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  • Lead and compounds

1992

CIS 93-1616 Apostoli P., Alessio L.
Lead in the 1990s - "New" regulations for the "oldest" of environmental toxins
Il piombo negli anni 90 - "Nuove" regole per il piů "vecchio" dei tossici ambientali? [en italiano]
With the introduction of strict lead-control legislation, blood lead (PbB) levels have been falling worldwide, to about 30µg/100mL in exposed workers and to below 10µg/100mL in the general population in industrialised countries. However, there is growing evidence that even low levels of Pb exposure can have harmful health effects. In particular, there is no threshold below which no such effects have been noted on haeme, on the central nervous system and on blood pressure. After a survey of current legislative practices in the US, the EEC and Japan, this article explores the possibility of further reducing exposure, either through reduction of exposure limits or by improving technical prevention.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1992, Vol.83, No.86, p.539-556. 135 ref.

CIS 93-1612 Discalzi G.L., Capellaro F., Bottalo L., Fabbro D., Mocellini A.
Auditory brainstem evoked potentials (BAEPs) in lead-exposed workers
Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) were recorded in 49 lead-exposed workers, and in an equal number controls never exposed to neurotoxic substances. The mean duration of lead exposure was 7.4yrs (Standard Deviation (SD) 5.6). An averaged lead blood level (PbB) was based on the levels of the three previous years (PbBm). Blood lead concentration was analysed in the morning of the experimental day (PbBc). Interpeak latency differences (IPLD) I-V, I-III, and III-V were considered. The mean PbBc level was 54.6µg/dL (SD 16.1) while the mean PbBm level was 53.5µg/dL (SD 15.9). Lead exposed workers showed a significant prolongation of IPLDs. IPLD I-V was longer in the subgroup with PbBm >50µg/dL (4.06 versus 3.98, CI 95% 0.00-0.16). These results are consistent with literature data and show that BAEPs may be a sensitive detector of subclinical lead effects on brainstem auditory pathways.
Neurotoxicology, Spring 1992, Vol.13, No.1, p.207-209. 6 ref.

CIS 93-1305
Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Silica and lead: Control of exposure in the pottery industry
Contents of this guidance note: legislation and exposure limits for silica and lead; requirements for hazard assessment under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988 (CIS 89-1092); recommended designs for local exhaust ventilation systems; design guidelines for local exhaust ventilation for processes for which specific designs have not been developed; significant factors in controlling exposure; examination and maintenance of control measures. Appendices include summaries of the main sources of silica dust and lead.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. vi, 32p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 93-910 Linz D.H., Barrett E.T., Pflaumer J.E., Keith R.E.
Neuropsychologic and postural sway improvement after Ca++-EDTA chelation for mild lead intoxication
The case study reports a bridge worker with chronic lead intoxication and borderline whole body lead burden who showed dramatic improvement in postural stability and neuropsychological functioning shortly after a single five-day course of intravenous Ca++-EDTA (calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) as a chelating agent. This case highlights the value of neurobehavioural and postural stability testing in verifying symptoms and documenting response to therapy. The improvement after chelation suggests that central nervous system symptomatology may be reversed in adult patients even when total body lead burden is modest.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1992, Vol.34, No.6, p.638-641. 16 ref.

CIS 93-908 Lerda D.
Study of sperm characteristics in persons occupationally exposed to lead
The sperm characteristics of 38 male workers exposed to lead in a battery factory were studied. Sperm analysis was performed after four days of sexual abstinence. Parameters analysed were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology. Exposure levels were estimated by measuring the concentration of lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid in the serum. Based on blood lead levels, the tested individuals were divided into three groups: A (12), B (11) and C (15). Significant levels of asthenospermia and teratospermia were found in exposed workers when compared with unexposed controls. Long-term exposure to lead may lead to changes in sperm characteristics and function.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1992, Vol.22, No.4, p.567-571. 23 ref.

CIS 93-518 Bresnitz E.A., Roseman J., Becker D., Gracely E.
Morbidity among municipal waste incinerator workers
Incinerator workers are exposed to many toxic compounds, most notably heavy metals. Medical and exposure monitoring data of an actively employed cohort of Philadelphia incinerator workers were evaluated following an Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry site survey and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) health hazard evaluation (HHE). Medical analysis was limited to the 86 male workers who participated in the HHE out of the 105 active employees. Although there was some evidence of an increased risk of exposure to products of incinerator waste, the few elevated biological tests could not be related to exposure classification. Additional studies are needed to assess the potential health effects of municipal waste incinerator by-products.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1992, Vol.22, No.3, p.363-378. 28 ref.

