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CIS 11-0636 Zytoon M.A.
Occupational injuries and health problems in the Egyptian Mediterranean fisheries
The objective of this study was to explore and identify the types and causes of occupational accidents and diseases in the Egyptian marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional sample of 686 fishermen in an Egyptian port were interviewed for collecting relevant data. A logistic regression analysis was performed to study the significance of the association of some factors, such as age, experience, education and fishing gear with the occurrence of injuries and illnesses. Findings show that the Egyptian fishing sector involves many hazardous work conditions and practices that result in high injury, morbidity and mortality rates. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Safety Science, 2011, Vol.50, p.113-122. Illus. 25 ref.
Occupational_injuries.pdf [en inglés]


CIS 11-0379 Myers M.L.
Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture
Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. In this review, causes of death in aquaculture included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, exposure to low temperatures and bacterial and parasitic infections.
Journal of Agromedicine, Oct.-Dec. 2010, Vol.15, No.4, p.412-426. Illus. 90 ref.

CIS 11-0348 Nonnenmann M.W., Hussain A., Shirley M., Shepherd S., Gilmore K., Levin J.L.
Risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms among crawfish farmers in Louisiana - A pilot study
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among crawfish farmers and to examine associations between MSS and crawfish farm work activities. Questionnaires were mailed to randomly-selected crawfish farmers in the State of Louisiana, USA. Site-specific MSS, demographics, and crawfish farm work information was obtained from the previous six months. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Among the 184 participants, shoulder MSS were reported most frequently (62%). Wrist/hand and low back MSS were significantly associated with tractor use (OR 2.89 and OR 2.41, respectively). Also, upper back MSS were associated with the number of years working on a crawfish farm (OR 3.07). Shoulder and low back MSS were common. Tractor use may increase the risk of wrist/hand and low back MSS. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, Oct.-Dec. 2010, Vol.15, No.4, p.386-393. 18 ref.

CIS 11-0425 Carruth A.K., Levin J.L., Gilmore K., Bui T., Gallardo G., Evert W., Sealey L.
Cultural influences on safety and health education among Vietnamese fishermen
Each ethnic group has its own cultural background and history that influences how it views health behaviours. By virtue of their work history, many Vietnamese have pursued the fishing industry when migrating to the United States. Even though the fishing trades are among the most dangerous jobs in the world, there has been little attention in the literature to the significant role that culture plays in the expression and experience of occupational health practices among Vietnamese shrimp fishermen. Three focus group sessions were conducted to identify factors that hinder or facilitate receptivity to available training and to guide culturally appropriate content. Participants were recruited using purposive sampling among various Vietnamese shrimp fishermen communities in Texas. Findings highlight the importance of considering cultural factors in the design of workplace interventions that focus on changes in safety and occupational health behaviours.
Journal of Agromedicine, Oct.-Dec. 2010, Vol.15, No.4, p.375-385. 29 ref.

CIS 11-0424 Day E.R., Lefkowitz D.K., Marshall E.G., Hovinga M.
Utilizing United States Coast Guard data to calculate incidence rates and identify risk factors for occupational fishing injuries in New Jersey
Work-related fatal and nonfatal injury rates for New Jersey commercial fishermen who suffered unintentional traumatic injuries from 2001 to 2007 were calculated using data from several sources. For the study years, 225 nonfatal injuries and 31 fatal injuries were reported. Among nonfatal injuries, the causes by frequency were fall onto surface, crushed between objects, struck by moving object, line handling/caught in lines, collision with fixed objects, fall into water, and other noncontact injuries. The distribution of fatal injuries differed, with the most frequent cause as crushed between objects. Falls into water and several noncontact injuries accounted for most of the other fatalities.
Journal of Agromedicine, Oct.-Dec. 2010, Vol.15, No.4, p.357-362. 10 ref.

CIS 11-0423 Lincoln J.M., Lucas D.L.
Occupational fatalities in the United States commercial fishing industry, 2000-2009
The occupational fatality rate among commercial fishermen decreased in the United States during 1992-2008; however, commercial fishing continues to be one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States, with an average annual fatality rate of 129 deaths per 100,000 fishermen in 2008. By contrast, the average annual occupational fatality rate among all United States workers during the same period was four deaths per 100,000 workers. During the 1990s, numerous safety interventions were developed for Alaska fisheries that resulted in a significant decline in the state's commercial fishing fatality rate. In 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) expanded surveillance of commercial fishing fatalities to the rest of the United States. The purpose of this report is to identify the hazards and risk factors for all causes of occupational mortality in United States' commercial fishing, and to explore how those hazards and risk factors differ among fisheries and locations. To reduce fatalities among fishermen at greatest risk, additional prevention measures tailored to specific high-risk fisheries should be considered.
Journal of Agromedicine, Oct.-Dec. 2010, Vol.15, No.4, p.343-350. 19 ref.

CIS 11-0120 Armas S.
Evaluation and control of risks in purse on board purse seine fishing boats
Avaliação e controlo de riscos numa embarcação de pesca de cerco-traineira [en portugués]
The objectives of this study were to promote and contribute to improving the occupational safety and health within the fishing sector in Portugal. The study identified two distinct phases of purse seine fishing, namely activities carried out at sea, and activities conducted on land. Each day, a number of tasks are carried out, including activities on board preparing for the vessel to go to sea and the various fishing and fish preparation processes. The study evaluates the risks inherent to each activity, and proposes a number of recommendations aimed at improving safety and working conditions of fishermen.
Segurança, Nov.-Dec. 2010, Vol.XLV, No.199, p.12-15. Illus.

