Petroleum and natural gas industry - 659 entradas encontradas
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Andersen S., Mostue B.A.
Risk analysis and risk management approaches applied to the petroleum industry and their applicability to IO concepts
Due to changes introduced by Integrated Operations (IO), it is possible that traditional risk analysis and risk management approaches in the oil and gas industry are also challenged. This article discusses the impact on these approaches of the Norwegian oil and gas industry. An explorative approach was chosen and the empirical findings are based on a survey of risk analysis and risk management in different business sectors in the oil and gas industry, qualitative interviews about the generation of knowledge for decisions that involve risk in an operating company and qualitative interviews of people working with risk analyses in different companies exploring their use of risk analysis methods. It is concluded that due to IO, it is necessary to look for other inputs to risk analyses, establish suitable assessment approaches to human and organizational issues, develop resilience-based approaches for operational risk assessment and, utilize IO to improve the risk management process.
Safety Science, 2011, 10p. Illus. 31 ref.
Risk_analysis.pdf [en inglés]
Kalatpoor O., Goshtasp K., Khavaji S.
Health, safety and environmental risk of a gas pipeline in an oil exploring area of Gachsaran
The purpose of this study was to assess the health, safety and environmental risks of a 16 km gas pipeline located in an oil-producing region of Iran, using a modified version of the Kent's pipeline risk assessment method. Assessment parameters included: interested party's injuries, corrosion, design factors, incorrect operation index and consequence scoring. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.209-214. 12 ref.
Health.pdf [en inglés]
Widner T.E., Gaffney S.H., Panko J.M., Unice K.M., Burns A.M., Kreider M., Marshall J.R., Booher L.E., Gelat R.H., Paustenbach D.J.
Airborne concentrations of benzene for dock workers at the ExxonMobil refinery and chemical plant, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA (1977-2005)
Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and natural gas (0.1-3.0% by volume). Materials that are refined from crude oil and natural gas contain some residual benzene. In this study, historical samples of airborne benzene collected from 1977-2005 at the docks of a large refinery and petrochemical plant in the United States were evaluated. Workers were categorized into 11 job titles for which benzene concentrations were assessed. Approximately 800 personal air samples were analyzed. Findings are discussed. Samples for specific job categories showed that concentrations have decreased over the past 30 years. Recognizing the potential for benzene exposure, this facility has required workers to use respiratory protective equipment during selected tasks and activities; thus, the concentrations measured were likely to be greater than those that the employees actually experienced.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.37, No.2, p.147-158. Illus. 43 ref.
Airborne_concentrations.pdf [en inglés]
Maintenance at Total Belgium, or safety culture
La maintenance chez Total Belgium ou la culture de la sécurité [en francés]
This article presents the occupational safety and health efforts undertaken by the maintenance contractor of a large refinery owned by a major oil company in the port of Antwerp, Belgium.
Prevent Focus, Oct. 2010, p.8-10. Illus.
Sellappa S., Sadhanandhan B., Francis A., Vasudevan S.G.
Evaluation of genotoxicity in petrol station workers in South India using micronucleus assay
In this study, the micronucleus (MN) frequency was assessed as a measure of genotoxicity in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa extracted from 110 service station attendants and 100 controls. For each individual, 3000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. The individuals used in the study were grouped based on their smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, and tobacco chewing habits. After controlling for smoking, alcohol consumption, age and length of occupation, there was a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells among the workers exposed to gasoline than in the unexposed control population. The significant increase in the induction of the MN in the exposed population suggests that the studied individuals may be at a higher risk of developing cancer and therefore should be monitored for possible long-term adverse effects of the exposure.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.852-856. 32 ref.
Evaluation_of_genotoxicity.pdf [en inglés]
Uzma N., Kumar B.S., Hazari M.A.H.
Exposure to benzene induces oxidative stress, alters the immune response and expression of p53 in gasoline filling workers
This study investigated the adverse effects of benzene among workers occupationally exposed to benzene in India. It involved 428 gasoline filling workers occupationally exposed to benzene and 78 unexposed individuals. A significant increase in the concentration of benzene and its byproducts in both blood and urine were found in the workers compared with the controls. Occupational exposure to benzene causes oxidative stress, immune suppression and increases the expression of tumor-suppressing gene p53 in gasoline filling workers. These bio-functional markers might be useful in screening and surveillance for occupational hazard.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.1264-1270. Illus. 34 ref.