CIS 93-212 Schwartz B.S., Ford D.P., Yodaiken R.
Analysis of OSHA inspection data with exposure monitoring and medical surveillance violations
US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspection data from the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) enforcement database are presented for lead, ethylene oxide, and formaldehyde for fiscal years 1985, 1987, and 1989, and are discussed with emphasis on exposure monitoring or medical surveillance section violations. These data suggest that the exposure monitoring section of these standards is more commonly used to cite workplaces below these standards than is the medical surveillance section. Medical surveillance violations more commonly resulted in fines, but there were no differences in the magnitude of the fines for exposure monitoring or for medical surveillance violations. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.272-278. 12 ref.

CIS 92-1991 Fischbein A., Wallace J., Sassa S., Kappas A., Butts G., Rohl A., Kaul B.
Lead poisoning from art restoration and pottery work - Unusual exposure source and household risk
Two cases of lead poisoning following exposures in the arts and crafts environment are presented. The first shows the impact of an unusual exposure source experienced by an art conservator while restoring an antique tapestry. The second demonstrates the extension to the artist's family members of a lead hazard associated with pottery work. Noted were a wide spectrum of clinical and biochemical abnormalities, ranging from severe neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms to subtle alterations in the biosynthetic pathway of haeme. Marked elevation of the blood lead level (up to 130µg/100mL) was found in the most severe case of lead poisoning. Multiple occupational factors must occasionally be considered in evaluating increased lead absorption.
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, Jan.-Feb. 1992, Vol.11, No.1, p.7-11. 14 ref.

CIS 92-1295 Practical ventilation guide - 15. Automobile radiator repairs
Guide pratique de ventilation - 15. Réparation des radiateurs automobiles [en francés]
This guide is intended mainly for small- and medium-size enterprises where welded radiators are repaired. Contents include: automobile radiator repair (description and risks); exposure limit values under the French legislation; atmospheric lead concentrations and biological parameters; general ventilation techniques; technical solutions; hygiene; two practical examples.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.147, Note No.1876-147-92, p.127-138. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 92-923 Peltier A., Guillemin C., Gendre J.C., Stempfer J.C., Pellé-Duporté D., Schmitt J.P.
Study of the solubility of lead compounds used in glazing workshops
Etude de la solubilité des composés du plomb utilisés dans les ateliers d'émaillage [en francés]
This document assesses the state of research into the toxicity of industrial products containing lead compounds (lead silicates or "lead frits" as used in ceramic glazes, for example). Present findings are insufficient for any significant conclusions regarding the danger of these products. It is possible, however, to envisage the development of a large-scale toxicological study.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.146, Note No.1870-146-92, p.43-50. Illus. 14 ref.

1991

CIS 06-510 Orden interministerial relativa a las tablas de enfermedades profesionales. [Senegal]
Arręté interministériel portant tableaux des maladies professionnelles [Sénégal] [en francés]
Esta orden contiene cuatro tablas en las que se indican la enfermedades reconocidas como enfermedades profesionales en Senegal: 1. Enfermedades causadas por el plomo y sus compuestos; 2. Enfermedades profesionales causadas por el mercurio y sus compuestos. 3. Intoxicación profesional por tetracloroetano. 4. Hemopatías provocadas por el benceno y sus homólogos tóxicos. Para cada una de las tablas se relaciona el plazo de entrada en vigor, así como los principales trabajos susceptibles de provocar estas enfermedades (lista indicativa).
Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training and Ministry Public Health and Social Services, Senegal, 1991. 69p.
http://www.bossons-fute.com/Documents/MalProfSenegal2006.pdf [en francés]

CIS 95-2166 Graziano J.H., Slavkovic V., Factor-Litvak P., Popovac D., Ahmedi X., Mehmeti A.
Disminución de la eritropoyetina sérica en las mujeres embarazadas con índices elevados de plombemia
Depressed serum erythropoietin in pregnant women with elevated blood lead [en inglés]
Estudio de las alteraciones séricas en 1.502 mujeres embarazadas expuestas al plomo en Kosovo
Archives of Environmental Health, nov.-déc. 1991, vol.46, n°6, p.347.350. Ilus. 24 ref. ###

CIS 93-1404 Legislative decree No.277 of 15.8.1991 - Implementation of Directives 80/1107/EEC, 82/605/EEC, 83/477/EEC, 86/188/EEC and 88/642/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents at work, according to Art.7 of Law 212 of 30.7.1990 [Italy]
D.L. 15.8.1991: Attuazione delle direttive ... della CEE, in materia di protezione dei lavoratori contro i rischi derivanti da esposizione ad agenti chimici, fisici e biologici durante il lavoro, a norma dell'art.7 della legge 30.7.1990, n.212 [en italiano]
This decree implements into Italian legislation, as directed by Law No.212 of 1990 (see CIS 91-701), the provisions of certain EEC directives (see CIS 81-1610, 83-1783, 84-327, 87-45 and 90-1430) dealing with the protection of workers against various hazards. Contents: general provisions; definitions; protective measures; obligations of employers, management, supervisors, workers and occupational physicians; removal of workers from exposure; particular protective measures (hazard evaluation, information of workers, medical surveillance, technical prevention, etc.) relating to metallic lead (Pb) and its ionic compounds (8h TWA TLV = 150µg/m3 air), asbestos (8h TWA TLV = 1f/cm3 for chrysotile, 0.2f/cm3 for other types), noise (requirement to wear hearing protection when exposure >90dB(A), hearing examination obligatory when exposure > 85dB(A)); penalties. In annex: list of jobs where Pb exposure is common; indicators for clinical control of Pb exposed workers; analytical methods for evaluation of Pb exposure and for measuring Pb and asbestos concentration in air; criteria for noise measurement and for evaluating hearing damage; methods for evaluating exposure to chemicals.
Gazzetta ufficiale, 27 July 1991, No.200, Supplement, 24p.

