidents and near misses; safety guidelines for authorisation of hazardous work. Aspects covered in Vol.2: comparison of NIOSH, OSHA and international standards; research needs; case histories. The authors recommend that an OSHA regulation incorporating the described performance criteria should not apply only to petroleum refineries, that additional investigation should be conducted to identify the affected industries, and that a programme for safety during maintenance activities should include management commitment and a maintenance safety plan as outlined in this report. Other recommendations include improving the NIOSH accident reporting system and establishing a standard of safe practices for hydroblasting.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Information Systems Section, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1981. Vol. 1 and 2. 359p.
Recomendaciones de seguridad para usuarios o propietarios de terrenos donde se alojan ductos de petróleos mexicanos
This illustrated bulletin describes safety precautions for owners of land that are crossed by underground oil or gas pipelines.
Petróleos Mexicanos, Av. Marina Nacional No.329, Edif. A. Colonia Huasteca, México, D.F., C.P.11311, Mexique, 1981. 23p. Illus.
Occupational safety and health in well drilling
Ohrana truda v burenii [en ruso]
Contents of this manual: general OSH problems (legislation, OSH organisation); fundamentals of ergonomics (man and machine, design of work stations and equipment); lighting; colour and safety; microclimate; noise and vibration control; protection against harmful substances; ionising radiation; electrical safety; safe work on drilling rigs; fire protection (theory, prevention, escape from fire zones, fire fighting equipment and organisation).
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tret'jakovskij proezd 1/19, 103633 Moskva K-12, USSR, 1981. 287p. Illus. 81 ref. Price: Rbl.0.90.
Radiant heat exposure in the vicinity of a chemical plant flare in the event of a blowdown
Zur Wärmestrahlenbelastung der Umgebung einer Hochfackelflamme im "blow-down"-Fall von Chemieanlagen [en alemán]
Study on the radiant heat intensity at ground level underneath a gas flare in relation to the distance and the interval following gas release, and measurement of the thermal flux density on the surface of a tank truck in the radiation field. Radiant heat intensity was higher than calculated values and exceeded the skin pain threshold; it was therefore necessary to mark out a safety zone at the base of the flare. Measurements on the tank truck showed a rise of the temperature in the gaseous phase inside the tank, which would be a hazard in the case of empty tanks. In view of the complexity of the phenomena in question, it is possible that the thermal radiation may rise to levels even higher than those measured.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Mar. 1981, Vol.27, No.3, p.199-203. Illus. 17 ref.
Rushton L., Alderson M.R.
An epidemiological survey of eight oil refineries in Britain
Report of a mortality study of over 34,000 workers employed in 1 of 8 oil refineries in Britain for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1975. Observed mortality was compared with expected UK male mortality rates adjusted for regional mortality variations and was found overall to be lower than expected; mortality from specific causes (e.g. heart disease, stroke, bronchitis, and pneumonia) was also lower. Mortality due to all neoplasms was lower than expected; there was a much lower level of lung cancer mortality than expected, but raised mortality due to gastro-intestinal neoplasms was found in several refineries. Malignant melanoma and nasal cavity and sinus neoplasms also caused higher than expected mortality. Further study is required to ascertain whether these patterns are due to an occupational factor and, if so, to identify the physical or chemical nature of the risk.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1981, Vol.38, No.3, p.225-234. Illus. 32 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Cable laid slings and grommets
Guidance is given on the construction and use of cable-laid, single-part slings and grommets developed for use in the off-shore oil industry, which are made up of 6 unit ropes laid as outers over one core unit rope and which are too large to be tested to destruction on existing equipment. Guidance is given on construction and splicing of cable-laid slings and construction, termination, seizing and calculated minimum breaking load of grommets. Subsequently details are given of working load limit, safe working load, loads in sling legs, testing and certification, identification marking, storage and inspection, operating life and annual thorough examination, record of lifts. An appendix gives a model certificate of wire rope test and examination.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1981. 8p. Illus. Price: £1.00.
Seaton A., Lamb D., Rhind Brown W., Sclare G., Middleton W.G.