Hopf N.B., Kirkeleit J., Kramer S.L., Moen B., Succop P., Genter M.B., Carreón T., Mack J., Talaska G.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in offshore workers
The objective of this study was to compare differences in pre- and post-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1HP) levels as a measure of internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between two groups of oil production workers offshore assumed to be exposed to PAH, and to compare the exposed group to an unexposed control group. Urine samples of the 42 participants were collected over a study period of three consecutive 12-h work days (pre-shift on the first day and post-shift on the third day), and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Analysis of covariance was used in the statistical models. Post-shift 1HP levels were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the controls. Tank workers and process operators did not show statistically significant different post-shift 1HP levels. Overall, this study indicates a low level of PAH exposure among offshore oil production workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.83, No.1, p.55-59. Illus. 17 ref.
Urinary_1-hydroxypyrene.pdf [en inglés]
Wendt J.K., Tsai S.P., Bhojani F.A., Cameron D.L.
The Shell disability management program: A five-year evaluation of the impact on absenteeism and return-on-investment
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the disability management programme of a major oil and petrochemical enterprise on the absenteeism of employees in the United States. The absence episodes and days lost per employee from 2004 to 2008 were compared to pre-program values in 2002, and productivity gains from transitional duty (TD) were examined. Between 2002 and 2008, absence episodes/100 employees decreased from 37.4 to 25.7 among hourly workers but increased from 9.7 to 13.1 among staff employees. Days lost per employee decreased from 7.4 to 5.2 for hourly employees and were virtually unchanged for staff employees. TD resulted in 6042 days saved in 2006 and 11,438 days in 2008, with direct cost savings of more than USD 4.1 million from 2006 to 2008 and an estimated overall 2.4: to 1 return-on-investment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.52, No.5, p.544-550. Illus. 16 ref.
Tharaldsen J.E., Mearns K.J., Knudsen K.
Perspectives on safety: The impact of group membership, work factors and trust on safety performance in UK and Norwegian drilling company employees
A safety consciousness survey was carried out at a contractor company providing well services for platform drilling on the Norwegian (NCS) and the United Kingdom Continental Shelves (UKCS). The objective was to explore the impact of group level characteristics, safety perceptions, predictability of shift rotations, exposure to accidents, trust and safety behaviour on safety performance, and whether perceptions and performance differed between the two countries. The findings are based on questionnaire data from two samples of personnel distributed across three installations on the UKCS and nine on the NCS. In addition, two focus group interviews were held in each country, with 15 participants in each. The results, challenges and implications for research and safety practitioners are discussed.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.1062-1072. 66 ref.
Deacon T., Amyotte P.R., Khan F.I.
Human error risk analysis in offshore emergencies
Human factors play an important role in the completion of emergency procedures. Human factors analysis is rooted in the concept that humans make errors, and the frequency and consequences of these errors are related to work environment, work culture and procedures. This can be accounted for in the design of equipment, structures, processes, and procedures. As stress increases, the likelihood of human error also increases. Offshore installations are among the harshest and most stressful work environments. The consequences of human error in an offshore emergency can be severe. A method has been developed to evaluate the risk of human error during offshore emergency musters. Based on consequences from past incidents in the offshore industry and probabilities of human error, the level of risk and its tolerability are determined. Using the ARAMIS (accidental risk assessment methodology for industries) approach to safety barrier analysis, a protocol for choosing and evaluating safety measures to reduce and re-assess the risk was developed. The method is assessed using a case study, the Ocean Odyssey incident, to determine its effectiveness. The results of the methodology agree with the analysis of survivor experiences of the Ocean Odyssey incident.
Safety Science, July 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.803-818. Illus. 18 ref.
Risk indicators for major hazards on offshore installations
Major hazards risk indicators are proposed for offshore installations, based on what has been used by the Petroleum Safety Authority Norway for the Risk Level approach in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry. Since 2002, leading indicators are also used, in the sense that indicators for barrier performance are included together with the lagging indicators. The purpose of this paper is to recommend how indicators may be used by individual companies and installations in an efficient manner, based on the extensive experience in the field of major hazard risk.
Safety Science, July 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.770-787. Illus. 33 ref.
Evaluating a safety culture campaign: Some lessons from a Norwegian case
This evaluation of a safety culture campaign in the Norwegian offshore industry focussed on three groups: onshore managers, crane operators and process operators. They were asked during interviews whether the safety culture campaign contributed to new safety cultures related to care, why or why not, and what could be learned from this. The study indicates that two of the groups developed new safety cultures that sensitize them to new hazards, and motivate and legitimize new preventive practices. Lessons that can be learned from the study are discussed.