CIS 93-497 Chia K.S., Ong C.N., Jeyaratnam J.
Renal tubular function of lead exposed workers
Some studies have shown an increase in excretion of urinary enzymes, in particular N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), with increasing lead exposure. However, the increase in urinary NAG excretion may not be a result of cell damage and increased exfoliation but a stimulation of the excocytosis or of the renal activity of NAG. The urinary NAG of 206 lead exposed workers was significantly higher than a control group. This increase was seen with blood lead of greater than 20µg/100mL and even in those with less than one year of exposure. This increase in urinary NAG excretion is likely to be due to increase in exocytosis or renal activity of this enzyme.
Journal of Occupational Medicine - Singapore, Jan. 1991, Vol.3, No.1, p.37-40. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 93-494 Chia S.E., Chia K.S., Ong C.N.
Ethnic differences in blood lead concentration among workers in a battery manufacturing factory
Blood lead (Pb) levels of 11 Chinese and 25 Malay lead-battery manufacturing workers were evaluated, after adjustment for environmental Pb levels, age, exposure duration and stick-years of smoking. The mean adjusted blood Pb levels were 34.8µg/dL in the Malay and 22.4µg/dL in the Chinese workers. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.02). Oral ingestion of Pb by the Malay workers, through the eating of food with hands contaminated by Pb compounds, is suggested as a possible cause for the differences in the mean blood Pb levels. Preventive measures recommended for implementation among Malay workers are discussed.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, Nov. 1991, Vol.20, No.6, p.758-761. 13 ref.

CIS 93-571 Magos L.
Epidemiological and experimental aspects of metal carcinogenesis - Physicochemical properties, kinetics, and the active species
The carcinogenic properties of selected metals and their compounds are reviewed to provide a useful reference for existing knowledge on relationships between physical and chemical forms, kinetics and carcinogenic potential and between epidemiology, bioassays, and short-term tests. Extensive consideration is given to arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel. Other metals such as antimony, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc are discussed briefly.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Nov. 1991, Vol.95, p.157-189. 284 ref.

CIS 93-483 Hakim R.B., Stewart W.F., Canner J.K., Tielsch J.M.
Occupational lead exposure and strabismus in offspring - A case-control study
A population-based case-control study investigated the association between strabismus and parental occupational lead exposure. Cases were children diagnosed with nonrestrictive strabismus between 1985 and 1986 (n=377). Controls were matched for age and hospital of birth (n=377). Jobs held by parents were assessed for lead exposure by industrial hygienists. The unadjusted odds ratio for maternal lead exposure and the esotropic form of strabismus was 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-27). Unadjusted odds ratios for paternal occupational lead exposure and esotropia were 1.0 (95% CI 0.5-2.1) for low exposure, 2.1 (95% CI 0.9-5.3) for moderate exposure, and 1.2 (95% CI 0.4-3.3) for high exposure. The study results suggest the possibility of a weak association between paternal lead exposure and strabismus in offspring.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Feb. 1991, Vol.133, No.4, p.351-356. 34 ref.

CIS 93-597 Verma D.K., Shaw D.S.
An evaluation of airborne nickel, zinc, and lead exposure at hot dip galvanizing plants
Industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at three hot dip galvanising plants to determine occupational exposure to nickel, zinc, and lead. All three plants employed the "dry process" and used 2% nickel, by weight, in their zinc baths. A total of 32 personal and area air samples were taken. The air samples were analysed for nickel, zinc, and lead. Some samples were also analysed for various species of nickel (i.e., metallic, soluble, and oxidic). The airborne concentrations observed for nickel and its three species, zinc, and lead at the three plants were all well below the current and proposed threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1991, Vol.52, No.12, p.511-515. 15 ref.