Pneumoconiosis of shale miners
Complicated pneumoconiosis was diagnosed in 4 patients after a life time of work in shale mines. Peripheral squamous lung cancer was also found in 2 cases. The clinical and histological features of the disease resembled the pneumoconioses of coal miners and kaolin workers, and the lungs of 3 patients contained dust composed of kaolinite, mica, and free silica (10-15%). It is recommended that dust exposure be controlled and risks of pneumoconiosis and bronchial carcinoma be studied epidemiologically in industries such as oil production from shale.
Thorax, 1981, Vol.36, p.412-418. Illus. 18 ref.
Garcia L.L., Schulte H.F., Ettinger H.J.
Industrial hygiene study at the Anvil Points oil shale facility
Area sampling and personal monitoring in the mining, transport, crushing, retorting, raw fines disposal and spent shale disposal areas of a pilot-scale oil-shale processing facility were used to determine the occupational hazards which might exist in commercial scale operations due to exposure to dust, gases, vapours and organic materials. Ventilation was inadequate at the working face in underground mining rooms. The quartz content of dust in mining areas was 5-9%. Total dust and respirable dust levels would exceed ACGIH TLV's for continuous 8h shifts in mining areas, around crushers and retorts, and in spent-shale disposal areas. Exposure to carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon gases was high in retort areas. Improved dust control and capture methods, control of organic materials and gases escaping in the retort area and eliminaiton of worker contact with potentially carcinogenic organic materials in spent shale, were recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1981, Vol.42, NO.11, p.796-804. Illus. 18 ref.
Carelli G., Bernardini P.L., La Bua R., Rimatori V., Iannaccone A.
Occupational exposure to arsenic in a chemical plant: Health hazard evaluation after elimination of arsenic from the process
Esposizione professionale ad arsenico in un impianto chimico: Valutazione del rischio dopo eliminazione dell'arsenico dal ciclo tecnologico [en italiano]
In 1978 an alkaline solution of sodium arsenite was used to remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gas in a chemical plant. Arsenic (As) was eliminated from the desulfurisation process in 1979 and environmental contamination by As was determined in 1981. Air concentrations were in the range 0.0005 - 0.125µg/m3, well below recommended safety levels. Concentrations of <2540mg/m2 were found in ground samples extracted with 2% sodium carbonate solution. In a soil core sample the As value was 0.55±0.09mg/kg at 0.6-1.8m depth but decreased from floor level to 0.6m depth.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1981, Vol.72, No.6, p.473-479. Illus. 17 ref.
Seguridad e higiene en la construcción de instalaciones fijas en el mar para la industria del petróleo. Repertorio de recomendaciones prácticas
Safety and health in the construction of fixed offshore installations in the petroleum industry. Code of practice [en inglés]
Sécurité et hygiène dans la construction des installations fixes en mer dans l'industrie du pétrole. Recueil de directives pratiques [en francés]
The contents of this ILO Code of Practice prepared by a meeting of government, employer and worker experts (Geneva, 1-10 Dec. 1980) include: definitions and scope; general obligations of employers and workers, permits-to-work, training, safety committees, employment of young persons; access, egress, lighting, housekeeping, manual lifting and carrying, record keeping; diving, scaffolding and staging; toxic and hazardous substances and agents personal protective equipment; welding and flame cutting; machinery, pressure plant and tools; electricity; noise and vibration; lifting appliances and lifting gear; living accomodation; medical supervision; health and first aid; life-saving appliances; helicopters; alarms, means of escape and fire-fighting equipment; emergency procedures and drills. Appendix: living accomodation, messrooms, sanitary and changing facilities. Subject index.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1981. 135p. Illus. Price: CHF 20.00.
Jones M.F., Gesell T.F., Nanus J., Racster C.E.
Radioactive well logging: A review and an analysis of Texas incidents
The health physics considerations of the transportation, handling and use of radioactive sources in oil and gas well logging operations are discussed. Gamma and neutron sources are transported to well sites in shielded containers and then lowered, by wire-line service personnel, into wells. The subsurface structure is mapped as the source is drawn up. Exposure of personnel can occur as a result of inadequate shielding or handling practice or leaks in containers, e.g. as a result of road accidents. Down-hole losses of the sources present environmental hazards. Texas records between 1957 and 1976 showed that 12.6% of total radiation incidents reported were related to the logging industry. Over-exposures due to well logging incidents compared favourably with those experienced in radiography, research and education fields.