Safety Science, June 2010, Vol.48, No.5, p.651-659. Illus. 40 ref.
Solomon G.M., Janssen S.
Health effects of Gulf oil spill
This article identifies four main health hazards associated with the Gulf of Mexico oil spill: vapours from oil chemicals and dispersants in the air; skin damage from direct contact with tar balls or contaminated water; potential cancer or other long-term health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood; mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and self-destructive behaviour due to stress. It is too soon to know if there will be any long-term respiratory effects. Seafood safety is probably the biggest concern right now with the new fishery re-openings, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, children and subsistence fish consumers. The authors ask the Food and Drug Administration to review their methods of assessing seafood safety and to make all their data on seafood safety publicly available.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Sep. 2010, Vol.304, No.10, p.1118-1119. 10 ref.
Moore P., Wintle J.
Health and Safety Executive
Establishing the requirements for internal examination of high hazard process plant
The objective of this study was to develop guidelines for internal examination for high hazard process plants. A series of visits was made to United Kingdom companies to establish their approach to drawing up written schemes of examination. Discussions were held with three oil refineries, two sites manufacturing ethylene, a leading engineering consultancy, a large pharmaceutical company, and an engineering insurer that acts as a third party inspectorate for a wide range of companies not limited to petrochemicals and pressure plant. Findings are discussed and recommendations are proposed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. vi, 35p. Illus. 21 ref.
Establishing_the_requirements_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Health and Safety Executive
Buncefield explosion mechanism phase 1 - Volumes 1 and 2
This report presents the findings of the group of experts from academia and industry investigating the causes of a major accident involving a string of explosions and resulting fires at a large petroleum products tank farm in the United Kingdom in December 2005. The accident caused important material damage, closures and transport disruptions, but no serious injuries or loss of life.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, x, 31p. Illus. (vol. 1); iv, 178p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (vol.2).
Buncefield_explosion_mechanism_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Chambers C., Wilday J., Turner S.
Health and Safety Executive
A review of Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA) analyses of overfill of fuel storage tanks
In response to a major accident involving a string of explosions and resulting fires at a large petroleum products tank farm in the United Kingdom in December 2005, several recommendations were made to improve safety in the design and operation of fuel storage sites. Two of these recommendations were that loss of primary containment (tank overfill) should be prevented by a high integrity system, and that industry should agree to undertake a systematic assessment of safety integrity levels using commonly agreed methods. It was also recommended that prior to installing protective systems, one should determine the appropriate level of integrity that such systems are expected to achieve, by means of a "layer of protection analysis" (LOPA). This study aimed to identify common trends and instances of good practices, as well as areas requiring improvement, in the way in which LOPA studies are carried out by operators of sites that store liquid petroleum products in bulk.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, vi, 57p. 15 ref.
A_review_of_Layers_of_Protection_Analysis_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Bråtveit M., Steinsvåg K., Lie S.A., Moen B.E.
Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations
The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapour in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapour in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapour measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist and oil vapour from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapour were 3.89 mg/m3 and 39.7 mg/m3, respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapour and oil mist, respectively. The models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2009, Vol.6, No.11, p.679-686. Illus. 10 ref.
Modeling_oil_mist.pdf [en inglés]
Panko J.M., Gaffney S.H., Burns A.M., Unice K.M, Kreider M.L., Booher L.E., Gelatt R.H., Marshall J.R., Paustenbach D.J.
Occupational exposure to benzene at the ExxonMobil refinery at Baton Rouge, Louisiana (1977-2005)
This study evaluated the airborne concentrations of benzene and their variability over time at the ExxonMobil refinery in Baton Rouge between 1977 and 2005. Refinery workers were categorized into 117 worker groups using company job descriptions. These 117 groups were further collapsed into 25 job categories based on similarity of measured exposure results. Results of 5289 personal air samples are included in this analysis. Findings are discussed. Even the tasks with the highest estimated exposures were well below the STEL of 5 ppm. This study thus provides a task-focused analysis for occupational exposure to benzene during refinery operations, which can be insightful for understanding exposures at this refinery and perhaps others operated since about 1975.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, No.9, p.517-529. Illus. 32 ref.
Occupational_exposure_to_benzene.pdf [en inglés]
May P., Mendy G., Tallett P, Sanderson D., Sharp J.