CIS 93-564 Sharp D.S., Perkins C., Samuels S.J., Rosenberg J., Rudolph L.
Lead use in California industry - Its prevalence and health implications
A 1986 California survey estimated that 230,000 workers employed in lead-using activities, although 68% of this number worked in activities of relatively low hazard. Over 1,800 were reported to work in battery manufacture, a relatively high-hazard activity, but with consistent monitoring and protection. In contrast, over 4,300 were involved in radiator repair activities, a high-hazard activity with inconsistent monitoring and protection. Over 8% of construction workers were reported to work in lead-using processes. This sector is exempt from US federal and state occupational lead standards, yet some of the most hazardous activities (welding, grinding, cutting, etc.) occurred here. Comparison of projections from the National Occupational Hazard Survey of potential lead exposure in California with these survey results suggests consistent and reliable assessment of the major sources of potential occupational lead exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1991, Vol.52, No.10, p.409-416. 30 ref.

CIS 93-563 Abell M.T., Doemeny L.J.
Monitoring the performance of occupational health laboratories
To monitor the performance of occupational health laboratories analysing workplace air, the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), with assistance from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, has established four national quality assurance programmes. They are the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program, the AIHA Laboratory Accreditation Program, the Asbestos Analysts Registry, and the Bulk Quality Assurance Program. This paper focuses on the PAT Program, a quality audit programme that provides samples of asbestos, silica, metals, and solvents to laboratories quarterly. PAT data for asbestos, silica, and lead were examined for trends in precision. Simple graphs of coefficient of variation during the 18-year history of the programme provide evidence of improved agreement among laboratories performing these analyses. The improvement took place in spite of growth in the number of laboratories and decreases in the levels being analysed. The improvement is attributed to several factors, including improved analytical methods and the very existence of the PAT and AIHA Laboratory Accreditation Programs.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1991, Vol.52, No.8, p.336-339. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 93-218 Hu H., Pepper L., Goldman R.
Effect of repeated occupational exposure to lead, cessation of exposure, and chelation on levels of lead in bone
A sensitive K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) instrument was used to measure lead levels in the tibia and patella on 12 subjects who had relatively well-documented histories of lead exposure and blood lead levels. For some subjects, K-XRF measurements were taken before and after chelation with EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid). Results confirm that K-XRF measured bone lead levels correspond to cumulative blood lead indices and not to current blood lead levels. Moreover, the data suggest that bone lead levels: (1) correspond to urinary lead following the EDTA mobilisation test unless previous chelation has occurred; (2) rise initially after lead exposure ceases and blood lead levels decrease, and then fall; (3) do not decrease with a 3 to 5-day course of therapeutic EDTA chelation. Lead levels in the patella were noted to decrease more rapidly than levels in the tibia after cessation of lead exposure, a finding that probably reflects the greater turnover of lead in trabecular bone than in cortical bone.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1991, Vol.20, No.6, p.723-735. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 92-1810 Lead (II) oxide
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritant. Long-term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects; anaemia; renal damage; male antifertility effects; may affect the development of the central nervous system in the new-born.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1906 Michaels D., Zoloth S.R., Stern F.B.
Does low-level lead exposure increase risk of death? - A mortality study of newspaper printers
This study examined the mortality of newspaper typesetters (N=1,261) followed from 1961 to 1984, in order to investigate the effects of low-level lead exposure. Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated using New York City comparison rates. The all-cause SMR was 0.74, significantly different from 1.00. Other statistically significant deficits were deaths from arteriosclerotic heart disease (SMR=0.63) and non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system (SMR=0.57) and digestive system (SMR=0.65). These can be attributed to the comparison bias known as the healthy worker effect. The SMR for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) was 1.35, on the edge of statistical significance. For those printers employed for 30 years or more, the CVD SMR was 1.68. No significant excesses were seen for any other cause of death in any exposure stratum. These findings suggest the possibility that lead exposure at levels below the current US permissible exposure limit (PEL) may also be associated with CVD mortality.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Dec. 1991, Vol.20, No.4, p.978-983. 40 ref.

CIS 92-1535 Partanen T., Heikkilä P., Hernberg S., Kauppinen T., Moneta G., Ojajärvi A.
Renal cell cancer and occupational exposure to chemical agents
A case-referent study of occupational risk indicators of renal cell adenocarcinoma was conducted. Each incident case in Finland in 1977-1978 was matched with two population referents. Lifelong job histories were collected and translated into indicators of industry, occupation, and occupational exposures. The analyses of 338 sets of cases and referents revealed elevated risks for a history of employment in: white-collar occupations; the printing industry; the chemical industry; the manufacture of metal products; mail, telephone, and telegraph services; metalworking. A decreased risk was observed for male farmers. An elevated risk and an exposure-response relationship were found for gasoline exposure. The excess risk was highest at a latency period of approximately 30 years. The findings support the hypothesis that exposure to some constituent(s) of gasoline increases the incidence of renal adenocarcinoma in humans. Suggestions of elevated risks appeared for exposures to inorganic lead, cadmium, and nonchlorinated solvents.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1991, Vol.17, No.4, p.231-239. 47 ref.