CIS 11-0016 Santos M.
An brief overview of the fishing sector
Um breve olhar sobre a pesca [en portugués]
Contents of this literature survey on occupational safety and health in the fishing sector: modes of fishing and historical trends; accidents; ergonomics and musculoskeletal diseases; cold; sensitization; other diseases; social aspects and risk-taking behaviour.
Segurança, July-Aug. 2010, Vol.XLV, No.197, p.10-16. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 10-0811 Fatal occupational injuries in the U.S. commercial fishing industry: Risk factors and recommendations
NIOSH recently completed an in-depth study of commercial fishing fatalities in the United States during 2000-2009. The purpose of the study was to identify the most hazardous fisheries around the country and to describe the unique safety issues in each. For this study, the United States were divided into four fishing regions: Alaska, West Coast, East Coast, and the Gulf of Mexico. A separate report is published for each region.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2010. Internet documents, PDF format, four reports; each report 6p. Illus.
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-103.pdf [en inglés]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-104.pdf [en inglés]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-105.pdf [en inglés]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-106.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0786 Bouza Prego M.A., Saleta Canosa J.L., Castro Rodríguez M.P., Bellido Guerrero D., Pita Fernández S.
Prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y de síndrome metabólico en una población de trabajadores del mar con sobrepeso y obesidad
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome (MS) in a population of 439 overweight or obese seafarers. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumference), calculation of body mass index (BMI), blood pressure measurements and analytical tests (glucose, triglycerides, LDL and HDL cholesterol) were carried out. The presence or absence of MS was also determined. Findings are discussed. The results show that the percentage of workers with cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk factors rises with the degree of overweight or obesity.
Medicina Marítima, June 2010, Vol.10, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 10-0785 Alvarez-Casado E., Tello Sandoval S., Hernández-Soto A.
Caracterización de la sobrecarga biomecánica en trabajadores de barcos pesqueros de cerco en bajura
In Spain, in 2007, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDS) were the most frequent injury among fishermen, and the upper limb was the area of the body affected in 40% of cases. The aim of this study was to quantify the intrinsic risk of WMDS due to upper limb biomechanical overload for each task carried out during fishing work, in order to identify tasks with high biomechanical loads, the most important risk factors and the exposure pattern for upper limb biomechanical overload. Video recordings and direct observations were made during three expeditions in purse seine fishing vessels, and the risk assessment procedure and criteria established in EN 1005-5 and ISO 11228-3 standards were applied. Results show that fishermen are exposed to a high level of risk to the upper limb for more than a third of operational fishing time.
Medicina Marítima, June 2010, Vol.10, No.1, p.23-30. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 10-0665 Lucas D., Lucas R., Boniface K., Jegaden D., Lodde B., Dewitte J.A.
Occupational asthma in the commercial fishing industry: A case series and review of the literature
This article presents a case series of snow crab-induced occupational asthma (OA) from a fishing and processing vessel, followed by a review of OA in the commercial fishing industry. OA is typically caused from an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction after respiratory exposure to aerosolized fish and shellfish proteins. It more commonly occurs due to crustaceans, but molluscs and fin fish are implicated as well. Standard medical therapy for asthma may be used acutely; however, steps to reduce atmospheric allergen concentrations in the workplace have proven to be preventive for this disease.
International Maritime Health, 2010, Vol.61, No.1, p.13-17. 45 ref.
Occupational_asthma.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0329 Håvold J.I.
Safety culture aboard fishing vessels
Safety at sea is a serious issue for the commercial fishing industry. Injury and fatality rates are between 25 and 40 times the national average in many European countries, Australia and the United States. A 50-item safety culture questionnaire was developed, using items from published research combined with some original items. The questionnaire was distributed to Norwegian fishermen; 209 questionnaires were returned (response rate 40%). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed nine factors, all with a Cronbach's Alpha higher than 0.68. The factors were tested using ANOVA, t-tests, correlations and regression analysis. The findings indicate significant differences between age groups, vessel types, occupations and whether or not a close family member is a fisherman. Other findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.1054-1061. Illus. 58 ref.