Health and Safety Executive
Structural integrity monitoring: Review and appraisal of current technologies for offshore applications
With the ageing of the North Sea fleet of platforms and semi-submersibles, the importance of maintaining structural integrity offshore is increasingly recognized and structural inspection plays a significant role in demonstrating ongoing integrity and the potential for life extension. Structural integrity (SI) monitoring can complement existing inspection techniques to provide greater confidence in structural integrity or to reduce inspection cost. It has been found that offshore experience of SI monitoring is limited to date and that current systems are for bespoke applications. This report focuses on fixed steel structures, topsides and semi-submersible hulls.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. vi, 95p. Illus. 14 ref.
RR_685.pdf [en inglés]
Health and Safety Executive
Structural integrity management framework for fixed jacket structures
With many offshore installations in the UK sector of the North Sea now reaching or exceeding their original anticipated design life, there is a particular need to evaluate approaches to structural integrity management by offshore operators to ascertain their adequacy in managing aging structures. In addition to this, a significant proportion of the aging structures are now operated by parties that are relatively new to the United Kingdom Continental Shelf, and may not be following recognised good practice for structural integrity management. Earlier studies have highlighted the varying approaches to structural integrity management, in terms of both the methods used and their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive framework for the structural integrity management of fixed jacket structures reflecting good industry practice and stimulating continual performance improvement.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. viii, 40p. Illus. 16 ref.
RR_684.pdf [en inglés]
Review of technical issues relating to foundations and geotechnics for offshore installations in the UKCS
Foundation design and especially pile design and analysis are currently undergoing an important stage of technical development, with new methodologies and recommendations coming into practice. This literature review contains detailed guidance on technical issues and recommendations with respect to best practices. Consideration is also given to possible monitoring and strengthening of foundations systems. The report also provides lists of relevant publications and useful references to background material and guidance on specific topics.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. ii, 92p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
RR_676.pdf [en inglés]
Engelen B., Antúnez Martel J., Baldini L., Barnes K., Blosser P., Diaz Garcia C., Elliott N.G., Fiolet G., Jansen E.B.M., Martinez Sánchez P.M., Mikkonen S., Pfisterer U., Schuermans K., Terschek R., Woldendorp J., Rose K.D., Spierings A.
Guidelines for handling and blending FAME
This report provides guidance on the handling and blending of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), as a neat product and at concentrations up to 10% by volume in diesel fuel. The major challenges associated with diesel fuels containing FAME are discussed as they relate to the conformity of the finished fuel to typical specifications, especially those in the European standard for automotive diesel (EN 590). This report focuses on the production, blending, distribution and supply of diesel containing up to 10% FAME by volume, as well as the storage and handling of neat FAME but does not address vehicle-related issues with the use of diesel fuels containing FAME. The potential future production and use of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE) in diesel fuel is also discussed.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, Bruxelles, Belgium, 2009, vi, 35p. Illus. 22 ref.
Stradling R., Antunez Martel F.J., Ariztegui J., Beeckmann J., Bjordal S.D., Blosser P., Canovas J., Clark A., Elliott N., Farenback-Brateman J., Gomez-Acebo P., Martinez Sanchez P.M., Scorletti P., McArragher J.S., Zemroch P.J., Rose K.D.
Volatility and vehicle driveability performance of ethanol/gasoline blends: A literature review
The effect of blending ethanol (up to 20% by volume) into gasoline on the volatility of the ethanol/gasoline blend and on the hot and cold weather vehicle driveability performance of these blends has been assessed from literature published over the past 20 years.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, Bruxelles, Belgium, 2009, viii, 68p. Illus. 50 ref.
Burton A., den Haan K.H.
European downstream oil industry safety performance - Statistical summary of reported incidents - 2008
The fifteenth such report by CONCAWE, this issue includes statistics on work-related personal injuries for the European downstream oil industry's own employees as well as contractors for the year 2008. Data was received from 31 companies representing 97% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last fifteen years are highlighted and the data is also compared to similar statistics from related industries.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, Bruxelles, Belgium, 2009, iv, 19p. Illus. 17 ref.
Burton A., den Haan K.H.
European downstream oil industry safety performance - Statistical summary of reported incidents - 2007
The fourteenth such report by CONCAWE, this issue includes statistics on work-related personal injuries for the European downstream oil industry's own employees as well as contractors for the year 2007. Data was received from 30 companies representing over 97% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last fourteen years are highlighted and the data is also compared to similar statistics from related industries.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, Bruxelles, Belgium, 2009, vi, 18p. Illus. 15 ref.