CIS 92-1612 Goldfield J., Sheehy J.W., Gunter B.J., Daniels W.J.
Cost-effective radiator repair ventilation control
High airborne lead levels in radiator repair shops and high blood lead levels among those workers are not uncommon. The article describes a cost-effective ventilation enclosure over the water bath that is used to leak test radiators. An opening in front of the enclosure allows the mechanic to repair the radiator inside. A propeller fan mounted in the rear of the enclosure exhausts the air. The effectiveness of the enclosure was evaluated by collecting short-term and time-weighted average personal breathing zone samples for lead at a controlled work station. Lead exposures during radiator repair at the controlled work station averaged 9.9µg/m3, 20% of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Level (PEL). Samples taken at an uncontrolled work station averaged 435µg/m3, 45 times higher than those at the controlled station.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 1991, Vol.6, No.11, p.959-965. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 92-1258 Horiguchi S., Matsumura S., Fukumoto K., Karai I., Endo G., Teramoto K., Shinagawa K., Kiyota I., Wakitani F., Takise S., Kawaraya T.
Erythrocyte deformability in workers exposed to lead
Erythrocyte deformability and other haematological indicators were determined in 17 male workers exposed to lead in a secondary lead refinery and in 13 controls. For the measurement of erythrocyte deformability, the microfilter method was used. The mean values of blood lead, urinary lead, urinary coproporphyrin, urinary δ-aminolevulinic acid and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers were 53.5µg/100g, 141.4µg/L, 115.9µg/L, 12.0mg/L and 68.9µg/dL respectively, suggesting a moderate influence of lead exposure. The mean values of erythrocyte count, haematocrit and haemoglobin were significantly lower in lead workers than those in controls. No significant differences were found in the mean values of corpuscular haemoglobin, corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and corpuscular sodium and potassium between lead workers and controls. Erythrocyte deformability was significantly reduced in lead workers compared with controls.
Osaka City Medical Journal, Nov. 1991, Vol.37, No.2, p.149-155. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 92-1257 Lindbohm M.L., Sallmén M., Anttila A., Taskinen H., Hemminki K.
Paternal occupational lead exposure and spontaneous abortion
A case-referent study was conducted in order to find out if occupational exposure of men to inorganic lead is related to spontaneous abortion in their wives. The men were biologically monitored for lead exposure. The cases (213 spontaneous abortions) and referents (300 births) were identified from Finnish medical registers. Lead exposure was assessed with blood lead (PbB) measurements and data obtained from a questionnaire. The results did not show a statistically significant relationship between spontaneous abortion and paternal lead exposure among the study subjects. A significant increase was observed in the risk of those women whose husbands had been monitored (PbB ≥1.5µmol/L) during or close to the time of spermatogenesis. The association between lead exposure and spontaneous abortion was modified also by the age of the wife and paternal alcohol use. The findings suggest that there may be an association between paternal lead exposure and the risk of spontaneous abortion.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1991, Vol.17, No.2, p.95-103. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 92-1254 Vahter M., Berglund M., Lind B., Jorhem L., Slorach S., Friberg L.
Personal monitoring of lead and cadmium exposure - a Swedish study with special reference to methodological aspects
Methods for determining personal exposure to lead and cadmium were tested in Stockholm in 1988. Lead and cadmium in breathing-zone air, 24-h duplicate diets, and faeces of 15 nonsmoking women (27-46 years of age) were studied. Blood was collected at the beginning of and immediately after the test period (seven consecutive days). Most technical problems were encountered in the 24-h collection of airborne particles. The pumps were noisy, and the batteries had to be recharged every 6-8h. The lead and cadmium levels in faeces were found to be useful indicators of the total ingested amounts of these metals. Because of the large day-to-day variation in the dietary intake of lead and cadmium, the sampling period for duplicate diets and feces should be at least 5-6d.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1991, Vol.17, No.1, p.65-74. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 92-832 Hodgkins D.G., Robins T.G., Hinkamp D.L., Schork M.A., Levine S.P., Krebs W.H.
The effect of airborne lead particle size on worker blood-lead levels: An empirical study of battery workers
Workers in a lead-acid battery plant were studied for the influence of lead aerosol size on lead-in-blood (PbB) levels. A multiple linear regression analysis based on particle size assumptions made in a model to help select the permissible exposure level for lead showed no improvement in prediction of PbB over that already present without any consideration of particle size. However, when deposition models developed by Heyder et al were used in which the lead aerosol was separated into alveolar and extra-alveolar fractions, corresponding to what is considered respirable and ingestible lead, the coefficient of determination associated with the fractionated lead particulate increased approximately 25% over that attributable to only the total lead concentration. The deposition model resulted in ratios of the coefficients for the respirable to ingestible lead contributions to PbB that appeared to agree with experimental data, suggesting approximately a 10 to 1 ratio in absorbtion efficiency of the lung versus the gastrointestinal tract.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1991, Vol.33, No.12, p.1265-1273. 28 ref.