CIS 10-0364 Kucera K.L., McDonald M. A.
Occupational stressors identified by small-scale, independent commercial crab pot fishermen
This study aimed at identifying jobs and/or tasks of concern for fishermen in order to guide and inform current ergonomic interventions. Surveys were administrated to two groups of commercial crab fishermen in the south-eastern United States: a cohort contacted by telephone and fishermen recruited at 11 local fish houses. Fishermen were asked to rate physical stress of selected work tasks and conditions. They were also asked open-ended questions about other work-issues of concern. Fishermen who completed the survey were predominantly male, white and over 40 years of age. The five most physically strenuous tasks and conditions as rated by fishermen were pulling pots by hand, rough weather or rough water, unloading without mechanical assistance and long work days. These and other findings are discussed.
Safety Science, June 2010, Vol.48, No.5, p.672-679. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 10-0404 Hsu Y.W., Li K.W.
A field assessment of floor slipperiness in a fish market in Taiwan
A field assessment of floor slipperiness in 10 fish stands in a fish market in Taiwan was conducted, using both friction measurements and subjective ratings. The friction measurements were conducted using the Portable Skid Resistance Tester (PSRT). The subjective ratings of floor slipperiness of both the workers and the customers were collected. The friction measurement results showed that the sink areas had both the lowest friction values and subjective ratings. The overall friction measurements and subjective ratings were in fair agreement. The customers perceived the walkways as somewhere between "very slippery" to "somewhat slippery" and the picking-up areas as "very slippery". These were different from the perceptions of the workers where they perceived both areas as "somewhat slippery". Other findings are discussed.
Safety Science, June 2010, Vol.48, No.5, p.556-561. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 10-0275 Code of practice - Man overboard: prevention and response 2010
This code provides general guidance for all commercial fishing vessels in Western Australia on the management of occupational safety and health issues relevant to the prevention of man overboard incidents and the response to such incidents. Topics addressed: hazard identification; risk control; monitoring and review of control measures.
Commission for occupational safety and health, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2010. PDF document, 44p. Illus. [en inglés]


CIS 10-0772 Urrutia de Diego M.
Evaluación de riesgos - La pesca: una actividad laboral de riesgo
Fishing is one of the most dangerous activities. In this sector, the accident risk is 2.4 times higher than in other industrial sectors in Europe. This article describes the main causes of accidents on small trawlers, the health hazards among fishermen and the necessary prevention measures.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Oct. 2009, No.54, p.32-35. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 10-0460 Rodríguez C.A.
Los convenios de la OIT sobre seguridad y salud en el trabajo: una oportunidad para mejorar las condiciones y el medio ambiente de trabajo
The purpose of this publication is to explain and promote ILO international labour standards for occupational safety and health in Latin America. It examines various ILO conventions on different subjects of interest. The history of each convention is reviewed, its contents discussed, and the situation concerning its application in various Latin American countries is examined. A CD-ROM which contains the publication in PDF format, as well as the texts of the conventions and of all the documents cited, is included.
Publications of the International Training Centre of the ILO, Viale Maestri del Lavoro, 10, 10127 Torino, Italy, 2009. 337p. + CD-ROM .
Los_convenios_de_la_OIT.pdf [en español]

CIS 09-461 Morel G., Amalberti R., Chauvin C.
How good micro/macro ergonomics may improve resilience, but not necessarily safety
This article examines several ways of improving safety in commercial fishing. Two intervention strategies were tested: a micro-ergonomics strategy offering guidelines based on analyses of the most serious and frequent accident causes (collisions while fishing), and a macro-ergonomics strategy comparing the safety level of large fleets having committed to a TQM approach to that of smaller fleets. Neither of the two strategies resulted in the expected outcomes. The micro-ergonomics anti-collision strategy is misused towards an increase of the fishing objective, while macro-ergonomics strategy results in the largest fleets suffering from a smaller number of shipwrecks, but a much greater number of work-related injuries. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.285-294. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 09-444 Perez-Labajos C.A., Blanco B., Azofra M., Achutegui J.J., Eguía E.
Injury and loss concentration by sinkings in fishing fleets
The objectives of this study were to formulate a methodology for analyzing sinking accidents in the fishing sector of a country, and to apply this methodology to the Spanish fishing fleet. Thus, two indices are constructed by region and type of fishing, for two variables, fishermen and vessels. Results are obtained both for the concentration of accidents and the associated Lorenz curves. An increase in the inequality in the spatial and functional distribution of these accidents is verified.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.277-284. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 09-345 Piniella F., Fernández-Engo M.A.
Towards system for the management of safety on board artisanal fishing vessels: Proposal for check-lists and their application
The safety management systems applied at the international level in merchant vessels do not have their equivalent in the vessels dedicated to fishing, and much less to the most numerous sub-sector, artisanal fishing. This article outlines the findings of a research project conducted to assess the degree of safety existing in the artisanal fishing fleet of Andalusia, Spain. It offers a set of proposals aimed at improving safety, including the use of check-lists.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.265-276. Illus. 38 ref.


CIS 11-0644 Windle M.J.S., Neis B., Bornstein S., Binkley M., Navarro P.
Fishing occupational health and safety: A comparison of regulatory regimes and safety outcomes in six countries
This article presents the results of a comprehensive, multi-national project that compares the fishing sector occupational safety and health (OSH) regulatory regimes of six countries (Canada, US, UK, Iceland, New Zealand, and South Africa) and examines the impact of legislation and regulations on OSH outcomes. A conceptual model is proposed that identifies potential sources of direct and indirect risks to fishing sector OSH in order to shed light on potential pathways from regulation to fishing sector OSH. Findings highlight differences and gaps in the regulatory frameworks of the countries studied and point to the urgent need for improved assessment and for access to accurate and standardized statistics regarding fishing-related injuries and illnesses. Several recommendations for moving forward are proposed.
Marine Policy, 2008, Vol.32, p.701-710. Illus. 68 ref.