Bomer R., Carter M., Dmytrasz B., Mulari M., Pizzella G., Roth S., van de Sandt P., Urbanus J., Minsavage G.
Additional human exposure information for gasoline substance risk assessment (period 2002-2007)
This report provides an update on human exposure information for gasoline-related activities for which previous assessments had suggested that exposure was either elevated or highly variable, or where available data were considered out-of-date or unavailable. The occupational exposures activities described in this report include railcar loading, refinery maintenance, laboratory operations, aviation gasoline refuelling, gasoline pump maintenance and repair, gasoline pump calibration, and the operation of gasoline-powered gardening equipment. In addition, general public exposure levels are described, particularly relating to residency near service stations.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, Bruxelles, Belgium, 2009, iv, 31p. 33 ref.
Withinshaw D., de Vries E., Karnavos N., Leotoing F., Martinez Conesa P., N. Ribeiro N., Smithers B., Roberts P.
Air pollutant emission estimation methods for E-PRTR reporting by refineries
This report provides algorithms for developing emission estimates to be made by refineries to meet the reporting requirements of the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) regarding emissions to air of various pollutants.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, Bruxelles, Belgium, 2009, x, 102p. 51 ref.
Oficina Internacional del Trabajo
El diálogo social y las relaciones laborales en la industria del petróleo
Social dialogue and industrial relations in the oil industry [en inglés]
Le dialogue social et les relations professionnelles dans l'industrie du pétrole [en francés]
This report was prepared as a basis for discussions during a tripartite meeting on recent developments, contract work employment, industrial relations, social dialogue and the implication of contract work issues in the oil production and oil transportation sectors, held in Geneva on 11-14 May 2009. A specific chapter is devoted to occupational safety and health, including key statistics of fatalities offshore and onshore, safety performance indices and safety and health initiatives.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2009. x, 124p. Illus.
TMOGE/2009/EN.pdf [en inglés]
TMOGE/2009/FR.pdf [en francés]
TMOGE/2009/ES.pdf [en español]
Safety and environmental standards for fuel storage sites
The objective of this report is to specify the minimum standards of control which should be in place at all establishments storing large volumes of gasoline. It also considers other substances capable of giving rise to a large flammable vapour cloud in the event of a loss of primary containment. The report provides guidance on good practices in relation to secondary and tertiary containment for facilities. Contents: introduction; scope and application; systematic assessment of safety integrity level requirements; protecting against loss of primary containment using high integrity systems; engineering against loss of secondary and tertiary containment; operating with high reliability organizations; delivering high performance through culture and leadership.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. 269p. Illus. 131 ref. Price: GBP 11.95. Downloadable version free of charge.
Safety_and_environmental_standards.pdf [en inglés]
Downstream oil industry safety statistics
The European downstream oil industry safety statistics from 1993 to 2008 are presented in the form of key performance indicators: lost workday injury frequency; lost work injury severity; all-injury frequency; road accident rate; fatal accident rate. The statistics include the companies' own employees as well as contractors and are split between manufacturing (mostly refining) and marketing (distribution and retail).
CONCAWE Review, Autumn 2009, Vol.18, No.2, p.14-16. Illus. 1 ref.
Meo S.A., Al-Drees A.M., Rasheed S., Meo I.M., Al-Saadi M.M., Ghani H.A., Alkandari J.R.
Health complaints among subjects involved in oil cleanup operations during oil spillage from a Greek tanker "Tasman Spirit"
This case-control study aimed at investigating health complaints among 50 healthy, non-smoking male workers subjects involved in oil cleanup operations during a spillage from an oil tanker, compared to an age-matched group of unexposed nonsmoking male controls. Participants were evaluated by means of a comprehensive interview. Subjects involved in oil cleanup operations had significantly higher rates than controls of cough, rhinitis, eye irritation, sore throat, headache, nausea and general illness. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.2, p.143-148. Illus. 18 ref.
Høivik D., Tharaldsen J.E., Baste V., Moen B.E.
What is most important for safety climate: The company belonging or the local working environment? A study from the Norwegian offshore industry
The aim of this study was to examine the relative influence of offshore local installation safety climate and employer safety policies on employees' opinions concerning occupational safety and health. Data from a safety climate survey answered by 4479 Norwegian offshore petroleum employees in 2005 were analyzed. The specific offshore installation was considered more important than the employer. Other findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Dec. 2009, Vol.47, No.10, p.1324-1331. 36 ref.