Health Physics, Mar. 1981, Vol.40, No.3, p.361-368. Illus. 14 ref.
Kårstad O., Karlsen J.E., Flydal E., Ebbestad A.V., Bye S., Ryall R., Remøe S.O., Østby H.
Working environment - offshore rigs and maritime transport
Arbeidsmiljø - offshore og skipsfart [en noruego]
Series of articles on present-day occupational safety problems: fatal accidents involving offshore oil rig workers, with examples showing the hazards inherent in certain activities; multiple and difficult problems facing safety officers on drilling platforms; problems of language communication (too many instructions written in English or badly translated into Norwegian); psychological and linguistic problems of oil-rig workers; transport by helicopter; human error, the safety expert's stumbling block; problems of accident investigations; compatibility of safety measures with communications organisation; trends in accidents on board Norwegian ships.
Vern og velferd, 1981, No.6, p.19-55. Illus. 3 ref.
Ministry of Justice and Police
Norwegian Public Reports: The Alexander L. Kielland accident
Report of a Norwegian Royal Commission to investigate the collapse and capsizing of a North Sea Oil Rig on 27 Mar. 1980, with loss of 123 lives. Built as a drilling rig, this mobile platform was used as an accommodation platform (80 beds; later with increased accommodation capacity by mounting additional accommodation containers on deck). Causes: fatigue fracture in a bracing initiated the structural failure; gale conditions; crack defects had existed for sometime undetected before the incident. Recommendations for improved life-saving appliances, survival suits, lifeboats, and improved rescue operations including standby vessels.
Translatørservice A/S, Stavanger, Norway, 1981. 472p. Illus. 29 ref.
H2S - A refinery on the look-out
H2S - Une raffinerie sur ses gardes. [en francés]
Extensively illustrated report on the hazards of and safety measures against accidental H2S leakage in the vicinity of the desulfurisation unit in a petroleum refinery: fencing off danger zones with red and white plastic chains; piping and tanks containing H2S marked with violet warning signs; prohibition on entering danger zones unaccompanied; individual use of walky-talkies, H2S detectors and a respirator hung from the belt; air bags indicating the wind direction.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1981, No.1, p.10-18. Illus.
Miller R.K., Montone W.V., Oviatt M.D.
Noise control solutions for the chemical and petroleum industry
Engineering approaches to the control of noise associated with valves, piping, vents to the atmosphere, furnaces, fans, elevated flares, pumps, electric motors, cooling towers, heaters, airfin coolers, engines, aspirators, mills, gear systems and materials handling are described. Acoustical data and engineering designs presented relate to both in-plant and outdoor noise.
Southeast Acoustics Institute, P.O. Box 590, Madison, GA 30650, USA, 1980. 113p. Illus. 99 ref. Price: US-$65.00.
The effect of diesel fuel on skin sensitivity
O vlijanii dizel'nogo topliva na čuvstvitel'nye funkcii koži [en ruso]
Tests involving an electrothermic aesthesiometer were performed on the hands and forearms of 320 engine attendants who came into contact with diesel fuel at work in an oil field. This type of exposure resulted in a reduction of their skin sensitivity to heat and pain.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1980, No.9, p.39-41. 8 ref.
Explosion-proof electrical equipment for drilling rigs
Vzryvozaščiščennoe ėlektrooborudovanie burovyh ustanovok [en ruso]
Review of safety measures to prevent explosions caused by electric sparks on drilling rigs: selection, at design stage, of electrical equipment with suitable specification (voltage, maximum amperage, power, load factor, explosion-proof design) for the danger zone in which it is installed, and safety devices suitable for the working conditions; preventive maintenance of electrical equipment and periodic examination and testing.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, July 1980, No.7, p.37-39.
Sulejmanov M.M., Gazarjan G.S., Manveljan Ė.G., Timošuk A.B.