CIS 09-317 Clin B., Stosse-Guevel C., Marquignon M.F., Verneuil L., Letourneux M.
Professional photosensitive eczema of fishermen by contact with bryozoans: Disabling occupational dermatitis
Eczema associated with bryozoans is a form of occupational contact dermatitis caused by a living organism, occasionally associated with photosensitivity and essentially concerning fishermen. It can be extremely disabling and often giving rise to major social consequences since the eviction of the responsible allergen generally requires occupational reclassification, a measure which fishermen have great difficulty in accepting. Based on the description of three cases of photosensitive eczema associated with contact with the bryozoan Alcyonidium gelatinosum among fishermen from the English Channel coastline, this article describes the characteristics of this occupational dermatitis and its prevention.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.45-52. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 09-85 Kucera K.L., Loomis D., Marshall S.W.
A case crossover study of triggers for hand injuries in commercial fishing
Previous studies have shown that hand and wrist injuries are common in commercial fishing. Risk factors including working with catch, handling gear and slips or falls, have been identified from activity and injury contact reports, but no studies have examined the influence of transient risk factors, or triggers. A case crossover study was nested within a prospective cohort of 217 south-eastern United States fishermen followed from April 1999 through October 2001. Hand injury cases and controls were matched using three control selection strategies. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine if transient risk factors such as glove use, engaging in more than one type of fishing, maintenance activities and other covariates of interest increased the risk of occupational traumatic hand/wrist/digit injuries. 21% of fishermen reported one or more hand/wrist/digit injuries. Performing maintenance work and using multiple types of fishing equipment in comparison to using only one type were associated with increased risk of hand/wrist/digit injury. There was no evidence that glove use was protective for hand/wrist/digit injury.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2008, Vol.65, No.5, p.336-341. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 09-84 Piniella F., Soriguer M.C., Walliser J.
Analysis of the specific risks in the different artisanal fishing methods in Andalusia, Spain
Andalusia, Spain, has an important tradition in the fishing sector. In order to analyse the sector, a total number of boats to be surveyed was set at 10% of the total fleet. The sample of 202 boats was distributed among the four fishing techniques and gear. The questionnaire used for the survey consisted of two parts, one on health and working conditions, the other on technical and safety characteristics of work in traditional fishing, the aim of the study being to present a new approach in the policies for reducing the risk in this sector. Findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Oct. 2008, Vol.46, No.8, p.1184-1195. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 09-206 Kucera K.L., Mirka G.A., Loomis D., Marshall S.W., Lipscomb H.J., Daniels J.
Evaluating ergonomic stresses in North Carolina commercial crab pot and gill net fishermen
There are challenges in evaluating physical demands of commercial fishing, including identifying sources of exposure variability. Low back biomechanical stresses associated with crab pot and gill net fishing were estimated; the variability was partitioned between and within fishing type, crew size and job title to improve understanding of risk factors for low back injury. In this study, 162 person-hours of work among 25 North Carolina commercial fishermen on 16 crews were observed. Postures and forces during fishing tasks were measured through direct and indirect observation to determine the percentage of time fishermen were exposed to high levels of low back stress. A multilevel linear model estimated exposure variability by fishing type, crew size and job title. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2008, Vol.5, No.3, p.182-196. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 08-1333 Nouaigui H., Hamzaoui H., Bassalah K., Aschi S., Dupupet J.L., Le Bâcle C., Moreau B., Martinez F., Benzarti M.
National conference on: The promotion of occupational safety and health in agriculture and fishing: Common challenges
Colloque national sur: la promotion de la santé et de la sécurité au travail dans le secteur de l'agriculture et de la pêche - Défi commun [en francés]
Collection of papers presented at a national conference on the promotion of occupational safety and health in agriculture and fishing (13-14 May 2008, Tunis, Tunisia). Topics include: situation in Tunisia; regulations; occupational accident and disease statistics; vocational training; monitoring of exposure in the agricultural sector; management of biological hazards; safety of farm equipment; presentation of the European handbook for the prevention of accidents at sea and the safety of fishermen; risks of zoonoses and their prevention.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, July 2008, No.46, p.1-40 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 08-1470 Ruiz Ruiz L., Ledesma de Miguel J.
Evaluación de los trastornos musculoesqueléticos en la tarea de descarga de capturas en los buques de pesca
Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most frequent health hazards faced by fishermen carrying out routine tasks on board fishing vessels. Furthermore, it is necessary to understand that fishing is a traditional sector in which it is difficult to impose ergonomic improvements or changes in working methods. Such changes are generally not implemented if they require more time for the same task. This study analyses the movements made by fishermen of two Spanish fishing vessels during unloading tasks using the evaluation method of the INSHT and that of the NIOSH. Findings are discussed and recommendations for improvement are proposed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2008, No.48, p.8-17. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 08-685 Pérez Aznar B., Bernier Herrera F., Abril Muñoz I.
Exposición al ruido en buques de pesca
Noise levels encountered on fishing vessels may cause not only hearing loss, but also accidents, because they interfere with the proper understanding of orders. The aim of this study was to determine the noise distribution and levels on different types of fishing vessels. The most important noise levels were observed when the engine was running at full power. Noise levels were also found to depend on the workplace and on the age of the vessel, older vessels being better insulated and equipped with improved noise damping. Results of the measurements are presented in tabular form, and measures aimed at limiting the noise exposure of deep-sea fishermen are proposed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Jan. 2008, No.45, p.12-20. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 08-606 Cheneau V.
Seafarers - Occupational safety and health goes to sea
Les travailleurs de la mer - La prévention s'amarine [en francés]
Topics addressed in the collection of articles on the hazards of working at sea: hazards caused by understaffing which leads to risk-taking; day-to-day account of a 15-day fishing campaign on board a trawler; key statistics of occupational accidents and diseases among French seafarers; remote medical consultation; stability of vessels at sea; hazards related to older vessels; occupational safety and health (noise attenuation on ships, first aid, personal protective equipment).
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2008, No.681, p.16-28. Illus.