Tsai S.P., Bhojani F.A., Wendt J.K.
Combined impact of health risk factors on mortality of a petroleum industry population
The objective of this study was to assess the combined impact of health risk factors on the mortality among employees of a large petroleum enterprise in the United States. A 21-year mortality follow-up of 12,896 employees was conducted. Hazard ratios in relation to several important risk factors were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Employees with health risk factors had higher mortality rates for all-causes combined and for cardiovascular diseases compared to employees without such risk factors. Smoking, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia independently and significantly predicted cardiovascular disease mortality. Mortality risks from all causes and from cardiovascular disease increased with the number of risk factors present.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.51, No.8, p.916-921. 36 ref.
The relationship between culture and safety on offshore supply vessels
The article examines the relationship between culture and safety on offshore supply vessels in the Norwegian petroleum sector, relying on both qualitative and quantitative data. The analysis makes a general description of cultural traits, epitomized through the notion of "good seamanship", and discusses the way these traits influence safety. Findings show a great deal of friction between aspects of culture and aspects of structure. In particular, there appear to be incompatibilities between the occupational culture on the vessels and the strict rule-based safety management approaches of the petroleum industry. The role of inter-group asymmetries in power and status in the definition of what constitutes safe working conditions are highlighted. Finally, whether culture can (and should) be changed is discussed.
Safety Science, Oct. 2009, Vol.47, No.8, p.1118-1128. 69 ref.
Høivik D., Moen B.E., Mearns K., Haukelid K.
An explorative study of health, safety and environment culture in a Norwegian petroleum company
This article reports a qualitative interview study on safety culture, involving 31 employees, with and without leadership responsibility, employed in a Norwegian petroleum company. Findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Aug. 2009, Vol.47, No.7, p.992-1001. Illus. 35 ref.
Mearns K., Yule S.
The role of national culture in determining safety performance: Challenges for the global oil and gas industry
This article addresses the issue of occupational safety and how the process of globalization can potentially influence the beliefs and behaviour of disparate national workforces working across the globe for the same multi-national company. It reviews published literature on cross-cultural differences in attitudes, perceptions and beliefs regarding safety and presents the findings of a study examining the relationship between cultural value dimensions, safety climate and risk-taking behaviour in workforce members of a multi-national engineering organization operating in six countries. The results suggest that perceived management commitment to safety and the effectiveness of safety measures exert more impact on workforce behaviour and accident rates than national cultural values.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.777-785. 34 ref.
Olsen O.E., Lindøe P.H.
Risk on the ramble: The international transfer of risk and vulnerability
With reference to data from the Norwegian petroleum industry, this article discusses how the transfer of technology implies the risk of new failures, misuse, accidents and unhealthy workplaces. Production technologies are often transformed through a steady stream of incremental changes appropriate to their social context. In a transfer process, technological risks may arise due to incomplete transfer of mastering capacity, mismatch between transferred technology and the environment, transfer of latent conditions for failure and the transformation of latent conditions or known risks when the technology is installed in a new environment.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.743-755. Illus. 61 ref.
McGillivray A., Hare J.
Offshore hydrocarbon releases 2001-2008
The United Kingdom offshore industry employs about 28,000 personnel involved in a wide range of activities. Increases in oil prices, declining reserves and an ageing infrastructure have resulted in increased drilling activity around marginal fields. Despite HSE's Major Hazards Strategic Programme Plan aimed at reducing the number of major and significant releases, recent years have witnessed an increase in their number. The objective of this study was to identify the immediate cause of hydrocarbon leaks, and determine if there are discernible reasons for the increasing trends. Two databases currently used by HSE when dealing with offshore releases were utilized, namely the Hydrocarbon Release (HCR) and RIDDOR (see CIS 95-1930) databases. Cross-referencing between the two catalogs yielded detailed information including platform location, release size and type, as well as possible failure causes including structural limitations, system and equipment faults as well as failings in procedural and operational methods.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. x, 68p. Illus. 6 ref.
RR_672.pdf [en inglés]
Failure rates for underground gas storage - Significance for land use planning assessments
The United Kingdom Government is considering the possibility of storing natural gas in a variety of underground gas storage (UGS) facilities. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) to identify the main types of facilities currently in operation worldwide and any documented or reported failures and incidents which have led to release of stored product. This report presents a summary of such identified failures, calculated accident rates and consequences of cavern failure, and proposes a number of recommendations for safe underground gas storage.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 25p. 22 ref.