CIS 92-554 Wegner R.
Modern overalls are important - Lead hazard due to sandblasting operations
Moderne Schutzanzüge sind wichtig - Bleigefährdung bei Strahlarbeiten [en alemán]
Cases of lead poisoning are described. They occurred among workers engaged in the sandblasting of bridge railings for corrosion protection. Blood lead levels and anamnestic details are presented. Blood lead levels reached 178µg/dL. Investigations of the causes led to untight protective clothing and sealing off of the work area to prevent environmental pollution.
Sicher ist Sicher, Mar. 1991, Vol.42, No.3, p.132-134.

CIS 92-533 Graves A.B., Van Duijn C.M., Chandra V., Fratiglioni L., Heyman A., Jorm A.F., Kokmen E., Kondo K., Mortimer J.A., Rocca W.A., Shalat S.L., Soininen H., Hofman A.
Occupational exposures to solvents and lead as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: A collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies
A meta-analysis, involving the secondary analysis of original data from 11 case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease, is presented for occupational exposures to solvents and lead. Three studies included data on occupational exposure to solvents. The meta-analysis was particularly useful in validating negative results from individual studies and in increasing the statistical power for the analysis of lead exposure, where stratum-specific cell sizes were frequently smaller than 5 in individual studies. However, since exposure in the various studies was ascertained in a rather broad manner, prospective studies are recommended which focus on high-risk occupational populations and which determine the incidence of Alzheimer's disease in these and comparable unexposed populations.
International Journal of Epidemiology, 1991, Vol.20, no.2 (suppl.2), p.S58-S61. 20 ref.

CIS 92-531 Landrigan P.J.
Strategies for epidemiologic studies of lead in bone in occupationally exposed populations
Current knowledge of the toxicity of lead in industrial populations is summarised and gaps in the knowledge base are indicated. Strategies for future research are discussed with emphasis on approaches that may measure chronic exposure to lead through determination of the lead content of bone by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Feb. 1991, Vol.91, p.81-86. 52 ref.

CIS 92-528 Kawakami T., Ukai H., Takada S., Inui S., Nagoya T.
Applicability of relative dust concentration meters to workplace measurements in lead handling factories
Sōtai nōdokei ni yoru en toriatsukai sagyōba no kankyō sokutei no kanōsei ni tsuite [en japonés]
Relative dust concentration meters were used to determine airborne dust at 31 workplaces in 5 lead-handling firms (a storage battery manufacturer, a lead lining factory, a lead alloy manufacturer, a lead powder manufacturer, and a glazing factory). Filter sampling followed by atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine airborne lead concentration. There was a significant correlation between lead concentration and relative dust concentration in all 5 firms. The total dust concentration was also measured by gravimetry in relation to the lead concentration and good correlations were found. Thus, relative dust concentration meters can be of use in managing the working environment of certain types of lead-handling workplaces.
Journal of Working Environment, 1 Sep. 1991, Vol.12, No.5, p.69-73. 1 ref.

CIS 92-525 Bache C.A., Lisk D.J., Scarlett J.M., Carbone L.G.
Epidemiologic study of cadmium and lead in the hair of ceramists and dental personnel
The cadmium and lead content of hair in 70 ceramists was studied, with a comparable group of 75 dental personnel used a control cohort. The median levels of both metals in the hair of the ceramists was significantly higher than among the dental personnel. Those ceramists whose studios were ventilated showed significantly lower levels of both metals in their hair. The use of protective masks or respirators was associated with significantly higher levels of cadmium in the hair of ceramists. A review of the literature on the subject is presented and the health significance of the results is discussed.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Dec. 1991, Vol.34, No.4, p.423-431. 26 ref.