CIS 08-888 Work in fishing - Convention No. 188, Recommendation No. 199
Work in Fishing Convention 2007 (No. 188), was adopted at the 96th International Labour Conference in 2007. The objectives of the Convention were to ensure that fishermen have decent conditions of work on board fishing vessels with regard to minimum requirements for work on board, conditions of service, accommodation and food, occupational safety and health protection, medical care and social security. It applies to all fishermen and fishing vessels engaged in commercial fishing operations. Work in Fishing Recommendation 2007 (No. 199) provides additional guidance on the matters covered by the Convention. This booklet explains the main provisions of these two documents, whole full texts are included.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. 20p. Illus. 4 ref. 29p. (Convention No 188). 9p. (Recommendation No. 199). [en inglés]

CIS 08-626 Landrin D., Eusen Y., Boitel L., Bonnet A.S., Dupuis E., Gaillard A., Letheux C., Ozkan-Rabret E., Rat de Coquard M., Sawicki B.
Deep-sea fishermen
Le marin-pêcheur [en francés]
The job of seep-sea fishermen is characterized by the variety of tasks to be accomplished, including fishing itself, the maintenance of fishing gear, on-deck watch duty, ship maintenance and cooking. From the standpoint of occupational medicine, work aptitude needs to take into account two essential characteristics found onboard trawlers: the close dependency of the men on each other during their work and the remoteness of medical help. Contents of this occupational medical information sheet on the job of deep-sea fishermen: related occupations; description of the work; characteristics of the work environment (possible health hazards and effects); work organization (work hours and constraints); tasks carried out and their possible effects on health; products used and their possible effects on health; tools and equipment used and their possible effects on health; work clothing and protective gear; statistics of fishing accidents in France.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2007, Vol.47, No.3, 2p. Insert. [en francés]

CIS 08-699 Lucas D.L., Lincoln J.M.
Fatal falls overboard on commercial fishing vessels in Alaska
Falls overboard are a major contributor to commercial fishing fatalities in Alaska. This article describes the problem of falls overboard and discusses possible ways to reduce the risk factors. Data from the Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System on fatal falls overboard in the commercial fishing sector in Alaska between 1990 and 2005 were used; 71 such accidents were identified. An in-depth descriptive analysis of these fatalities was then performed to identify areas for intervention. Falls overboard did not decline significantly during those years. The most common circumstances associated with falling overboard were working with fishing gear, being alone on deck, losing balance or slipping, heavy weather, gear entanglement and alcohol.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007, Vol.50, p.962-968. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 07-1469 Chauvin C., Le Bouar G.
Lesiones de origen profesional en el sector de la pesca marítima en Francia: estudio comparado entre la década de los 80 y la actualidad
Occupational injury in the French sea fishing industry: A comparative study between the 1980s and today [en inglés]
En este estudio se han comparado las bases de datos de lesiones por accidentes de trabajo en el sector de la pesca marítima en Francia, por un lado del periodo 1977-1980 y, por otro, del periodo 1996-2001. El estudio se ha focalizado particularmente en los accidentes ocurridos en el curso de operaciones pesqueras. Hoy en día, al igual que en los años 80, el trabajo con equipos de pesca es una tarea extremadamente peligrosa, pues entraña el riesgo de "ser golpeado, arrastrado o inmovilizado". El acondicionamiento o la manipulación de las artes de pesca también pueden provocar numerosos accidentes. Durante la realización de su trabajo, los pescadores deben enfrentarse a dos tipos de riesgos: las "laceraciones y pinchazos" y los "esfuerzos excesivos y las posturas incomodas". Respecto de la frecuencia y características de los accidentes de trabajo, no se han observado tendencias significativas. Las conclusiones ponen en cuestión las medidas preventivas implantadas en Francia durante los últimos decenios y recomienda nuevas estrategias de prevención
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Jan. 2007, Vol.39, No.1, p.79-85. 16 ref.

CIS 07-1091 Trabajo en el sector pesquero. Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo, 96.a reunión, 2007
Work in the fishing sector. International Labour Conference, 96th Session, 2007 [en inglés]
Le travail dans le secteur de la pêche. Conférence internationale du Travail, 96e session, 2007 [en francés]
Este informe ha sido preparado para la 96ª sesión de la Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo en 2007. Presenta los textos del proyecto de convenio y del proyecto de recomendación relativos al trabajo en el sector de la pesca
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. 84p. [en inglés] [en francés] [en español]