RR_671.pdf [en inglés]
Baker M., Stanley I.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessing and modelling the uncertainty in fatigue crack growth in structural steels
The objective of this study was to improve the current methods of reliability assessment for structures, and in particular steel offshore structures approaching the end of their design lives. Work was carried out to investigate the variability in the fatigue crack growth of steels and the way in which the corresponding uncertainties could best be incorporated into the assessment process. This included the fatigue testing of specimens of specific grades of steel with the explicit aim of studying the variability in crack growth under different conditions. Findings are presented. The relatively large uncertainties associated with fatigue crack growth behaviour, even within relatively homogenous sets of specimens, means that the variance in the predicted fatigue life is relatively large. It has been shown, however, that the use of fatigue crack growth rate data from relatively early in the life of a particular structure can significantly reduce this uncertainty and improve the reliability predictions through the process of reliability updating.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 97p. Illus. 49 ref.
RR643.pdf [en inglés]
Health and Safety Executive
Improved generic strategies and methods for reliability-based structural integrity assessment
This report presents a summary of the research undertaken during a project entitled "Improved generic strategies and methods for reliability-based structural integrity assessment". The research covers a wide range of topics including: the development of improved methods of reliability analysis which can be easily linked with standard methods of advanced structural analysis; a detailed study of the variability of fatigue crack growth in structural steels and the implications for fatigue reliability analysis; developments in the use of reliability updating techniques in relation to the prediction of fatigue failure; applications of structural system reliability analysis to the behaviour of a North Sea jacket structure; and the development of a methodology for the reliability-based fracture assessment of pipelines containing cracks.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 14p. + Appendix 31p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
RR642.pdf [en inglés]
Williamson J., Daniels C.
Health and Safety Executive
Third party major accident hazard pipeline (MAHP) infringement : A case study
Third party damage to underground services of all types continues to be a source of danger and financial loss to workers, members of the public, utility companies and contractors. When the underground service is a Major Accident Hazard Pipeline (MAHP) such as a high-pressure gas main or a petrochemical pipeline then the consequences of a rupture can be devastating to people and the environment. This report highlights the underlying issues that contributed to a third party MAHP infringement in February 2007, detailing the factors that contributed to that incident.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. x, 37p. Illus. 12 ref.
RR640.pdf [en inglés]
Health and Safety Executive
Optimising hazard management by workforce engagement and supervision
Managers in the offshore oil and gas industry have recognized that a lack of skilled workforce, change to shorter working hours and increase in activity can lead to an erosion of safety and health unless balanced by significant increase in level of training and supervision. This report explores some of the means of responding to this need, based on improving comprehension of major hazards by the workforce and optimizing the management processes such as balancing workforce competence and level of supervision. By improving comprehension of major hazards, the workforce itself can play a central role in safety case preparation by being involved in identifying real improvements in safety that are reasonable and based on the day-to-day grass-roots operational experience of various disciplines.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. x, 80p. Illus. 35 ref.
RR637.pdf [en inglés]
Hsu S.H., Lee C.C., Wu M.C., Takano K.
A cross-cultural study of organizational factors on safety: Japanese vs. Taiwanese oil refinery plants
This study attempts to identify specific organizational factors and their influence on safety in Taiwan and Japan. Data were collected from employees of Taiwanese and Japanese oil refinery plants. The casual relationships between organizational factors and workers' safety performance were investigated using structural equation modelling. Results show that organizational factors on safety differ in the two countries. Organizational characteristics in Taiwanese plants included higher level of management commitment to safety, harmonious interpersonal relationship, more emphasis on safety activities, higher devotion to supervision, higher safety self-efficacy and high quality of safety performance. Organizational characteristics in Japanese plants included higher level of employee empowerment and attitude towards continuous improvement, more emphasis on systematic safety management approach, efficient reporting system and teamwork and high quality of safety performance. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Jan. 2008, Vol.40, No.1, p.24-34. Illus. 49 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
A guide to Borehole Sites and Operations Regulations 1995
This guide contains the full text of the Borehole Sites and Operations Regulations 1995 (see CIS 95-1187) together with accompanying guidance, which was prepared after widespread consultation with industry. This second edition expands the scope of the guidance to cover boreholes used for the storage of gas in natural strata reservoirs where oil or other commodities had been previously been extracted, and updates references to other regulations and publications. Replaces CIS 96-321.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2008. iv, 60p. 26 ref. Price: GBP 12.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Play your part! How offshore workers can help improve health and safety
This booklet on safety and health in the offshore oil sector is aimed at operators, contractors, trade unions, safety representatives and individual employees. It offers advice on implementing management systems that encourage a culture that values constructive engagement with the workforce. It focuses on the four key principles of control, competence, cooperation and communication. In addition, it features a number of case studies that illustrate the benefits that a positive approach to worker involvement can bring as well as what can go wrong in the absence of such an approach. Replaces CIS 97-854.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2008. 23p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg421.pdf [en inglés]
Big issues keep industrial hygienists focused on the big picture
This article discusses toxic gas detection and monitoring in the oil and gas industry. Means of monitoring fall into one of three categories: worker or personal monitors, which typically are worn or carried by individuals to alert them when toxic gas exposures occur; integrating monitors, which are worn by workers to collect time-weighted and full-shift exposure data and are typically operated by industrial hygienists; remote or location-based wireless detectors that typically are used to monitor emissions on remote automated sites or to ensure safe entry into confined spaces. Other topics addressed: OSHA-mandated threshold limit values; personal protective equipment; biological monitoring; photoionization detectors; data management.