CIS 92-262 NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing lead poisoning in construction workers
This NIOSH Alert requests assistance in preventing the lead poisoning of workers engaged in the maintenance, repainting or demolition of bridges or other steel structures coated with lead-containing paints. Six case reports of lead poisoning are described. NIOSH recommendations for reducing lead exposure include: air monitoring; engineering controls; adequate personal hygiene practices; use of warning signs; personal protective equipment; medical surveillance; appropriate training.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Aug. 1991. 21p. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 92-132 Hodgkins D.G., Hinkamp D.L., Robins T.G., Schork M.A., Krebs W.H.
Influence of high past lead-in-air exposures on the lead-in-blood levels of lead-acid battery workers with continuing exposure
The relationship between air lead levels and blood lead levels in 132 lead-acid battery workers in two plants was investigated for 30 months between 1983 and 1985. Both plants converted to more modern, expanded-metal battery manufacturing technologies around 1978 with associated reductions in mean air lead exposure from greater than 100 to less than 30µg/m3. The findings suggest that substantially higher exposures to lead-in-air 20 or more years prior may influence significantly the blood lead levels in workers with subsequent much lower exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1991, Vol.33, No.7, p.797-803. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 91-1932 Kononen D.W.
First-year changes in blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels within two groups of occupational lead workers
Quarterly changes in the blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels of 30 male lead-acid storage battery workers and 24 auto assembly workers during their first year of lead exposure are described. The greatest absolute and percentage increases above baseline PbB levels occurred during the first 3 months of continuous exposure when battery and assembly workers' average PbB levels increased by 99% and 134% respectively. Mean ZPP levels increased steadily through the first 3 quarters of exposure for both groups of workers before declining slightly in the last quarter. The PbB-ZPP dose-effect relationship is characterised through the simple linear regression of log-transformed ZPP versus PbB levels. Dose-response modeling of each quarter's PbB-ZPP data was performed using probit analysis. These observed PbB and ZPP changes illustrate the time lag in the appearance of ZPP following introduction to lead-related work.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr.1991, Vol.52, No.4, p.177-182. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 91-1923 Goldberg R.L., Hicks A.M., O'Leary L.M., London S.
Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges
Excessive lead exposure of shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1991, Vol.33, No.6, p.718-719. 9 ref.

CIS 91-1439 Lead
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India.
Loss Prevention News, Jan.-Mar. 1991, Vol.13, No.1, p.23-24. Insert. 4 ref.

CIS 91-1647 Guide to ventilation practice - 13: Lead-acid battery manufacturing
Guide pratique de ventilation - 13. Fabrication des accumulateurs au plomb [en francés]
This practical guide is aimed at the prevention of lead poisoning during the manufacturing of lead-acid batteries. Exhaust criteria are based on data currently available and are subject to revision due to new data or legislation. In annex: occupational diseases caused by lead and its compounds; calculation method for the determination of hydrogen released during the charging of lead-acid batteries.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd Quarter 1991, No.143, Note No.1823-143-91, p.163-186. Illus. 16 ref. Appendices.

CIS 91-1658 Working with lead in the construction industry
Contents of this data sheet: health effects of lead; exposure monitoring; engineering and work practice controls to minimise exposure; respiratory protection and other protective equipment; safe work practices; training; hazard communication; medical examinations and biological monitoring; job transfer or termination; medical removal and chelation.
OSHA Publications Office, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington D.C. 20210, USA, 1991. 21p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 91-892 Crouch K.G., Peng T., Murdock D.J.
Ventilation control of lead in indoor firing ranges: Inlet configuration and booth and fluctuating flow contributions
Ineffective ventilation systems in indoor firing ranges have been shown to produce an airflow pattern with large scale eddies and recirculation of gun emissions to occupied parts of the range. Smoke relase studies in two firing ranges confirmed the relative importance of the air inlet to the success of the ventilation system. A subsequent laboratory study involved the use of a full-scale model for the evaluation of various inlets and obstacles to flow. For steady airflows, use of a double perforated panel at the inlet was found to be effective in many cases. The introduction of a fluctuating flow at the inlet significantly reduced exposure caused by eddies.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1991, Vol.52, No.2, p.81-91. Illus. 13 ref.

1990

CIS 92-1964 McGregor A.J., Mason H.J.
Chronic occupational lead exposure and testicular endocrine function
Lead concentrations in blood and bone were measured as indices of short and long-term, cumulative exposure in a group of 90 men occupationally exposed to inorganic lead. Results showed that the lead exposure levels encountered in the UK at present may result in a subclinical increase in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) which is related to blood lead levels. This suggests that lead may be causing some subclinical primary damage to the seminiferous tubules in the testes. At blood lead levels of <47µg/dL this effect on serum FSH is not apparent.
Human and Experimental Toxicology, 1990, Vol.9, p.371-376. 16 ref.

CIS 92-1963 Phoon W.H., Lee H.S., Ho C.K.
Biological monitoring of workers exposed to inorganic lead in Singapore
In Singapore, legislation on periodic medical examinations for lead exposed workers in factories was introduced in 1985. The results of laboratory tests on workers exposed to inorganic lead in 1987 are discussed. Factories found to be at higher risk (blood lead levels equal to or exceeding 40µg/dL) include those manufacturing PVC and lead storage batteries. Results showed that although no worker was found with a blood lead level above 80µg/dL, some workers were still exposed to a health risk. Blood lead levels are compared for Chinese, Malay and Indian workers.
Singapore Medical Journal, 1990, Vol.31, p.127-130. 12 ref.