CIS 07-1090 Trabajo en el sector pesquero. Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo, 96.a reunión, 2007
Work in the fishing sector. International Labour Conference, 96th Session, 2007 [en inglés]
Le travail dans le secteur de la pêche. Conférence internationale du Travail, 96e session, 2007 [en francés]
Este informe ha sido preparado para la 96ª sesión de la Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo en 2007. Presenta un resumen de las respuestas recibidas por la OIT al cuestionario sobre el proyecto de convenio y el proyecto de recomendación relativos al trabajo en el sector de la pesca. Se incluye el comentario de la Oficina sobre las respuestas y el informe de la mesa redonda tripartita inter-regional sobre las normas de trabajo en el sector pesquero, de diciembre de 2006
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. vi,118p. Illus. [en español] [en inglés] [en francés]


CIS 08-111 Murray M., Tilley N.
Promoción de la sensibilización en seguridad en comunidades de pescadores mediante proyectos culturales comunitarios: Proyecto de investigación basado en la acción
Promoting safety awareness in fishing communities through community arts: An action research project [en inglés]
La pesca comercial es un sector muy peligroso. Hasta el presente, la formación para la prevención entre los pescadores se ha basado en el conocimiento de los reglamentos y los procedimientos seguros. Un método alternativo consiste en elevar el nivel de sensibilización de la comunidad en cuestiones relativas a la seguridad y considerar las estrategias, tanto colectivas como individuales, para la mejora de la seguridad en este sector. El presente artículo expone un método adoptado en tres comunidades pesqueras de Terranova. Se ha recurrido a obras de teatro, conciertos y actividades culturales asociadas, para promover una concienciación en materia de seguridad. El conjunto lo han diseñado y realizado individuos de la propia comunidad. Posteriormente, se promovieron discusiones con responsables locales para definir las modalidades de implantación de las acciones preventivas identificadas. Los participantes se han mostrado muy entusiasmados con los proyectos y estaban deseosos de desarrollar otras actividades similares en sus respectivas comunidades
Safety Science, Nov. 2006, Vol.44, No.9, p.797-808. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 08-67 Lucas D., Jegaden D., Lodde B., Arvieux C., Dewitte J.D.
Asma profesional en el ambiente marítimo
Occupational asthma in maritime environment [en inglés]
En el ambiente marítimo, los trabajadores están expuestos a diversas sustancias químicas o biológicas, de las que algunas pueden provocar asma de etiología profesional. Tal es el caso de los productos del mar, como los crustáceos y los moluscos, aunque también pueden provocarla los cereales que se transportan en forma de carga o las sustancias químicas transportadas o utilizadas para mantenimiento del buque. Este estudio bibliográfico comenta los factores etiológicos del asma profesional conocidos a que pueden estar sometidos los marineros y demás trabajadores del sector marítimo
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.177-187. 72 ref.

CIS 08-110 Wagner B.
Normas del trabajo, seguridad y salud, y evaluación del riesgo en el sector pesquero
Labour standards, safety and health, and risk assessment in the fishing sector [en inglés]
Este artículo muestra una panorámica general de las normas de la OIT relativas a seguridad y salud en el trabajo, las normas específicas sobre el trabajo a bordo de los buques de pesca, así como los trabajos dirigidos a elaborar un nuevo convenio y una nueva recomendación sobre el trabajo en el sector pesquero. Contiene las propuestas relativas a los requisitos exigibles, así como consejos para evaluar los riesgos. Mediante ejemplos se expone la manera de evaluar los riesgos que se ha utilizado en los instrumentos de la OIT, en las Directivas europeas relativas al sector de la pesca y en las legislaciones, reglamentos y prácticas nacionales. El artículo tiene como objetivo estimular la discusión sobre la forma de promover, a nivel mundial, la evaluación de los riesgos en los buques, teniendo en cuenta los diferentes niveles de desarrollo y la amplia diversidad del sector
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.114-126.