Occupational safety and health in the petroleum industry
Ohrana truda v neftjanoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Contents: Soviet OSH legislation; OSH organisation; analysis of working conditions and of accidents; occupational hygiene (ventilation, heating, lighting, noise and vibration control, radiation protection, personal protection); electrical safety; integration of safety and health when planning technological processes and extraction installations; safety techniques in drilling and oil-well operation; safety aspects of underground work; safety aspects of petroleum and natural gas storage and transport; fire prevention; fire fighting equipment and methods for dealing with petroleum and gas fire outbreaks.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tret'jakovskij proezd 1/19, 103633 Moskva K-12, USSR, 1980. 391p. Illus. 72 ref. Price: Rbl.1.70.
Health hazards and pollution control in synthetic liquid fuel conversion.
This book reviews environmental, health and pollution control aspects of conversion processes for coal, oil shale and tar sands, based on projects in pilot scale or early commercial stages. The most advanced research data are presented. Contents: coal, oil shale, tar sand - structure and composition; overview of liquid fuel production processes; pollutants generated in coal liquefaction processes; health effects of coal liquefaction; pollution control for coal liquefaction; environmental aspects of the solvent refined coal process; environmental assessment of H-coal and Exxon donor solvent processes; environmental aspects of the Fischer-Tropsch process; pollutants generated in oil shale processing; health effects of oil shale processing; environmental control in oil shale processing; environmental assessment of Tosco II, Paraho, Union Oil and in-situ processes; environmental assessment of tar sand processing; carbon dioxide-problems and solutions; environmental laws and regulations; bibliographic sources.
Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656, USA, 1980. 511p. Illus. 419 ref.
Bieliński T., Dzieciuchowicz J., Kaleta J., Knipfelberg A., Knyziak J., Kołosowski H., Matlakiewicz S., Płandowski J., Rosiak W., Róźycka M., Szelejak D., Szulc Z., Wałęga K., Wikiera S., Woźniak J.
Occupational safety and health in the chemical industry
Bhp w przemyśle chemicznym [en polonés]
Collective work intended for management and supervisors in petrochemical plants and petroleum refineries. Contents: basic OSH legislation; employment of women and young persons; OSH organisation; accident prevention and fire precautions; basic information on ergonomics, physiology and industrial hygiene; radiation protection; safety colours and signals; toxic chemicals (mechanism of action, hygiene standards, carcinogens); operation of pressure vessels and systems, and of electrical installations; repair and maintenance of machinery and installations; work in workshops, on construction and assembly sites; handling and storage; safe work in laboratories; dangerous work; medical examination of workers; personal protection equipment; rescue and first aid.
Instytut wydawniczy CRZZ, Warszawa, Poland, 1980. 328p. 37 ref.
Carelli G., Rimatori V., Bernardini P., Iannaccone A.
Occupational exposure to arsenic, sulfur and sulfur dioxide at a natural gas desulfurisation plant
Esposizione professionale ad arsenico, zolfo ed anidride solforosa in un impianto di desolforazione di gas naturale [en italiano]
A method for evaluation of the arsenic exposure is proposed: an alkaline solution of sodium arsenite and arsenate was used to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from the gas before treatment. Arsenic was analysed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry after reduction to arsine. Arsenic exposure was excessive at some workplaces. Methods for determining sulfur dioxide and sulfur are also described.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1980, Vol.71, No.4, p.328-333. 14 ref.
Nugaev R.Ja., Fedorov V.A.
Ergonomic improvement of drilling installations for petroleum and natural gas
Ulučšenie ėrgonomičeskih pokazatelej ustanovok dlja burenija neftjanih i gazovyh skvažin [en ruso]
Ergonomic problems considered: evaluation of weather protection on rig platform; mathematical study of noise control possibilities; vibration control; lighting; anthropometric design of operators' workplaces and controls.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Jan. 1980, No.1, p.49-51.
Fire protection problems in a large refinery
Une grande raffinerie face à l'incendie. [en francés]
Study of fire prevention measures in a large refinery in Normandy (France): general and specific fire hazards in refineries; general fire prevention methods (eliminating the presence of heat sources and air/hydrocarbon vapour mixtures, fire spread limitation); fire fighting (organisation of fire fighting service, available methods and equipment); first aid; personnel training.
Revue de la sécurité, July-Aug. 1980, Vol.16, No.170, p.6-14. Illus.