Occupational Hazards, Feb. 2008, Vol.70, No.2, p.67-69. Illus.
Steinsvåg K., Bråtveit M., Moen B.E., Kromhout H.
Inter-rater agreement in the assessment of exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry
The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of an expert team assessing exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry and to examine how the information provided influenced the agreement among raters. Eight experts individually assessed the likelihood of exposure for combinations of 17 carcinogens, 27 job categories and four time periods based on descriptions of sources of exposure, descriptions of work processes carried out within the different job categories and monitoring data. Inter-rater agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa index and single and average correlation coefficients. Findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.64, No.9, p.582-588. 27 ref.
Ross J.A.S., Macdiarmid J.I., Osman L.M., Watt S.J., Godden D.J., Lawson A.
Health status of professional divers and offshore oil industry workers
The aims of this study were to compare the health status of United Kingdom professional divers and age-matched non-divers and to contrast offshore divers (OSDs) with non-offshore divers (NOSDs). A postal survey was sent to 2958 male professional divers, registered with the HSE before 1991 and to 2708 men who had worked in the offshore oil industry in 1990-92 (non-divers). The questionnaire addressed lifestyle, occupation and health status. Altogether 56% of divers and 51% of non-divers responded. Three percent of the participants reported ill-health retirement or being off-work on sickness benefits, with no differences between groups. Divers were less likely to report asthma or hypertension. Health-related quality of life was within normal limits for both groups but the mental health component was higher in divers who were also less likely to be receiving medical treatment. Divers were more likely than non-divers to report forgetfulness or loss of concentration and impaired hearing. There was increased symptom reporting in OSDs. However, there was no evidence to suggest any major impact on long-term health of divers who had started their career before 1991.
Occupational Medicine, June 2007, Vol.57, No.4, p.254-261. Illus. 36 ref.
Tsai S.P., Ahmed F.S., Wendt J.K., Foster D.E., Donnelly R.P., Strawmyer T.R.
A 56-year mortality follow-up of Texas petroleum refinery and chemical employees, 1948-2003
This study updates an earlier investigation on the mortality risk of employees of a refinery and petrochemical complex in Texas, United States, by extending the follow-up until 2003. The cohort consisted of 10,621 employees with an average follow-up of 34 years. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for age, race and calendar years were used as a measure of risk. Overall mortality (SMR 0.77), all cancer mortality (SMR 0.87) and most cause-specific mortalities were lower than or similar to those of the surrounding population. The only statistically significant excess of mortality found in this study was an increase in mesothelioma among maintenance employees; the SMR was 4.78 among employees who worked for a minimum of one year and was 7.51 among those with 10 or more years of employment and 20 or more years of latency.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.49, No.5, p.557-567. 48 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Overview of TEMPSC performance standards
In the majority of offshore emergency scenarios on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf, totally enclosed motor-propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) are relied upon as the secondary means for evacuation, after helicopters. Although TEMPSC are subject to performance standards laid down by the International Maritime Organisation, in particular with respect to launch systems, these standards address issues that primarily concern the carriage and use of lifeboats on ships rather than on offshore installations. Furthermore, a number of accidents have been reported that can be attributed to shortcomings in the design, use or maintenance of TEMPSC. This study investigated the current regulatory regime as applied to TEMPSC and its relevance to the use of these craft on offshore installations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 77p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr599.pdf [en inglés]
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