CIS 08-109 Le Bouar G., Chauvin C.
Análisis de riesgos en el sector de pesca marítima en Francia. Ejemplo del riesgo de accidente en el muelle
An analysis of the risk in the French sea fishing industry. Example of the dockside accident risk [en inglés]
Cuando se considera el riesgo en el sector de la pesca, generalmente se piensa en los riesgos importantes, como las colisiones o las zozobras, así como en los accidentes provocados por los aparejos o los equipos de arrastre. Por el contrario, existen pocos datos sobre los accidentes que sufren los pescadores en los muelles de atraque. En Francia, este tipo de accidentes representan un 30% del conjunto de lesiones por accidentes declarados en el sector pesquero. Este estudio analiza los datos correspondientes a 5.074 accidentes de este tipo declarados entre 1996 y 2005. Se comentan los resultados y se proponen diversas medidas preventivas
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.103-113. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 08-108 Aasjord H.L.
Herramientas para mejorar la gestión de la seguridad en la flota pesquera noruega ¿ Análisis de los accidentes de trabajo ¿ Periodo 1998-2006
Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian fishing fleet - Occupational accident analysis - Period of 1998-2006 [en inglés]
En base a los datos de la Dirección Noruega de Asuntos Marítimos, este artículo analiza los accidentes ocurridos en el sector de la pesca noruego a lo largo del periodo 1998-2002, así como las tendencias generales de los accidentes mortales entre 1955 y 2006. La tasa de riesgo era de 23,6 accidentes por 1000 hombres-año, observándose la tasa más elevada en los pesqueros de altura (28,6 accidentes por 1000 hombres-año). Entre 1998 y 2006 se registraron 24,8 accidentes mortales por cada 10.000 hombres-año en la flota de pequeño tamaño, longitud de los buques (Loa) < 13m. Dicha tasa era 4,1 veces mayor que la correspondiente a la flota de tamaño mediano (Loa < 28m) y 11,3 veces mayor que para la flota de altura (Loa > 28m). Se comentan otros resultados del estudio y algunas medidas dirigidas a disminuir los accidentes mortales
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.76-84. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 07-1343 Perez-Labajos C., Azofra M., Blanco B., Achutegui J., González J.
Análisis de la desigualdad de los accidentes en la flota pesquera española
Analysis of accident inequality of the Spanish fishing fleet [en inglés]
La seguridad constituye un factor vital en la gestión del sector pesquero de un país. Sin embargo, la planificación de los recursos necesarios y su adecuado reparto en función de las necesidades no son posibles si se carece de información detallada acerca de la distribución de la frecuencia de los accidentes en este sector. En este contexto, el presente estudio tenía dos objetivos: en primer lugar, formalizar una metodología para el sector de la pesca de un país, que permitiera analizar las diferencias en la frecuencia de los accidentes y, en segundo lugar, aplicar dicha metodología a la flota de pesca española a lo largo del periodo 1994-2002. Dicha metodología ha permitido construir los índices por región y por tipo de buque, de acuerdo con dos variables: los pescadores y los buques. Se comentan los resultados
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2006, Vol.38, No.6, p.1168-1175. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 07-1072 Morel G., Chauvin C.
Modelo socio-tecnológico de la gestión del riesgo aplicado a las colisiones de buque de pesca
A socio-technical approach of risk management applied to collisions involving fishing vessels [en inglés]
En este estudio se ha procedido a analizar, caso por caso, las colisiones en el mar en las que estaban implicados buques pesqueros, comprobándose que existieron dos causas principales: las señales no detectadas y los errores de interpretación. También ha permitido definir el espacio real en el que evolucionan las unidades funcionales (los buques de pesca) más frecuentemente implicados en colisiones, así como las zonas permeables de las barreras de seguridad a través de las cuales las operaciones derivan hacia las zonas de riesgo. En lo que respecta al riesgo de colisión, las unidades funcionales evolucionaban en una zona limítrofe con el comportamiento seguro. Para evitar accidentes, es preciso reforzar las mencionadas barreras de seguridad, lo que permite limitar el riesgo de deriva, dejando a las unidades funcionales en una zona donde los factores de seguridad, de rendimiento y de aprovechamiento individual son todas aceptables
Safety Science, Aug. 2006, Vol.44, No.7, p.599-619. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 07-1168 Neitzel R.L., Berna B.E., Seixas N.S.
Exposición al ruido a bordo de buques de pesca y de buques-factoría
Noise exposures aboard catcher/processor fishing vessels [en inglés]
Los trabajadores del sector pesquero tienen horarios largos y pueden estar expuestos durante las 24 horas a elevados niveles sonoros. Se ha evaluado la exposición al ruido a bordo de dos grandes buques, de pesca y factoría, mediante disimetría y cartografía de los niveles de ruido, así como mediante auto-declaraciones sobre las tareas efectuadas y la utilización de protectores auditivos. Todos estos datos se han combinado para estimar el nivel de exposición durante el turno de trabajo o durante el descanso a lo lago de 24 horas como media de diversos parámetros. La duración del uso de protectores de audición también se utilizo para calcular la protección real de los miembros de la tripulación. En casi todos los trabajadores, los niveles sonoros en el curso del turno de trabajo superaban los límites actualmente en vigor. Incluso teniendo en cuenta la utilización de protectores auditivos, la mitad de las exposiciones en 24 horas superaban dichos límites. La exposición al ruido durante los períodos de descanso no contribuía a la media de la exposición de 24 horas. Los protectores de audición disminuían la exposición al ruido una media de 10dBA, aunque no todos los trabajadores los utilizaban de forma sistemática
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.49, p.624-633. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 07-1080 O'Connor P.J., O'Connor N.
Muertes por accidentes de trabajo en el sector marítimo
Work-related maritime fatalities [en inglés]
Entre 1992 y 1998 se han registrado 74 fallecimientos entre los marinos australianos: 42 pescadores comerciales, 12 marineros de buques mercantes y 16 marinos que trabajaban en diversos sectores. Los principales factores que contribuyeron a dichas muertes fueron las condiciones meteorológicas, los errores de cálculo, las prácticas arriesgadas y no utilizar elementos de flotación en unas condiciones en que dichos elementos podrían haber salvado la vida. Los esfuerzos que se realicen deberían focalizarse en la disminución del consumo de alcohol y en una mejor disponibilidad de salvavidas y el respeto para usarlos
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 2006, Vol.38, No.4, p.737-741. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 07-354 Mode N.A., Wopat P., Conway G.A.
Actas de la Conferencia Internacional sobre SST en el sector de la pesca
Proceedings, Second International Fishing Industry Safety and Health Conference [en inglés]
Actas de la Conferencia Internacional sobre seguridad y salud en el sector de la pesca, celebrada en Sitka, Alaska, EE.UU., del 22 al 24 de septiembre de 2003. Temas abordados en las sesiones: información general sobre los esfuerzos realizados a escala internacional en materia de seguridad en el sector pesquero; datos de investigaciones recientes sobre accidentes de los buques de pesca; factores de riesgo para los pescadores; seguridad de las plataformas; enfoques regionales de la seguridad en el sector pesquero; factores sociales que contribuyen a las lesiones entre los pescadores; seguridad de los buques; trabajadores de la industria de acondicionamiento de los productos del mar; nuevos enfoques en materia de formación en seguridad; nuevos datos sobre la seguridad en el sector de la pesca.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, Apr. 2006. xvi, 386p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [en inglés]