Report of the Burgoyne Committee set up by the U.K. Secretary of State for Energy. Contents: offshore safety legislation, administration and enforcement; experience in the industry of fatalities, serious accidents and dangerous occurrences: areas of particular danger; nature, coverage and effectiveness of offshore safety legislation; conclusions and recommendations; numerous appendices, including review of relevant United Kingdom legislation, US and Norwegian safety legislation and enforcement, review of accident statistics.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Mar. 1980. 300p. Price: £6.50.
Lung cancer and the petroleum industry in Louisiana.
In this case-control study, death certificates for 1960-1975 of men employed in petroleum mining and refining were analysed. 200 men were employed in the petroleum industry, 125 in mining and 75 in refining. Welders, operators, boilermakers, painters, and oilfield workers had the greatest risks. Oil-field miners born outside Louisiana had a higher risk than native miners. The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a measure of cigarette smoking was also examined. The use of death certificates for screening appears a valid means of detecting occupational associations with lung cancer.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1980, Vol.22, No.6, p.384-388. 8 ref.
Occupational environment problems in the use of petroleum-based drill mud
Arbeidsmiljøproblemer ved bruk av oljebasert boreslam [en noruego]
The role of gas oil and water emulsions, especially in offshore drilling, is described, and the risks they present for the skin (defatting effect, irritation, eczema) and when inhaled as aerosols (respiratory tract irritation, chemical pneumonia, neurotoxic effects). Exposure to these aerosols, which contain a high proportion of organic solvents, can be high near vibrating screens, above the mud tank and on the floor of the drilling platform. Hygiene measures recommended are: ventilation (with formula for calculating required airflow velocity); personal protection, personal hygiene. First-aid hints are given.
Vern og velferd, 1980, No.3, p.53-54. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive.
Hazards; OSH organisation and training; OSH supervision; permits-to-work; access and egress; lighting; maintenance and inspection; recordkeeping; scaffolding; boatswain's chairs; ladders; protection from falling; safety harnesses, safety nets; hazardous substances and machinery (asphyxiation; hazards of oxygen enrichment; storage and controlled use of toxic and dangerous substances; dust, fume, gas, vapour; asbestos; disposal of highly flammable, corrosive, toxic or explosive substances); noise; electricity; personal protective equipment; lifting equipment; living accommodation; health care; first aid; life-saving, rescue and survival equipment; helicopter operations; alarm, escape and fire-fighting equipment.
HS (G) Series, HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1980. 62p. Illus. Bibl.
Thomas T.L., Decoufle P., Moure-Eraso R.
Mortality among workers employed in petroleum refining and petrochemical plants.
The cause-specific mortality experience in 1947-1977 of 3105 members of Texas union locals was studied. Proportionate mortality ratios for cancers of the liver and biliary passages, pancreas, lung, and skin, were elevated, although risks did not increase with length of membership. The frequency of stomach cancer, brain cancer, leukaemia and multiple myeloma was increased in white males with >10y membership.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1980, Vol.22, No.2, p.97-103. 18 ref.
Report III, Petroleum Committee of the International Labour Organisation, Ninth Session, Geneva 1980.
Working conditions and working environment in the petroleum industry, including offshore activities.
Les conditions et le milieu de travail dans l'industrie du pétrole, y compris les activités en mer. [en francés]
This report, prepared for discussion at the Ninth Session of the Committee, covers: regional conditions; mechanical and electrical hazards, exposure to harmful substances; noise and vibration; ionising and non-ionising radiations; lighting; stress factors; diving (decompression, "bounce" and "saturation" diving, submersibles); fire and explosion hazards; fire protection; occupational accidents and diseases; recent trends in prevention (organisation, regulations, workers' participation, joint and tripartite consultation); general working conditions (hours of work, shift work, rest periods and leave); work organisation and job content (arduous work and monotony, automation and skill diversification, casual labour); welfare services. Suggested points for discussion. Numerous tables showing TLVs, sound pressure levels on North Sea oil platforms, recommended noise limits, levels of illumination, statistics of fires; accidents in the petroleum industry in Austria, Belgium, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Norway, Pakistan, United Kingdom and USA.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1980. 116p. Bibl. Price: SF.17.50.