CIS 92-1307 Environmental hazards in your school: A resource handbook
The specific environmental hazards discussed in-depth in this booklet are asbestos, indoor air quality, radon, lead in drinking water and other contaminants in school-operated water systems. Adverse effects of the hazards are outlined along with methods of risk reduction, assistance available and relevant legislation. Other concerns briefly discussed include underground storage tanks, recycling efforts, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. A list of contacts is also provided.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Oct. 1990. 69p. Illus.

CIS 92-156 Staessen J., Yeoman W.B., Fletcher A.E., Markowe H.L.J., Marmot M.G., Rose G., Semmence A., Shipley M.J., Bulpitt C.J.
Blood lead concentration, renal function, and blood pressure in London civil servants
Blood lead concentration was measured in 398 male and 133 female London civil servants not subject to industrial exposure to heavy metals. The relation between blood lead and serum creatinine concentrations and blood pressure was examined. In women blood lead concentration increased with age. In the 2 sexes blood lead concentration was positively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked a day, with the reported number of alcoholic beverages consumed a day and with serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. Blood lead concentration was not correlated with body weight, body mass index, and employment grade. In men 14% of the variance of blood lead concentration was explained by the significant and independent contributions of smoking and alcohol intake and in women 16% by age.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1990, Vol.47, No.7, p.442-447. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 91-1766
Ministčre du travail, de l'emploi et de la formation professionnelle
Order of 14 November 1990: The protection of workers exposed to metallic lead. Exposure monitoring [France]
Arręté du 14 novembre 1990 sur la protection des travailleurs exposés au plomb métallique et le contrôle de l'exposition [France] [en francés]
Update of legislation. The full text of the Decree of 11 April 1988 is reproduced in this document, which highlights the new provisions and additions introduced by the Order of 14 November 1990 (See Journal officiel of 23 Nov. 1990). It is stated that medical laboratories wishing to carry out blood-lead level determinations must be licenced by the French Ministry of Labour.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.142, Note No.1820-142-91, p.97-100.

CIS 91-1598 Sakai T., Araki T., Ushio K.
Accumulation of erythrocyte nucleotides and their pattern in lead workers
Nucleotides in erythrocytes of lead-exposed subjects were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Most of the pyrimidine levels correlated well with blood lead concentrations (Pb-B) and pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) activity. Highly significant correlations were found between Pb-B and uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucose (UDPG), cytidine 5'-triphosphate (CTP), or CDP-choline (CDPC). The levels of these compounds were sharply elevated when P5N activity was reduced to levels less than 7µmole/h.g haemoglobin (Hb), which corresponded to a Pb-B of 60µg/100g. Therefore, concentration of these nucleotides may provide a useful index of lead poisoning. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) concentrations were correlated negatively with Pb-B, whereas adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) concentrations were correlated positively with Pb-B. These results suggest that lead affects not only pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism but also purine nucleotide metabolism (the energy production system).
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1990, Vol.45, No.5, p.273-277. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 91-1185 Sjögren B., Ulfvarson U.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 90. Welding gases and fumes
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation - 90. Svetsgaser och svetsrök [en sueco]
Many welding operations are related to the development of chronic bronchitis among welders with long exposure. Among shipyard welders airway obstruction has also been observed. Exposure to hexavalent chromium, isocyanate and ozone, and welding in epoxypainted steel, may result in reversible bronchial obstruction. Exposure to cadmium oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and phosgene may cause pulmonary oedema. Exposure to asbestos, chromium (VI) and nickel occuring in welders' working areas implies risk of lung cancer development. Exposure to lead, manganese and possibly aluminium may affect the nervous system.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 33p. Illus. 195 ref.

CIS 91-914 Omae K., Sakurai H., Higashi T., Muto T., Ichikawa M., Sasaki N.
No adverse effects of lead on renal function in lead-exposed workers
A cross-sectional study was performed on 165 male lead-exposed workers to clarify the quantitative relationships between less severe exposure to lead and its effects on renal function in 1985. Mean and range of blood lead concentration (Pb-B) were 36.5µg/dL and 6-73µg/dL, respectively. Duration of lead exposure was 0.1 to 26.3 years. No lead-related changes were detected in serum creatinine concentration, beta-2 microglobulin in urine, creatinine clearance, beta-2 microglobulin clearance, and uric acid clearance. Twenty of the 165 workers had been exposed to lead for more than 10 years with mean duration of 21.0 years. Average concentrations of Pb-B in each individual during 1972 to 1984 were 26.1-66.6µg/dL. Renal function indices of these 20 workers were not different from those of remaining lead-exposed workers whose lead exposure duration was 10 years or less. These results suggest that long-term less severe exposure to lead up to 70µg/dL of Pb-B may not cause adverse effects on renal function.
Industrial Health, 1990, Vol.28, No.2, p.77-83. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 91-391 Lead (inorganic)
International chemical safety card. Long-term exposure effects: delayed symptoms; neurotoxic effects; anaemia; renal damage; antifertility effects; retarded development of newborn.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

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