CIS 07-335 Jensen O.C., Stage S., Noer P.
Lesiones y estudios de tiempo de trabajo en el sector de la pesca
Injury and time studies of working processes in fishing [en inglés]
Estudio para determinar la relación entre la duración del tiempo de trabajo y el número de lesiones producidas por determinadas tareas en el sector de la pesca en Dinamarca. Se efectuaron mediciones durante las tareas de pesca en cuatro buques distintos. El índice de riesgo de cada tarea se calculó dividiendo el número de lesiones en un período de cinco años por el número de minutos empleados en cada una de las tareas o proceso de trabajo. Los índices de riesgo más elevados se observaron en las tareas de embarque y desembarque, pese al poco tiempo que ello requería por parte de los pescadores. Se constataron también índices elevados en otro tipo de tareas, especialmente en el despliegue y acarreo de equipos y redes. Este método constituye una herramienta útil para la prevención de accidentes y permite determinar también aquellas tareas o procesos de trabajo que requieren una atención especial. El citado método puede aplicarse también en otros sectores industriales.
Safety Science, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.4, p.349-358. Illus. 13 ref.


CIS 06-1373 Jégaden D., Dewitte J.D.
La salud de los pescadores del mar: pasado, presente y perspectiva futura.
La santé des marins pêcheurs: passé, présent et perspectives d'avenir [en francés]
Este artículo trata de los factores de riesgo para la salud de los pescadores del mar, especialmente el tabaquismo, el consumo de alcohol y la mala alimentación. Otros factores de riesgo son el ruido (se calcula que la exposición media al ruido a bordo, durante todo el tiempo que dura la travesía, es superior a 85dB(A), así como las posturas y los movimientos que pueden provocar alteraciones osteomusculares. Finalmente, el estrés, la fatiga y otros riesgos físicos tienen efectos sobre la salud y sobre la frecuencia de accidentes en este colectivo. Se preconiza crear en Francia un observatorio de la salud de los marineros, sobre modelo de observatorio de los derechos de los marineros.
Société française de Médecine Maritime, Faculté de médecine de Brest, CS 93837, 29238 Brest cedex 3, France, Nov. 2005. 8p. 30 ref.

CIS 06-1495 Jégaden D., Lucas D., Loddé B., Dewitte J.D.
Resistencias psicológicas para la seguridad en la pesca meritima.
Résistances psychologiques à la sécurité dans la pêche maritime [en francés]
En 2003, en Francia, se produjeron 2.100 accidentes entre 21.532 pescadores, lo que equivale a 97 accidentes por cada mil trabajadores, mientras que esta cifra en las actividades de tierra es de 40 por mil. La OIT considera que, en el sector pesquero, se produce una media cada año de 80 fallecimientos por cada mil marineros. Esta tasa de mortalidad es estable y no parece que mejore. El presente artículo trata de los factores de riesgo de accidente en la pesca en el mar relacionados con factores humanos, y especialmente, de los mecanismos psicológicos de una puesta en riesgo a menudo irracional.
Société française de Médecine Maritime, Faculté de médecine de Brest, CS 93837, 29238 Brest cedex 3, France, Nov. 2005. 6p. 5 ref.

CIS 06-1223 Riesgo de quedar enredado durante la pesca del bogavante.
Dangers of entanglement during lobster fishing [en inglés]
La pesca del bogavante constituye una actividad con riesgo que en ocasiones ha llegado a provocar el ahogamiento del pescador al quedarse atrapado con el cordaje y cayendo por la borda. Un estudio efectuado sobre 103 pescadores de bogavante ha permitido definir practicas de trabajo seguro y establecer los métodos preventivos descritos en esta nota informativa. Estos consejos prácticos pretenden disminuir el riesgo de atrapamiento, permitir liberarse cuando se produzca el mismo y ayudar al pescador caído a volver a subir al barco.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Aug. 2005. 4p. Illus. 2 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 06-1120 Wang J., Pillay A., Kwon Y.S., Wall A.D., Loughran C.G.
Análisis de los accidentes en los buques de pesca.
An analysis of fishing vessel accidents [en inglés]
Este artículo presenta los datos sobre accidentes en los buques de pesca registrados en la Rama de Investigación de Accidentes del Reino Unido, así como un análisis de las principales causas de los mismos. Los datos estan agrupados según tipo y causa de los accidentes y, también, en función de la longitud del buque. Su análisis ha demostrado que entre 1994 y 1999 las averías de las maquinas habían contribuido al 50% de la totalidad de los accidentes. Asimismo, se discuten diversos aspectos, especialmente la evaluación de la seguridad de los buques de pesca y los problemas relacionados con los atraques y desatraques, colisiones y contactos.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov. 2005, Vol.37, No.6, p.1019-1024. Illus. 11 ref.

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