Rapport général. [en francés]
Chapter V of this report concerns occupational safety and health (OSH) in the petroleum industry and analyses replies of governments to questions on the following subjects: development of occupational disease and injury statistics; sanctions for non-observance of OSH legislation; cooperation between employers and workers on OSH matters; research on: work satisfaction, exposure to toxic substances; hazards of switch/loading; hazards due to increasing size of petroleum installations; work safety permit systems; substitution of non-toxic or less toxic materials; OSH training; improvement and expansion of OSH services. Summaries of replies from: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Dominican Republic, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Singapore, USSR, Ukrainian SSR, United Kingdom and Uruguay. Abridged version in German and Russian.
Report I, Petroleum Committee of the International Labour Organisation, Ninth Session, Geneva, 1980. International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1980. 170p. Illus. Price: SF.20.00.
Vincent B.G., Krasner L.M.
Safety assessment of petroleum and gas producers
Accident and illness data were collected and documented and current regulations and related research were investigated to provide a basis for the identification of hazards to personnel and the development of recommendations for improvements in problem areas and processes. A significant injury problem was identified in the area of extraction. Fire hazards were present in processing areas. Storage areas presented the least hazard to personnel. Appendices provide: existing safety regulations and standards for the petroleum industry; a bibliography on ongoing research into injury and illness problems; a coding manual for loss incidents reports; NIOSH computer printouts of the data on which much of this report is based; case histories of specific incidents in the three problem areas identified.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA, May 1979. 151p. Illus.
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Drilling equipment - Safety rules
Oborudovanie burovoe - Trebovanija bezopasnosti [en ruso]
This standard (effective 1 July 1980) applies to equipment used for drilling petroleum and natural gas wells: safety requirements to be met by components and elements (derricks, pulley blocks, winches, rotary table, controls); safety devices (railings, platforms and ladders, interlocking systems, signal lamps); safety aspects of rig assembly and repair work; checking and testing.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 2 Oct. 1979. 12p. Price: Rbl.0.05.
Barausova I.A., Ezepenko V.N.
Training and preparation of drilling teams
Osobennosti obučenija i podgotovki rabočih burovoj brigady [en ruso]
The psychophysiological basis of the training given to these teams is reviewed: use of cinematographic simulators to create the appropriate reflexes in hazardous situations, dynamometric simulators which prepare workers for certain types of physical effort, and coordinometric simulators which develop movement coordination habits; use of model tasks for training in decision taking; ergonomic analysis of causes and circumstances of accidents simulated on models or using audiovisual media.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Oct. 1979, No.10, p.30-31.
Karapetjan K.V, Hrennikov S.B., Voevoda A.N.
Safe addition of new pipes to the drill string
O bezopasnom naraščivanii buril'noj kolonny svečami [en ruso]
Travel-limiting devices designed to prevent dangerous collisions between the crown and travelling blocks during raising of the drill string have the disadvantage of reducing the available height for addition of further pipes. A tubular extension structure developed to carry the crown block at the top of the derrick, which counters the hazard of eliminating the travel-limiting device for reasons of productivity, is presented.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Oct. 1979, No.10, p.29-30. Illus.
Nimmo A., Innes G.
A survey of in-patients from the oil related industries in north-east Scotland.
All patients from offshore oil-related industries admitted to hospitals on 3 Scottish islands in 1976-1977 are surveyed. Their characteristics and the services they used are described. Data are given on seasonal patterns of admission; medical specialities, diagnoses, an out-patient survey, and causes of injury. Occupations are listed.
Health Bulletin, 1979, Vol.37, p.20-23. 6 ref.
Morbidity and mortality study of shale oil workers in the United States.
The Soviet and British literature is briefly reviewed. Results and conclusions of the dermatological study of oil shale workers by the US Public Health Service in 1952-1955 are reported. A mortality and morbidity study currently undertaken by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, covering some 800 male workers and 320 controls, is described.
Environmental Health Perspectives, June 1979, Vol.30, p.205-208. 9 ref.
Commentary on safety regulations for coal and oil-shale mines
Kommentarii k pravilam bezopasnosti u ugol'nyh i slancevyh šahtah [en ruso]
The basic conditions for organisation of underground work in accordance with safety regulations are dealt with: general rules; underground work (shafts and drifts, roof supports, safe coal getting methods; ventilation, dust control, firedamp control; underground haulage and winding; electrical installations (safety, telecommunications, lighting); mine fire prevention and extinguishment; measures against inrush of water and outbursts of gas.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tret'jakovskij pr. 1/19, 103633 Moskva, USSR, 1979. 335p. Price: Rbl.1.20.
Daisey J.M., Mukai F.
Short-term in vitro bioassays - Applicability to air monitoring in the coal conversion and shale oil industries.
The types of bioassay presently available are reviewed. These tests detect agents that cause damage to DNA which may lead to mutations, cancer, birth defects and other diseases. The results of these tests do not permit direct assessment of the human health hazard, and the choice of appropriate comparison, such as ambient air, is discussed. The advantages and limitations of the bioassays are considered.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1979, Vol.40, No.9, p.823-828. 21 ref.
Weaver N.K., Gibson R.L.
The U.S. oil shale industry: a health perspective.
Cancer experience in oil shale industry in Scotland and Estonia is briefly reviewed. Substances presenting a health hazard, including carcinogens, contained in raw shale, retort oil and spent shale are listed, and carcinogenicity tests are reported. An oral LD50 of 8-10g/kg and a dermal LD50 of 20g/kg for the crude retort oils which produced liver damage were determined. Toxic effects can be reduced by hydrogenation of the retort oils. Controls to prevent inhalation of raw and spent shale dusts, which contain silica, and contact with retort oils are indicated.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1979, Vol.40, No.6, p.460-467. 21 ref.
Thériault G., Goulet L.
A mortality study of oil refinery workers.
This study comprised 1,205 men employed for more than 5 years since 1928. The standard mortality ratio was lower than expected for all causes of death. There was a statistically higher incidence of brain cancer among young people who died less than 20 years after start of employment. Cancer of the digestive system was suspected of being associated with work in oil refineries. The lung cancer death rate was low.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1979, Vol.21, No.5, p.367-370. 11 ref.
Blinova Ė.A., Mjannik Ė.I.
Toxicity of shale phenols and methods for their determination in air
Toksičnost' slancevyh fenolov i metody ih opredelenija v vozduhe [en ruso]
Literature survey reporting health damage in workers exposed to these phenols (raised frequency of upper arway disease, neuralgia and disorders of the autonomic nervous system), the composition of the incriminated phenols (phenol content of the volatile part of the mixture extracted from shale pitch: 35-40%; cresols content: 42-47%; dihydric phenols content: 15.5%) and animal experiments conducted to study the acute and chronic effects of these substances. Analysis of the results obtained shows that shale phenols have general toxic effects on the body, causing damage especially to the nervous system and parenchymal organs such as the liver. The authors recommend a TLV of 0.3mg/m3 for water-soluble shale phenols.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1979, No.1, p.24-27. 15 ref.
Toxicity of oil shale chemical products.
This survey lists the supplies of oil shale tar throughout the world and compares the properties of the tars to those of crude oil, and discusses the known composition; the animal data on toxicity (lethal concentrations and doses) of the tars and phenols from Estonian deposits; carcinogenicity of the phenols and bitumens; effects on humans (skin irritation and sensitisation, nervous and blood system disorders); and environmental pollution.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1979, Vol.5, No.1, p.1-9. 42 ref.
Hanis N.M., Stavraky K.M., Fowler J.L.
Cancer mortality in oil refinery workers.
Cancer mortality for 1964-1973 was studied in 15,032 refinery workers in Canada. Those with jobs exposing them to crude petroleum or its products had more than 3 times the risk of oesophageal and stomach cancer, and about twice the risk of lung cancer, than non-exposed controls. There was a relation between cancer risk and duration of employment. Comparisons of refinery with non-refinery workers, without reference to petroleum exposure, showed the former to have twice the risk of cancer of the intestines and other digestive organs. The results cannot be ascribed with certainty to a carcinogenic effect of petroleum, and further study is called for. Numerous statistical tables illustrate the text.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1979, Vol.21, No.3, p.167-174. 17 ref.
Darby G.H., Dukich A., Hargens C.W., Hill H.G,, Hsiao S.H., Suter D.L., Mason R., Miller L.M.
Information profiles on potential occupational hazards
General overview information, with bibliographies, is provided for the industrial processes: Manufacturing and use of corrosion inhibitors and rosin core solder; manufacturing of explosives and fireworks, plastics and resins, pharmaceuticals, synthetic rubber, tires, paints and related products; firefighting; aluminium reduction; caisson and tunnel work; petrochemical plants; petroleum refining; spray painting; photographic processing; electroplating; sewage treatment; incineration. Information is also provided for the physical agents radiofrequency, microwave and ionising radiation; magnetic fields; impact noise.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA. Apr. 1978. 315p. 599 ref.
Safety problems in the offshore petroleum industry.
This publication contains the working document prepared for a meeting of experts convened by the International Labour Organisation (Geneva, October 1977). The report of the meeting is also reproduced. Occupational activities in the industry are divided into: construction activities, petroleum-related activities and diving activities. Safety and health problems (drilling, fire and explosions, noise, toxic substances, diving hazards, etc.) are examined, with a review of relevant national and international activities, standards, etc. Statistics for the industry are given.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1978. 113p. Price: SF.15.00.
Health and safety guide for oil and gas well drilling and servicing.
Safe practices are described to encourage compliance with U.S. regulations. Contents: health and safety programmes; employee training; machine guarding; environmental control; hazards in the industry; frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces, exits and exit markings, toxic substances, noise, hazardous materials, personal protective equipment, medical and first aid, fire protection, compressed air equipment, materials handling and storage, machinery and machine guarding, hand and portable powered tools, welding and cutting, electrical safety); record keeping; check lists; information sources.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-190, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1978. 62p. Illus.
Noise on offshore platforms.
Offshore platform workers are exposed to very high noise levels (12-h shift, 2 weeks on, 2 weeks off). Noise exposure continues in off-duty periods, due to the close proximity of leisure and working areas. The 1976 Health and Safety Executive Code of Practice recommends a maximum level of 90 dB(A) for daily 8h exposure to non-fluctuating noise. For other levels and exposure times an equivalent sound level (Leq) can be calculated and compared with the 90dB(A) standard. As the offshore worker is exposed to high noise levels for the full 12h of his working day, the 90 dB(A) 8h standard can be reduced to 88dB(A) on the basis of the Leq calculation. Considerations on hearing damage, speech interference and accident hazard from misunderstood verbal communications, hearing conservation, major noise sources on oil rigs (gas turbine and diesel generators, pumps and compressors, and air dryers, etc.).
Occupational Health, Nov. 1978, Vol.30, No.11, p.524-527. Illus. 4 ref.
Training of offshore sick-bay attendants ('rig-medics').
An introductory section on the hazards and working environment of offshore oil rig sick-bay attendants, and their qualifications as required by the Offshore Installations (Operational Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations 1976, is followed by sections devoted to: general responsibilities of sick-bay attendants; training and refresher courses in treatment of injuries and burns, first aid, record-keeping, preparing patients for transport, acting on medical advice given by radio, etc.; rules concerning foreign offshore installations, etc. Appended: suggested syllabus for introductory training course and for refresher course.
Guidance Note MS 16/78, Health and Safety Executive, London, H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Aug. 1978. 4p. Price: £0.30.
Davis S.C., Balzer J.L., Raymond M.A.
An industrial hygiene program for a surface mining operation.
An industrial hygiene (IH) programme in a multinational corporation operating mainly in the USA and engaged principally in mining, oil and gas exploration, development and production (including ocean shipping) is described. The programme covers all mine development stages (pre-exploration, exploration, planning and development, production, post-production) and is intended to develop purchase and design specifications to minimise occupational health hazards, review engineering plans and specifications for legal compliance and adherence to IH principles, establish a functional IH programme (engineering controls and tests, sampling systems for contaminants, personal protective equipment, medical surveillance, and training), communicate with government agencies to clarify regulations, conduct testing and obtain approval for compliance with the Toxic Substances Control Act, and develop and operate a data management system to organise and correlate employee exposures, medical records and chemical inventories.
American Mining Congress Journal, May 1978, Vol.64, No.5, p.47-50. Illus.
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